SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Current Report Pursuant
to Section 13 or 15(d) of the
Securities Exchange Act of 1934
0-24852 06-0853042 ------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------ (Commission File Number) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.) 3 Great Pasture Road, Danbury, Connecticut 06813 ------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------ (Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)
On September 21, 1999, Energy Research Corporation, a New York corporation ("ERC") and the sole stockholder of the Registrant, merged with and into the Registrant (the "Merger") for the purpose of changing ERC's state of incorporation from New York to Delaware (the "Reincorporation"). The Reincorporation was approved by the holders of more than two-thirds of ERC's outstanding shares of Common Stock at ERC's Special Meeting of shareholders (the "Special Meeting") held on September 2, 1999. At the Special Meeting, ERC's shareholders also approved changing ERC's corporate name to FuelCell Energy, Inc. and increasing the number of authorized shares of Common Stock, $.0001 par value of ERC from 8,000,000 to 20,000,000 shares. Both of these changes also have been effected by the Merger.
The Reincorporation will not result in any changes in the physical location, business, management, assets, liabilities, net worth or employee benefit plans of the Company. The directors and officers of the Company immediately prior to the Reincorporation will serve as the directors and officers of the Registrant following the Reincorporation.
Shareholders of ERC will not be required to undertake a mandatory exchange of their shares of ERC's Common Stock. By virtue of the Reincorporation, certificates for shares of ERC's Common Stock will automatically represent an equal number of shares of the Registrant's Common Stock. Effective September 21, 1999, the Registrant's Common Stock will be listed for trading on the American Stock Exchange under the symbol "FCL".
The Certificate of Incorporation and By-laws of the Registrant are attached hereto as exhibits.
Item 7. Financial Statements and Exhibits. ------ ---------------------------------- (c) Exhibits: 3.1 Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant 3.2 By-laws of the Registrant 99 Press Release dated September 20, 1999.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this Report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
FUELCELL ENERGY, INC.
Dated: September 21, 1999 By:/s/ Jerry D. Leitman --------------------- Jerry D. Leitman President and Chief Executive Officer
The undersigned, a natural person, for the purposes of organizing a corporation for conducting the business and promoting the purposes hereinafter stated, under the provisions and subject to the requirements of the laws of the State of Delaware (particularly Chapter 1, Title 8 of the Delaware Code and the acts amendatory thereof and supplemental hereto, and generally known as the "General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware") (the "G.C.L."), hereby certifies that:
FIRST: The name of the Corporation (hereinafter called the "Corporation") is FuelCell Energy, Inc.
SECOND: The address, including street, number, city, and county, of the registered office of the Corporation in the State of Delaware is 1209 Orange Street, Wilmington, New Castle County, Delaware 19801; and the name of the registered agent of the Corporation in the State of Delaware at such address is The Corporation Trust Company.
THIRD: The nature of the business and the purposes to be conducted and promoted by the Corporation shall be any lawful business, to promote any lawful purpose, and to engage in any lawful act or activity for which corporations may be organized under the G.C.L.
FOURTH: The total number of shares of stock which the Corporation shall have authority to issue is as follows:
20,000,000 shares of Common Stock, $.0001 par value (the "Common Stock"); and 250,000 shares of Preferred Stock, $.01 par value (the "Preferred Stock")
The classes of capital stock of the Corporation shall have the preferences, voting powers and relative participating, optional or other special rights, and qualifications, limitations or restrictions as set forth in this Article Fourth.
(a) Except as otherwise required by law, with respect to all matters upon which stockholders are entitled to vote or give consent, the holders of the outstanding shares of the Common Stock shall be entitled to cast thereon one (1) vote in person or by proxy for each share of the Common Stock standing in his or her name. No action required to be taken or which may be taken at any annual or special meeting of stockholders of the Corporation may be taken by stockholders without a meeting, and the power of stockholders to consent in writing, without a meeting, to the taking of any action is specifically denied.
(b) This Section 1 of Part A of Article Fourth shall not be amended, altered or repealed except by the affirmative vote of eighty percent (80%) of the votes entitled to be cast by the stockholders.
Section 2. Dividends, etc. Subject to the rights of any one or more series of Preferred Stock, if any, the holders of Common Stock shall be entitled to receive such dividends as from time to time may be declared by the Board of Directors out of any funds of the Corporation legally available for the payment of such dividends and shall share equally, share for share, in all such dividends and distributions.
Section 3. Liquidation. Upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Corporation, whether voluntary or involuntary, and after payment shall have been made to the holders of Preferred Stock, if any, of the full amount to which they are entitled, the holders of Common Stock shall be entitled to share equally, share for share, in all remaining assets of the Corporation available for distribution to its stockholders.
Section 1. General. The Preferred Stock may consist of one or more series. The Board of Directors may, from time to time, establish and designate the different series and the variations in the relative rights and preferences as between the different series provided in Section 2 hereof, but in all other respects all shares of the Preferred Stock shall be identical. In the event that at any time the Board of Directors shall have established and designated one or more series of Preferred Stock consisting of a number of shares less than all of the authorized number of shares of Preferred Stock, the remaining authorized shares of Preferred Stock shall be deemed to be shares of an undesignated series of Preferred Stock until designated by the Board of Directors as being a part of a series previously established or a new series then being established by the Board of Directors.
Section 2. Establishment of a Series. Subject to the provisions of this Article Fourth, the Board of Directors is authorized to establish one or more series of Preferred Stock and, to the extent now or hereafter permitted by the G.C.L., to file with the State of Delaware a Certificate of Designations in which the Board of Directors may fix and determine the preferences, voting powers, designations and relative participating, optional or other special rights and qualifications, limitations or restrictions of each series including, but not limited to:
(a) the number of shares to constitute such series and the distinctive designation of such series;
(b) the dividend rate on the shares of such series and preferences, if any, and the special and relative rights of such shares of such series as to dividend;
(c) whether or not the shares of such series shall be redeemable, and, if redeemable, the price, terms and manner of redemption;
(d) the preferences, if any, and the special and relative rights of the shares of such series upon liquidation of the Corporation;
(e) whether or not the shares of such series shall be subject to the operation of a sinking or purchase fund and, if so, the terms and provisions of such fund;
(f) whether or not the shares of such series shall be convertible into shares of any other class or of any other series of the same or any other class of stock of the Corporation and, if so, the conversion price or ratio and other conversion rights;
(g) the conditions under which the shares of such series shall have separate voting rights or no voting rights; and
(h) such other designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights and qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such series to the full extent now and hereafter permitted by the G.C.L.
Notwithstanding the fixing of the number of shares constituting a particular series, the Board of Directors may at any time authorize the issuance of additional shares of the same series.
Section 3. Dividends. Holders of Preferred Stock shall be entitled to receive, when and as declared by the Board of Directors, but only out of funds legally available for the payment of dividends, cash dividends at the rates, if any, fixed by the Board of Directors for the respective series, payable on such dates in each year as the Board of Directors shall fix for the respective series as provided in Section 2 (hereinafter referred to as "dividend dates"). Until all accrued dividends on each series of Preferred Stock shall have been paid through the last preceding dividend date of each such series, no dividend or distribution shall be made to holders of Common Stock other than a dividend payable in Common Stock of the Corporation. Dividends on shares of any cumulative series of Preferred Stock shall accumulate from and after the day on which such shares are issued, but arrearages in the payment thereof shall not bear interest. Nothing hereincontained shall be deemed to limit the right of the Corporation to purchase or otherwise acquire at any time any shares of its capital stock.
For purposes of this Article Fourth, the amount of dividends "accrued" on any shares of any cumulative series of Preferred Stock as at any dividend date shall be deemed to be the amount of any unpaid dividends accumulated thereon to and including such dividend date, whether or not earned or declared. The amount of dividends "accrued" on any noncumulative series of Preferred Stock shall mean only those dividends declared by the Board of Directors, unless otherwise specified for such series by the Board of Directors pursuant to Section 2.
Section 4. Liquidation. Upon the voluntary or involuntary liquidation of the Corporation, before any payment or distribution of the assets of the Corporation shall be made to or set apart for Common Stock or any other class of stock, the holders of Preferred Stock shall be entitled to payment of the amount of the preference payable upon such liquidation of the Corporation fixed by the Board of Directors for the respective series as provided in Section 2. If, upon any such liquidation, the assets of the Corporation shall be insufficient to pay in full to the holders of the Preferred Stock the preferential amount aforesaid, then such assets, or the proceeds thereof, shall be distributed among the holders of each series of Preferred Stock ratably in accordance with the sums which would be payable on such distribution if all sums payable were
discharged in full. Except to the extent that the Board of Directors shall determine at the time any series of Preferred Stock is established, the voluntary sale, conveyance, exchange or transfer of all or substantially all of the property and assets of the Corporation, the merger or consolidation of the Corporation into or with any other corporation, or the merger of any other corporation into it, shall not be deemed to be a liquidation of the Corporation for the purpose of this Section 4.
Section 5. Retirement. Any shares of Preferred Stock which shall at any time have been redeemed, or which shall at any time have been surrendered for conversion or exchange or for cancellation pursuant to any sinking or purchase fund provisions with respect to any series of Preferred Stock, shall be retired and shall thereafter have the status of authorized and unissued shares of Preferred Stock undesignated as to series.
Section 6. Voting Rights. The Common Stock shall have exclusive voting power except as required by law and except to the extent the Board of Directors shall, at the time any series of Preferred Stock is established, determine that the shares of such series shall vote (a) together as a single class with shares of Common Stock and/or with shares of Preferred Stock (or one or more other series thereof) on all or certain matters presented to the stockholders and/or upon the occurrence of any specified event or condition, and/or (b) exclusively on certain matters, or, upon the occurrence of any specified event or condition, on all or certain matters. The Board of Directors, in establishing a series of Preferred Stock and fixing the voting rights thereof, may determine that the voting power of each share of such series may be greater or less than the voting power of each share of the Common Stock or of other series of Preferred Stock notwithstanding that the shares of such series of Preferred Stock may vote as a single class with the shares of other series of Preferred Stock and/or with the shares of Common Stock.
FIFTH: The name and the mailing address of the incorporator are as follows:
NAME ADDRESS ---- ------- Jayne M. Donegan, Esq. Brown, Rudnick, Freed & Gesmer One Providence Washington Plaza Providence, Rhode Island 02903
SIXTH: The Corporation shall have perpetual existence.
SEVENTH: Whenever a compromise or arrangement is proposed between this Corporation and its creditors or any class of them and/or between this Corporation and its stockholders or any class of them, any court of equitable jurisdiction within the State of Delaware may, on the application in a summary way of this Corporation or of any creditor or stockholder thereof or on the application of any receiver or receivers appointed for this Corporation under the provisions of Section 29l of Title 8 of the Delaware Code or on the application of trustees in dissolution or of any receiver or receivers appointed for this Corporation under the provisions of Section 279 of Title 8 of the Delaware Code order a meeting of the creditors or class of creditors, and/or of the stockholders or class of stockholders of this Corporation, as the case may be, to be summoned in such manner as the said court directs. If a majority in number representing three-fourths in value of the creditors or class of creditors, and/or of the stockholders or class of stockholders of this Corporation, as the case may be, agree to any compromise or arrangement
and to any reorganization of this Corporation as a consequence of such compromise or arrangement, the said compromise or arrangement and the said reorganization shall, if sanctioned by the court to which the said application has been made, be binding on all the creditors or class of creditors, and/or on all the stockholders or class of stockholders, of this Corporation, as the case may be, and also on this Corporation.
EIGHTH: For the management of the business and for the conduct of the affairs of the Corporation, and in further definition, limitation and regulation of the powers of the Corporation and of its directors and of its stockholders or any class thereof, as the case may be, it is further provided that:
1. The business and affairs of the Corporation will be managed by and under the direction of the Board of Directors.
2. The number of directors which shall constitute the whole Board of Directors shall be fixed by, or in the manner provided in, the By-Laws. No election of Directors need be by written ballot.
3. The Board of Directors of the Corporation may adopt, amend or repeal the By-Laws of the Corporation at any time after the original adoption of the By-Laws according to Section 109 of the G.C.L.; provided, however, that any amendment to provide for the classification of directors of the Corporation for staggered terms pursuant to the provisions of subsection (d) of Section 141 of the G.C.L. shall be set forth in an amendment to this Certificate of Incorporation, in an initial By-Law, or in a By-Law adopted by the stockholders of the Corporation entitled to vote.
NINTH: (a) The Corporation may, to the fullest extent permitted by Section 145 of the G.C.L., indemnify any and all persons whom it shall have power to indemnify under said section from and against any and all of the expenses, liabilities or other matters referred to in or covered by said section, and the indemnification provided for herein shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which a person indemnified may be entitled under any By-Law, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise, both as to action in his official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding such office, and shall continue as to a person who has ceased to be director, officer, employee or agent and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such a person.
(b) No director shall be personally liable to the Corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for any breach of fiduciary duty by such director as a director. Notwithstanding the foregoing sentence, a director shall be liable to the extent provided by applicable law (i) for breach of the director's duty of loyalty to the Corporation or its stockholders, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) pursuant to Section 174 of the G.C.L. or (iv) for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit. No amendment to or repeal of this paragraph (b) of this Article Ninth shall apply to or have any effect on the liability or alleged liability of any director of the Corporation for or with respect to any acts or omissions of such director occurring prior to such amendment.
TENTH: From time to time any of the provisions of this Certificate of Incorporation may be amended, altered or repealed, and other provisions authorized by the laws of the State of Delaware at the time in force may be added or inserted in the manner and at the time prescribed by said laws, and all rights at any time conferred upon the stockholders of the Corporation by this Certificate of Incorporation are granted subject to the provisions of this Article Tenth.
Signed on the 12 day of July, 1999.
/s/ Jayne M. Donegan, Incorporator ---------------------------------- Jayne M. Donegan, Incorporator
FUELCELL ENERGY, INC.
(A Delaware Corporation)
Section 1.1. Annual Meeting. The annual meeting of the stockholders of the corporation shall be held on such date as shall be fixed by the Board of Directors, at such time and place within or without the State of Delaware as may be designated in the notice of meeting. If the day fixed for the annual meeting shall fall on a legal holiday, the meeting shall be held on the next succeeding day not a legal holiday. If the annual meeting is omitted on the day herein provided, a special meeting may be held in place thereof, and any business transacted at such special meeting in lieu of annual meeting shall have the same effect as if transacted or held at the annual meeting.
Section 1.2. Special Meetings. Special meetings of the stockholders may be called at any time by the board of directors. Special meetings of the stockholders shall be held at such time, date and place within or outside of the State of Delaware as may be designated in the notice of such meeting.
Section 1.3. Notice of Meeting. A written notice stating the place, date, and hour of each meeting of the stockholders, and, in the case of a special meeting, the purposes for which the meeting is called, shall be given to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting, and to each stockholder who, under the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-laws, is entitled to such notice, by delivering such notice to such person or leaving it at their residence or usual place of business, or by mailing it, postage prepaid, and addressed to such stockholder at his address as it appears upon the books of the corporation, at least ten (10) days and not more than sixty (60) before the meeting. Such notice shall be given by the secretary, an assistant secretary, or any other officer or person designated either by the secretary or by the person or persons calling the meeting.
The requirement of notice to any stockholder may be waived (i) by a written
waiver of notice, executed before or after the meeting by the stockholder or his
attorney thereunto duly authorized, and filed with the records of the meeting,
(ii) if communication with such stockholder is unlawful, (iii) by attendance at the meeting without protesting prior thereto or at its commencement the lack of notice, or (iv) as otherwise excepted by law. A waiver of notice of any regular or special meeting of the stockholders need not specify the purposes of the meeting.
If a meeting is adjourned to another time or place, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time and place are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken, except that if the adjournment is for more than thirty days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting.
Section 1.4. Quorum. The holders of a majority in interest of all stock issued, outstanding and entitled to vote at a meeting shall constitute a quorum. Any meeting may be adjourned from time to time by a majority of the votes properly cast upon the question, whether or not a quorum is present.
Section 1.5. Voting and Proxies. Stockholders shall have one vote for each share of stock entitled to vote owned by them of record according to the books of the corporation, unless otherwise provided by law or by the Certificate of Incorporation. Stockholders may vote either in person or by written proxy, but no proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. Proxies shall be filed with the secretary of the meeting, or of any adjournment thereof. Except as otherwise limited therein, proxies shall entitle the persons authorized thereby to vote at any adjournment of such meeting. A proxy purporting to be executed by or on behalf of a stockholder shall be deemed valid unless challenged at or prior to its exercise and the burden of proving invalidity shall rest on the challenger. A proxy with respect to stock held in the name of two or more persons shall be valid if executed by one of them unless at or prior to exercise of the proxy the corporation receives a specific written notice to the contrary from any one of them.
Section 1.6. Action at Meeting. When a quorum is present at any meeting, a plurality of the votes properly cast for election to any office shall elect to such office, and a majority of the votes properly cast upon any question other than election to an office shall decide such question, except where a larger vote is required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these by-laws. No ballot shall be required for any election unless requested by a stockholder present or represented at the meeting and entitled to vote in the election.
Section 1.7. Voting of Shares of Certain Holders. Shares of stock of the corporation standing in the name of another corporation, domestic or foreign, may be voted by such officer, agent, or proxy as the by-laws of such corporation may prescribe, or, in the absence of such provision, as the board of directors of such corporation may determine.
Shares of stock of the corporation standing in the name of a deceased person, a minor ward or an incompetent person, may be voted by his administrator, executor, court-appointed guardian or conservator without a transfer of such shares into the name of such administrator, executor, court appointed guardian or conservator. Shares of capital stock of the corporation standing in the name of a trustee or fiduciary may be voted by such trustee or fiduciary.
Shares of stock of the corporation standing in the name of a receiver may be voted by such receiver, and shares held by or under the control of a receiver
may be voted by such receiver without the transfer thereof into his name if authority so to do be contained in an appropriate order of the court by which such receiver was appointed.
A stockholder whose shares are pledged shall be entitled to vote such shares unless in the transfer by the pledgor on the books of the corporation he expressly empowered the pledgee to vote thereon, in which case only the pledgee or its proxy shall be entitled to vote the shares so transferred.
Shares of its own stock belonging to this corporation shall not be voted, directly or indirectly, at any meeting and shall not be counted in determining the total number of outstanding shares at any given time, but shares of its own stock held by the corporation in a fiduciary capacity may be voted and shall be counted in determining the total number of outstanding shares.
Section 1.8. Stockholder Lists. The secretary (or the corporation's transfer agent or other person authorized by these By-laws or by law) shall prepare and make, at least ten days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, during ordinary business hours, for a period of at least ten days prior to the meeting, either at a place within the city where the meeting is to be held, which place shall be specified in the notice of the meeting, or, if not so specified, at the place where the meeting is to be held. The list shall also be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof, and may be inspected by any stockholder who is present.
Section 1.9 Meeting Protocol. The board of directors and the chairman of a meeting may adopt rules for the conduct of stockholder meetings and specify the types of rules that may be adopted, including but not limited to, the establishment of an agenda, rules relating to presence at the meeting of persons other than stockholders, restrictions on entry at the meeting after commencement thereof and the imposition of time limitations for questions by participants at the meeting.
Section 2.1. Powers. Except as reserved to the stockholders by law, by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these By-laws, the business of the corporation shall be managed by and under the direction of the board of directors, who shall have and may exercise all of the powers of the corporation. In particular, and without limiting the foregoing, the board of directors shall have the power to issue or reserve for issuance from time to time the whole or any part of the capital stock of the corporation which may be authorized from time to time to such person, for such consideration and upon such terms and conditions as they shall determine, including the granting of options, warrants or conversion or other rights to stock.
Section 2.2. Number of Directors; Qualifications. The board of directors shall consist of such number of directors, not less than three (3) nor more than sixteen (16), as shall be fixed initially by the incorporator(s) and thereafter from time to time by vote of a majority of the board of directors. No director need be a stockholder.
Section 2.3. Nomination of Directors.
(a) Nominations for the election of directors at an annual meeting of the
stockholders, or special meeting in lieu of the annual meeting, may be made by
the board of directors or by any stockholder entitled to vote for the election
of directors. Stockholders entitled to vote in such election may nominate one or
more persons for election as directors only if written notice of such
stockholder's intent to make such nomination or nominations has been given
either by personal delivery, overnight (receipted) courier or by United States
mail, postage prepaid, to the secretary of the corporation not less than fifty
(50) nor more than seventy-five (75) days prior to the anniversary date of the immediately preceding annual meeting or special meeting in lieu thereof provided, however, that in the event that less than sixty-five (65) days' notice of the date of the meeting is given or made to stockholders, notice by the stockholder, to be timely, must be received not later than the fifteenth (15th) day following the day on which such notice of the date of the annual meeting was mailed.
(b) Each notice under subsection (a) shall set forth (i) the name, age,
business address and, if known, residence address of each nominee proposed in
such notice, (ii) the principal occupation or employment of each such nominee,
(iii) the class and such number of shares of stock of the corporation which are beneficially owned by each such nominee, and (iv) such other information relating to the nominee proposed by a stockholder as would be required to be included in a proxy statement filed pursuant to the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission.
(c) The chairman of the meeting of stockholders shall determine whether or not a nomination was made in accordance with the procedures of this Section 2.3, and if he shall determine that it was not, he shall so declare to the meeting and the defective nomination shall be disregarded.
Section 2.4. Election of Directors. The initial board of directors shall be designated in the certificate of incorporation, or if not so designated, elected by the incorporator(s) at the first meeting thereof. Thereafter, directors shall be elected by the stockholders at their annual meeting or at any special meeting, the notice of which specifies the election of directors as an item of business for such meeting, subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation and these By-laws.
Section 2.5. Vacancies. In the case of a vacancy in the board of directors from death, resignation, disqualification or other cause, the election of a director to fill such vacancy shall be by vote of a majority of the directors then in office, whether or not constituting a quorum, or by the sole remaining director. In the case of a vacancy in the board of directors resulting from enlargement of the board, the election of a director to fill such vacancy shall be by vote of a
majority of the directors then in office, provided that a quorum is present. The director thus elected shall hold office for a term until the election of his successor in the manner provided in the Certificate of Incorporation.
Section 2.6. Change in Size of the Board. The number of the board of directors may be changed by vote of a majority of the directors then in office.
Section 2.7. Tenure and Resignation. The directors shall be elected and serve in the manner provided in the Certificate of Incorporation. Any director may resign by delivering or mailing postage prepaid a written resignation to the corporation at its principal office or to the president, secretary or assistant secretary, if any. Such resignation shall be effective upon receipt unless it is specified to be effective at some other time or upon the happening of some other event.
Section 2.8. Removal. A director, whether elected by the stockholders or directors, may be removed from office with or without cause at an annual or special meeting of stockholders by vote of a majority of the stockholders entitled to vote in the election of such directors, or for cause by a vote of a majority of the directors then in office; provided, however, that a director may be removed for cause only after reasonable notice and opportunity to be heard before the body proposing to remove him.
Section 2.9. Meetings. Regular meetings of the board of directors may be held without call or notice at such times and such places within or without the State of Delaware as the board may, from time to time, determine, provided that notice of the first regular meeting following any such determination shall be given to directors absent from such determination. A regular meeting of the board of directors shall be held without notice immediately after, and at the same place as, the annual meeting of the stockholders or the special meeting of the stockholders held in place of such annual meeting, unless a quorum of the directors is not then present. Special meetings of the board of directors may be held at any time and at any place designated in the call of the meeting when called by the chairman of the board, president, or any three (3) of the directors. Members of the board of directors or any committee elected thereby may participate in a meeting of such board or committee by means of a conference telephone or similar communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other at the same time, and participation by such means shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.
Section 2.10. Notice of Meeting. It shall be sufficient notice to a director to send notice by mail at least seventy-two (72) hours before the meeting addressed to such person at his usual or last known business or residence address or to give notice to such person in person or by telephone at least twenty-four (24) hours before the meeting. Notice shall be given by the secretary, or in his absence or unavailability, may be given by an assistant secretary, if any, or by the officer or directors calling the meeting. The requirement of notice to any director may be waived by a written waiver of notice, executed by such person before or after the meeting or meetings, and filed with the records of the meeting, or by attendance at the meeting without protesting prior thereto or at its commencement the lack of notice. A notice or waiver of notice of a directors' meeting need not specify the purposes of the meeting.
Section 2.11. Agenda. Any lawful business may be transacted at a meeting of the board of directors, notwithstanding the fact that the nature of the business may not have been specified in the notice or waiver of notice of the meeting.
Section 2.12. Quorum. At any meeting of the board of directors, a majority of the directors then in office shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. Any meeting may be adjourned by a majority of the votes cast upon the question, whether or not a quorum is present, and the meeting may be held as adjourned without further notice.
Section 2.13. Action at Meeting. Any motion adopted by vote of the majority of the directors present at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the board of directors, except where a different vote is required by law, by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these By-laws. The assent in writing of any director to any vote or action of the directors taken at any meeting, whether or not a quorum was present and whether or not the director had or waived notice of the meeting, shall have the same effect as if the director so assenting was present at such meeting and voted in favor of such vote or action.
Section 2.14. Action Without Meeting. Any action by the directors may be taken without a meeting if all of the directors consent to the action in writing and the consents are filed with the records of the directors' meetings. Such consent shall be treated for all purposes as a vote of the directors at a meeting.
Section 2.15. Compensation. The members of the board of directors shall be entitled to receive such reasonable compensation for attendance at meetings of the board or for service on committees of the board or otherwise as from time to time may be fixed by the board of directors.
Section 2.16. Committees. There shall be three (3) standing committees of the board of directors, as follows:
(a) Executive Committee. During the intervals between the meetings of the board of directors, the Executive Committee shall have and may exercise all the powers of the board of directors in the management of the business and affairs of the corporation, in such manner as such Committee shall deem best for the interests of the corporation, in all cases in which specific instructions shall not have been given by the board of directors.
(b) Audit Committee. The Audit Committee shall, among other things, (i) select the firm of independent accountants that will audit the corporation; (ii) discuss the scope and the results of the audit with the accountants; and (iii) review the corporation's financial accounting and reporting principles.
(c) Compensation Committee. The Compensation Committee shall (i) review, approve and recommend to the board of directors the terms and conditions of incentive bonus plans applicable to corporate officers and key management personnel; (ii) review and approve the annual salary of the chief executive officer; and (iii) administer the Corporation's Section 423
Stock Purchase Plan, the Corporation's 1988 Stock Option Plan, as amended, and the Corporation's 1998 Equity Incentive Plan.
In addition, the board of directors may, by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office, appoint other committees consisting of three (3) or more directors and may by vote delegate to any such committee some or all of their powers except those which by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-laws they may not delegate. In the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, the members of the committee present and not disqualified, whether or not they constitute a quorum, may by unanimous vote appoint another member of the board of directors to act at the meeting in place of the absence or disqualified member. Unless the board of directors shall otherwise provide, any such committee may make rules for the conduct of its business, but unless otherwise provided by the board of directors or such rules, its meetings shall be called, notice given or waived, its business conducted or its action taken as nearly as may be in the same manner as is provided in these By-laws with respect to meetings or for the conduct of business or the taking of actions by the board of directors. The board of directors shall have power at any time to fill vacancies in, change the membership of, or discharge any such committee at any time. The board of directors shall have power to rescind any action of any committee, but no such rescission shall have retroactive effect.
Section 3.1. Enumeration. The officers shall consist of a chairman of the board, a president, a treasurer, a secretary and such other officers and agents (including one or more vice-presidents, assistant treasurers and assistant secretaries), as the board of directors may, in their discretion, determine.
Section 3.2. Election. The chairman of the board, president, treasurer and secretary shall be elected annually by the directors at their first meeting following the annual meeting of the stockholders or any special meeting held in lieu of the annual meeting. Other officers may be chosen by the directors at such meeting or at any other meeting.
Section 3.3. Qualification. An officer may, but need not, be a director or stockholder. Any two or more offices may be held by the same person. Any officer may be required by the directors to give bond for the faithful performance of his duties to the corporation in such amount and with such sureties as the directors may determine. The premiums for such bonds may be paid by the corporation.
Section 3.4. Tenure. Except as otherwise provided by the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-laws, the term of office of each officer shall be for one year or until his successor is elected and qualified or until his earlier resignation or removal.
Section 3.5. Removal. Any officer may be removed from office, with or without cause, by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office; provided, however, that an
officer may be removed for cause only after reasonable notice and opportunity to be heard by the board of directors prior to action thereon.
Section 3.6. Resignation. Any officer may resign by delivering or mailing postage prepaid a written resignation to the corporation at its principal office or to the president, secretary, or assistant secretary, if any, and such resignation shall be effective upon receipt unless it is specified to be effective at some other time or upon the happening of some event.
Section 3.7. Vacancies. A vacancy in any office arising from any cause may be filled for the unexpired portion of the term by the board of directors.
Section 3.8. Chairman of the Board. The chairman of the board shall be the chief executive officer of the corporation. He shall preside at all meetings of stockholders and at all meetings of the board of directors. He shall be ex-officio a member of all standing committees. In general, he shall perform all duties incident to the office of chairman of the board, as herein defined, and all such other duties as from time to time may be assigned to him by the board of directors.
Section 3.9. President. The president shall be the chief operating and administrative officer of the corporation and as such shall have general supervision of the affairs of the corporation, subject to the control of the board of directors and the chairman of the board. Subject to the control and direction of the board of directors and the chairman of the board, the president may enter into any contract or execute and deliver any instrument in the name and on behalf of the corporation. In the absence of disability of the chairman of the board, the president shall perform all duties, other than presiding at stockholders' and directors' meetings, and exercise the powers of the chairman of the board. The president shall have such duties and powers as are commonly incident to the office and such duties and powers as the chairman of the board or the board of directors shall from time to time designate.
Section 3.10. Vice-President(s). The vice-president(s), if any, shall have such powers and perform such duties as the board of directors, the chairman of the board or the president may from time to time determine.
Section 3.11. Treasurer and Assistant Treasurers. The treasurer or if the board of directors so determines, the vice-president, finance or the chief financial officer, subject to the direction and under the supervision and control of the board of directors, shall have general charge of the financial affairs of the corporation. The treasurer shall have custody of all funds, securities and valuable papers of the corporation, except as the board of directors may otherwise provide. The treasurer shall keep or cause to be kept full and accurate records of account which shall be the property of the corporation, and which shall be always open to the inspection of each elected officer and director of the corporation. The treasurer shall deposit or cause to be deposited all funds of the corporation in such depository or depositories as may be authorized by the board of directors. The treasurer shall have the power to endorse for deposit or collection all notes, checks, drafts, and other negotiable instruments payable to the corporation. The treasurer shall perform such other duties as are incidental to the office, and such other duties as may be
assigned by the board of directors. All of the duties of the treasurer may be performed by the vice-president, finance and/or the chief financial officer, in the discretion of the board of directors.
Assistant treasurers, if any, shall have such powers and perform such duties as the board of directors may from time to time determine.
Section 3.12. Secretary and Assistant Secretaries. The secretary shall record, or cause to be recorded, all proceedings of the meetings of the stockholders and directors (including committees thereof) in the book of records of this corporation. The record books shall be open at reasonable times to the inspection of any stockholder, director, or officer. The secretary shall notify the stockholders and directors, when required by law or by these By-laws, of their respective meetings, and shall perform such other duties as the directors and stockholders may from time to time prescribe. The secretary shall have the custody and charge of the corporate seal, and shall affix the seal of the corporation to all instruments requiring such seal, and shall certify under the corporate seal the proceedings of the directors and of the stockholders, when required. In the absence of the secretary at any such meeting, a temporary secretary shall be chosen who shall record the proceedings of the meeting in the aforesaid books.
Assistant secretaries, if any, shall have such powers and perform such duties as the board of directors may from time to time designate.
Section 3.13. Other Powers and Duties. Subject to these By-laws and to such limitations as the board of directors may from time to time prescribe, the officers of the corporation shall each have such powers and duties as generally pertain to their respective offices, as well as such powers and duties as from time to time may be conferred by the board of directors.
Section 4.1. Stock Certificates. Each stockholder shall be entitled to a certificate representing the number of shares of the capital stock of the corporation owned by such person in such form as shall, in conformity to law, be prescribed from time to time by the board of directors. Each certificate shall be signed by the chairman or president or vice-president and treasurer or assistant treasurer or the secretary or assistant secretary or such other officers designated by the board of directors from time to time as permitted by law, shall bear the seal of the corporation, and shall express on its face its number, date of issue, class, the number of shares for which, and the name of the person to whom, it is issued. The corporate seal and any or all of the signatures of corporation officers may be facsimile if the stock certificate is manually counter-signed by an authorized person on behalf of a transfer agent or registrar other than the corporation or its employee.
If an officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed, or whose facsimile signature has been placed on, a certificate shall have ceased to be such before the certificate is issued, it may be
issued by the corporation with the same effect as if he were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the time of its issue.
Section 4.2. Transfer of Shares. Title to a certificate of stock and to the shares represented thereby shall be transferred only on the books of the corporation by delivery to the corporation or its transfer agent of the certificate properly endorsed, or by delivery of the certificate accompanied by a written assignment of the same, or a properly executed written power of attorney to sell, assign or transfer the same or the shares represented thereby. Upon surrender of a certificate for the shares being transferred, a new certificate or certificates shall be issued according to the interests of the parties.
Section 4.3. Record Holders. Except as otherwise may be required by law, by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these By-laws, the corporation shall be entitled to treat the record holder of stock as shown on its books as the owner of such stock for all purposes, including the payment of dividends and the right to vote with respect thereto, regardless of any transfer, pledge or other disposition of such stock, until the shares have been transferred on the books of the corporation in accordance with the requirements of these By-laws.
It shall be the duty of each stockholder to notify the corporation of his post office address.
Section 4.4. Record Date. In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to receive notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournments thereof, or to express consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, or entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the board of directors may fix, in advance, a record date, which shall not be more than sixty days prior to any such action. In such case only stockholders of record on such record date shall be so entitled notwithstanding any transfer of stock on the books of the corporation after the record date.
If no record date is fixed: (i) the record date for determining stockholders entitled to receive notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held; (ii) the record date for determining stockholders entitled to express consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, when no prior action by the board of directors is necessary, shall be the day on which the first written consent is expressed; and (iii) the record date for determining stockholders for any other purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the board of directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.
Section 4.5. Transfer Agent and Registrar for Shares of Corporation. The board of directors may appoint a transfer agent and a registrar of the certificates of stock of the corporation. Any transfer agent so appointed shall maintain, among other records, a stockholders' ledger, setting forth the names and addresses of the holders of all issued shares of stock of the corporation, the number of shares held by each, the certificate numbers representing
such shares, and the date of issue of such shares. Any registrar so appointed shall maintain, among other records, a share register, setting forth the total number of shares of each class of shares which the corporation is authorized to issue and the total number of shares actually issued. The stockholders' ledger and the share register are hereby identified as the stock transfer books of the corporation; but as between the stockholders' ledger and the share register, the names and addresses of stockholders, as they appear on the stockholders' ledger maintained by the transfer agent shall be the official list of stockholders of record of the corporation. The name and address of each stockholder of record, as they appear upon the stockholders' ledger, shall be conclusive evidence of who are the stockholders entitled to receive notice of the meetings of stockholders, to vote at such meetings, to examine a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at meetings, and to own, enjoy and exercise any other property or rights deriving from such shares against the corporation. Stockholders, but not the corporation, its directors, officers, agents or attorneys, shall be responsible for notifying the transfer agent, in writing, of any changes in their names or addresses from time to time, and failure to do so will relieve the corporation, its other stockholders, directors, officers, agents and attorneys, and its transfer agent and registrar, of liability for failure to direct notices or other documents, or pay over or transfer dividends or other property or rights, to a name or address other than the name and address appearing in the stockholders' ledger maintained by the transfer agent.
Section 4.6. Loss of Certificates. In case of the loss, destruction or mutilation of a certificate of stock, a replacement certificate may be issued in place thereof upon such terms as the board of directors may prescribe, including, in the discretion of the board of directors, a requirement of bond and indemnity to the corporation.
Section 4.7. Restrictions on Transfer. Every certificate, if any, for shares of stock which are subject to any restriction on transfer, whether pursuant to the Certificate of Incorporation, the By-laws or any agreement to which the corporation is a party, shall have the fact of the restriction noted conspicuously on the certificate and shall also set forth on the face or back either the full text of the restriction or a statement that the corporation will furnish a copy to the holder of such certificate upon written request and without charge.
Section 4.8. Multiple Classes of Stock. The amount and classes of the capital stock and the par value, if any, of the shares, shall be as fixed in the Certificate of Incorporation. At all times when there are two or more classes of stock, the several classes of stock shall conform to the description and the terms and have the respective preferences, voting powers, restrictions and qualifications set forth in the Certificate of Incorporation and these By-laws. Every certificate issued when the corporation is authorized to issue more than one class or series of stock shall set forth on its face or back either (i) the full text of the preferences, voting powers, qualifications and special and relative rights of the shares of each class and series authorized to be issued, or (ii) a statement of the existence of such preferences, powers, qualifications and rights, and a statement that the corporation will furnish a copy thereof to the holder of such certificate upon written request and without charge.
Section 5.1. Declaration of Dividends. Except as otherwise required by law or by the Certificate of Incorporation, the board of directors may, in its discretion, declare what, if any, dividends shall be paid from the surplus or from the net profits of the corporation for the current or preceding fiscal year, or as otherwise permitted by law. Dividends may be paid in cash, in property, in shares of the corporation's stock, or in any combination thereof. Dividends shall be payable upon such dates as the board of directors may designate.
Section 5.2. Reserves. Before the payment of any dividend and before making any distribution of profits, the board of directors, from time to time and in its absolute discretion, shall have power to set aside out of the surplus or net profits of the corporation such sum or sums as the board of directors deems proper and sufficient as a reserve fund to meet contingencies or for such other purpose as the board of directors shall deem to be in the best interests of the corporation, and the board of directors may modify or abolish any such reserve.
Any and all of the directors and officers of the corporation, notwithstanding their official relations to it, may enter into and perform any contract or agreement of any nature between the corporation and themselves, or any and all of the individuals from time to time constituting the board of directors of the corporation, or any firm or corporation in which any such director may be interested, directly or indirectly, whether such individual, firm or corporation thus contracting with the corporation shall thereby derive personal or corporate profits or benefits or otherwise; provided, that (i) the material facts of such interest are disclosed or are known to the board of directors or committee thereof which authorizes such contract or agreement; (ii) if the material facts as to such person's relationship or interest are disclosed or are known to the stockholders entitled to vote thereon, and the contract is specifically approved in good faith by a vote of the stockholders; or (iii) the contract or agreement is fair as to the corporation as of the time it is authorized, approved or ratified by the board of directors, a committee thereof, or the stockholders. Any director of the corporation who is interested in any transaction as aforesaid may nevertheless be counted in determining the existence of a quorum at any meeting of the board of directors which shall authorize or ratify any such transaction. This Article shall not be construed to invalidate any contract or other transaction which would otherwise be valid under the common or statutory law applicable thereto.
Section 7.1. Definitions. For purposes of this Article VII the following terms shall have the meanings indicated:
"Corporate Status" describes the status of a person who is or was a director, officer, employee, agent, trustee or fiduciary of the corporation or of any other corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise which such person is or was serving at the express written request of the corporation.
"Court" means the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware, the court in which the Proceeding in respect of which indemnification is sought by a Covered Person shall have been brought or is pending, or another court having subject matter jurisdiction and personal jurisdiction over the parties.
"Covered Person" means a person who is a present or former director or Officer of the corporation and shall include such person's legal representatives, heirs, executors and administrators.
"Disinterested" describes any individual, whether or not that individual is a director, Officer, employee or agent of the corporation, who is not and was not and is not threatened to be made a party to the Proceeding in respect of which indemnification, advancement of Expenses or other action is sought by a Covered Person.
"Expenses" shall include, without limitation, all reasonable attorneys' fees, retainers, court costs, transcript costs, fees of experts, witness fees, travel expenses, duplicating costs, printing and binding costs, telephone charges, postage, delivery service fees, and all other disbursements or expenses of the types customarily incurred in connection with prosecuting, defending, preparing to prosecute or defend, investigating or being or preparing to be a witness in a Proceeding.
"Good Faith" shall mean a Covered Person having acted in good faith and in a manner such Covered Person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation or, in the case of an employee benefit plan, the best interests of the participants or beneficiaries of said plan, as the case may be, and, with respect to any Proceeding which is criminal in nature, having had no reasonable cause to believe such Covered Person's conduct was unlawful.
"Improper Personal Benefit" shall include, but not be limited to, the personal gain in fact by reason of a person's Corporate Status of a financial profit, monies or other advantage not also accruing to the benefit of the corporation or to the stockholders generally and which is unrelated to his usual compensation including, but not limited to, (i) in exchange for the exercise of influence over the corporation's affairs, (ii) as a result of the diversion of corporate opportunity,
or (iii) pursuant to the use or communication of confidential or inside information for the purpose of generating a profit from trading in the corporation's securities. Notwithstanding the foregoing, "Improper Personal Benefit" shall not include any benefit, directly or indirectly, related to actions taken in order to evaluate, discourage, resist, prevent or negotiate any transaction with or proposal from any person or entity seeking control of, or a controlling interest in, the corporation.
"Independent Counsel" means a law firm, or a member of a law firm, that is experienced in matters of corporation law and may include law firms or members thereof that are regularly retained by the corporation but not by any other party to the Proceeding giving rise to a claim for indemnification hereunder. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the term "Independent Counsel" shall not include any person who, under the standards of professional conduct then prevailing and applicable to such counsel, would have a conflict of interest in representing either the corporation or Covered Person in an action to determine the Covered Person's rights under this Article.
"Officer" means the president, vice presidents, treasurer, assistant treasurer(s), secretary, assistant secretary and such other executive officers as are appointed by the board of directors of the corporation and explicitly entitled to indemnification hereunder.
"Proceeding" includes any actual, threatened or completed action, suit, arbitration, alternate dispute resolution mechanism, investigation (including any internal corporate investigation), administrative hearing or any other proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, other than one initiated by the Covered Person, but including one initiated by a Covered Person for the purpose of enforcing such Covered Person's rights under this Article to the extent provided in Section 7.14 of this Article. "Proceeding" shall not include any counterclaim brought by any Covered Person other than one arising out of the same transaction or occurrence that is the subject matter of the underlying claim.
Section 7.2. Right to Indemnification in General.
(a) Covered Persons. The corporation may indemnify, and may advance Expenses, to each Covered Person who is, was or is threatened to be made a party or otherwise involved in any Proceeding, as provided in this Article and to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law in effect on the date hereof and to such greater extent as applicable law may hereafter from time to time permit.
The indemnification provisions in this Article shall be deemed to be a contract between the corporation and each Covered Person who serves in any Corporate Status at any time while these provisions as well as the relevant provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law are in effect, and any repeal or modification thereof shall not affect any right or obligation then existing with respect to any state of facts then or previously existing or any Proceeding previously or thereafter brought or threatened based in whole or in part upon any such state of facts. Such a contract right may not be modified retroactively without the consent of such Covered Person.
(b) Employees and Agents. The corporation may, to the extent authorized from time to time by the board of directors, grant indemnification and the advancement of Expenses to any
employee or agent of the corporation to the fullest extent of the provisions of this Article with respect to the indemnification and advancement of Expenses of Covered Persons.
Section 7.3. Proceedings Other Than Proceedings by or in the Right of the Corporation. Each Covered Person may be entitled to the rights of indemnification provided in this Section 7.3 if, by reason of such Covered Person's Corporate Status, such Covered Person is, was or is threatened to be made, a party to or is otherwise involved in any Proceeding, other than a Proceeding by or in the right of the corporation. Each Covered Person may be indemnified against Expenses, judgments, penalties, fines and amounts paid in settlements, actually and reasonably incurred by such Covered Person or on such Covered Person's behalf in connection with such Proceeding or any claim, issue or matter therein, if such Covered Person acted in Good Faith and such Covered Person has not been adjudged during the course of such proceeding to have derived an Improper Personal Benefit from the transaction or occurrence forming the basis of such Proceeding.
Section 7.4. Proceedings by or in the Right of the Corporation. Each
Covered Person may be entitled to the rights of indemnification provided in this
Section 7.4 if, by reason of such Covered Person's Corporate Status, such Covered Person is, or is threatened to be made, a party to or is otherwise involved in any Proceeding brought by or in the right of the corporation to procure a judgment in its favor. Such Covered Person may be indemnified against Expenses, judgments, penalties, and amounts paid in settlement, actually and reasonably incurred by such Covered Person or on such Covered Person's behalf in connection with such Proceeding if such Covered Person acted in Good Faith and such Covered Person has not been adjudged during the course of such proceeding to have derived an Improper Personal Benefit from the transaction or occurrence forming the basis of such Proceeding. Notwithstanding the foregoing, no such indemnification shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter in such Proceeding as to which such Covered Person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation if applicable law prohibits such indemnification; provided, however, that, if applicable law so permits, indemnification shall nevertheless be made by the corporation in such event if and only to the extent that the Court which is considering the matter shall so determine.
Section 7.5. Indemnification of a Party Who is Wholly or Partly Successful. Notwithstanding any provision of this Article to the contrary, to the extent that a Covered Person is, by reason of such Covered Person's Corporate Status, a party to or is otherwise involved in and is successful, on the merits or otherwise, in any Proceeding, such Covered Person shall be indemnified to the maximum extent permitted by law, against all Expenses, judgments, penalties, fines, and amounts paid in settlement, actually and reasonably incurred by such Covered Person or on such Covered Person's behalf in connection therewith. If such Covered Person is not wholly successful in such Proceeding but is successful, on the merits or otherwise, as to one or more but less than all claims, issues or matters in such Proceeding, the corporation shall indemnify such Covered Person to the maximum extent permitted by law, against all Expenses, judgments, penalties, fines, and amounts paid in settlement, actually and reasonably incurred by such Covered Person or on such Covered Person's behalf in connection with each successfully resolved claim, issue or matter. For purposes of this Section 7.5 and without limitation, the termination of any
claim, issue or matter in such a Proceeding by dismissal, with or without prejudice, shall be deemed to be a successful result as to such claim, issue or matter.
Section 7.6. Indemnification for Expenses of a Witness. Notwithstanding any provision of this Article to the contrary, to the extent that a Covered Person is, by reason of such Covered Person's Corporate Status, a witness in any Proceeding, such Covered Person shall be indemnified against all Expenses actually and reasonably incurred by such Covered Person or on such Covered Person's behalf in connection therewith.
Section 7.7. Advancement of Expenses. Notwithstanding any provision of this Article to the contrary, the corporation may advance all reasonable Expenses which, by reason of a Covered Person's Corporate Status, were incurred by or on behalf of such Covered Person in connection with any Proceeding, within thirty (30) days after the receipt by the corporation of a statement or statements from such Covered Person requesting such advance or advances, whether prior to or after final disposition of such Proceeding. Such statement or statements shall reasonably evidence the Expenses incurred by the Covered Person and shall include or be preceded or accompanied by an undertaking by or on behalf of the Covered Person to repay any Expenses if such Covered Person shall be adjudged to be not entitled to be indemnified against such Expenses. Any advance and undertaking to repay pursuant to this Section 7.7 may be unsecured interest-free, as the corporation sees fit. Advancement of Expenses pursuant to this Section 7.7 shall not require approval of the board of directors or the stockholders of the corporation, or of any other person or body. The secretary of the corporation shall promptly advise the Board in writing of the request for advancement of Expenses, of the amount and other details of the request and of the undertaking to make repayment provided pursuant to this Section 7.7.
Section 7.8. Notification and Defense of Claim. Promptly after receipt by a Covered Person of notice of the commencement of any Proceeding, such Covered Person shall, if a claim is to be made against the corporation under this Article, notify the corporation of the commencement of the Proceeding. The failure to notify the corporation will not relieve the corporation from any liability which it may have to such Covered Person otherwise than under this Article. With respect to any such Proceedings to which such Covered Person notifies the corporation:
(a) The corporation will be entitled to participate in the defense at its own expense.
(b) Except as otherwise provided below in this subparagraph (b), the corporation (jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified) will be entitled to assume the defense with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the Covered Person. After notice from the corporation to the Covered Person of its election to assume the defense of a suit, the corporation will not be liable to the Covered Person under this Article for any legal or other expenses subsequently incurred by the Covered Person in connection with the defense of the Proceeding other than reasonable costs of investigation or as otherwise provided below in this subparagraph (b). The Covered Person shall have the right to employ his own counsel in such Proceeding but the fees and expenses of such counsel incurred after notice from the corporation of its assumption of the defense shall be at the expense of the Covered Person except as provided in this paragraph. The
fees and expenses of counsel shall be at the expense of the corporation if
(i) the employment of counsel by the Covered Person has been authorized by the corporation, (ii) the Covered Person shall have concluded reasonably that there may be a conflict of interest between the corporation and the Covered Person in the conduct of the defense of such action and such conclusion is confirmed in writing by the corporation's outside counsel regularly employed by it in connection with corporate matters, or (iii) the corporation shall not in fact have employed counsel to assume the defense of such Proceeding. The corporation shall be entitled to participate in, but shall not be entitled to assume the defense of any Proceeding brought by or in the right of the corporation or as to which the Covered Person shall have made the conclusion provided for in (ii) above and such conclusion shall have been so confirmed by the corporation's said outside counsel.
(c) Notwithstanding any provision of this Article to the contrary, the corporation shall not be obligated to indemnify the Covered Person under this Article for any amounts paid in settlement of any Proceeding effected without its written consent. The corporation shall not settle any Proceeding or claim in any manner which would impose any penalty, limitation or disqualification of the Covered Person for any purpose without such Covered Person's written consent. Neither the corporation nor the Covered Person will unreasonably withhold their consent to any proposed settlement.
(d) If it is determined that the Covered Person is entitled to indemnification other than as afforded under subparagraph (b) above, payment to the Covered Person of the additional amounts for which he is to be indemnified shall be made within ten (10) days after such determination.
Section 7.9. Procedures.
(a) Method of Determination. A determination (as provided for by this Article or if required by applicable law in the specific case) with respect to a Covered Person's entitlement to indemnification shall be made either (a) by the board of directors by a majority vote of a quorum consisting of Disinterested directors, or (b) in the event that a quorum of the board of directors consisting of Disinterested directors is not obtainable or, even if obtainable, such quorum of Disinterested directors so directs, by Independent Counsel in a written determination to the board of directors, a copy of which shall be delivered to the Covered Person seeking indemnification, or (c) by the vote of the holders of a majority of the corporation's capital stock outstanding at the time entitled to vote thereon.
(b) Initiating Request. A Covered Person who seeks indemnification under this Article shall submit a Request for Indemnification, including such documentation and information as is reasonably available to such Covered Person and is reasonably necessary to determine whether and to what extent such Covered Person is entitled to indemnification.
(c) Presumptions. In making a determination with respect to entitlement to indemnification hereunder, the person or persons or entity making such determination shall not presume that the Covered Person is or is not entitled to indemnification under this Article.
(d) Burden of Proof. Each Covered Person shall bear the burden of going forward and demonstrating sufficient facts to support his claim for entitlement to indemnification under this Article. That burden shall be deemed satisfied by the submission of an initial Request for Indemnification pursuant to Section 7.9(b) above.
(e) Effect of Other Proceedings. The termination of any Proceeding or of any claim, issue or matter therein, by judgment, order, settlement or conviction, or upon a plea of guilty or of nolo contendere or its equivalent, shall not (except as otherwise expressly provided in this Article) of itself adversely affect the right of a Covered Person to indemnification or create a presumption that a Covered Person did not act in Good Faith.
(f) Actions of Others. The knowledge, actions, or failure to act, of any director, officer, employee, agent, trustee or fiduciary of the enterprise whose daily activities the Covered Person was actually responsible for may be imputed to a Covered Person for purposes of determining the right to indemnification under this Article.
Section 7.10. Action by the Corporation. Any action, payment, advance determination other than a determination made pursuant to Section 7.9(a) above, authorization, requirement, grant of indemnification or other action taken by the corporation pursuant to this Article shall be effected exclusively through any Disinterested person so authorized by the board of directors of the corporation, including the president or any vice president of the corporation.
Section 7.11. Non-Exclusivity. The rights of indemnification and to receive advancement of Expenses as provided by this Article shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which a Covered Person may at any time be entitled under applicable law, the Certificate of Incorporation, these By-Laws, any agreement, a vote of stockholders or a resolution of the board of directors, or otherwise. No amendment, alteration, rescission or replacement of this Article or any provision hereof shall be effective as to an Covered Person with respect to any action taken or omitted by such Covered Person in such Covered Person's Corporate Status or with respect to any state of facts then or previously existing or any Proceeding previously or thereafter brought or threatened based in whole or to the extent based in part upon any such state of facts existing prior to such amendment, alteration, rescission or replacement.
Section 7.12. Insurance. The corporation may maintain, at its expense, an insurance policy or policies to protect itself and any Covered Person, officer, employee or agent of the corporation or another enterprise against liability arising out of this Article or otherwise, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify any such person against such liability under the Delaware General Corporation Law.
Section 7.13. No Duplicative Payment. The corporation shall not be liable under this Article to make any payment of amounts otherwise indemnifiable hereunder if and to the extent that a Covered Person has otherwise actually received such payment under any insurance policy, contract, agreement or otherwise.
Section 7.14. Expenses of Adjudication. In the event that any Covered Person seeks a judicial adjudication, or an award in arbitration, to enforce such Covered Person's rights under, or to recover damages for breach of, this Article, the Covered Person shall be entitled to recover from the corporation, and shall be indemnified by the corporation against, any and all expenses (of the types described in the definition of Expenses in Section 7.1 of this Article) actually and reasonably incurred by such Covered Person in seeking such adjudication or arbitration, but only if such Covered Person prevails therein. If it shall be determined in such adjudication or arbitration that the Covered Person is entitled to receive part but not all of the indemnification of expenses sought, the expenses incurred by such Covered Person in connection with such adjudication or arbitration shall be appropriately prorated.
Section 7.15. Severability. If any provision or provisions of this Article shall be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable for any reason whatsoever:
(a) the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining
provisions of this Article (including without limitation, each portion of any
Section of this Article containing any such provision held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, that is not itself invalid, illegal or unenforceable) shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby; and
(b) to the fullest extent possible, the provisions of this Article (including, without limitation, each portion of any Section of this Article containing any such provision held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, that is not itself invalid, illegal or unenforceable) shall be construed so as to give effect to the intent manifested by the provision held invalid, illegal or unenforceable.
Section 8.1. Certificate of Incorporation. All references in these By-laws to the Certificate of Incorporation shall be deemed to refer to the Certificate of Incorporation of the corporation, as amended and in effect from time to time.
Section 8.2. Fiscal Year. Except as from time to time otherwise provided by the board of directors, the fiscal year of the corporation shall end on October 31 of each year.
Section 8.3. Corporate Seal. The board of directors shall have the power to adopt and alter the seal of the corporation.
Section 8.4. Execution of Instruments. All deeds, leases, transfers, contracts, bonds, notes, and other obligations authorized to be executed by an officer of the corporation on its behalf shall be signed by the president or the treasurer except as the board of directors may generally or in particular cases otherwise determine.
Section 8.5. Voting of Securities. Unless the board of directors otherwise provides, the president or the treasurer may waive notice of and act on behalf of this corporation, or appoint another person or persons to act as proxy or attorney in fact for this corporation with or without discretionary power and/or power of substitution, at any meeting of stockholders or shareholders of any other corporation or organization, any of whose securities are held by this corporation.
Section 8.6. Evidence of Authority. A certificate by the secretary or any assistant secretary as to any action taken by the stockholders, directors or any officer or representative of the corporation shall, as to all persons who rely thereon in good faith, be conclusive evidence of such action. The exercise of any power which by law, by the Certificate of Incorporation, or by these By-laws, or under any vote of the stockholders or the board of directors, may be exercised by an officer of the corporation only in the event of absence of another officer or any other contingency shall bind the corporation in favor of anyone relying thereon in good faith, whether or not such absence or contingency existed.
Section 8.7. Corporate Records. The original, or attested copies, of the Certificate of Incorporation, By-laws, records of all meetings of the incorporators and stockholders, and the stock transfer books (which shall contain the names of all stockholders and the record address and the amount of stock held by each) shall be kept in Delaware at the principal office of the corporation, or at an office of the corporation, or at an office of its transfer agent or of the secretary or of the assistant secretary, if any. Said copies and records need not all be kept in the same office. They shall be available at all reasonable times to inspection of any stockholder for any purpose but not to secure a list of stockholders for the purpose of selling said list or copies thereof or for using the same for a purpose other than in the interest of the applicant, as a stockholder, relative to the affairs of the corporation.
Section 8.8. Charitable Contributions. The board of directors from time to time may authorize contributions to be made by the corporation in such amounts as it may determine to be reasonable to corporations, trusts, funds or foundations organized and operated exclusively for charitable, scientific or educational purposes, no part of the net earning of which inures to the private benefit of any stockholder or individual.
Section 9.1. Amendment by Stockholders. Prior to the issuance of stock, these By-laws may be amended, altered or repealed by the incorporator(s) by majority vote. After stock has been issued, these By-laws may be amended altered or repealed by the stockholders at any annual or special meeting by vote or a majority of all shares outstanding and entitled to vote, except that where the effect of the amendment would be to reduce any voting requirement otherwise required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-laws, such amendment shall require the vote that would have been required by such other provision. Notice and a copy of any proposal to amend these By-laws must be included in the notice of meeting of stockholders at which action is taken upon such amendment.
Section 9.2. Amendment by Board of Directors. These By-laws may be amended or altered by the board of directors at a meeting duly called for the purpose by majority vote of the directors then in office, except as otherwise provided by law or by the Certificate of Incorporation. Any amendment of these By-laws by the board of directors may be altered or repealed by the stockholders at any annual or special meeting of stockholders.
CONTACT: Mark Wachs Mark Wachs and Associates (212) 832-2800 e-mail: email@example.com
Joseph G. Mahler FuelCell Energy, Inc. (203) 825-6000 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
ENERGY RESEARCH CORPORATION ANNOUNCES
NEW NAME AND TICKER SYMBOL
Danbury, Conn., September 20, 1999 - FuelCell Energy, Inc. (AMEX:FCL) will begin trading on Tuesday, September 21, 1999 when the American Stock Exchange opens under the Company's new ticker symbol, FCL, in conjunction with the merger, effective September 21, 1999, of Energy Research Corporation (AMEX: ERC) into the newly formed, wholly-owned Delaware subsidiary, FuelCell Energy, Inc.
The merger follows shareholder approval earlier this month of the name change, reincorporation in the state of Delaware and increase in authorization of the Company's common stock from 8 million to 20 million shares.
As the surviving corporation in the merger, FuelCell Energy, Inc. will succeed to all of the assets and liabilities of the Company. Effective September 21, 1999, each outstanding share of the Company's Common Stock will be automatically converted into one share of common stock of FuelCell Energy, Inc. Shareholders will not need to exchange their existing stock certificates for stock certificates of FuelCell Energy, Inc. The new CUSIP Number of FuelCell Energy's Common Stock is 35952H 10 6.
The Company also has changed its Web address to www.fuelcellenergy.com.
FUELCELL ENERGY, INC.
ERC ANNOUNCES NAME CHANGE AND TICKER SYMBOL
Commenting on the recent changes, Jerry Leitman, President and CEO, stated:
"Our new name is intended to strengthen the Company's image as a manufacturer of fuel cells, specifically the Company's Direct FuelCell(tm) technology, for the commercial market. This, along with the corporate legal advantages we expect to gain by being incorporated in Delaware and the increase in authorization of shares, will contribute to a more competitive position for the Company in today's marketplace."
Increasing the number of authorized shares of common stock is intended to give the Company flexibility in growing its business in the future. The additional authorized shares are intended for future use in connection with implementation of financings, mergers and acquisitions, employee benefit plans and other business purposes.
This press release contains forward looking statements, including statements regarding the effective date of the reincorporation, the Company's plans and expectations regarding the development and commercialization of its fuel cell technology. All forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected. Factors that could cause such a difference include, without limitation, the risk that the merger does not become effective when anticipated, the risk that commercial field trials of the Company's products will not occur when anticipated, general risks associated with product development, manufacturing and introduction, changes in the utility regulatory environment, potential volatility of energy prices, rapid technological change, and competition, as well as other risks set forth in the Company's filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The forward-looking statements contained herein speak only as of the date of this press release. The Company expressly disclaims any obligation or undertaking to release publicly any updates or revisions to any such statement to reflect any change in the Company's expectations or any change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based.