As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 25, 2020

 

Registration No. 333-

 

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

  

FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

IBIO, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

Delaware 26-2797813

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

8800 HSC Parkway

Bryan, Texas 77807-1107
(979) 446-0027

(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)

 

Thomas F. Isett
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
8800 HSC Parkway

Bryan, Texas 77807-1107
(979) 446-0027
(Name, Address and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Agent for Service)

 

with copies to:

 

Leslie Marlow, Esq.

Hank Gracin, Esq.

Patrick J. Egan, Esq.

Gracin & Marlow, LLP

The Chrysler Building

405 Lexington Avenue, 26th Floor

New York, New York 10174

(212) 907-6457

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this registration statement becomes effective.

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box: ¨

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box: x

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box: ¨

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box: ¨

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer     Accelerated filer  
       
Non-accelerated filer     Smaller reporting company  
       
        Emerging growth company  

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ¨

 

 

 

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of
Securities to be Registered (1)
  Amount
to Be
Registered
    Proposed
Maximum
Offering Price
Per Unit
    Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price
    Amount of
Registration Fee (1)
 
Common Stock,  par value $0.001 per share       (2)       (3)       (3)      
Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share       (2)       (3)       (3)      
Debt Securities       (2)       (3)       (3)      
Warrants       (2)       (3)       (3)      
Units               (2)                 (3)           (3)      
Total       (2)           $ 200,000,000     $ 21,820  

 

(1) Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act.

 

(2) There are being registered hereunder such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock, such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities, and such indeterminate number of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities as may be sold by iBio, Inc., a Delaware corporation, or the Registrant, from time to time, which together shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $200,000,000. If any debt securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the offering price of such debt securities shall be in such greater principal amount as shall result in an aggregate offering price not to exceed $200,000,000, less the aggregate dollar amount of all securities previously issued hereunder. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or in combination with other securities registered hereunder. The proposed maximum offering price of the securities will be determined, from time to time, by the Registrant in connection with the issuance by the Registrant of the securities registered hereunder. The securities registered hereunder also include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock and amount of debt securities as may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for preferred stock or debt securities that provide for conversion or exchange, upon exercise of warrants or pursuant to the antidilution provisions of any of such securities. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act, the shares being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.

 

(3) The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per class of security will be determined from time to time by the Registrant in connection with the issuance by the Registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.

 

The Registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains:

 

a base prospectus, which covers the offering, issuance and sales by us of up to $200,000,000 in the aggregate of the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings; and

 

a sales agreement prospectus covering the offer, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000 of our common stock that may be issued and sold from time to time under sales agreement, or sales agreement, with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., or Cantor Fitzgerald, the sales agent.

 

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The sales agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The $100,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under the sales agreement prospectus is included in the $200,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us under the base prospectus. Upon termination of the sales agreement, any portion of the $100,000,000 included in the sales agreement prospectus that is not sold pursuant to the sales agreement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus, and if no shares are sold under the equity distribution agreement, the full $100,000,000 of securities may be sold in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus.

 

 

 

 

The information contained in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to Completion, Dated November 25, 2020

PROSPECTUS

$200,000,000

 

 

 

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Units

 

We may, from time to time, offer and sell up to $200,000,000 of any combination of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities or warrants or units comprised of any of the foregoing securities described in this prospectus, either individually or in combination with other securities, at prices and on terms described in one or more supplements to this prospectus. We may also offer common stock or preferred stock upon conversion of debt securities, common stock upon conversion of preferred stock, or common stock, preferred stock or debt securities upon the exercise of warrants. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings.

 

This prospectus describes some of the general terms that may apply to an offering of our securities. We will provide the specific terms of these offerings and securities in one or more supplements to this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as the documents incorporated by reference, before buying any of the securities being offered.

 

Securities may be sold by us to or through underwriters or dealers, directly to purchasers or through agents designated from time to time. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus and in the applicable prospectus supplement. If any underwriters are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such underwriters and any applicable discounts or commissions and over-allotment options will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

 

Our common stock is listed on the NYSE American LLC, or the NYSE American, under the symbol “IBIO.” On November 24, 2020, the last reported sales price of our common stock on the NYSE American was $1.47 per share.

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See the section of this prospectus entitled “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement and under similar sections in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

The date of this prospectus is           , 2020.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

  Page
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS 1
   
PROSPECTUS SUMMARY 2
   
RISK FACTORS 6
   
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS 6
   
USE OF PROCEEDS 7
   
LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES 7
   
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION 10
   
SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER 13
   
DISCLOSURE OF COMMISSION POSITION ON INDEMNIFICATION FOR SECURITIES ACT LIABILITIES 27
   
LEGAL MATTERS 27
   
EXPERTS 27
   
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION 27
   
INcorporation of Certain Information by Reference 28

 

 

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration statement, we may sell from time to time in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $200,000,000 of common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in combination with other securities as described in this prospectus, including units comprised of any combination of the foregoing securities. Each time we sell any type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain more specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. We may also add, update or change in a prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplement, any related free writing prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, will include all material information relating to the applicable offering. You should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any related free writing prospectus, together with the additional information described under “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information By Reference,” before buying any of the securities being offered.

 

THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO CONSUMMATE A SALE OF SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

Neither we, nor any agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized any person to give any information or to make any representation other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. This prospectus, any applicable supplement to this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus does not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, nor does this prospectus, any applicable supplement to this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction.

 

You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate on any date subsequent to the date set forth on the front of the document or that any information we have incorporated by reference is correct on any date subsequent to the date of the document incorporated by reference, even though this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is delivered, or securities are sold, on a later date.

 

This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the section entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

Except as otherwise indicated herein or as the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to “iBio,” “the company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar references refer to iBio, Inc., an entity incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware, and where appropriate our consolidated subsidiaries.

 

This prospectus and the information incorporated herein by reference include trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or other companies. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus are the property of their respective owners.  

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights certain information about us, this offering and selected information contained in the prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our common stock and/or warrants. For a more complete understanding of our company and this offering, we encourage you to read and consider the more detailed information in the prospectus, including “Risk Factors” and the financial statements and related notes. Unless we specify otherwise, all references in this prospectus to “iBio,” “we,” “our,” “us” and “our company” refer to iBio Inc., a Delaware corporation.

 

Business Overview

 

We are a biotechnology company and biologics contract development and manufacturing organization (“CDMO”). We apply our licensed and owned technologies to develop novel products to fight fibrotic diseases, cancers, and infectious diseases. We use our FastPharming® Development and Manufacturing System (the “FastPharming System”) to increase “speed-to-clinic” for new candidates. We are also using the FastPharming System to create proteins and bioinks for research and further manufacturing uses in a variety of R&D applications, including 3D-bioprinting. In addition, we make the FastPharming System available to clients on a fee-for-service basis for the rapid, scalable, eco-friendly production of high-quality proteins.

 

During the quarter ended September 30, 2020, we operated in two segments: (i) our CDMO segment, operated via our subsidiary iBio CDMO LLC, a Delaware limited liability company (“iBio CDMO”), and (ii) our biologics development and licensing activities, conducted within iBio, Inc. In the past, our primary focus was the CDMO business, pursuant to which iBio CDMO provided manufacturing services to collaborators and third-party customers as well as used for development of our own product candidates. However, during the second half of 2020 and subsequent to year end, we shifted our primary focus to our biologics development programs, including new vaccines and therapeutics.

 

Our current platforms and programs include: (i) CDMO services using our licensed and owned FastPharming System and GlycaneeringTM Services; (ii) the development of therapeutics, for which we intend to conduct preclinical and clinical trials; (iii) the development of vaccines, for which we intend to conduct preclinical and clinical trials, and (iv) the production of proteins for research and further manufacturing use in 3D-bioprinting and other applications. We are developing a portfolio of technologies, products, and services driven by the following platforms and programs, which we intend to use individually, and in combination:

 

· CDMO Services
o Process development and manufacturing of protein products in hydroponically-grown, transiently-transfected plants, (typically Nicotiana benthamiana, a relative of the tobacco plant) via utilization of our proprietary expression technologies, GlycaneeringTM Services, and production know-how (the FastPharming System) deployed in our 130,000 square-foot manufacturing facility in Bryan, Texas.
o “Factory Solutions” for the clients who seek to insource biologics manufacturing using the FastPharming System and instead of outsourcing production to iBio CDMO.

 

· Therapeutics
o Treatments for fibrotic diseases, including a fusion of the endostatin-derived E4 antifibrotic peptide to the hinge and heavy chain of human IgG1 (“IBIO-100”, formerly described as “CFB-03”) for systemic scleroderma (for which we have received orphan drug designation), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and related conditions.
o An ACE2-Fc fusion protein as a treatment for COVID-19 and, prospectively, other diseases emanating from the Coronaviridae family, in-licensed from Planet Biotechnology, Inc.

 

2

 

 

· Vaccines
o A novel virus-like particle antigen being designed for use in a vaccine candidate targeting the SARS-CoV-2 virus (“IBIO-200”).
o The lichenase (“LicKMTM”)-subunit vaccine for COVID-19 (“IBIO-201”).
o An E2 antigen, in combination with a selected adjuvant, for vaccination of pigs against classical swine fever (“IBIO-400”).

 

· Research & Bioprocess Products
o Protein scaffolds for use as bioinks in the development of 3D-bioprinted tissues and organs.
o Cytokines and growth factors for cell culture applications.
o Biomaterials for a range of life science research, development, and bioprocessing applications.

  

Corporate Information

 

We are a Delaware corporation. Our principal executive/administrative offices are located at 8800 HSC Parkway, Bryan, Texas 77807-1107, and our telephone number is (979) 446-0027. Our website address is http://www.ibioinc.com. We make available free of charge on our website our annual, quarterly and current reports, including amendments to such reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish such material to, the SEC. Information on or accessed through our website is not incorporated into this prospectus or the accompanying base prospectus and is not a part of this prospectus or the accompanying base prospectus. Our common stock is listed on the NYSE American under the symbol “IBIO.” 

 

Risks Associated with our Business

 

Our business is subject to numerous risks, as described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, and under similar headings in the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

The Securities We May Offer

 

We may offer shares of our common stock, preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants to purchase any of such securities either individually or in combination with other securities including units comprised of the foregoing, with a total value of up to $200,000,000 from time to time under this prospectus at prices and on terms to be determined at the time of any offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

· designation or classification;
· aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;
· maturity;
· original issue discount;
· rates and times of payment of interest or dividends;
· redemption, conversion, exercise, exchange or sinking fund terms;
· ranking;
· restrictive covenants;
· voting or other rights;
· conversion or exchange prices or rates and, if applicable, any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the conversion or exchange prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable upon conversion or exchange; and
· a discussion of material

 

3

 

 

The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference. However, no prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

We may sell the securities directly to investors or to or through agents, underwriters or dealers. We, and our agents, underwriters or dealers reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we do offer securities to or through agents, underwriters or dealers, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

 

· the names of those agents, underwriters or dealers;
· applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;
· details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and
· the net proceeds to us.

 

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

Common Stock

 

We may issue shares of our common stock from time to time. Each holder of our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, including the election of directors. Under our certificate of incorporation, as amended, or certificate of incorporation, and first amended and restated bylaws, or bylaws, our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights. Because of this, the holders of a majority of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then-outstanding shares of preferred stock, holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratably those dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by the board of directors out of legally available funds. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of common stock are entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities and the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any then-outstanding shares of preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, conversion or subscription rights and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate in the future.

 

Preferred Stock

 

We may issue shares of our preferred stock from time to time, in one or more series. Our board of directors will determine the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, including dividend rights, conversion rights, preemptive rights, terms of redemption or repurchase, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of any series. Convertible preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock or exchangeable for other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at the holder’s option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

 

If we sell any series of preferred stock under this prospectus, we will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of such series of preferred stock, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock that we are offering before the issuance of the related series of preferred stock. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of preferred stock being offered, as well as the complete certificate of designation establishing the terms of the applicable series of preferred stock.

 

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Debt Securities

 

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. The senior debt securities will rank equally with any other unsecured and unsubordinated debt. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment, to the extent and in the manner described in the instrument governing the debt, to all of our senior indebtedness. Convertible debt securities will be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at your option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

 

We may issue debt securities under a note purchase agreement or under one or more documents called indentures, which are contracts between us and a national banking association or other eligible party, as trustee. Unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement, any debt securities issued under this prospectus will be issued under an indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the indenture. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the debt securities. We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of debt securities being offered, as well as the complete indentures that contain the terms of the debt securities. A form of indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

 

Warrants

 

We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or together with common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from these securities. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the warrants. We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of warrants being offered, as well as any warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants.

 

Any warrants issued under this prospectus may be evidenced by warrant certificates. Warrants also may be issued under an applicable warrant agreement that we enter into with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of warrants being offered.

 

Units

 

We may issue units comprised of shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, debt securities and/or warrants in any combination. We may issue units in such amounts and in as many distinct series as we wish.

 

Any units issued under this prospectus may be evidenced by unit certificates. Units also may be issued under one or more applicable unit agreements to be entered into between us and a bank or other financial institution, as unit agent. We urge you to read any prospectus supplement related to any series of units we may offer, as well as any applicable unit agreement and/or unit certificate that contain the terms of the units. If we issue units, the applicable forms of unit agreements and/or unit certificates relating to such units (if any) will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and discussed under the section entitled “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as may be updated by subsequent annual, quarterly and other reports that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus in their entirety. The risks described in these documents are not the only ones we face, but those that we consider to be material. There may be other unknown or unpredictable economic, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that could have material adverse effects on our future results. Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance, and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment. Please also read carefully the section below entitled “Forward-Looking Statements.” 

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. These forward-looking statements are not historical facts but rather are plans and predictions based on current expectations, estimates and projections about our industry, our beliefs and assumptions. Discussions containing these forward-looking statements may be found, among other places, in the Sections entitled “Prospectus Summary—Business Overview,” “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” incorporated by reference from our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto, filed with the SEC.

 

We use words such as “anticipate,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “seek,” “estimate” and variations of these words and similar expressions to identify forward-looking statements. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to certain risks, uncertainties and other factors, some of which are beyond our control, are difficult to predict and could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or forecasted in the forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include those described in the section above entitled “Risk Factors.” You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which reflect our view only as of the date of this prospectus.

 

Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update these forward-looking statements publicly, or to revise any forward-looking statements to reflect events or developments occurring after the date of this prospectus, even if new information becomes available in the future.

 

6

 

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We cannot guarantee that we will receive any proceeds in connection with this offering because we may be unable or choose not to issue and sell any securities covered by this prospectus.

 

Unless otherwise provided in a supplement or amendment to this prospectus, we intend to use any net proceeds from this offering, together with other available funds, for operating costs, including working capital needs and for other general corporate purposes including acquisitions and investments in other businesses.

 

We have not specifically identified the precise amounts we will spend on each of these areas or the timing of these expenditures. The amounts actually expended for each purpose may vary significantly depending upon numerous factors, including the amount and timing of the proceeds from this offering and our operating expenses. In addition, expenditures may also depend on the establishment of new collaborative arrangements with other companies, the availability of other financing, and other factors.

 

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

 

We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee or depositary maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

 

Book-Entry Holders

 

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

 

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Global securities will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for global securities, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

 

As a result, investors in a global security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not legal holders, of the securities.

 

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Street Name Holders

 

We may terminate a global security or issue securities that are not issued in global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

 

For securities held in street name, we or any applicable trustee or depositary will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we or any such trustee or depositary will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.

 

Legal Holders

 

Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee or third party employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

 

For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that holder is required, under agreements with its participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the consequences of a default or of our obligation to comply with a particular provision of an indenture, or for other purposes. In such an event, we would seek approval only from the holders, and not the indirect holders, of the securities. Whether and how the legal holders contact the indirect holders is up to the legal holders.

 

Special Considerations for Indirect Holders

 

If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form because the securities are represented by one or more global securities or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

· how it handles securities payments and notices;
· whether it imposes fees or charges;
· how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;
· whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;
· how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and
· if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

 

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Global Securities

 

A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

 

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we issue to, deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, known as DTC, will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

 

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “—Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and legal holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a legal holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

 

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued as a global security, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

 

Special Considerations for Global Securities

 

As an indirect holder, an investor’s rights relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

 

If securities are issued only as global securities, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

· an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;
· an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;

an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;

· an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in the global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;
· the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in the global security;
· we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in the global security, nor will we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;
· the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in the global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and
· financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in the global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities.

 

There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.

 

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Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated

 

In a few special situations described below, a global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own names, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.

 

A global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

 

· if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;
· if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or
· if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and neither we nor any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

The securities being offered may be sold in one or more transactions at fixed prices, at prevailing market prices at the time of sale, at prices related to the prevailing market prices, at varying prices determined at the time of sale, or at negotiated prices. These sales may be effected at various times in one or more of the following transactions, or in other kinds of transactions:

 

  · through underwriters for resale to the public or investors;

 

  ·

transactions on NYSE American or on any national securities exchange or U.S. inter-dealer system of a registered national securities association on which our common stock may be listed or quoted at the time of sale;

 

  · in the over-the-counter market;

 

  · in private transactions and transactions otherwise than on these exchanges or systems;

 

  ·

in “at the market offerings”, within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market, on an exchange or otherwise;

 

  · in connection with short sales of the shares;

 

  · by pledge to secure debt and other obligations;

 

  · through the writing of options, whether the options are listed on an options exchange or otherwise;

 

  ·

in connection with the writing of non-traded and exchange-traded call options, in hedge transactions and in settlement of other transactions in standardized or over-the-counter options;

 

  · through a combination of any of the above transactions; or

 

  · any other method permitted by law.

 

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We may sell our securities directly to one or more purchasers, or to or through underwriters, dealers or agents or through a combination of those methods. The related prospectus supplement will set forth the terms of each offering, including:

 

  · the name or names of any agents, dealers, underwriters or investors who purchase the securities;

 

  · the purchase price of the securities being offered and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;

 

  · the amount of any compensation, discounts commissions or fees to be received by the underwriters, dealer or agents;

 

  · any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

  · any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers;

 

  · any securities exchanges on which such securities may be listed;

 

  ·

the terms of any indemnification provisions, including indemnification from liabilities under the federal securities laws; and

 

  ·

the nature of any transaction by an underwriter, dealer or agent during the offering that is intended to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities.

 

In addition, any securities covered by this prospectus that qualify for sale pursuant to Regulation S may be sold pursuant to Regulation S rather than pursuant to this prospectus.

 

Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement are underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement.

 

If underwriters are used in the sale, they will acquire the securities for their own account and may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement. We may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate. Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may change from time to time. We may use underwriters with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter, the nature of any such relationship.

 

We may sell securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities, and we will describe any commissions we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, our agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

 

We may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.

 

We may provide agents and underwriters with indemnification against civil liabilities related to this offering, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to these liabilities. Agents and underwriters may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.

 

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All securities we offer, other than common stock, will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities.

 

Any underwriter may engage in overallotment, stabilizing transactions, short covering transactions and penalty bids. Overallotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum. Short covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution is completed to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time. These transactions may be effected on any exchange or over-the-counter market or otherwise.

 

In connection with the sale of our securities, underwriters may receive compensation from us or from purchasers of our securities in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions. Underwriters, dealers and agents that participate in the distribution of our securities may be deemed to be underwriters. Discounts or commissions they receive and any profit on their resale of our securities may be considered underwriting discounts and commissions under the Securities Act.

  

We may agree to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents who participate in the distribution of our securities against various liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. We may also agree to contribute to payments that the underwriters, dealers or agents may be required to make in respect of these liabilities. We may authorize dealers or other persons who act as our agents to solicit offers by various institutions to purchase our securities from us under contracts that provide for payment and delivery on a future date. We may enter into these contracts with commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and others. If we enter into these agreements concerning any series of our securities, we will indicate that in the prospectus supplement or amendment.

 

In connection with an offering of our securities, underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of our securities. Specifically, underwriters may over-allot in connection with the offering, creating a syndicate short position in our securities for their own account. In addition, underwriters may bid for, and purchase, our securities in the open market to cover short positions or to stabilize the price of our securities. Any underwriters who are qualified market makers may engage in passive market making transactions in the securities in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the securities. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may stabilize the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time. Finally, underwriters may reclaim selling concessions allowed for distributing our securities in the offering if the underwriters repurchase previously distributed securities in transactions to cover short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of our securities above independent market levels. Underwriters are not required to engage in any of these activities and may end any of these activities at any time. Agents and underwriters may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us and our affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

 

The descriptions of the securities contained in this prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplements, summarize all the material terms and provisions of the various types of securities that we may offer. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the particular terms of the securities offered by that prospectus supplement. If we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, the terms of the securities may differ from the terms we have summarized below. We will also include in the prospectus supplement information, where applicable, about material United States federal income tax considerations relating to the securities and the securities exchange, if any, on which the securities will be listed.

 

Description of Capital Stock

 

We are authorized to issue 275,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share. Provisions of our certificate of incorporation, our bylaws and provisions of applicable Delaware law may discourage, delay or prevent a merger or other change in control that a stockholder may consider favorable. See below under “—Anti-Takeover Effects of our Certificate of Incorporation, our Bylaws and Delaware Law.”

 

Common Stock

 

Authorized Shares of Common Stock.  We currently have authorized 275,000,000 shares of common stock. 

 

Voting.  The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote per share on all matters to be voted upon by the stockholders and are not entitled to cumulative voting for the election of directors.

 

Dividends.  Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding preferred stock, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of legally available funds.

 

Liquidation. In the event of liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our company, the holders of our common stock are entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of liabilities and the preferences of preferred stockholders.

 

Rights and Preferences.  The holders of our common stock have no preemptive, conversion or other subscription rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that is currently outstanding or that we may designate and issue in the future (including the iBio CMO Preferred Tracking Stock).

 

Fully Paid and Nonassessable.  All of our issued and outstanding shares of common stock are fully paid and nonassessable. 

 

Preferred Stock

 

Our board of directors is authorized to issue up to 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series without stockholder approval. Our board of directors may determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock.

 

The following summary of terms of our preferred stock is not complete. You should refer to the provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and the resolutions containing the terms of each class or series of preferred stock which have been or will be filed with the SEC at or prior to the time of issuance of such class or series of preferred stock and described in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement may also state that any of the terms set forth herein are inapplicable to such series of preferred stock, provided that the information set forth in such prospectus supplement does not constitute material changes to the information herein such that it alters the nature of the offering or the securities offered. The purpose of authorizing our Board to issue preferred stock in one or more series and determine the number of shares and the rights and preferences of such series is to eliminate delays associated with a stockholder vote on specific issuances. Examples of rights and preferences that the Board may fix are:

 

  · dividend rights,

 

  · dividend rates,

 

  · conversion rights;

 

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  · voting rights,

 

  · terms of redemption, and

 

  · liquidation preferences.

 

The issuance of preferred stock, while providing desirable flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or could discourage a third party from acquiring, a majority of our outstanding voting stock. The rights of holders of our common stock described above, will be subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of any preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

 

We will incorporate by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement, which includes this prospectus, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering. This description and the applicable prospectus supplement will include:

 

  · the title and stated value;

 

  · the number of shares authorized;

 

  · the liquidation preference per share;

 

  · the purchase price;

 

  · the dividend rate, period and payment date, and method of calculation for dividends;

 

  · whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

 

  · the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any;

 

  · the provisions for a sinking fund, if any;

 

  ·

the provisions for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;

 

  · any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

 

  ·

whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock, and, if applicable, the conversion price, or how it will be calculated, and the conversion period;

 

  ·

whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities, and, if applicable, the exchange price, or how it will be calculated, and the exchange period;

 

  · voting rights, if any, of the preferred stock;

 

  · preemptive rights, if any;

 

  · restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment, if any;

 

  · whether interests in the preferred stock will be represented by depositary shares;

 

  · a discussion of any material United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

 

  ·

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs;

 

  ·

any limitations on issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs; and

 

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  · any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the preferred stock.

 

When we issue shares of preferred stock under this prospectus, the shares will fully be paid and nonassessable and will not have, or be subject to, any preemptive or similar rights.

 

Options

 

As of November 20, 2020, (i) options to purchase an aggregate of 3,485,815 shares of common stock were outstanding, (ii) restricted stock units underlying 39,950 shares of common stock were outstanding under our equity incentive plans, and (iii) an additional 2,973,035 shares were reserved for future issuance under our 2018 Omnibus Equity Incentive Plan.

 

Potential Anti-Takeover Effects of our Certificate of Incorporation, our Bylaws and Delaware Law

 

Certain provisions set forth in our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws and in Delaware law, which are summarized below, may be deemed to have an anti-takeover effect and may delay, deter or prevent a tender offer or takeover attempt that a stockholder might consider to be in its best interests, including attempts that might result in a premium being paid over the market price for the shares held by stockholders.

 

Pursuant to our certificate of incorporation, our board of directors may issue additional shares of common stock or preferred stock. Any additional issuance of common stock could have the effect of impeding or discouraging the acquisition of control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise, including a transaction in which our stockholders would receive a premium over the then-current market price for their shares, and thereby protect the continuity of our management. Specifically, if in the due exercise of its fiduciary obligations, the board of directors were to determine that a takeover proposal was not in our best interest, shares could be issued by our board of directors without stockholder approval in one or more transactions that might prevent or render more difficult or costly the completion of the takeover by: 

 

· diluting the voting or other rights of the proposed acquirer or insurgent stockholder group;
· putting a substantial voting block in institutional or other hands that might undertake to support the incumbent board of directors; or
· effecting an acquisition that might complicate or preclude the takeover.

 

Our certificate of incorporation also allows our board of directors to fix the number of directors in our bylaws. Cumulative voting in the election of directors is not permitted by our certificate of incorporation. Not providing for cumulative voting may delay or prevent a tender offer or takeover attempt that a stockholder may determine to be in his, her or its best interest, including attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares held by the stockholders.

 

In addition to the foregoing, our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws contain the following provisions:

 

Staggered Board. Our board of directors is divided into three classes of directors, Class I, II and III, with each class serving a term ending at the third annual meeting following its election.

 

Nominations of Directors and Proposals of Business. Our bylaws generally regulate nominations for election of directors by stockholders and proposals of business at annual meetings. In general, Sections 1.10 and 1.11 of our bylaws requires stockholders intending to submit nominations or proposals at an annual meeting of stockholders to provide the Company with advance notice thereof, including information regarding the stockholder proposing the business as well as information regarding the nominee or the proposed business. Sections 1.10 and 1.11 of our bylaws provides a time period during which nominations or business must be provided to the Company that creates a predictable window for the submission of such notices, eliminating the risk that the Company finds a meeting will be contested after printing its proxy materials for an uncontested election and providing the Company with a reasonable opportunity to respond to nominations and proposals by stockholders.

 

Board Vacancies. Our bylaws generally provide that only the board of directors (and not the stockholders) may fill vacancies and newly created directorships.

 

Special Meeting of Stockholders.  Our bylaws generally provide that special meetings of stockholders for any purpose or purposes for which meetings may be lawfully called, may be called at any time by our board of directors, the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer or by one or more stockholders holding shares in the aggregate entitled to cast not less than fifty percent (50%) of the votes at that meeting. Business transacted at any special meeting of stockholders shall be limited to matters relating to the purpose or purposes stated in the notice of meeting.

 

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While the foregoing provisions of our certificate of incorporation, our bylaws and Delaware law may have an anti-takeover effect, these provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continuity and stability in the composition of the board of directors and in the policies formulated by the board of directors and to discourage certain types of transactions that may involve an actual or threatened change of control. In that regard, these provisions are designed to reduce our vulnerability to an unsolicited acquisition proposal. The provisions also are intended to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. However, such provisions could have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares and, as a consequence, they also may inhibit fluctuations in the market price of our common stock that could result from actual or rumored takeover attempts. Such provisions also may have the effect of preventing changes in our management.

 

Delaware Takeover Statute—Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law

 

In general, Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law prohibits a Delaware corporation that is a public company from engaging in any “business combination” (as defined below) with any “interested stockholder” (defined generally as an entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with such entity or person) for a period of three years following the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, unless: (1) prior to such date, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder; (2) on consummation of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the number of shares outstanding those shares owned (x) by persons who are directors and also officers and (y) by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or (3) on or subsequent to such date, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

 

Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law defines “business combination” to include: (1) any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder; (2) any sale, lease, exchange, mortgage, transfer, pledge or other disposition of ten percent or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder; (3) subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder; (4) any transaction involving the corporation or any direct or indirect majority-owned subsidiary of the corporation that has the effect, directly or indirectly, of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series, or securities convertible into the stock of any class or series, of the corporation or the applicable subsidiary beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or (5) the receipt by the interested stockholder, directly or indirectly, of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation or any direct or indirect majority-owned subsidiary.

 

We have elected, through a provision in our certificate of incorporation, to not be subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law.

 

NYSE American Listing

 

Our common stock is listed on the NYSE American under the symbol “IBIO.”

 

Transfer agent and registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company. Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company IS located at 1 State Street, 30th floor, New York, New York 10004. Their telephone number is (212) 509-4000.

 

Description of Debt Securities

 

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any debt securities offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the indenture, we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.

 

We may issue debt securities under a note purchase agreement or under indentures. Unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement, we will issue the debt securities under the indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the indenture. The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act. We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

 

The following summary of material provisions of the debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.

 

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General

 

The indenture will not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and may be in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations, financial condition or transactions involving us.

 

We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities,” which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount,” or OID, for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics or terms of the debt securities. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with OID will be described in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

 

· the title of the series of debt securities;
· any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;
· the maturity date or dates;
· the form of the debt securities of the series;
· the applicability of any guarantees;
· whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;
· whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination
· thereof, and the terms of any subordination;
· if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;
· the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;
· our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;
· if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;
· the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;
· the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;
· any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;
· whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities; and the depositary for such global security or securities;
· if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;

 

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· if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;
· additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;
· additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;
· additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;
· additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;
· additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;
· the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;
· whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;
· the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;
· any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and
· any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

 

Conversion or Exchange Rights

 

We will set forth in the prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to settlement upon conversion or exchange and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

 

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indenture will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets (other than a subsidiary of ours) must assume all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.

 

Events of Default under the Indenture

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

· if we fail to pay any installment of interest on any series of debt securities, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by us in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;
· if we fail to pay the principal of, or premium, if any, on any series of debt securities as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to such series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

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· if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement contained in the debt securities or the indenture, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such is a notice of default thereunder, from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and
· if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.

 

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

 

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.

 

Subject to the terms of the indenture, if an event of default shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

· the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and
· subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

 

A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

 

· the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;
· the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request,
· such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and
· the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.

 

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

 

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indenture.

 

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

 

We and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters:

 

· to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities of any series;
· to comply with the provisions described above under “Description of Debt Securities—Consolidation, Merger or Sale;”
· to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;
· to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;

 

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· to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;
· to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect;
· to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the debt securities of any series as provided above under “Description of Debt Securities—General” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;
· to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under any indenture by a successor trustee; or
· to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

 

In addition, under the indenture, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

· extending the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series; •reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption of any series of any debt securities; or
· reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.

 

Discharge

 

Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

 

· provide for payment;
· register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;
· replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;
· pay principal of and premium and interest on any debt securities of the series;
· maintain paying agencies;
· maintain paying agencies;
· hold monies for payment in trust;
· recover excess money held by the trustee;
· compensate and indemnify the trustee; and
· appoint any successor trustee.

 

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

 

Form, Exchange and Transfer

 

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indenture provides that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, or another depositary named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement with respect to that series. To the extent the debt securities of a series are issued in global form and as book-entry, a description of terms relating such securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

 

Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

 

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We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

 

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

· issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or
· register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

 

Information Concerning the Trustee

 

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

 

Payment and Paying Agents

 

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

 

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

 

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

 

Governing Law

 

The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

 

Description of Warrants

 

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplement and free writing prospectus, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may consist of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and may be issued in one or more series. Warrants may be offered independently or in combination with common stock, preferred stock or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The following description of warrants will apply to the warrants offered by this prospectus unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement for a particular series of warrants may specify different or additional terms.

 

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We will file forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants that may be offered as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the warrants are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement related to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectus, and the complete form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements, that contain the terms of the warrants.

 

General

 

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of warrants being offered, including, to the extent applicable:

 

· the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;
· the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;
· the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;
· the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;
· in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;
· in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;
· the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;
· the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;
· any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;
· the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;
· the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;
· a discussion of material United States federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising the warrants;
· the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and
· any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

 

Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including:

 

· in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the right to receive dividends, if any, or payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any; or
· in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the right to receive payments of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities purchasable upon exercise or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture.

 

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Exercise of Warrants

 

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

 

Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants by delivering the warrant or warrant certificate representing the warrants to be exercised together with specified information, and paying the required amount to the warrant agent, if applicable, in immediately available funds, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth on the reverse side of any warrant certificate and in the applicable prospectus supplement the information that the holder of the warrant will be required to deliver to any warrant agent in connection with the exercise of the warrant.

 

Upon receipt of payment and the warrant or warrant certificate, as applicable, properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent, if any, or any other office, including ours, indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If fewer than all of the warrants (or the warrants represented by such warrant certificate) are exercised, a new warrant or a new warrant certificate, as applicable, will be issued for the remaining warrants.

 

Governing Law

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the warrants and warrant agreements, and any claim, controversy or dispute arising under or related to the warrants or warrant agreements, will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

 

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants

 

Each warrant agent, if any, will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.

 

Description of Units

 

We may issue units comprised of shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, debt securities and warrants in any combination. We may issue units in such amounts and in as many distinct series as we wish. This section outlines certain provisions of the units that we may issue. If we issue units, they may be issued under one or more unit agreements to be entered into between us and a bank or other financial institution, as unit agent. The information described in this section may not be complete in all respects and is qualified entirely by reference to the unit agreement with respect to the units of any particular series. The specific terms of any series of units offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If so described in a particular supplement, the specific terms of any series of units may differ from the general description of terms presented below. We urge you to read any prospectus supplement related to any series of units we may offer, as well as the complete unit agreement and unit certificate that contain the terms of the units. If we issue units, forms of unit agreements, if any, and unit certificates relating to such units will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement, which includes this prospectus.

 

Each unit that we may issue will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date. The applicable prospectus supplement may describe:

 

  ·

the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

  · any provisions of the governing unit agreement;

 

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  · the price or prices at which such units will be issued;

 

  · the applicable United States federal income tax considerations relating to the units;

 

  ·

any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

 

  · any other terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units.

 

The provisions described in this section, as well as those described under “Description of Capital Stock,” “Description of Debt Securities” and “Description of Warrants” will apply to the securities included in each unit, to the extent relevant and as may be updated in any prospectus supplements.

 

Issuance in Series

 

We may issue units in such amounts and in as many distinct series as we wish. This section summarizes terms of the units that apply generally to all series. Most of the financial and other specific terms of your series will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Unit Agreements

 

We may issue the units under one or more unit agreements to be entered into between us and a bank or other financial institution, as unit agent. We may add, replace or terminate unit agents from time to time. We will identify the unit agreement, if any, under which each series of units will be issued and the unit agent under that agreement in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

The following provisions will generally apply to all unit agreements unless otherwise stated in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Modification without Consent

 

We and the applicable unit agent, if any, may amend any unit or unit agreement, if any, without the consent of any holder:

 

  · to cure any ambiguity; any provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described below;

 

  · to correct or supplement any defective or inconsistent provision; or

 

  ·

to make any other change that we believe is necessary or desirable and will not adversely affect the interests of the

affected holders in any material respect.

  

We do not need any approval to make changes that affect only units to be issued after the changes take effect. We may also make changes that do not adversely affect a particular unit in any material respect, even if they adversely affect other units in a material respect. In those cases, we do not need to obtain the approval of the holder of the unaffected unit; we need only obtain any required approvals from the holders of the affected units.

 

Modification with Consent

 

We may not amend any particular unit or a unit agreement with respect to any particular unit unless we obtain the consent of the holder of that unit, if the amendment would:

 

  ·

impair any right of the holder to exercise or enforce any right under a security included in the unit if the terms of that security require the consent of the holder to any changes that would impair the exercise or enforcement of that right; or

 

  ·

reduce the percentage of outstanding units or any series or class the consent of whose holders is required to amend that series or class, or the applicable unit agreement with respect to that series or class, as described below.

 

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Any other change to a particular unit agreement and the units issued under that agreement would require the following approval:

 

  ·

If the change affects only the units of a particular series issued under that agreement, the change must be approved by the holders of a majority of the outstanding units of that series; or

 

  ·

If the change affects the units of more than one series issued under that agreement, it must be approved by the holders of a majority of all outstanding units of all series affected by the change, with the units of all the affected series voting together as one class for this purpose.

 

These provisions regarding changes with majority approval also apply to changes affecting any securities issued under a unit agreement, as the governing document.

 

In each case, the required approval must be given by written consent.

 

Unit Agreements Will Not Be Qualified under Trust Indenture Act

 

No unit agreement will be qualified as an indenture, and no unit agent will be required to qualify as a trustee, under the Trust Indenture Act. Therefore, holders of units issued under unit agreements will not have the protections of the Trust Indenture Act with respect to their units.

 

Mergers and Similar Transactions Permitted; No Restrictive Covenants or Events of Default

 

The unit agreements will not restrict our ability to merge or consolidate with, or sell our assets to, another corporation or other entity or to engage in any other transactions. If at any time we merge or consolidate with, or sell our assets substantially as an entirety to, another corporation or other entity, the successor entity will succeed to and assume our obligations under the unit agreements. We will then be relieved of any further obligation under these agreements.

 

The unit agreements will not include any restrictions on our ability to put liens on our assets, including our interests in our subsidiaries, nor will they restrict our ability to sell our assets. The unit agreements also will not provide for any events of default or remedies upon the occurrence of any events of default.

 

Governing Law

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the unit agreements and the units will be governed by New York law.

 

Form, Exchange and Transfer

 

We will issue each unit in global—i.e., book-entry—form only. Units in book-entry form will be represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary, which will be the holder of all the units represented by the global security. Those who own beneficial interests in a unit will do so through participants in the depositary’s system, and the rights of these indirect owners will be governed solely by the applicable procedures of the depositary and its participants. We will describe book-entry securities, and other terms regarding the issuance and registration of the units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Each unit and all securities comprising the unit will be issued in the same form.

 

If we issue any units in registered, non-global form, the following will apply to them.

 

The units will be issued in the denominations stated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Holders may exchange their units for units of smaller denominations or combined into fewer units of larger denominations, as long as the total amount is not changed.

 

Holders may exchange or transfer their units at the office of the unit agent. Holders may also replace lost, stolen, destroyed or mutilated units at that office. We may appoint another entity to perform these functions or perform them ourselves.

 

Holders will not be required to pay a service charge to transfer or exchange their units, but they may be required to pay for any tax or other governmental charge associated with the transfer or exchange. The transfer or exchange, and any replacement, will be made only if our transfer agent is satisfied with the holder’s proof of legal ownership. The transfer agent may also require an indemnity before replacing any units.

 

If we have the right to redeem, accelerate or settle any units before their maturity, and we exercise our right as to less than all those units or other securities, we may block the exchange or transfer of those units during the period beginning 15 days before the day we mail the notice of exercise and ending on the day of that mailing, in order to freeze the list of holders to prepare the mailing. We may also refuse to register transfers of or exchange any unit selected for early settlement, except that we will continue to permit transfers and exchanges of the unsettled portion of any unit being partially settled. We may also block the transfer or exchange of any unit in this manner if the unit includes securities that are or may be selected for early settlement.

 

25

 

 

Only the depositary will be entitled to transfer or exchange a unit in global form, since it will be the sole holder of the unit.

 

Payments and Notices

 

In making payments and giving notices with respect to our units, we will follow the procedures as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

26

 

 

DISCLOSURE OF COMMISSION POSITION ON INDEMNIFICATION FOR SECURITIES ACT LIABILITIES

 

Our certificate of incorporation requires us to indemnify our officers and directors to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law, which generally permits indemnification for actions taken by officers or directors as our representatives if the officer or director acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in the best interest of the corporation.

 

As permitted under Delaware law, our bylaws contain a provision indemnifying directors, officers, employees and agents of ours against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by them in connection with an action, suit or proceeding if they acted in good faith and in a manner they reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of us, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe their conduct was unlawful.

 

The separation and distribution agreement that we have entered into with Integrated BioPharma provides for indemnification by us of Integrated BioPharma and its directors, officers and employees for some liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, in connection with the distribution, and a mutual indemnification of each other for product liability claims arising from their respective businesses, and also requires that we indemnify Integrated BioPharma for various liabilities of iBio, and for any tax that may be imposed with respect to the distribution and which result from our actions or omissions in that regard.

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers or persons controlling us pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, we have been advised that in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

The legality of the securities offered hereby has been passed on for us by Gracin & Marlow, LLP, New York, New York. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

EXPERTS

 

The consolidated financial statements of iBio, Inc. and subsidiaries as of June 30, 2020 and 2019, and for the years then ended, have been incorporated by reference in this prospectus and the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, in reliance upon the report of CohnReznick LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of that firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. Neither we nor any agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized any person to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus.

 

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Additional information about us is contained at our website, www.ibioinc.com. Information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We make available on our website our SEC filings as soon as reasonably practicable after those reports are filed with the SEC. The following Corporate Governance documents are also posted on our website: Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, Insider Trading Policy and the Charters for the Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee of the board of directors.

 

27

 

 

INcorporation of Certain Information by Reference

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information that we have filed with it, meaning we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents already on file with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus and the accompanying base prospectus except for any information that is superseded by other information that is included in this prospectus or the accompanying base prospectus.

 

This filing incorporates by reference the following documents, which we have previously filed with the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act (other than Current Reports on Form 8-K, or portions thereof, furnished under Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K):

 

  · Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2020, which was filed with the SEC on October 13, 2020 and Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the year ended June 30, 2020, which was filed with the SEC on October 27, 2020 (Commission File No. 333-233504);
     
  · Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended September 30, 2020, which was filed with the SEC on November 16, 2020 (Commission File No. 333-233504);
     
  · Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on July 9, 2020, July 29, 2020 and August 13, 2020, October 2, 2020, October 5, 2020, October 9, 2020, October 13, 2020, October 16, 2020, October 22, 2020, November 3, 2020 and November 24, 2020 (Commission File No. 333-233504);
     
  · Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed with the SEC on November 3, 2020, as amended on November 6, 2020 (Commission File No. 001-35023); and
     
  · The description of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share, included (i) under the caption “Description of Securities” in the Prospectus forming a part of Amendment No. 2 to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-1, filed with the SEC on October 24, 2019 (File No. 333-233504) and (ii) in Exhibit 4.9 to the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on October 13, 2020.

 

We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus all documents (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) on or after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, or (ii) on or after the date of this prospectus but prior to the termination of this offering. These documents include periodic reports, such as Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K.

  

We will provide, without charge, to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus and the accompanying base prospectus are delivered, on the written or oral request of such person, a copy of any or all of the reports or documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus and the accompanying base prospectus, but not delivered with this prospectus and the accompanying base prospectus. Any request may be made by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

 

iBio, Inc.

Attention: Investor Relations

8800 HSC Parkway

Bryan, Texas 77807-1107
(979) 446-0027

ir@ibioinc.com

 

You may also access the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the accompanying base prospectus at our website address at https://ir.ibioinc.com/sec-filings. The other information and content contained on or linked from our website are not part of this prospectus or the accompanying base prospectus.

 

28

 

 

 

The information contained in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to Completion, Dated November 25, 2020

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 

Up to $100,000,000

 

Common Stock

 

We have entered into a Sales Agreement, or sales agreement, with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., or Cantor Fitzgerald, relating to shares of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share, offered by this prospectus and the accompanying base prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000 from time to time through Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., acting as sales agent.

 

Our common stock is listed on the NYSE American LLC, or the NYSE American, under the symbol “IBIO.” On November 24, 2020, the last reported sales price of our common stock on the NYSE American was $1.47 per share.

 

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus will be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. The sales agent will act as sales agent on a best efforts basis and will use commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the common stock requested to be sold by us, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between the sales agent and us, as applicable. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

Cantor Fitzgerald will be entitled to compensation at a fixed commission rate of up to 3.0% of the aggregate gross sales price per share sold. See “Plan of Distribution” on page S-10 for a description of compensation payable to the sales agent in connection with the sale of common stock on our behalf. The sales agent will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of the sales agent will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the sales agent with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See the section of this prospectus entitled “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-4 of this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement and under similar sections in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

The date of this prospectus is           , 2020

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

  Page
   
About this Prospectus S-i
Special Note Regard Forward-Looking Statements S-ii
Prospectus Summary S-1
The Offering S-3
Risk Factors S-4
Use of Proceeds S-7
Dividend Policy S-8
Dilution S-9
Plan of Distribution S-10
Legal Matters S-11
Experts S-11
Where You Can Find More Information S-11
Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference S-11

 

 

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus relates to part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell any combination of the securities described in our base prospectus included in the shelf registration statement in one or more offerings up to a total aggregate offering price of $200,000,000. The $100,000,000 of shares of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under this prospectus is included in the $200,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us pursuant to our shelf registration statement. In connection with such offers and when accompanied by the base prospectus included in the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, this prospectus will be deemed a prospectus supplement to such base prospectus.

 

This prospectus relates to the offering of our shares of common stock. Before buying any of our shares of common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus, together with the information incorporated by reference as described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” in this prospectus. These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

 

This prospectus describes the terms of this offering of our shares of common stock and also adds to and updates information contained in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference into this prospectus that was filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date (for example, a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus) the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

 

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. We have not, and the sales agent has not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are not, and the sales agent is not, making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should carefully read this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision.

 

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

 

This prospectus contains and incorporates by reference market data and industry statistics and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications and other publicly available information. Although we believe that these sources are reliable, we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information and we have not independently verified this information. Although we are not aware of any misstatements regarding the market and industry data presented in this prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference, these estimates involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on this information.

 

Except as otherwise indicated herein or as the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to “iBio,” “the company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar references refer to iBio, Inc., an entity incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware, and where appropriate our consolidated subsidiaries.

 

This prospectus and the information incorporated herein by reference include trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or other companies. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus are the property of their respective owners.  

 

S-i

 

 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus contains “forward-looking statements” that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. The statements contained in this prospectus that are not purely historical are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the “Securities Act,” and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Forward-looking statements are often identified by the use of words such as, but not limited to, “anticipate,” “believe,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “strategy,” “target,” “will,” “would” and similar expressions or variations intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements are based on the beliefs and assumptions of our management based on information currently available to management. Such forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause actual results and the timing of certain events to differ materially from future results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below and those discussed in this section of the prospectus titled “Risk Factors.” Furthermore, such forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this prospectus. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements.

 

Please consider our forward-looking statements in light of those risks as you read this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.

 

You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than as of the date of this prospectus and that any information incorporated by reference into this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date of the document so incorporated by reference. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update these forward-looking statements publicly, or to update the reasons actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements, even if new information becomes available in the future. Thus, you should not assume that our silence over time means that actual events are bearing out as expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements.

 

If one or more of these or other risks or uncertainties materializes, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual results may vary materially from what we anticipate. All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or individuals acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by this Note. Before purchasing any shares of common stock, you should consider carefully all of the factors set forth or referred to in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference that could cause actual results to differ.

 

S-ii

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights certain information about us, this offering and selected information contained in this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our common stock and/or warrants. For a more complete understanding of our company and this offering, we encourage you to read and consider the more detailed information in this prospectus, including “Risk Factors” section beginning on page S-4 and the financial statements and related notes and other documents or information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus before making an investment decision. Unless we specify otherwise, all references in this prospectus to “iBio,” “we,” “our,” “us” and “our company” refer to iBio Inc., a Delaware corporation.

 

Business Overview

 

 We are a biotechnology company and biologics contract development and manufacturing organization (“CDMO”). We apply our licensed and owned technologies to develop novel products to fight fibrotic diseases, cancers, and infectious diseases. We use our FastPharming® Development and Manufacturing System (the “FastPharming System”) to increase “speed-to-clinic” for new candidates. We are also using the FastPharming System to create proteins and bioinks for research and further manufacturing uses in a variety of R&D applications, including 3D-bioprinting. In addition, we make the FastPharming System available to clients on a fee-for-service basis for the rapid, scalable, eco-friendly production of high-quality proteins.

 

During the quarter ended September 30, 2020, we operated in two segments: (i) our CDMO segment, operated via our subsidiary iBio CDMOLLC, a Delaware limited liability company (“iBio CDMO”), and (ii) our biologics development and licensing activities, conducted within iBio, Inc. In the past, our primary focus was the CDMO business, pursuant to which iBio CDMO provided manufacturing services to collaborators and third-party customers as well as used for development of our own product candidates. However, during the second half of 2020 and subsequent to year end, we shifted our primary focus to our biologics development programs, including new vaccines and therapeutics.

 

Our current platforms and programs include: (i) CDMO services using our licensed and owned FastPharming System and GlycaneeringTM Services; (ii) the development of therapeutics, for which we intend to conduct preclinical and clinical trials; (iii) the development of vaccines, for which we intend to conduct preclinical and clinical trials, and (iv) the production of proteins for research and further manufacturing use in 3D-bioprinting and other applications. We are developing a portfolio of technologies, products, and services driven by the following platforms and programs, which we intend to use individually, and in combination:

 

· CDMO Services
o Process development and manufacturing of protein products in hydroponically-grown, transiently-transfected plants, (typically Nicotiana benthamiana, a relative of the tobacco plant) via utilization of our proprietary expression technologies, GlycaneeringTM Services, and production know-how (the FastPharming System) deployed in our 130,000 square-foot manufacturing facility in Bryan, Texas.
o “Factory Solutions” for the clients who seek to insource biologics manufacturing using the FastPharming System and instead of outsourcing production to iBio CDMO.

·         Therapeutics

o Treatments for fibrotic diseases, including a fusion of the endostatin-derived E4 antifibrotic peptide to the hinge and heavy chain of human IgG1 (“IBIO-100”, formerly described as “CFB-03”) for systemic scleroderma (for which we have received orphan drug designation), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and related conditions.
o An ACE2-Fc fusion protein as a treatment for COVID-19 and, prospectively, other diseases emanating from the Coronaviridae family, in-licensed from Planet Biotechnology, Inc.

 

· Vaccines
o A novel virus-like particle antigen being designed for use in a vaccine candidate targeting the SARS-CoV-2 virus (“IBIO-200”).
o The lichenase (“LicKMTM”)-subunit vaccine for COVID-19 (“IBIO-201”).
o An E2 antigen, in combination with a selected adjuvant, for vaccination of pigs against classical swine fever (“IBIO-400”).

 

· Research & Bioprocess Products
o Protein scaffolds for use as bioinks in the development of 3D-bioprinted tissues and organs.
o Cytokines and growth factors for cell culture applications.
o Biomaterials for a range of life science research, development, and bioprocessing applications.

 

 

S-1

 

 

 

Corporate Information

 

We are a Delaware corporation. Our principal executive/administrative offices are located at 8800 HSC Parkway, Bryan, Texas 77807-1107, and our telephone number is (979) 446-0027. Our website address is http://www.ibioinc.com. We make available free of charge on our website our annual, quarterly and current reports, including amendments to such reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish such material to, the SEC. Information on or accessed through our website is not incorporated into this prospectus or the accompanying base prospectus and is not a part of this prospectus or the accompanying base prospectus. Our common stock is listed on the NYSE American under the symbol “IBIO.” 

 

 

S-2

 

 

 

THE OFFERING

 

   

Common stock to be offered by us pursuant

to this prospectus 

Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000.
   

Common stock to be outstanding after

the offering 

Up to 239,841,561 shares (as more fully described in the notes following this table), assuming sales of 59,523,810 shares of our common stock, which is based on assumed sales of all $100,000,000 of shares of our common stock in this offering at an assumed offering price of $1.68 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE American on November 18, 2020. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.

   
Plan of Distribution “At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, Cantor Fitzgerald. See “Plan of Distribution” on page S-10 of this prospectus.
   
Use of Proceeds We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, for operating costs, including working capital needs and for other general corporate purposes including acquisitions and investments in other businesses. Pending these uses, we expect to invest the net proceeds in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments and U.S. government securities. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-7  of this prospectus.
   
Risk Factors You should read the “Risk Factors” section on page S-4  of this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of factors to consider before deciding to purchase shares of our common stock.
   

NYSE American

trading symbol

 

IBIO

 

The number of shares of our common stock that will be outstanding immediately after this offering as shown above is based on 180,317,751 shares outstanding as of September 30, 2020. The number of shares outstanding as of September 30, 2020 as used throughout this prospectus, unless otherwise indicated, excludes:

 

· 3,485,815 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options with a weighted average exercise price of $1.20 per share;
     
· 39,950 shares of our common stock issuable upon the vesting of certain outstanding restricted stock units; and
     
· 2,973,035 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans.

 

 

S-3

 

 

RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk, and you should be able to bear the complete loss of your investment. You should consider carefully the risks described below and those described under the section captioned “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2020, any subsequent Annual Reports on Form 10-K, any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus before deciding whether to purchase any of the shares of common stock being offered under this prospectus. If any of the risks actually occur, our business, consolidated financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected. In such case, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements made throughout this prospectus or the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus as a result of different factors, including the risks we face described below.

 

Risks Related to this Offering

 

Our management will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from this offering and may not use the proceeds effectively.

 

Our management will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from this offering. We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, for operating costs, including working capital needs and for other general corporate purposes including acquisitions and investments in other businesses. Our management will have considerable discretion in the application of the net proceeds, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately. The net proceeds, if any, may be used for corporate purposes that do not improve our operating results or enhance the value of our common stock. The failure of our management to use these funds effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, cause the market price of our common stock to decline and impair the commercialization of our products and/or delay the development of our product candidates. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments and U.S. government securities. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders.

 

If you purchase shares of our common stock sold in this offering, you may experience immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value of your shares. In addition, we may issue additional equity or convertible debt securities in the future, which may result in additional dilution to investors.

 

The price per share of our common stock being offered may be higher than the net tangible book value per share of our outstanding common stock prior to this offering, which may result in new investors in this offering will incur immediate dilution. To the extent outstanding stock options or warrants are exercised, there will be further dilution to new investors. See the section entitled “Dilution” below for a more detailed discussion of the dilution you will incur if you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering.

 

Our need for future financing may result in the issuance of additional securities which will cause investors to experience dilution.

 

Our cash requirements may vary from those now planned depending upon numerous factors, including the results of future research and development activities. We expect our expenses to increase if and when we initiate and conduct additional clinical trials, and seek marketing approval for our product candidates. In addition, if we obtain marketing approval for any of our product candidates, we expect to incur significant commercialization expenses related to product sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution. Accordingly, we will need to obtain substantial additional funding in connection with our continuing operations. There are no other commitments by any person for future financing. Our securities may be offered to other investors at a price lower than the price per share offered to current stockholders, or upon terms which may be deemed more favorable than those offered to current stockholders. In addition, the issuance of securities in any future financing may dilute an investor’s equity ownership and have the effect of depressing the market price for our securities, including shares of our common stock. Moreover, we may issue derivative securities, including options and/or warrants, from time to time, to procure qualified personnel or for other business reasons. The issuance of any such derivative securities, which is at the discretion of our board of directors, may further dilute the equity ownership of our stockholders.

 

We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares of our common stock or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering. No assurance can be given as to our ability to procure additional financing, if required, and on terms deemed favorable to us. To the extent additional capital is required and cannot be raised successfully, we may then have to limit our then current operations and/or may have to curtail certain, if not all, of our business objectives and plans.

 

S-4

 

 

Our stock price has fluctuated in the past, has recently been volatile and may be volatile in the future, and as a result, investors in our common stock could incur substantial losses.

 

Our stock price has fluctuated in the past, has recently been volatile and may be volatile in the future. In addition, the recent outbreak of COVID-19 has caused broad stock market and industry fluctuations, including a significant decline in our stock price. The stock market in general and the market for biotechnology companies in particular has experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, investors may experience losses on their investment in our common stock. The market price for our common stock may be influenced by many factors, including, but not limited to, the following:

 

investor reaction to our business strategy;
     
the success of competitive products or technologies;
     
results of clinical studies or future product candidates or those of our competitors;
     
regulatory or legal developments in the United States and other countries, especially changes in laws or regulations applicable to our products;
     
introductions and announcements of new products by us, results of clinical trials, our commercialization partners, or our competitors, and the timing of these introductions or announcements;
     
actions taken by regulatory agencies with respect to our products, clinical studies, manufacturing process or sales and marketing terms;
     
variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;
     
the success of our efforts to acquire or in-license additional products or product candidates;
     
developments concerning our collaborations;
     
announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;
     
developments or disputes concerning patents or other proprietary rights, including patents, litigation matters and our ability to obtain patent protection for our products;
     
our ability or inability to raise additional capital and the terms on which we raise it;
     
the recruitment or departure of key personnel;
     
market conditions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors;
     
declines in the market prices of stocks generally;
     
actual or anticipated changes in earnings estimates or changes in stock market analyst recommendations regarding our common stock, other comparable companies or our industry generally;
     
trading volume of our common stock;
     
sales of our common stock by us or our stockholders;
     
general economic, industry and market conditions;
     
other events or factors, including those resulting from such events, or the prospect of such events, including war, terrorism and other international conflicts, public health issues including health epidemics or pandemics, such as the recent outbreak of COVID-19, and natural disasters such as fire, hurricanes, earthquakes, tornados or other adverse weather and climate conditions, whether occurring in the United States or elsewhere, could disrupt our operations, disrupt the operations of our suppliers or result in political or economic instability; and
     
the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section and the “Risk Factors” sections included in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

S-5

 

 

These broad market and industry factors may seriously harm the market price of our common stock, regardless of our operating performance. Since the stock price of our common stock has fluctuated in the past, has been recently volatile and may be volatile in the future, investors in our common stock could incur substantial losses. In the past, following periods of volatility in the market, securities class-action litigation has often been instituted against companies. Such litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

 

We have additional securities available for issuance, which, if issued, could adversely affect the rights of the holders of our common stock.

 

Our certificate of incorporation, as amended, authorizes the issuance of 275,000,000 shares of our common stock and 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock. In certain circumstances, the common stock, as well as the awards available for issuance under our equity incentive plans, can be issued by our board of directors, without stockholder approval. Any future issuances of such stock would further dilute the percentage ownership of us held by holders of preferred stock and common stock. In addition, the issuance of certain securities, including pursuant to the terms of our stockholder rights plan, may be used as an “anti-takeover” device without further action on the part of our stockholders, and may adversely affect the holders of the common stock.

 

Resales of our common stock in the public market during this offering by our stockholders may cause the market price of our common stock to fall.

 

We may issue common stock from time to time in connection with this offering. This issuance from time to time of these new shares of our common stock, or our ability to issue these shares of common stock in this offering, could result in resales of our common stock by our current stockholders concerned about the potential dilution of their holdings. In turn, these resales could have the effect of depressing the market price for our common stock.

 

The actual number of shares we will issue under the equity distribution agreement, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.

 

Subject to certain limitations in the sales agreement with the sales agent and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver placement notices to the sales agent at any time throughout the term of the sales agreement. The number of shares that are sold by the sales agent after our delivering a placement notice will fluctuate based on the market price of the common stock during the sales period and limits we set with sales agents.

 

The shares of common stock offered under this prospectus may be sold in “at the market” offerings, and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.

 

Investors who purchase shares under this prospectus at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices, and numbers of shares sold, and there is no minimum or maximum sales price. Investors may experience declines in the value of their shares as a result of share sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.

 

S-6

 

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate gross proceeds of up to $100,000,000 from time to time under this prospectus. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. The amount of proceeds from this offering will depend upon the number of shares of our common stock sold and the market price at which they are sold. There can be no assurance that we will be able to sell any shares under or fully utilize the equity distribution agreement with the sales agent as a source of financing.

 

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering primarily for operating costs, including working capital needs and for other general corporate purposes including acquisitions and investments in other businesses. Pending these uses, we expect to invest the net proceeds in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments and U.S. government securities. We have broad discretion in determining how the proceeds of this offering will be used, and our discretion is not limited by the aforementioned possible uses. Our board of directors believes the flexibility in application of the net proceeds is prudent.

 

As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to be received from this offering. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures will depend on numerous factors including the progress in, and costs of, our clinical trials and other preclinical development programs and the amount of funding, if any, received from grants. Accordingly, our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds, and investors will be relying on the judgment of management regarding the application of the net proceeds from the offering. We may find it necessary or advisable to reallocate the net proceeds of this offering; however, any such reallocation would be substantially limited to the categories set forth above as we do not intend to use the net proceeds for other purposes. Pending such uses set forth above, we plan to invest the net proceeds in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments and U.S. government securities.

 

S-7

 

 

DIVIDEND POLICY

 

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock and we do not currently intend to pay any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. We expect to retain all available funds and future earnings, if any, to fund the development and growth of our business. Any future determination to pay dividends, if any, on our common stock will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other factors, the terms of any outstanding preferred stock, our results of operations, financial condition, capital requirements and contractual restrictions.

 

S-8

 

 

DILUTION

 

Purchasers of common stock in this offering will experience immediate dilution to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share of common stock, and the net tangible book value per share of common stock immediately after this offering.

 

Our net tangible book value as of September 30, 2020 was approximately $78,806,000, or $0.44 per share. Net tangible book value per share is determined by dividing our total tangible assets, less total liabilities, by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2020. Dilution with respect to net tangible book value per share represents the difference between the amount per share paid by purchasers of shares of common stock in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.

 

Our pro forma net tangible book value as of September 30, 2020 was approximately $81,832,000, or $0.45 per share after giving effect to our receipt of net proceeds of $3,026,257 from our sale of 1,790,335 shares of our common stock to pursuant to our prior equity distribution agreement subsequent to September 30, 2020.

 

After giving effect to the sale of 59,523,810 shares of our common stock in this offering at an assumed offering price of $1.68 per share (which was the closing price of our common stock on November 18, 2020) and after deducting estimated offering commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value as of September 30, 2020 would have been approximately $179,377,000, or $0.74 per share. This represents an immediate increase in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value of $0.29 per share to existing stockholders and an immediate dilution of $0.94 per share to new investors purchasing securities in this offering.

 

The following table illustrates this per share dilution:

 

Assumed public offering price per share of common stock           $ 1.68  
        Pro Forma net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2020   $ 0.45          
        Increase in pro forma net tangible book value per share attributable to this offering   $ 0.29          
Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2020, after giving effect to this offering           $ 0.74  
Dilution per share to new investors purchasing our common stock in this offering           $ 0.94  

 

The table and discussion above are based on 180,317,751 shares of common stock issued and outstanding as of September 30, 2020 and excludes as of that date:

 

· 3,485,815 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options with a weighted average exercise price of $1.20 per share;
     
· 2,973,035 additional shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans; and
     
· 39,950 shares of our common stock issued subsequent to September 30, 2020 in connection with the vesting of certain restricted stock units.

 

To the extent that any outstanding options are exercised, new options or shares of restricted stock are issued under our equity incentive plans, or we otherwise issue additional shares of common stock in the future, at a price less than the public offering price, there will be further dilution to the investors. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.

 

S-9

 

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We have entered into the Sales Agreement Cantor Fitzgerald under which we may offer and sell shares of our common stock. Pursuant to this prospectus, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $100,000,000 from time to time through Cantor Fitzgerald acting as agent.  A copy of our Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement that we entered into with Cantor Fitzgerald is filed with the SEC as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

Upon delivery of a placement notice and subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement, Cantor Fitzgerald may offer and sell shares of our common stock by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act. We may instruct Cantor Fitzgerald not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us from time to time. We or Cantor Fitzgerald may suspend the offering of common stock upon notice and subject to other conditions.

 

We will pay Cantor Fitzgerald commissions, in cash, for its services in acting as agent in the sale of our common stock. Cantor Fitzgerald is entitled to compensation at a commission rate of up to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold under the Sales Agreement. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. We have also agreed to reimburse Cantor Fitzgerald for certain specified expenses, including the reasonable and documented fees and disbursements of its legal counsel in an amount not to exceed $50,000. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering under this prospectus, excluding compensation and reimbursements payable to Cantor Fitzgerald under the terms of the Sales Agreement, will be approximately $145,000.

 

Settlement for sales of shares of common stock will occur on the second business day following the date on which any sales are made, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and Cantor Fitzgerald in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. Sales of our common stock as contemplated in this prospectus will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and Cantor Fitzgerald may agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

Cantor Fitzgerald will use its commercially reasonable efforts, consistent with its sales and trading practices, to solicit offers to purchase the shares of common stock under the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Sales Agreement. In connection with the sale of the shares of common stock on our behalf, Cantor Fitzgerald will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Cantor Fitzgerald will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Cantor Fitzgerald (and its partners, members, directors, officers, employees and agents) against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

The offering of shares of our common stock pursuant to the Sales Agreement will terminate upon the termination or expiration of the Sales Agreement as permitted therein. We and Cantor Fitzgerald may each terminate the Sales Agreement at any time upon ten days’ prior notice.

 

Cantor Fitzgerald and its affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking, commercial banking and other financial services for us, our subsidiaries and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees. To the extent required by Regulation M, Cantor Fitzgerald will not engage in any market making activities involving our common stock while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus.

 

This prospectus in electronic format may be made available on a website maintained by Cantor Fitzgerald and Cantor Fitzgerald may distribute this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus electronically.

 

S-10

 

 

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

The validity of the shares of common stock offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Gracin & Marlow, LLP, New York, New York. Certain legal matters relating to this offering will be passed upon for us by Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland. Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. is being represented in connection with this offering by Cooley LLP, New York, New York.

 

EXPERTS

 

The consolidated financial statements of iBio, Inc. and Subsidiaries as of June 30, 2020 and 2019, and for the years then ended, incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, have been audited by CohnReznick LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. Neither we nor any agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized any person to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus.

 

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Additional information about us is contained at our website, www.ibioinc.com. Information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We make available on our website our SEC filings as soon as reasonably practicable after those reports are filed with the SEC. The following Corporate Governance documents are also posted on our website: Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, Insider Trading Policy and the Charters for the Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee of the board of directors.

 

Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference

  

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information that we have filed with it, meaning we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents already on file with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus and the accompanying base prospectus except for any information that is superseded by other information that is included in this prospectus or the accompanying base prospectus.

 

This filing incorporates by reference the following documents, which we have previously filed with the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act (other than Current Reports on Form 8-K, or portions thereof, furnished under Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K):

 

  · Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2020, which was filed with the SEC on October 13, 2020 and Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the year ended June 30, 2020, which was filed with the SEC on October 27, 2020 (Commission File No. 333-233504);
     
  · Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended September 30, 2020, which was filed with the SEC on November 16, 2020 (Commission File No. 333-233504);
     
  · Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on July 9, 2020, July 29, 2020 and August 13, 2020, October 2, 2020, October 5, 2020, October 9, 2020, October 13, 2020, October 16, 2020, October 22, 2020, November 3, 2020 and November 24, 2020 (Commission File No. 333-233504);
     
  · Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed with the SEC on November 3, 2020, as amended on November 6, 2020 (Commission File No. 001-35023); and
     
  · The description of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share, included (i) under the caption “Description of Securities” in the Prospectus forming a part of Amendment No. 2 to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-1, filed with the SEC on October 24, 2019 (File No. 333-233504) and (ii) in Exhibit 4.9 to the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on October 13, 2020.

 

S-11

 

 

We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus all documents (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) on or after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, or (ii) on or after the date of this prospectus but prior to the termination of this offering. These documents include periodic reports, such as Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K.

 

We will provide, without charge, to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus and the accompanying base prospectus are delivered, on the written or oral request of such person, a copy of any or all of the reports or documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus and the accompanying base prospectus, but not delivered with this prospectus and the accompanying base prospectus. Any request may be made by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

 

iBio, Inc.

Attention: Investor Relations

8800 HSC Parkway

Bryan, Texas 77807-1107
(979) 446-0027

ir@ibioinc.com

 

You may also access the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the accompanying base prospectus at our website address at https://ir.ibioinc.com/sec-filings. The other information and content contained on or linked from our website are not part of this prospectus or the accompanying base prospectus.

 

Any statement contained in this prospectus or contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any subsequently filed supplement to this prospectus, or document deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus, modifies or supersedes such statement.

 

S-12

 

 

 

 

 

Up to $100,000,000

 

Common Stock

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 

 

, 2020

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

 

The following table sets forth the estimated fees and expenses payable by the Company in connection with the registration of the securities registered hereby:

 

SEC registration fee   $ 21,820  
Trustee’s and transfer agent’s fees       (1)
Printing expenses       (1)
Legal fees and expenses       (1)
Accounting fees and expenses       (1)
Stock exchange listing fees       (1)
Rating agency fees       (1)
Miscellaneous       (1)
Total   $   (1)

______________

(1) These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and, accordingly, cannot be estimated at this time.

 

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.
       

Our certificate of incorporation requires us to indemnify our officers and directors to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law, which generally permits indemnification for actions taken by officers or directors as our representatives if the officer or director acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in the best interest of the corporation. We have entered into indemnification agreements with our officers and directors to specify the terms of our indemnification obligations. In general, these indemnification agreements provide that we will:

 

  ·

indemnify our directors and officers to the fullest extent now permitted under current law and to the extent the law later is amended to increase the scope of permitted indemnification;

 

  ·

advance payment of expenses to a director or officer incurred in connection with an indemnifiable claim, subject to repayment if it is later determined that the director or officer was not entitled to be indemnified;

 

  ·

reimburse the director or officer for any expenses incurred by the director or officer in seeking to enforce the indemnification agreement; and

 

  · have the opportunity to participate in the defense of any indemnifiable claims against the director or officer.

 

As permitted under Delaware law, our bylaws contain a provision indemnifying directors, officers, employee or agent of ours against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by them in connection with an action, suit or proceeding if they acted in good faith and in a manner they reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of us, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe their conduct was unlawful.

  

The separation and distribution agreement that we have entered into with Integrated BioPharma provides for indemnification by us of Integrated BioPharma and its directors, officers and employees for some liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 in connection with the distribution, and a mutual indemnification of each other for product liability claims arising from their respective businesses, and also requires that we indemnify Integrated BioPharma for various liabilities of iBio, and for any tax that may be imposed with respect to the distribution and which result from our actions or omissions in that regard.

 

II-1

 

 

Item 16. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

Exhibits filed with this Registration Statement on Form S-3 or incorporated by reference from other filings are as follows:

 

Exhibit Number   Description
1.1*   Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement by and between iBio, Inc. and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., dated November 25, 2020
     
1.2**   Form of Underwriting Agreement
     
3.1   Certificate of Incorporation of iBio, Inc., Certificate of Merger, Certificate of Ownership and Merger, Certificate of Amendment of the Certificate of Incorporation (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 11, 2018 - File No. 001-35023))
     
3.2   Certificate of Amendment of the Certificate of Incorporation of iBio, Inc. (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 14, 2018 - File No. 001-35023)
     
3.3   Certificate of Amendment of the Certificate of Incorporation of iBio, Inc. (incorporated herein by reference to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on June 8, 2018 - File No. 001-35023)
     
3.4   First Amended and Restated Bylaws of iBio, Inc. (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 14, 2009 - File No. 000-53125)
     
3.5   Certificate of Designation, Preferences and Rights of the iBio CMO Preferred Tracking Stock of iBio, Inc. (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 24, 2017 - File No. 001-35023)
     
3.6   Certificate of Designation, Preferences and Rights of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock of iBio, Inc. (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 27, 2018 - File No. 001-35023)
     
3.7   Certificate of Designation, Preferences and Rights of the Series B Convertible Preferred Stock of iBio, Inc. (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 27, 2018 - File No. 001-35023)
     
3.8   Certificate of Designation, Preferences and Rights of the Series C Convertible Preferred Stock of iBio, Inc. (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on October 29, 2019 - File No. 001-35023)
     
4.1   Form of Common Stock Certificate (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Company’s Form 10-12G filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 11, 2008 - Commission File No. 000-53125)

 

II-2

 

 

4.2   Registration Rights Agreement, dated July 24, 2017, between the Company and Lincoln Park Capital Fund, LLC (Incorporated herein by reference to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on July 24, 2017 - Commission File No. 001-35023)
     
4.3   Registration Rights Agreement, dated March 19, 2020, between the Company and Lincoln Park Capital Fund, LLC (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 20, 2020 - File No. 001-35023)
     
4.4   Form of Series A Warrant to Purchase Common Stock (incorporated herein by reference to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on October 28, 2019 - Commission File No. 001-35023)
     
4.5   Form of Amended and Restated Series A Warrant to Purchase Common Stock (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 4.1 the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 21, 2020 - File No. 001-35023)
     
4.6   Form of Series B Warrant to Purchase Common Stock (Incorporated herein by reference to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on October 28, 2019 - Commission File No. 001-35023)
     
4.7   Form of Amended and Restated Series B Warrant to Purchase Common Stock (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on February 21, 2020 - File No. 001-35023)
     
4.8**   Certificate of Designation, Preferences and Rights of Preferred Stock
     
4.9**   Form of Warrant
     
4.10*   Form of Indenture
     
4.11**   Form of Debt Security
     
4.12**   Form of Unit Agreement, including form of Unit
     
5.1*   Opinion of Gracin & Marlow, LLP
     
23.1*   Consent of CohnReznick LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
     
23.2*   Consent of Gracin & Marlow, LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)
     
24.1*   Powers of Attorney (included on signature page to this Registration Statement)
     
25.1***   Statement of Eligibility and Qualification on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended

 _______________

*   Filed herewith.

**

***

 

To be filed by amendment pursuant to a report to be filed pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, if applicable, and incorporated herein by reference.

To be filed, if applicable, in accordance with the requirements of Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and Rule 5b-3 thereunder.

 

 

Item 17.    Undertakings.

 

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

  (i) To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

 

II-3

 

 

  (ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

  (iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

 

provided, however, that the undertakings set forth in paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement or are contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of this registration statement.

 

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

 

  (i) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

  (ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

  (i) any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

  (ii) any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

II-4

 

 

  (iii) the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

  (iv) any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(6) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(7) To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue

 

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SIGNATURES

  

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of New York, State of New York, November 25, 2020.

 

     
  IBIO, INC.
     
  By:  /s/ Thomas F. Isett
    Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
    (Principal Executive Officer)

 

POWER OF ATTORNEY

 

Each of the undersigned, whose signature appears below, hereby constitutes and appoints Thomas F. Isett and John Delta, and each of them, his true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him and in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any or all amendments to this registration statement, and any subsequent registration statement filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 462(b) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, which relates to this Registration Statement, and to file the same with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or his or their substitute or substitutes, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing necessary or appropriate to be done with respect to this registration statement or any amendments hereto in the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or any of them, or his or their substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue thereof.

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the Registrant, iBio, Inc., in the capacities and on the date indicated.

 

         
Signature   Title   Date
         
/s/ Thomas F. Isett  

Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

(Principal Executive Officer)

  November 25, 2020
Thomas F. Isett        
         
/s/ John Delta   Acting Chief Financial Officer   November 25, 2020
John Delta   (Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer)    
         
/s/ Robert B. Kay   Director   November 25, 2020
Robert B. Kay        
         
/s/ James T. Hill   Director   November 25, 2020
General James T. Hill (Ret.)        
         
/s/ Glenn Chang   Director   November 25, 2020
Glenn Chang        
         
/s/ John D. McKey, Jr.   Director    November 25, 2020
John D. McKey, Jr.        
         
/s/ Seymour Flug   Director   November 25, 2020
Seymour Flug        
         
/s/ Linda W. Armstrong, M.D.   Director   November 25, 2020
Linda W. Armstrong, M.D.        
         
/s/ Alexandra Kropotova   Director   November 25, 2020
Alexandra Kropotova        
         
/s/ Gary Sender   Director   November 25, 2020
Gary Sender        

 

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EXHIBIT 1.1

IBIO, INC.
Shares of Common Stock

(par value $0.001 per share)

 

Controlled Equity OfferingSM

 

Sales Agreement

 

November 25, 2020

 

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

499 Park Avenue

New York, NY 10022

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

iBio, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. (the “Agent”), as follows:

 

1.                  Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through the Agent, shares of common stock (the “Placement Shares”) of the Company, par value $0.001 per share (the “Common Stock”); provided, however, that in no event shall the Company issue or sell through the Agent such number or dollar amount of Placement Shares that would (a) exceed the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock registered on the effective Registration Statement (defined below) pursuant to which the offering is being made, (b) exceed the number of authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock (less shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise, conversion or exchange of any outstanding securities of the Company or otherwise reserved from the Company’s authorized capital stock), (c) exceed the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock permitted to be sold under Form S-3 (including General Instruction I.B.6 thereof, if applicable) or (d) exceed the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock for which the Company has filed a Prospectus Supplement (defined below) (the lesser of (a), (b), (c) and (d), the “Maximum Amount”). Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitations set forth in this Section 1 on the amount of Placement Shares issued and sold under this Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company and that the Agent shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The offer and sale of Placement Shares through the Agent will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) filed by the Company and which will be declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement to issue Common Stock.

 

 

 

 

The Company has filed or will file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “Securities Act Regulations”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and the rules and regulations thereunder. The Company has prepared a prospectus or a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus included as part of the registration statement, which prospectus or prospectus supplement relates to the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company (the “Prospectus Supplement”). The Company will furnish to the Agent, for use by the Agent, copies of the prospectus included as part of such registration statement, as supplemented, by the Prospectus Supplement, relating to the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company. The Company may file one or more additional registration statements from time to time that will contain a base prospectus and related prospectus or prospectus supplement, if applicable (which shall be a Prospectus Supplement), with respect to the Placement Shares. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement(s), including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act Regulations or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B of the Securities Act Regulations, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The base prospectus or base prospectuses, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented, if necessary, by the Prospectus Supplement, in the form in which such prospectus or prospectuses and/or Prospectus Supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act Regulations, together with the then issued Issuer Free Writing Prospectus(es) (as defined below), is herein called the “Prospectus.”

 

Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, any Prospectus Supplement, Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents, if any, incorporated by reference therein (the “Incorporated Documents”), including, unless the context otherwise requires, the documents, if any, filed as exhibits to such Incorporated Documents. Any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement, any Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing of any document under the Exchange Act on or after the most-recent effective date of the Registration Statement, or the date of the Prospectus Supplement, Prospectus or such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, as the case may be, and incorporated therein by reference. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include the most recent copy filed with the Commission pursuant to its Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval system, or if applicable, the Interactive Data Electronic Application system when used by the Commission (collectively, “EDGAR”).

 

2.                  Placements. Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell Placement Shares hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify the Agent by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to by the parties) of the number of Placement Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made (a “Placement Notice”), the form of which is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 3 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from the Agent set forth on Schedule 3, as such Schedule 3 may be amended from time to time. The Placement Notice shall be effective unless and until (i) the Agent declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, within two (2) Business Days (as defined below) of receipt of such Placement Notice, (ii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares thereunder have been sold, (iii) the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice or (iv) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 12. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to Agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 2. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor the Agent will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to the Agent and the Agent does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.

 

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3.                  Sale of Placement Shares by Agent. Subject to the provisions of Section 5(a), the Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the NYSE American (the “Exchange”), to sell the Placement Shares up to the amount specified, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice. The Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number of Placement Shares sold on such day, the compensation payable by the Company to the Agent pursuant to Section 2 with respect to such sales, and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company, with an itemization of the deductions made by the Agent (as set forth in Section 5(b)) from the gross proceeds that it receives from such sales. Subject to the terms of the Placement Notice, the Agent may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act Regulations, including sales made directly on or through the Exchange or any other existing trading market for the Common Stock, in negotiated transactions at market prices prevailing at the time of sale or at prices related to such prevailing market prices and/or any other method permitted by law. “Trading Day” means any day on which Common Stock is traded on the Exchange.

 

4.                  Suspension of Sales. The Company or the Agent may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 3, as such Schedule may be amended from time to time, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 3), suspend any sale of Placement Shares (a “Suspension”); provided, however, that such Suspension shall not affect or impair any party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. While a Suspension is in effect any obligation under Sections 7(l), 7(m), and 7(n) with respect to the delivery of certificates, opinions, or comfort letters to the Agent, shall be waived. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against any other party unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 3 hereto, as such Schedule may be amended from time to time. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Company is in possession of material non-public information, the Company and the Agent agree that (i) no sale of Placement Shares will take place, (ii) the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Shares, and (iii) the Agent shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Placement Shares.

 

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5.                  Sale and Delivery to the Agent; Settlement.

 

(a)               Sale of Placement Shares. On the basis of the representations and warranties herein contained and subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Agent’s acceptance of the terms of a Placement Notice, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, the Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations to sell such Placement Shares up to the amount specified, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that the Agent will be successful in selling Placement Shares, (ii) the Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by the Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Agreement and (iii) the Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise agreed by the Agent and the Company.

 

(b)               Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date”). The Agent shall notify the Company of each sale of Placement Shares no later than the opening of the Trading Day immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder. The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by the Agent, after deduction for (i) the Agent’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, and (ii) any transaction fees imposed by any Governmental Authority in respect of such sales.

 

(c)               Delivery of Placement Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Placement Shares being sold by crediting the Agent’s or its designee’s account (provided the Agent shall have given the Company written notice of such designee at least one Trading Day prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, the Agent will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date. The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver Placement Shares on a Settlement Date, the Company agrees that in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 10(a) hereto, it will (i) hold the Agent harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or expense (including reasonable legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable) and (ii) pay to the Agent any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.

 

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(d)               Denominations; Registration. Certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, shall be in such denominations and registered in such names as the Agent may request in writing at least one full Business Day (as defined below) before the Settlement Date. The certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, will be made available by the Company for examination and packaging by the Agent in The City of New York not later than noon (New York time) on the Business Day prior to the Settlement Date.

 

(e)               Limitations on Offering Size. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares if, after giving effect to the sale of such Placement Shares, the aggregate gross sales proceeds of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement would exceed the lesser of (A) together with all sales of Placement Shares under this Agreement, the Maximum Amount and (B) the amount authorized from time to time to be issued and sold under this Agreement by the Company’s board of directors, a duly authorized committee thereof or a duly authorized executive committee, and notified to the Agent in writing. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement at a price lower than the minimum price authorized from time to time by the Company’s board of directors, a duly authorized committee thereof or a duly authorized executive committee. Further, under no circumstances shall the Company cause or permit the aggregate offering amount of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement to exceed the Maximum Amount.

 

6.                  Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with Agent that as of the date of this Agreement and as of each Applicable Time (as defined below):

 

(a)               Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement meet the requirements for and comply with the applicable conditions set forth in Form S-3 (including General Instructions I.A and I.B) under the Securities Act. The Registration Statement has been or will be filed with the Commission and will be declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act prior to the issuance of any Placement Notices by the Company. The Prospectus Supplement will name the Agent as the agent in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution.” The Company has not received, and has no notice of, any order of the Commission preventing or suspending the use of the Registration Statement, or threatening or instituting proceedings for that purpose. The Registration Statement and the offer and sale of Placement Shares as contemplated hereby meet the requirements of Rule 415 under the Securities Act and comply in all material respects with said Rule. Any statutes, regulations, contracts or other documents that are required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement have been so described or filed. Copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, and any such amendments or supplements and all documents incorporated by reference therein that were filed with the Commission on or prior to the date of this Agreement have been delivered, or are available through EDGAR, to Agent and its counsel. The Company has not distributed and, prior to the later to occur of each Settlement Date and completion of the distribution of the Placement Shares, will not distribute any offering material in connection with the offering or sale of the Placement Shares other than the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (as defined below) to which the Agent has consented. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act and is currently listed on the Exchange under the trading symbol “IBIO.” The Company has taken no action designed to, or likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act, delisting the Common Stock from the Exchange, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or the Exchange is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. To the Company’s knowledge, it is in compliance with all applicable listing requirements of the Exchange.

 

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(b)               No Misstatement or Omission. The Registration Statement, when it became or becomes effective, and the Prospectus, and any amendment or supplement thereto, on the date of such Prospectus or amendment or supplement, conformed and will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act. At each Settlement Date, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as of such date, will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act. The Registration Statement, when it became or becomes effective, did not, and will not, contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The Prospectus and any amendment and supplement thereto, on the date thereof and at each Applicable Time (defined below), did not or will not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The documents incorporated by reference in the Prospectus or any Prospectus Supplement did not, and any further documents filed and incorporated by reference therein will not, when filed with the Commission, contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated in such document or necessary to make the statements in such document, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The foregoing shall not apply to statements in, or omissions from, any such document made in reliance upon, and in conformity with, information furnished to the Company by Agent specifically for use in the preparation thereof.

 

(c)               Conformity with Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto, and the documents incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto, when such documents were or are filed with the Commission under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or became or become effective under the Securities Act, as the case may be, conformed or will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable.

 

(d)               Financial Information. The consolidated financial statements of the Company included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, together with the related notes and schedules, present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company and the Subsidiaries (as defined below) as of the dates indicated and the consolidated results of operations, cash flows and changes in stockholders’ equity of the Company for the periods specified (subject to normal year-end adjustments) and have been prepared in compliance with the requirements of the Securities Act and Exchange Act and in conformity with GAAP (as defined below) applied on a consistent basis during the periods involved; the other financial and statistical data with respect to the Company and the Subsidiaries (as defined below) contained or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, are accurately and fairly presented and prepared on a basis consistent with the financial statements and books and records of the Company; there are no financial statements (historical or pro forma) that are required to be included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, or the Prospectus that are not included or incorporated by reference as required; the Company and the Subsidiaries (as defined below) do not have any material liabilities or obligations, direct or contingent (including any off-balance sheet obligations), not described in the Registration Statement (excluding the exhibits thereto) and the Prospectus; and all disclosures contained or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, regarding “non-GAAP financial measures” (as such term is defined by the rules and regulations of the Commission) comply in all material respects with Regulation G of the Exchange Act and Item 10 of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act, to the extent applicable. The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

 

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(e)               Conformity with EDGAR Filing. The Prospectus delivered to Agent for use in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement will be identical to the versions of the Prospectus created to be transmitted to the Commission for filing via EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T.

 

(f)                Organization. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries are duly organized, validly existing as a corporation and in good standing under the laws of their respective jurisdictions of organization. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries are duly licensed or qualified as a foreign corporation for transaction of business and in good standing under the laws of each other jurisdiction in which their respective ownership or lease of property or the conduct of their respective businesses requires such license or qualification, and have all corporate power and authority necessary to own or hold their respective properties and to conduct their respective businesses as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing or have such power or authority would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect or would reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on or affecting the assets, business, operations, earnings, properties, condition (financial or otherwise), prospects, stockholders’ equity or results of operations of the Company and the Subsidiaries taken as a whole, or prevent or materially interfere with consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby (a “Material Adverse Effect”).

 

(g)               Subsidiaries. The subsidiaries set forth on Schedule 4 (collectively, the “Subsidiaries”), are the Company’s only significant subsidiaries (as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated by the Commission). Except as set forth in the Registration Statement and in the Prospectus, the Company owns, directly or indirectly, all of the equity interests of the Subsidiaries free and clear of any lien, charge, security interest, encumbrance, right of first refusal or other restriction, and all the equity interests of the Subsidiaries are validly issued and are fully paid, nonassessable and free of preemptive and similar rights. Other than iBio CDMO LLC, no Subsidiary is currently prohibited, directly or indirectly, from paying any dividends to the Company, from making any other distribution on such Subsidiary’s capital stock, from repaying to the Company any loans or advances to such Subsidiary from the Company or from transferring any of such Subsidiary’s property or assets to the Company or any other Subsidiary of the Company.

 

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(h)               No Violation or Default. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is (i) in violation of its charter or by-laws or similar organizational documents; (ii) in default, and no event has occurred that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute such a default, in the due performance or observance of any term, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries are subject; or (iii) in violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any Governmental Authority, except, in the case of each of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such violation or default that would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. To the Company’s knowledge, no other party under any material contract or other agreement to which it or any of its Subsidiaries is a party is in default in any respect thereunder where such default would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(i)                 No Material Adverse Change. Subsequent to the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Free Writing Prospectuses, if any (including any document deemed incorporated by reference therein), there has not been (i) any Material Adverse Effect or the occurrence of any development that the Company reasonably expects will result in a Material Adverse Effect, (ii) any transaction which is material to the Company and the Subsidiaries taken as a whole, (iii) any obligation or liability, direct or contingent (including any off-balance sheet obligations), incurred by the Company or any Subsidiary, which is material to the Company and the Subsidiaries taken as a whole, (iv) any material change in the capital stock or outstanding long-term indebtedness of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or (v) any dividend or distribution of any kind declared, paid or made on the capital stock of the Company or any Subsidiary, other than in each case above in the ordinary course of business or as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement or Prospectus (including any document deemed incorporated by reference therein).

 

(j)                 Capitalization. The issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company have been validly issued, are fully paid and nonassessable and, other than as disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, are not subject to any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or similar rights. The Company has an authorized, issued and outstanding capitalization as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as of the dates referred to therein (other than the grant of additional options under the Company’s existing stock option plans, or changes in the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock of the Company due to the issuance of shares upon the exercise or conversion of securities exercisable for, or convertible into, Common Stock outstanding on the date hereof) and such authorized capital stock conforms to the description thereof set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. The description of the securities of the Company in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus is complete and accurate in all material respects. Except as disclosed in or contemplated by the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as of the date referred to therein, the Company does not have outstanding any options to purchase, or any rights or warrants to subscribe for, or any securities or obligations convertible into, or exchangeable for, or any contracts or commitments to issue or sell, any shares of capital stock or other securities.

 

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(k)               Authorization; Enforceability. The Company has full legal right, power and authority to enter into this Agreement and perform the transactions contemplated hereby. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and is a legal, valid and binding agreement of the Company enforceable in accordance with its terms, except to the extent that enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally and by general equitable principles.

 

(l)                 Authorization of Placement Shares. The Placement Shares, when issued and delivered pursuant to the terms approved by the board of directors of the Company or a duly authorized committee thereof, or a duly authorized executive committee, against payment therefor as provided herein, will be duly and validly authorized and issued and fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of any pledge, lien, encumbrance, security interest or other claim, including any statutory or contractual preemptive rights, resale rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights, and will be registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act. The Placement Shares, when issued, will conform in all material respects to the description thereof set forth in or incorporated into the Prospectus.

 

(m)             No Consents Required. No consent, approval, authorization, order, registration or qualification of or with any Governmental Authority is required for the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement, the issuance and sale by the Company of the Placement Shares, except for such consents, approvals, authorizations, orders and registrations or qualifications as may be required under applicable state securities laws or by the by-laws and rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) or the Exchange in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares by the Agent.

 

(n)               No Preferential Rights. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (i) no person, as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated under the Securities Act (each, a “Person”), has the right, contractual or otherwise, to cause the Company to issue or sell to such Person any Common Stock or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company, (ii) no Person has any preemptive rights, resale rights, rights of first refusal, rights of co-sale, or any other rights (whether pursuant to a “poison pill” provision or otherwise) to purchase any Common Stock or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company, (iii)  no Person has the right to act as an underwriter or as a financial advisor to the Company in connection with the offer and sale of the Common Stock, and (iv) no Person has the right, contractual or otherwise, to require the Company to register under the Securities Act any Common Stock or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company, or to include any such shares or other securities in the Registration Statement or the offering contemplated thereby, whether as a result of the filing or effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated thereby or otherwise.

 

(o)               Independent Public Accounting Firm. CohnReznick LLP (the “Accountant”), whose report on the consolidated financial statements of the Company is filed with the Commission as part of the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Commission and incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, are and, during the periods covered by their report, were an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). To the Company’s knowledge, the Accountant is not in violation of the auditor independence requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) with respect to the Company.

 

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(p)               Enforceability of Agreements. All agreements between the Company and third parties expressly referenced in the Prospectus are legal, valid and binding obligations of the Company enforceable in accordance with their respective terms, except to the extent that (i) enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally and by general equitable principles and (ii) the indemnification provisions of certain agreements may be limited by federal or state securities laws or public policy considerations in respect thereof.

 

(q)               No Litigation. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, there are no actions, suits or proceedings by or before any Governmental Authority pending, nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any audits or investigations by or before any Governmental Authority, to which the Company or a Subsidiary is a party or to which any property of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is the subject that, individually or in the aggregate, if determined adversely to the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect or materially and adversely affect the ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement , to the Company’s knowledge, no such actions, suits, proceedings, audits or investigations are threatened or contemplated by any Governmental Authority or threatened by others; and (i) there are no current or pending audits, investigations, actions, suits or proceedings by or before any Governmental Authority that are required under the Securities Act to be described in the Prospectus that are not so described; and (ii) there are no contracts or other documents that are required under the Securities Act to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement that are not so filed.

 

(r)                Consents and Permits. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company and its Subsidiaries have made all filings, applications and submissions required by, possesses and is operating in compliance with, all approvals, licenses, certificates, certifications, clearances, consents, grants, exemptions, marks, notifications, orders, permits and other authorizations issued by, the appropriate federal, state or foreign Governmental Authority (including, without limitation, the United States Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”), the United States Drug Enforcement Administration or any other foreign, federal, state, provincial, court or local government or regulatory authorities including self-regulatory organizations engaged in the regulation of clinical trials, pharmaceuticals, biologics or biohazardous substances or materials) necessary for the ownership or lease of their respective properties or to conduct its businesses as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (collectively, “Permits”), except for such Permits the failure of which to possess, obtain or make the same would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; the Company and its Subsidiaries are in compliance with the terms and conditions of all such Permits, except where the failure to be in compliance would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; all of the Permits are valid and in full force and effect, except where any invalidity, individually or in the aggregate, would not be reasonably expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has received any written notice relating to the limitation, revocation, cancellation, suspension, modification or non-renewal of any such Permit which, singly or in the aggregate, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding, would have a Material Adverse Effect, or has any reason to believe that any such license, certificate, permit or authorization will not be renewed in the ordinary course. To the extent required by applicable laws and regulations of the FDA, the Company or the applicable Subsidiary has submitted to the FDA an Investigational New Drug Application or amendment or supplement thereto for each clinical trial it has conducted or sponsored or is conducting or sponsoring; all such submissions were in material compliance with applicable laws and rules and regulations when submitted and no material deficiencies have been asserted by the FDA with respect to any such submissions.

 

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(s)                Regulatory Filings. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has failed to file with the applicable Governmental Authorities (including, without limitation, the FDA, or any foreign, federal, state, provincial or local Governmental Authority performing functions similar to those performed by the FDA) any required filing, declaration, listing, registration, report or submission, except for such failures that, individually or in the aggregate, would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, all such filings, declarations, listings, registrations, reports or submissions were in compliance with applicable laws when filed and no deficiencies have been asserted by any applicable regulatory authority with respect to any such filings, declarations, listings, registrations, reports or submissions, except for any deficiencies that, individually or in the aggregate, would not have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company has operated and currently is, in all material respects, in compliance with the United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, all applicable rules and regulations of the FDA and other federal, state, local and foreign Governmental Authority exercising comparable authority. The Company has no knowledge of any studies, tests or trials not described in the Prospectus the results of which reasonably call into question in any material respect the results of the studies, tests and trials described in the Prospectus.

 

(t)                 Intellectual Property. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company and its Subsidiaries own or have obtained, valid and enforceable licenses for or otherwise has the rights to use all foreign and domestic patents, patent applications, trade and service marks, trade and service mark registrations, trade names, copyrights, licenses, inventions, trade secrets, technology, Internet domain names, know-how and other intellectual property (collectively, the “Intellectual Property”), necessary for the conduct of their respective businesses as now conducted except to the extent that the failure to own, possess, license or otherwise hold adequate rights to use such Intellectual Property would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (i) there are no rights of third parties to any such Intellectual Property owned by the Company and its Subsidiaries; (ii) to the Company’s knowledge, there is no infringement by third parties of any such Intellectual Property; (iii) there is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others challenging the Company’s and its Subsidiaries’ rights in or to any such Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which could form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim; (iv) there is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others challenging the validity or scope of any such Intellectual Property; (v) there is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others that the Company and its Subsidiaries infringe or otherwise violate any patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret or other proprietary rights of others; (vi) to the Company’s knowledge, there is no third-party U.S. patent or published U.S. patent application which contains claims for which an Interference Proceeding (as defined in 35 U.S.C. § 135) has been commenced against any patent or patent application described in the Prospectus as being owned by or licensed to the Company; and (vii) the Company and its Subsidiaries have complied with the terms of each agreement pursuant to which Intellectual Property has been licensed to the Company or such Subsidiary, and all such agreements are in full force and effect, except, in the case of any of clauses (i)-(vii) above, for any such infringement by third parties or any such pending or threatened suit, action, proceeding or claim as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(u)               Clinical Studies. The preclinical studies and tests and, if applicable, clinical trials described in the Prospectus were, and, if still pending, are being conducted in all material respects in accordance with the experimental protocols, procedures and controls pursuant to, where applicable, accepted professional and scientific standards for products or product candidates comparable to those being developed by the Company; the descriptions of such studies, tests and trials, and the results thereof, contained in the Prospectus are accurate and complete in all material respects; the Company is not aware of any tests, studies and trials not described in the Prospectus, the results of which reasonably call into question in any material respect the results of the tests, studies and trials described in the Prospectus; and the Company has not received any written notice or written correspondence from the FDA or any foreign, state or local Governmental Authority exercising comparable authority or any institutional review board or comparable authority requiring the termination, suspension, clinical hold or material modification of any tests, studies and trials, except as would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(v)               Market Capitalization. At the time the Registration Statement was or will be originally declared effective, and at the time the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K was filed with the Commission, the Company met or will meet the then applicable requirements for the use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act, including, but not limited to, General Instruction I.B.1 of Form S-3. The Company is not a shell company (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) and has not been a shell company for at least 12 calendar months previously and if it has been a shell company at any time previously, has filed current Form 10 information (as defined in Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3) with the Commission at least 12 calendar months previously reflecting its status as an entity that is not a shell company. The Company meets the definition of the term “experienced issuer” specified in FINRA Rule 5110(j)(6).

 

(w)             No Material Defaults. Neither the Company nor any of the Subsidiaries has defaulted on any installment on indebtedness for borrowed money or on any rental on one or more long-term leases, which defaults, individually or in the aggregate, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company has not filed a report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act since the filing of its last Annual Report on Form 10-K, indicating that it (i) has failed to pay any dividend or sinking fund installment on preferred stock or (ii) has defaulted on any installment on indebtedness for borrowed money or on any rental on one or more long-term leases, which defaults, individually or in the aggregate, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(x)               Certain Market Activities. Neither the Company, nor any of the Subsidiaries, nor to the Company’s knowledge, any of their respective directors, officers or controlling persons has taken, directly or indirectly, any action designed, or that has constituted or would reasonably be expected to cause or result in, under the Exchange Act or otherwise, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement Shares.

 

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(y)               Broker/Dealer Relationships. Neither the Company nor any of the Subsidiaries (i) is required to register as a “broker” or “dealer” in accordance with the provisions of the Exchange Act or (ii) directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is a “person associated with a member” or “associated person of a member” (within the meaning set forth in the FINRA Manual).

 

(z)               No Reliance. The Company has not relied upon the Agent or legal counsel for the Agent for any legal, tax or accounting advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares.

 

(aa)            Taxes. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries have filed all federal, state, local and foreign tax returns which have been required to be filed and paid all taxes shown thereon through the date hereof, to the extent that such taxes have become due and are not being contested in good faith, except where the failure to so file or pay would not have a Material Adverse Effect. Except as otherwise disclosed in or contemplated by the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, no tax deficiency has been determined adversely to the Company or any of its Subsidiaries which has had, or would reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect. The Company has no knowledge of any federal, state or other governmental tax deficiency, penalty or assessment which has been or might be asserted or threatened against it which would have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(bb)           Title to Real and Personal Property. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, the Company and its Subsidiaries have good and marketable title in fee simple to all items of real property owned by them, good and valid title to all personal property described in the Registration Statement or Prospectus as being owned by them that are material to the business of the Company or such Subsidiary, in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances and claims, except those matters that (i) do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and any of its Subsidiaries or (ii) would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. Any real or personal property described in the Registration Statement or Prospectus as being leased by the Company and any of its Subsidiaries is held by them under valid, existing and enforceable leases, except those that (A) do not materially interfere with the use made or proposed to be made of such property by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or (B) would not be reasonably expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. Each of the properties of the Company and its Subsidiaries complies with all applicable codes, laws and regulations (including, without limitation, building and zoning codes, laws and regulations and laws relating to access to such properties), except if and to the extent disclosed in the Registration Statement or Prospectus or except for such failures to comply that would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to interfere in any material respect with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and its Subsidiaries or otherwise have a Material Adverse Effect. None of the Company or its subsidiaries has received from any Governmental Authorities any notice of any condemnation of, or zoning change affecting, the properties of the Company and its Subsidiaries, and the Company knows of no such condemnation or zoning change which is threatened, except for such that would not reasonably be expected to interfere in any material respect with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and its Subsidiaries or otherwise have a Material Adverse Effect, individually or in the aggregate.

 

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(cc)            Environmental Laws. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, the Company and its Subsidiaries (i) are in compliance with any and all applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws, rules, regulations, decisions and orders relating to the protection of human health and safety, the environment or hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants (collectively, “Environmental Laws”); (ii) have received and are in compliance with all permits, licenses or other approvals required of them under applicable Environmental Laws to conduct their respective businesses as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; and (iii) have not received notice of any actual or potential liability for the investigation or remediation of any disposal or release of hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants, except, in the case of any of clauses (i), (ii) or (iii) above, for any such failure to comply or failure to receive required permits, licenses, other approvals or liability as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(dd)           Disclosure Controls. Except as set forth in the Prospectus, the Company and each of its Subsidiaries maintain systems of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles and to maintain asset accountability; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. The Company’s internal control over financial reporting is effective and the Company is not aware of any material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting (other than as set forth in the Prospectus). Except as set forth in the Prospectus, since the date of the latest audited financial statements of the Company included in the Prospectus, there has been no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (other than as set forth in the Prospectus). The Company has established disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15 and 15d-15) for the Company and designed such disclosure controls and procedures to ensure that material information relating to the Company and each of its Subsidiaries is made known to the certifying officers by others within those entities, particularly during the period in which the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K or Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as the case may be, is being prepared. The Company’s certifying officers have evaluated the effectiveness of the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures as of a date within 90 days prior to the filing date of the Form 10-K for the fiscal year most recently ended (such date, the Evaluation Date”). The Company presented in its Form 10-K for the fiscal year most recently ended the conclusions of the certifying officers about the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures based on their evaluations as of the Evaluation Date and the disclosure controls and procedures are not effective. Since the Evaluation Date, there have been no significant changes in the Company’s internal controls (as such term is defined in Item 307(b) of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act) or, to the Company’s knowledge, in other factors that could significantly affect the Company’s internal controls.

 

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(ee)            Sarbanes-Oxley. There is and has been no failure on the part of the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply in all material respects with any applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. Each of the principal executive officer and the principal financial officer of the Company (or each former principal executive officer of the Company and each former principal financial officer of the Company as applicable) has made all certifications required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act with respect to all reports, schedules, forms, statements and other documents required to be filed by it or furnished by it to the Commission. For purposes of the preceding sentence, “principal executive officer” and “principal financial officer” shall have the meanings given to such terms in the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

 

(ff)              Finder’s Fees. Neither the Company nor any of the Subsidiaries has incurred any liability for any finder’s fees, brokerage commissions or similar payments in connection with the transactions herein contemplated, except as may otherwise exist with respect to Agent pursuant to this Agreement.

 

(gg)           Labor Disputes. No labor disturbance by or dispute with employees of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is threatened which would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(hh)           Investment Company Act. Neither the Company nor any of the Subsidiaries is or, after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Placement Shares, will be an “investment company” or an entity “controlled” by an “investment company,” as such terms are defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”).

 

(ii)              Operations. The operations of the Company and its Subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with applicable financial record keeping and reporting requirements of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, the money laundering statutes of all jurisdictions to which the Company or its Subsidiaries are subject, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any Governmental Authority (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”); and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any Governmental Authority involving the Company or any of its Subsidiaries with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.

 

(jj)              Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements. There are no transactions, arrangements and other relationships between and/or among the Company and/or any of its affiliates and any unconsolidated entity, including, but not limited to, any structured finance, special purpose or limited purpose entity (each, an “Off-Balance Sheet Transaction”) that could reasonably be expected to affect materially the Company’s liquidity or the availability of or requirements for its capital resources, including those Off-Balance Sheet Transactions described in the Commission’s Statement about Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations (Release Nos. 33-8056; 34-45321; FR-61), required to be described in the Prospectus which have not been described as required.

 

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(kk)           Underwriter Agreements. The Company is not a party to any agreement with an agent or underwriter for any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction.

 

(ll)              ERISA. To the knowledge of the Company, each material employee benefit plan, within the meaning of Section 3(3) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”), that is maintained, administered or contributed to by the Company or any of its affiliates for employees or former employees of the Company and any of its Subsidiaries has been maintained in material compliance with its terms and the requirements of any applicable statutes, orders, rules and regulations, including but not limited to ERISA and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”); no prohibited transaction, within the meaning of Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code, has occurred which would result in a material liability to the Company with respect to any such plan excluding transactions effected pursuant to a statutory or administrative exemption; and for each such plan that is subject to the funding rules of Section 412 of the Code or Section 302 of ERISA, no “accumulated funding deficiency” as defined in Section 412 of the Code has been incurred, whether or not waived, and the fair market value of the assets of each such plan (excluding for these purposes accrued but unpaid contributions) exceeds the present value of all benefits accrued under such plan determined using reasonable actuarial assumptions.

 

(mm)      Forward-Looking Statements. No forward-looking statement (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act) (a “Forward-Looking Statement”) contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus has been made or reaffirmed without a reasonable basis or has been disclosed other than in good faith.

 

(nn)           Agent Purchases. The Company acknowledges and agrees that Agent has informed the Company that the Agent may, to the extent permitted under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, purchase and sell Common Stock for its own account while this Agreement is in effect, provided, that the Company shall not be deemed to have authorized or consented to any such purchases or sales by the Agent.

 

(oo)           Margin Rules. Neither the issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares nor the application of the proceeds thereof by the Company as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus will violate Regulation T, U or X of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or any other regulation of such Board of Governors.

 

(pp)           Insurance. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries carry, or are covered by, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as the Company and each of its Subsidiaries reasonably believe are adequate for the conduct of their properties and as is customary for companies engaged in similar businesses in similar industries.

 

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(qq)           No Improper Practices. (i) Neither the Company nor the Subsidiaries, nor to the Company’s knowledge, any director, officer, or employee of the Company or any Subsidiary nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any agent, affiliate, or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any Subsidiary has, in the past five years, made any unlawful contributions to any candidate for any political office (or failed fully to disclose any contribution in violation of applicable law) or made any contribution or other payment to any official of, or candidate for, any federal, state, municipal, or foreign office or other person charged with similar public or quasi-public duty in violation of any applicable law or of the character required to be disclosed in the Prospectus;; (ii) no relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or any Subsidiary or, to the Company’s knowledge, any affiliate of any of them, on the one hand, and the directors, officers and stockholders of the Company or any Subsidiary, on the other hand, that is required by the Securities Act to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus that is not so described; (iii) no relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or any Subsidiary or, to the Company’s knowledge, any affiliate of them, on the one hand, and the directors, officers, or stockholders of the Company or any Subsidiary, on the other hand, that is required by the rules of FINRA to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus that is not so described; (iv) except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no material outstanding loans or advances or material guarantees of indebtedness by the Company or any Subsidiary to or, to the Company’s knowledge, for the benefit of any of their respective officers or directors or any of the members of the families of any of them; (v) the Company has not offered, or caused any placement agent to offer, Common Stock to any person with the intent to influence unlawfully (A) a customer or supplier of the Company or any Subsidiary to alter the customer’s or supplier’s level or type of business with the Company or any Subsidiary or (B) a trade journalist or publication to write or publish favorable information about the Company or any Subsidiary or any of their respective products or services, and (vi) neither the Company nor any Subsidiary nor any director, officer, or employee of the Company or any Subsidiary nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any agent, affiliate, or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any Subsidiary has (A) violated or is in violation of any applicable provision of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or any other applicable anti-bribery or anti-corruption law (collectively, “Anti-Corruption Laws”), (B) promised, offered, provided, attempted to provide, or authorized the provision of anything of value, directly or indirectly, to any person for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business, influencing any act or decision of the recipient, or securing any improper advantage; or (C) made any payment of funds of the Company or any Subsidiary or received or retained any funds in violation of any Anti-Corruption Laws.

 

(rr)              Status Under the Securities Act. The Company was not and is not an ineligible issuer as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act at the times specified in Rules 164 and 433 under the Securities Act in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares.

 

(ss)             No Misstatement or Omission in an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus. Each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, as of its issue date and as of each Applicable Time (as defined in Section 23 below), did not, does not and will not include any information that conflicted, conflicts or will conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, including any incorporated document deemed to be a part thereof that has not been superseded or modified. The foregoing sentence does not apply to statements in or omissions from any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus based upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Agent specifically for use therein.

 

(tt)              No Conflicts. Neither the execution of this Agreement, nor the issuance, offering or sale of the Placement Shares, nor the consummation of any of the transactions contemplated herein and therein, nor the compliance by the Company with the terms and provisions hereof and thereof will conflict with, or will result in a breach of, any of the terms and provisions of, or has constituted or will constitute a default under, or has resulted in or will result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property or assets of the Company pursuant to the terms of any contract or other agreement to which the Company may be bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company is subject, except (i) such conflicts, breaches or defaults as may have been waived and (ii) such conflicts, breaches and defaults that would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; nor will such action result (x) in any violation of the provisions of the organizational or governing documents of the Company, or (y) in any material violation of the provisions of any statute or any order, rule or regulation applicable to the Company or of any Governmental Authority having jurisdiction over the Company.

 

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(uu)            Sanctions. (i) The Company represents that, neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries (collectively, the “Entity”) or, to the Company’s knowledge, any director, officer, employee, agent, affiliate or representative of the Entity, is a government, individual, or entity (in this paragraph (uu), “Person”) that is, or is owned or controlled by a Person that is:

 

(A)  the subject of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”), the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury, or other relevant sanctions authorities, including, without limitation, designation on OFAC’s Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons List or OFAC’s Foreign Sanctions Evaders List (as amended, collectively, “Sanctions”), nor

 

(B)  located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject of Sanctions that broadly prohibit dealings with that country or territory (including, without limitation, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Syria, and the Crimea Region of the Ukraine) (the “Sanctioned Countries”).

 

(ii)  The Entity represents and covenants that it will not, directly or indirectly, use the proceeds of the offering, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other Person:

 

(A)  to fund or facilitate any activities or business of or with any Person or in any country or territory that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of Sanctions or is a Sanctioned Country; or

 

(B)  in any other manner that will result in a violation of Sanctions by any Person (including any Person participating in the offering, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise).

 

(iii)  The Entity represents and covenants that, except as detailed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, for the past 5 years, it has not knowingly engaged in, is not now knowingly engaged in, and will not knowingly engage in, any dealings or transactions with any Person, or in any country or territory, that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of Sanctions or is or was a Sanctioned Country.

 

(vv)           Stock Transfer Taxes. On each Settlement Date, all stock transfer or other taxes (other than income taxes) which are required to be paid in connection with the sale and transfer of the Placement Shares to be sold hereunder will be, or will have been, fully paid or provided for by the Company and all laws imposing such taxes will be or will have been fully complied with in all material respects.

 

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(ww)       Compliance with Laws. Each of the Company and its Subsidiaries: (A) is and at all times has been in compliance with all statutes, rules, or regulations applicable to the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, marketing, labeling, promotion, sale, offer for sale, storage, import, export or disposal of any product manufactured or distributed by the Company or its Subsidiaries (“Applicable Laws”), except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect; (B) has not received any FDA Form 483, notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence or notice from the FDA or any other Governmental Authority alleging or asserting noncompliance in any material respect with any Applicable Laws or any licenses, certificates, approvals, clearances, authorizations, permits and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such Applicable Laws (“Authorizations”); (C) possesses all material Authorizations and such Authorizations are valid and in full force and effect and are not in material violation of any term of any such Authorizations; (D) has not received notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from any Governmental Authority or third party alleging that any product operation or activity is in violation of any Applicable Laws or Authorizations and has no knowledge that any such Governmental Authority or third party is considering any such claim, litigation, arbitration, action, suit, investigation or proceeding; (E) has not received notice that any Governmental Authority has taken, is taking or intends to take action to limit, suspend, modify or revoke any Authorizations and has no knowledge that any such Governmental Authority is considering such action; (F) has filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Applicable Laws or Authorizations and that all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were complete and correct in all material respects on the date filed (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission); and (G) has not, either voluntarily or involuntarily, initiated, conducted, or issued or caused to be initiated, conducted or issued, any recall, market withdrawal or replacement, safety alert, post sale warning, “dear healthcare provider” letter, or other notice or action relating to the alleged lack of safety or efficacy of any product or any alleged product defect or violation and, to the Company’s knowledge, no third party has initiated, conducted or intends to initiate any such notice or action.

 

(xx)           Statistical and Market-Related Data.  The statistical, demographic and market-related data included in the Registration Statement and Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company believes to be reliable and accurate or represent the Company’s good faith estimates that are made on the basis of data derived from such sources.

 

(yy)           Cyber Security. Except as may be included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (x) to the Company’s knowledge, there has been no material security breach or other material compromise of or relating to any of the Company’s information technology and computer systems, networks, hardware, software, data (including the data of their respective customers, employees, suppliers, vendors and any third party data maintained by or on behalf of them), equipment or technology (collectively, “IT Systems and Data”) and do not result in a legal or contractual obligation of the Company to notify any other person about such occurrence; and (y) the Company has not been notified of, and has no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in, any material security breach or other material compromise to their IT Systems and Data; (ii) the Company is presently in compliance with all material applicable laws or statutes and all judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, and contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Data and to the protection of such IT Systems and Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification, except as would not, in the case of this clause (ii), individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect; and (iii) the Company has implemented backup and disaster recovery technology consistent with the requirements set forth in the Company’s insurance policies.

 

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Any certificate signed by an officer of the Company and delivered to the Agent or to counsel for the Agent pursuant to or in connection with this Agreement shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty by the Company, as applicable, to the Agent as to the matters set forth therein.

 

7.                  Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with Agent that:

 

(a)               Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Agent under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or similar rule), (i) the Company will notify the Agent promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information, (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon the Agent’s request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in the Agent’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by the Agent (provided, however, that the failure of the Agent to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agent shall have with respect to the failure to make such filing shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into the Placement Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to Agent within a reasonable period of time before the filing and the Agent has not objected thereto (provided, however, that the failure of the Agent to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agent shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to obtain such consent shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement) and the Company will furnish to the Agent at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; and (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act or, in the case of any document to be incorporated therein by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the Exchange Act, within the time period prescribed (the determination to file or not file any amendment or supplement with the Commission under this Section 7(a), based on the Company’s reasonable opinion or reasonable objections, shall be made exclusively by the Company).

 

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(b)               Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise the Agent, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued. The Company will advise the Agent promptly after it receives any request by the Commission for any amendments to the Registration Statement or any amendment or supplements to the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or for additional information related to the offering of the Placement Shares or for additional information related to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus.

 

(c)               Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agent under the Securities Act with respect to the offer and sale of the Placement Shares, (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or similar rule), the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and to file on or before their respective due dates all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If the Company has omitted any information from the Registration Statement pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, it will use its best efforts to comply with the provisions of and make all requisite filings with the Commission pursuant to said Rule 430B and to notify the Agent promptly of all such filings. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify the Agent to suspend the offering of Placement Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance.

 

(d)               Listing of Placement Shares. Prior to the date of the first Placement Notice, the Company will use its reasonable best efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on the Exchange.

 

(e)               Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to the Agent and its counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all documents incorporated by reference therein) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all documents filed with the Commission during such period that are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as the Agent may from time to time reasonably request and, at the Agent’s request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to the Agent to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

 

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(f)                Earning Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earning statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) and Rule 158 of the Securities Act.

 

(g)               Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

 

(h)               Notice of Other Sales. Without the prior written consent of the Agent, the Company will not, directly or indirectly, offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, Common Stock during the period beginning on the fifth (5th) Trading Day immediately prior to the date on which any Placement Notice is delivered to Agent hereunder and ending on the fifth (5th) Trading Day immediately following the final Settlement Date with respect to Placement Shares sold pursuant to such Placement Notice (or, if the Placement Notice has been terminated or suspended prior to the sale of all Placement Shares covered by a Placement Notice, the date of such suspension or termination); and will not directly or indirectly in any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, Common Stock prior to the sixtieth (60th) day immediately following the termination of this Agreement; provided, however, that such restrictions will not be required in connection with the Company’s issuance or sale of (i) Common Stock, options to purchase Common Stock or other equity awards or Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of options, pursuant to any equity compensation plan, employee or director stock option or benefits plan, stock ownership plan or dividend reinvestment plan (but not Common Stock subject to a waiver to exceed plan limits in its dividend reinvestment plan) of the Company whether now in effect or hereafter implemented, (ii) Common Stock issuable upon conversion of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding, and disclosed in filings by the Company available on EDGAR or otherwise in writing to the Agent and (iii) Common Stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of Common Stock as consideration for mergers, acquisitions, other business combinations or strategic alliances occurring after the date of this Agreement which are not issued for capital raising purposes.

 

(i)                 Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during the pendency of a Placement Notice advise the Agent promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document required to be provided to the Agent pursuant to this Agreement.

 

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(j)                 Due Diligence Cooperation. The Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by the Agent or its representatives in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as the Agent may reasonably request.

 

(k)               Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares. The Company shall disclose, in its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and in its annual report on Form 10-K to be filed by the Company with the Commission from time to time, the number of the Placement Shares sold through the Agent under this Agreement, and the net proceeds to the Company from the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement during the relevant quarter or, in the case of an Annual Report on Form 10-K, during the fiscal year covered by such Annual Report and the fourth quarter of such fiscal year. The Company agrees that on such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (each and every filing date under Rule 424(b), a “Filing Date”), which prospectus supplement will set forth, within the relevant period, the amount of Placement Shares sold through the Agent, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to the Agent with respect to such Placement Shares, and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market.

 

(l)                 Representation Dates; Certificate. (1) Prior to the date of the first Placement Notice and (2) each time the Company:

 

(i) files the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares or amends or supplements (other than a prospectus supplement relating solely to an offering of securities other than the Placement Shares) the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of documents by reference into the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares;

 

(ii) files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act (including any Form 10-K/A containing amended financial information or a material amendment to the previously filed Form 10-K);

 

(iii) files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or

 

(iv) files a current report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than information “furnished” pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or to provide disclosure pursuant to Item 8.01 of Form 8-K relating to the reclassification of certain properties as discontinued operations in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 144) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a “Representation Date”);

 

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the Company shall furnish the Agent (but in the case of clause (iv) above only if the Agent reasonably determines that the information contained in such Form 8-K is material) with a certificate dated the Representation Date, in the form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agent and its counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(l) shall be waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time a Suspension is in effect, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers instructions for the sale of Placement Shares hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and the next occurring Representation Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Representation Date when a Suspension was in effect and did not provide the Agent with a certificate under this Section 7(l), then before the Company delivers the instructions for the sale of Placement Shares or the Agent sells any Placement Shares pursuant to such instructions, the Company shall provide the Agent with a certificate in conformity with this Section 7(l) dated as of the date that the instructions for the sale of Placement Shares are issued.

 

(m)             Legal Opinion. (1) Prior to the date of the first Placement Notice and (2) within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(l) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agent a written opinion of each of Gracin & Marlow, LLP and Venable LLP (“Company Counsel”), or other counsel satisfactory to the Agent, in form and substance satisfactory to Agent and its counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agent and its counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, however, the Company shall be required to furnish to Agent no more than one opinion hereunder per calendar quarter; provided, further, that in lieu of such opinions for subsequent periodic filings under the Exchange Act, counsel may furnish the Agent with a letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to the effect that the Agent may rely on a prior opinion delivered under this Section 7(m) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented as of the date of the Reliance Letter).

 

(n)               Comfort Letter. (1) Prior to the date of the first Placement Notice and (2) within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(l) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall cause its independent registered public accounting firm to furnish the Agent letters (the “Comfort Letters”), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, which shall meet the requirements set forth in this Section 7(n); provided, that if requested by the Agent, the Company shall cause a Comfort Letter to be furnished to the Agent within ten (10) Trading Days of the date of occurrence of any material transaction or event, including the restatement of the Company’s financial statements. The Comfort Letter from the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm shall be in a form and substance satisfactory to the Agent, (i) confirming that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) stating, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to underwriters in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the “Initial Comfort Letter”) and (iii) updating the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.

 

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(o)               Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or would reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of Common Stock or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase Common Stock in violation of Regulation M, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than the Agent.

 

(p)               Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor any of its Subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, required to register as an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act.

 

(q)               No Offer to Sell. Other than an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus approved in advance by the Company and the Agent in its capacity as agent hereunder, neither the Agent nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than the Agent in its capacity as such) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Placement Shares hereunder.

 

(r)                Blue Sky and Other Qualifications. The Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts, in cooperation with the Agent, to qualify the Placement Shares for offering and sale, or to obtain an exemption for the Placement Shares to be offered and sold, under the applicable securities laws of such states and other jurisdictions (domestic or foreign) as the Agent may designate and to maintain such qualifications and exemptions in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement); provided, however, that the Company shall not be obligated to file any general consent to service of process or to qualify as a foreign corporation or as a dealer in securities in any jurisdiction in which it is not so qualified or to subject itself to taxation in respect of doing business in any jurisdiction in which it is not otherwise so subject. In each jurisdiction in which the Placement Shares have been so qualified or exempt, the Company will file such statements and reports as may be required by the laws of such jurisdiction to continue such qualification or exemption, as the case may be, in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement).

 

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(s)                Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company and the Subsidiaries will maintain and keep accurate books and records reflecting their assets and maintain internal accounting controls in a manner designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and including those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company, (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit the preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, (iii) that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with management’s and the Company’s directors’ authorization, and (iv) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on its financial statements. The Company and the Subsidiaries will maintain such controls and other procedures, including, without limitation, those required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and the applicable regulations thereunder that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including its principal executive officer and principal financial officer, or persons performing similar functions, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure and to ensure that material information relating to the Company or the Subsidiaries is made known to them by others within those entities, particularly during the period in which such periodic reports are being prepared.

 

(t)                 Secretary’s Certificate; Further Documentation. Prior to the date of the first Placement Notice, the Company shall deliver to the Agent a certificate of the Secretary of the Company and attested to by an executive officer of the Company, dated as of such date, certifying as to (i) the Certificate of Incorporation of the Company, (ii) the By-laws of the Company, (iii) the resolutions of the Board of Directors of the Company authorizing the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and the issuance of the Placement Shares and (iv) the incumbency of the officers duly authorized to execute this Agreement and the other documents contemplated by this Agreement. Within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date, the Company shall have furnished to the Agent such further information, certificates and documents as the Agent may reasonably request.

 

8.                  Payment of Expenses. The Company will pay all expenses incident to the performance of its obligations under this Agreement, including (i) the preparation and filing of the Registration Statement, including any fees required by the Commission, and the printing or electronic delivery of the Prospectus as originally filed and of each amendment and supplement thereto, in such number as the Agent shall deem necessary, (ii) the printing and delivery to the Agent of this Agreement and such other documents as may be required in connection with the offering, purchase, sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares, (iii) the preparation, issuance and delivery of the certificates, if any, for the Placement Shares to the Agent, including any stock or other transfer taxes and any capital duties, stamp duties or other duties or taxes payable upon the sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares to the Agent, (iv) the fees and disbursements of the counsel, accountants and other advisors to the Company, (v) the fees and expenses of Agent including but not limited to the fees and expenses of the counsel to the Agent, payable upon the execution of this Agreement, in an amount not to exceed $50,000, (vi) the qualification or exemption of the Placement Shares under state securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(r) hereof, including filing fees, but excluding fees of the Agent’s counsel, (vii) the printing and delivery to the Agent of copies of any Permitted Issuer Free Writing Prospectus and the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto in such number as the Agent shall deem necessary, (viii) the preparation, printing and delivery to the Agent of copies of the blue sky survey, (ix) the fees and expenses of the transfer agent and registrar for the Common Stock, (x) the filing and other fees incident to any review by FINRA of the terms of the sale of the Placement Shares including the fees of the Agent’s counsel (subject to the cap, set forth in clause (v) above), and (xi) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing of the Placement Shares on the Exchange.

 

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9.                  Conditions to Agent’s Obligations. The obligations of the Agent hereunder with respect to a Placement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, to the completion by the Agent of a due diligence review satisfactory to it in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by the Agent in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

 

(a)               Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall have become effective and shall be available for the (i) resale of all Placement Shares issued to the Agent and not yet sold by the Agent and (ii) sale of all Placement Shares contemplated to be issued by any Placement Notice.

 

(b)               No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state Governmental Authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state Governmental Authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any statement of a material fact made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference untrue or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, that in the case of the Prospectus, it will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

(c)               No Misstatement or Material Omission. Agent shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

 

(d)               Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Effect or any development that would reasonably be expected to cause a Material Adverse Effect, or a downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities) by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), the effect of which, in the case of any such action by a rating organization described above, in the reasonable judgment of the Agent (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

 

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(e)               Legal Opinions. The Agent shall have received the opinions of Company Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinions is required pursuant to Section 7(m).

 

(f)                Comfort Letter. The Agent shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(n).

 

(g)               Representation Certificate. The Agent shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(l) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(l).

 

(h)               No Suspension. Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on the Exchange and the Common Stock shall not have been delisted from the Exchange.

 

(i)                 Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(l), the Company shall have furnished to the Agent such appropriate further information, opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as the Agent may reasonably request. All such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents will be in compliance with the provisions hereof.

 

(j)                 Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.

 

(k)               Approval for Listing. The Placement Shares shall either have been (i) approved for listing on the Exchange, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on the Exchange at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice and the Exchange shall have reviewed such application and not provided any objections thereto.

 

(l)                 FINRA. If applicable, FINRA shall have raised no objection to the terms of this offering and the amount of compensation allowable or payable to the Agent as described in the Prospectus.

 

(m)             No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit the Agent to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 12(a).

 

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10.              Indemnification and Contribution.

 

(a)               Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Agent, its affiliates and their respective partners, members, directors, officers, employees and agents and each person, if any, who controls the Agent or any affiliate within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act as follows:

 

(i)                 against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever, as incurred, joint or several, arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement (or any amendment thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, or arising out of any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact included in any related Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading;

 

(ii)              against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever, as incurred, joint or several, to the extent of the aggregate amount paid in settlement of any litigation, or any investigation or proceeding by any Governmental Authority, commenced or threatened, or of any claim whatsoever based upon any such untrue statement or omission, or any such alleged untrue statement or omission; provided that (subject to Section 10(d) below) any such settlement is effected with the written consent of the Company, which consent shall not unreasonably be delayed or withheld; and

 

(iii)            against any and all expense whatsoever, as incurred (including the fees and disbursements of counsel), reasonably incurred in investigating, preparing or defending against any litigation, or any investigation or proceeding by any Governmental Authority, commenced or threatened, or any claim whatsoever based upon any such untrue statement or omission, or any such alleged untrue statement or omission (whether or not a party), to the extent that any such expense is not paid under (i) or (ii) above,

 

provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to any loss, liability, claim, damage or expense to the extent arising out of any untrue statement or omission or alleged untrue statement or omission made solely in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent Information (as defined below).

 

(b)               Agent Indemnification. Agent agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 10(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto), the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to the Agent and furnished to the Company in writing by the Agent expressly for use therein. The Company hereby acknowledges that the only information that the Agent has furnished to the Company expressly for use in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) are the statements set forth in the seventh and eighth paragraphs under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus (the “Agent Information”).

 

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(c)               Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 10 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 10, notify each such indemnifying party of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 10 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 10 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any other legal expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel to assume the defense of such action or counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, in each case, within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action; in each of which cases the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm (plus local counsel) admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly as they are incurred. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 10 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent (1) includes an express and unconditional release of each indemnified party, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to such indemnified party, from all liability arising out of such litigation, investigation, proceeding or claim and (2) does not include a statement as to or an admission of fault, culpability or a failure to act by or on behalf of any indemnified party.

 

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(d)               Settlement Without Consent if Failure to Reimburse. If an indemnified party shall have requested an indemnifying party to reimburse the indemnified party for reasonable fees and expenses of counsel, such indemnifying party agrees that it shall be liable for any settlement of the nature contemplated by Section 10(a)(ii) effected without its written consent if (1) such settlement is entered into more than 45 days after receipt by such indemnifying party of the aforesaid request, (2) such indemnifying party shall have received notice of the terms of such settlement at least 30 days prior to such settlement being entered into and (3) such indemnifying party shall not have reimbursed such indemnified party in accordance with such request prior to the date of such settlement.

 

(e)               Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 10 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable or insufficient from the Company or the Agent, the Company and the Agent will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit or proceeding or any claim asserted) to which the Company and the Agent may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agent on the other hand. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agent on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total net proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by the Agent from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or the Agent, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and the Agent agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 10(e) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense, or damage, or action in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 10(e) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 10(e), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action or claim to the extent consistent with Section 10(c) hereof. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 10(e), the Agent shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 10(e), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of the Securities Act, any affiliates of the Agent and any officers, directors, partners, employees or agents of the Agent or any of its affiliates, will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each director of the Company and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 10(e), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 10(e) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 10(c) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 10(c) hereof.

 

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11.              Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 10 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of the Agent, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors, employees or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

 

12.              Termination.

 

(a)               The Agent may terminate this Agreement, by notice to the Company, as hereinafter specified at any time (1) if there has been, since the time of execution of this Agreement or since the date as of which information is given in the Prospectus, any change, or any development or event involving a prospective change, in the condition, financial or otherwise, or in the business, properties, earnings, results of operations or prospects of the Company and its Subsidiaries considered as one enterprise, whether or not arising in the ordinary course of business, which individually or in the aggregate, in the sole judgment of the Agent is material and adverse and makes it impractical or inadvisable to market the Placement Shares or to enforce contracts for the sale of the Placement Shares, (2) if there has occurred any material adverse change in the financial markets in the United States or the international financial markets, any outbreak of hostilities or escalation thereof or other calamity or crisis or any change or development involving a prospective change in national or international political, financial or economic conditions, in each case the effect of which is such as to make it, in the judgment of the Agent, impracticable or inadvisable to market the Placement Shares or to enforce contracts for the sale of the Placement Shares, (3) if trading in the Common Stock has been suspended or limited by the Commission or the Exchange, or if trading generally on the Exchange has been suspended or limited, or minimum prices for trading have been fixed on the Exchange, (4) if any suspension of trading of any securities of the Company on any exchange or in the over-the-counter market shall have occurred and be continuing, (5) if a major disruption of securities settlements or clearance services in the United States shall have occurred and be continuing, or (6) if a banking moratorium has been declared by either U.S. Federal or New York authorities. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 8 (Payment of Expenses), Section 10 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 11 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 17 (Governing Law and Time; Waiver of Jury Trial) and Section 18 (Consent to Jurisdiction) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If the Agent elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 12(a), the Agent shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 13 (Notices).

 

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(b)               The Company shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 8, Section 10, Section 11, Section 17 and Section 18 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(c)               The Agent shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 8, Section 10, Section 11, Section 17 and Section 18 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(d)               This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 12(a), (b), or (c) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 8, Section 10, Section 11, Section 17 and Section 18 shall remain in full force and effect.

 

(e)               Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by the Agent or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

 

13.              Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified, and if sent to the Agent, shall be delivered to:

 

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

499 Park Avenue

New York, NY 10022

Attention: Capital Markets

Facsimile: (212) 307-3730

 

and:

 

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

499 Park Avenue

New York, NY 10022

Attention: General Counsel

Facsimile: (212) 829-4708

 

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with a copy to:

 

Cooley LLP

55 Hudson Yards

New York, NY 10001-2157

Attention: Daniel I. Goldberg, Esq.

Facsimile: (212) 479-6275

 

and if to the Company, shall be delivered to:

 

iBio, Inc.

8800 HSC Parkway
Bryan, TX 77807

Attention: Thomas F. Isett, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

E-mail: [       ]

 

with a copy to:

 

Gracin & Marlow, LLP

405 Lexington Avenue

New York, NY 10174

Attention: Leslie Marlow, Esq.

Facsimile: (212) 208-4657

 

Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally or by verifiable facsimile transmission (with an original to follow) on or before 4:30 p.m., New York City time, on a Business Day or, if such day is not a Business Day, on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier and (iii) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid). For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Exchange and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

 

An electronic communication (“Electronic Notice”) shall be deemed written notice for purposes of this Section 13 if sent to the electronic mail address specified by the receiving party under separate cover. Electronic Notice shall be deemed received at the time the party sending Electronic Notice receives verification of receipt by the receiving party. Any party receiving Electronic Notice may request and shall be entitled to receive the notice on paper, in a nonelectronic form (“Nonelectronic Notice”) which shall be sent to the requesting party within ten (10) days of receipt of the written request for Nonelectronic Notice.

 

14.              Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and the Agent and their respective successors and the parties referred to in Section 10 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of such party. Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto or their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that the Agent may assign its rights and obligations hereunder to an affiliate thereof without obtaining the Company’s consent, but shall provide notice of such assignment to the Company.

 

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15.              Adjustments for Stock Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any stock split, stock dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Placement Shares.

 

16.              Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability; Waiver. This Agreement (including all schedules and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and the Agent. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement. No implied waiver by a party shall arise in the absence of a waiver in writing signed by such party. No failure or delay in exercising any right, power, or privilege hereunder shall operate as a waiver thereof, nor shall any single or partial exercise thereof preclude any other or further exercise thereof or the exercise of any right, power, or privilege hereunder.

 

17.              GOVERNING LAW AND TIME; WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL. THIS AGREEMENT SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITHOUT REGARD TO THE PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICTS OF LAWS. SPECIFIED TIMES OF DAY REFER TO NEW YORK CITY TIME. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

 

18.              CONSENT TO JURISDICTION. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY SUBMITS TO THE EXCLUSIVE JURISDICTION OF THE STATE AND FEDERAL COURTS SITTING IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK, BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN, FOR THE ADJUDICATION OF ANY DISPUTE HEREUNDER OR IN CONNECTION WITH ANY TRANSACTION CONTEMPLATED HEREBY, AND HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, AND AGREES NOT TO ASSERT IN ANY SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING, ANY CLAIM THAT IT IS NOT PERSONALLY SUBJECT TO THE JURISDICTION OF ANY SUCH COURT, THAT SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING IS BROUGHT IN AN INCONVENIENT FORUM OR THAT THE VENUE OF SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING IS IMPROPER. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES PERSONAL SERVICE OF PROCESS AND CONSENTS TO PROCESS BEING SERVED IN ANY SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING BY MAILING A COPY THEREOF (CERTIFIED OR REGISTERED MAIL, RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED) TO SUCH PARTY AT THE ADDRESS IN EFFECT FOR NOTICES TO IT UNDER THIS AGREEMENT AND AGREES THAT SUCH SERVICE SHALL CONSTITUTE GOOD AND SUFFICIENT SERVICE OF PROCESS AND NOTICE THEREOF. NOTHING CONTAINED HEREIN SHALL BE DEEMED TO LIMIT IN ANY WAY ANY RIGHT TO SERVE PROCESS IN ANY MANNER PERMITTED BY LAW.

 

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19.              Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile or by electronic delivery of a portable document format (PDF) file (including any electronic signature covered by the U.S. federal ESIGN Act of 2000, Uniform Electronic Transactions Act, the Electronic Signatures and Records Act or other applicable law, e.g., www.docusign.com).

 

20.              Construction. The section and exhibit headings herein are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof. References herein to any law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any Governmental Authority shall be deemed to refer to such law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any Governmental Authority as amended, reenacted, supplemented or superseded in whole or in part and in effect from time to time and also to all rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

21.              Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses. The Company represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior written consent of the Agent, and the Agent represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior written consent of the Company, it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Placement Shares that would constitute an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, or that would otherwise constitute a “free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 405, required to be filed with the Commission. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Agent or by the Company, as the case may be, is hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company represents and warrants that it has treated and agrees that it will treat each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433, and has complied and will comply with the requirements of Rule 433 applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, including timely filing with the Commission where required, legending and record keeping. For the purposes of clarity, the parties hereto agree that all free writing prospectuses, if any, listed in Exhibit 21 hereto are Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses.

 

22.              Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:

 

(a)               the Agent is acting solely as agent in connection with the public offering of the Placement Shares and in connection with each transaction contemplated by this Agreement and the process leading to such transactions, and no fiduciary or advisory relationship between the Company or any of its respective affiliates, stockholders (or other equity holders), creditors or employees or any other party, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, has been or will be created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether or not the Agent has advised or is advising the Company on other matters, and the Agent has no obligation to the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement except the obligations expressly set forth in this Agreement;

 

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(b)               it is capable of evaluating and understanding, and understands and accepts, the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;

 

(c)               neither the Agent nor its affiliates have provided any legal, accounting, regulatory or tax advice with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and it has consulted its own legal, accounting, regulatory and tax advisors to the extent it has deemed appropriate;

 

(d)               it is aware that the Agent and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and the Agent and its affiliates have no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship or otherwise; and

 

(e)               it waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against the Agent or its affiliates for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty in connection with the sale of Placement Shares under this Agreement and agrees that the Agent and its affiliates shall not have any liability (whether direct or indirect, in contract, tort or otherwise) to it in respect of such a fiduciary duty claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on its behalf or in right of it or the Company, employees or creditors of Company.

 

23.              Definitions. As used in this Agreement, the following terms have the respective meanings set forth below:

 

Applicable Time” means (i) each Representation Date, (ii) the time of each sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and (iii) each Settlement Date.

 

Governmental Authority” means (i) any federal, provincial, state, local, municipal, national or international government or governmental authority, regulatory or administrative agency, governmental commission, department, board, bureau, agency or instrumentality, court, tribunal, arbitrator or arbitral body (public or private); (ii) any self-regulatory organization; or (iii) any political subdivision of any of the foregoing.

 

Issuer Free Writing Prospectus” means any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433, relating to the Placement Shares that (1) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company, (2) is a “road show” that is a “written communication” within the meaning of Rule 433(d)(8)(i) whether or not required to be filed with the Commission, or (3) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i) because it contains a description of the Placement Shares or of the offering that does not reflect the final terms, in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g) under the Securities Act Regulations.

 

Rule 164,” “Rule 172,” “Rule 405,” “Rule 415,” “Rule 424,” “Rule 424(b),” “Rule 430B,” and “Rule 433” refer to such rules under the Securities Act Regulations.

 

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All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information that is “contained,” “included” or “stated” in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information that is incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be.

 

All references in this Agreement to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to any of the foregoing shall be deemed to include the copy filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR; all references in this Agreement to any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (other than any Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses that, pursuant to Rule 433, are not required to be filed with the Commission) shall be deemed to include the copy thereof filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR; and all references in this Agreement to “supplements” to the Prospectus shall include, without limitation, any supplements, “wrappers” or similar materials prepared in connection with any offering, sale or private placement of any Placement Shares by the Agent outside of the United States.

 

[Signature Page Follows]

 

-38-

 

 

If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and the Agent, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and the Agent.

 

Very truly yours,
 

IBIO, INC.

 

 

 
By:   /s/ Thomas F. Isett
  Name: Thomas F. Isett
  Title: Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

 

 

ACCEPTED as of the date first-above written:
 
 

CANTOR FITZGERALD & CO.

 

 

 
By:   /s/ Sage Kelly
  Name: Sage Kelly
  Title: Global Head of Investment Banking

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 1

 

 

 

__________________________

 

Form of Placement Notice

 

__________________________

 

 

 

From: iBio, Inc.

 

To: Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.
Attention: [•]

 

Subject: Placement Notice

 

Date: [•], 20[•]

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Sales Agreement between iBio, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. (“Agent”), dated November 25, 2020, the Company hereby requests that the Agent sell up to [•] of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, at a minimum market price of $[•] per share, during the time period beginning [month, day, time] and ending [month, day, time].

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 2

 

 

 

__________________________

 

Compensation

 

__________________________

 

 

 

The Company shall pay to the Agent in cash, upon each sale of Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement, an amount up to 3.0% of the aggregate gross proceeds from each sale of Placement Shares.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 3

 

 

 

__________________________

 

Notice Parties

 

__________________________

 

 

 

The Company

 

Thomas F. Isett,

Chief Executive Officer

[                        ]

 

The Agent

 

Sameer Vasudev (svasudev@cantor.com)

 

With copies to:

 

CFControlledEquityOffering@cantor.com

 

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 4

 

 

 

__________________________

 

Subsidiaries

 

__________________________

 

Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 21 of the Company’s most recently filed Form 10-K.

 

 

 

 

 

Exhibit 21

 

Permitted Free Writing Prospectus

 

None.

 

 

 

 

Exhibit 4.10

 

IBIO, INC.,

Issuer

 

AND

 

[TRUSTEE],

Trustee

 

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of ________, 20__

 

 

Debt Securities

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

    PAGE
ARTICLE 1 DEFINITIONS 1
     
Section 1.01 Definitions of Terms 1
   
ARTICLE 2 ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES 5
     
Section 2.01 Designation and Terms of Securities 5
     
Section 2.02 Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate 8
     
Section 2.03 Denominations: Provisions for Payment 8
     
Section 2.04 Execution and Authentications 10
     
Section 2.05 Registration of Transfer and Exchange 11
     
Section 2.06 Temporary Securities 12
     
Section 2.07 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities 12
     
Section 2.08 Cancellation 13
     
Section 2.09 Benefits of Indenture 13
     
Section 2.10 Authenticating Agent 14
     
Section 2.11 Global Securities 14
     
Section 2.12 CUSIP Numbers 15
   
ARTICLE 3 REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS 16
     
Section 3.01 Redemption 16
     
Section 3.02 Notice of Redemption 16
     
Section 3.03 Payment Upon Redemption 17
     
Section 3.04 Sinking Fund 17
     
Section 3.05 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities 18
     
Section 3.06 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund 18
   
ARTICLE 4 COVENANTS 18
     
Section 4.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest 18
     
Section 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency 19
     
Section 4.03 Paying Agents 19
     
Section 4.04 Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee 20

 

i.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

(CONTINUED)

 

    PAGE
ARTICLE 5 SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE 20
     
Section 5.01 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders 20
     
Section 5.02 Preservation Of Information; Communications With Securityholders 21
     
Section 5.03 Reports by the Company 21
     
Section 5.04 Reports by the Trustee 22
   
ARTICLE 6 REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT 22
     
Section 6.01 Events of Default 22
     
Section 6.02 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee 24
     
Section 6.03 Application of Moneys Collected 25
     
Section 6.04 Limitation on Suits 25
     
Section 6.05 Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver 26
     
Section 6.06 Control by Securityholders 26
     
Section 6.07 Undertaking to Pay Costs 26
   
ARTICLE 7 CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE 27
     
Section 7.01 Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee 27
     
Section 7.02 Certain Rights of Trustee 28
     
Section 7.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities 30
     
Section 7.04 May Hold Securities 31
     
Section 7.05 Moneys Held in Trust 31
     
Section 7.06 Compensation and Reimbursement 31
     
Section 7.07 Reliance on Officer’s Certificate 32
     
Section 7.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests 32
     
Section 7.09 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility 32
     
Section 7.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor 32
     
Section 7.11 Acceptance of Appointment By Successor 35
     
Section 7.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business 36

 

ii.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

(CONTINUED)

 

    PAGE
Section 7.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company 36
     
Section 7.14 Notice of Default 36
   
ARTICLE 8 CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS 37
     
Section 8.01 Evidence of Action by Securityholders 37
     
Section 8.02 Proof of Execution by Securityholders 37
     
Section 8.03 Who May be Deemed Owners 38
     
Section 8.04 Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded 38
     
Section 8.05 Actions Binding on Future Securityholders 38
   
ARTICLE 9 SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES 39
     
Section 9.01 Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders 39
     
Section 9.02 Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders 40
     
Section 9.03 Effect of Supplemental Indentures 40
     
Section 9.04 Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures 41
     
Section 9.05 Execution of Supplemental Indentures 41
   
ARTICLE 10 SUCCESSOR ENTITY 41
     
Section 10.01 Company May Consolidate, Etc. 41
     
Section 10.02 Successor Entity Substituted 42
   
ARTICLE 11 SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE 42
     
Section 11.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture 42
     
Section 11.02 Discharge of Obligations 43
     
Section 11.03 Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust 43
     
Section 11.04 Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents 43
     
Section 11.05 Repayment to Company 44
   
ARTICLE 12 IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS 44
     
Section 12.01 No Recourse 44
   
ARTICLE 13 MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 45
     
Section 13.01 Effect on Successors and Assigns 45
     
Section 13.02 Actions by Successor 45
     
Section 13.03 Surrender of Company Powers 45

 

iii.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

(CONTINUED)

 

    PAGE
Section 13.04 Notices 45
     
Section 13.05 Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver 45
     
Section 13.06 Treatment of Securities as Debt 46
     
Section 13.07 Certificates and Opinions as to Conditions Precedent 46
     
Section 13.08 Payments on Business Days 46
     
Section 13.09 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act 47
     
Section 13.10 Counterparts 47
     
Section 13.11 Separability 47
     
Section 13.12 Compliance Certificates 47
     
Section 13.13 Patriot Act 47
     
Section 13.14 Force Majeure 48
     
Section 13.12 Table of Contents; Headings 48

 

iv.

 

 

INDENTURE

 

INDENTURE, dated as of                     , 20    , among iBio, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [TRUSTEE], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

 

WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

 

WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

 

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

 

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

 

ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS

 

Section 1.01 Definitions of Terms.

 

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

 

Authenticating Agent” means the Trustee or an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

 

Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

 

Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors (or the functional equivalent thereof) of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

 

1

 

 

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors (or duly authorized committee thereof) and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

 

Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which federal or state banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City of New York, or in the city of the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

 

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act, or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

 

Company” means IBio, Inc., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware, and, subject to the provisions of Article Ten, shall also include its successors and assigns.

 

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at                                                                                   .

 

Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

Defaulted Interest” has the meaning set forth in Section 2.03.

 

Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or 2.11.

 

Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

 

Exchange Act” means the United States Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission thereunder.

 

The term “given”, “mailed”, “notify” or “sent” with respect to any notice to be given to a Securityholder pursuant to this Indenture, shall mean notice (x) given to the Depositary (or its designee) pursuant to the standing instructions from the Depositary or its designee, including by electronic mail in accordance with accepted practices or procedures at the Depositary (in the case of a Global Security) or (y) mailed to such Holder by first class mail, postage prepaid, at its address as it appears on the Security Register (in the case of a definitive Security). Notice so “given” shall be deemed to include any notice to be “mailed” or “delivered,” as applicable, under this Indenture.

 

2

 

 

Global Security” means a Security issued to evidence all or a part of any series of Securities which is executed by the Company and authenticated and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with the Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

 

Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (a) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (b) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof at any time prior to the stated maturity of the Securities, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

herein”, “hereofand “hereunder”, and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

 

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 2.01.

 

Interest Payment Date”, when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

 

Officer” means, with respect to the Company, the chairman of the Board of Directors, a chief executive officer, a president, a chief financial officer, a chief operating officer, any executive vice president, any senior vice president, any vice president, the treasurer or any assistant treasurer, the controller or any assistant controller or the secretary or any assistant secretary.

 

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer. Each such certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

3

 

 

Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing subject to customary exceptions of legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company, that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such opinion shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as provided in Article Three, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.

 

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, joint-stock company, limited liability company, association, trust, unincorporated organization, any other entity or organization, including a government or political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality thereof.

 

Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a lost, destroyed or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the lost, destroyed or stolen Security.

 

Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee means any officer within the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee (or any successor group of the Trustee) or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject and in each case who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.

 

Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and more particularly means any Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

 

Securityholder”, “holder of Securities”, “registered holder”, or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security is registered on the Security Register kept for that purpose in accordance with the terms of this Indenture.

 

4

 

 

Security Register” and “Security Registrar” shall have the meanings as set forth in Section 2.05.

 

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, any corporation, association, partnership or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of capital stock or other interests (including partnership interests) entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers, general partners or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by (i) such Person; (ii) such Person and one or more Subsidiaries of such Person; or (iii) one or more Subsidiaries of such Person.

 

Trustee” means                                                                  , and, subject to the provisions of Article Seven, shall also include its successors and assigns, and, if at any time there is more than one Person acting in such capacity hereunder, “Trustee” shall mean each such Person. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

 

Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

 

“U.S.A. Patriot Act” means the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107-56, as amended and signed into law October 26, 2001.

 

ARTICLE 2

 

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND

EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

 

Section 2.01 Designation and Terms of Securities.

 

(a) The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

 

(1) the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that series from all other Securities);

 

(2) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

 

5

 

 

(3) the maturity date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable;

 

(4) the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the certificate of authentication for such series;

 

(5) the applicability of any guarantees;

 

(6) whether or not the Securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

(7) whether the Securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

 

(8) if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such Securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such Securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

 

(9) the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

(10) the Company’s right, if any, to defer the payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

(11) if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, the Company may at its option, redeem the series of Securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

 

(12) the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which the Company is obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the Securityholder’s option to purchase, the series of Securities and the currency or currency unit in which the Securities are payable;

 

(13) the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable, if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof;

 

(14) any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the Securities of that series and any security for the obligations of the Company with respect to such Securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;

 

6

 

 

(15) whether the Securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a Global Security or Securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such Global Security or Securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual Securities; and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities;

 

(16) if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at the Company’s option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange, which may, without limitation, include the payment of cash as well as the delivery of securities;

 

(17) if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01;

 

(18) additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the series of Securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

 

(19) additions to or changes in the Events of Default with respect to the Securities and any change in the right of the Trustee or the Securityholders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such Securities to be due and payable;

 

(20) additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

 

(21) additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture;

 

(22) additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of this Indenture both with and without the consent of Securityholders of Securities issued under this Indenture;

 

(23) the currency of payment of Securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

 

(24) whether interest will be payable in cash or additional Securities at the Company’s or the Securityholders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

 

(25) the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Company shall pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the Securities of the series to any Securityholder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

 

7

 

 

 

(26) any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the Securities of the series; and

 

(27) any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the Securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of this Indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

 

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.

 

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officer’s Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.

 

Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.

 

Section 2.02 Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate.

 

The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, and they may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any securities exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.

 

Section 2.03 Denominations: Provisions for Payment.

 

The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(a)(13). The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series. Subject to Section 2.01(a)(23), the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption or repurchase thereof prior to maturity, and any cash amount due upon conversion or exchange thereof, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. Interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.

 

8

 

 

The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment. In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.

 

Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

 

(1) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered in the Security Register at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be sent, to each Securityholder not less than 10 days prior to such special record date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been sent as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered in the Security Register on such special record date.

 

(2) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

 

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Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities and any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the first day of the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.

 

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.

 

Section 2.04 Execution and Authentications.

 

The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by one of its Officers. Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature.

 

The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been an Officer (at the time of execution), notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be such an officer of the Company. The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication by the Trustee.

 

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated manually by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent. Such signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture. At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by an Officer, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.

 

Upon the Company’s delivery of any such authentication order to the Trustee at any time after the initial issuance of Securities under this Indenture, the Trustee shall be provided with, and (subject to Sections 315(a) through 315(d) of the Trust Indenture Act) shall be fully protected in relying upon, (1) an Opinion of Counsel or reliance letter and (2) an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent to the execution, authentication and delivery of such Securities are in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.

 

The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

 

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Section 2.05 Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

 

(a) Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section. In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

(b) The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee. The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution or Supplemental Indenture (the “Security Registrar”).

 

Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.

 

The Company initially appoints the Trustee as initial Security Registrar for each series of Securities

 

All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.

 

(c) Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, no service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series or repurchase, conversion or exchange of less than the entire principal amount of a Security, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, Section 3.03(b) and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.

 

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(d) The Company and the Security Registrar shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the sending of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such sending, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption or surrendered for repurchase, but not validly withdrawn, other than the unredeemed portion of any such Securities being redeemed in part or not surrendered for repurchase, as the case may be. The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11 hereof.

 

The Trustee shall have no obligation or duty to monitor, determine or inquire as to compliance with any restrictions on transfer imposed under this Indenture or under applicable law with respect to any transfer of any interest in any Security (including any transfers between or among Depositary participants or beneficial owners of interests in any Global Security) other than to require delivery of such certificates and other documentation or evidence as are expressly required by, and to do so if and when expressly required by the terms of, this Indenture, and to examine the same to determine substantial compliance as to form with the express requirements hereof.

 

Section 2.06 Temporary Securities.

 

Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination. Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company. Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series. Without unnecessary delay the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the Securityholders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose, and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.

 

Section 2.07 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.

 

In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof. The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company. Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

 

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In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

 

Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

 

Section 2.08 Cancellation.

 

All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, repurchase, exchange, registration of transfer or conversion shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent (or any other applicable agent), be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee. In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company. If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

Section 2.09 Benefits of Indenture.

 

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities.

 

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Section 2.10 Authenticating Agent.

 

So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint. Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption, repurchase or conversion thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authorities. If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.

 

Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company. Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.

 

Section 2.11 Global Securities.

 

(a) If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, a Global Security that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, all of the Outstanding Securities of such series, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction (or if the Depositary names the Trustee as its custodian, retained by the Trustee), and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

 

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.

 

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(c) If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, or if an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing and the Company has received a request from the Depositary or from the Trustee, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company will execute, and subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series. In such event the Company will execute and, subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(c) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

 

Section 2.12 CUSIP Numbers.

 

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers. The Company will promptly notify the Trustee of any change in the “CUSIP” numbers.

 

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ARTICLE 3

 

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

 

Section 3.01 Redemption.

 

The Company may redeem the Securities of any series issued hereunder on and after the dates and in accordance with the terms established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

 

Section 3.02 Notice of Redemption.

 

(a) In case the Company shall desire to exercise such right to redeem all or, as the case may be, a portion of the Securities of any series in accordance with any right the Company reserved for itself to do so pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the Company shall, or shall cause the Trustee to, give notice of such redemption to holders of the Securities of such series to be redeemed by mailing, first class postage prepaid (or with regard to any Global Security held in book entry form, by electronic mail in accordance with the applicable procedures of the Depositary), a notice of such redemption not less than 30 days and not more than 90 days before the date fixed for redemption of that series to such Securityholders, unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed. Any notice that is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the registered holder receives the notice. In any case, failure duly to give such notice to the holder of any Security of any series designated for redemption in whole or in part, or any defect in the notice, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities of such series or any other series. In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officer’s Certificate evidencing compliance with any such restriction.

 

Each such notice of redemption shall identify the Securities to be redeemed (including CUSIP numbers, if any), specify the date fixed for redemption and the redemption price at which Securities of that series are to be redeemed, and shall state that payment of the redemption price of such Securities to be redeemed will be made at the office or agency of the Company, upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in said notice, that from and after said date interest will cease to accrue and that the redemption is from a sinking fund, if such is the case. If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the notice to the holders of Securities of that series to be redeemed in part shall specify the particular Securities to be so redeemed.

 

In case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice that relates to such Security shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed, and shall state that on and after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

 

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(b) If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company shall give the Trustee at least 45 days’ notice (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) in advance of the date fixed for redemption as to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series to be redeemed, and thereupon the Securities to be redeemed shall be selected, by lot, on a pro rata basis, or in such other manner as the Company shall deem appropriate and fair in its discretion and that may provide for the selection of a portion or portions (equal to one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof) of the principal amount of such Securities of a denomination larger than $1,000, the Securities to be redeemed and shall thereafter promptly notify the Company in writing of the numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, in whole or in part. The Company may, if and whenever it shall so elect, by delivery of instructions signed on its behalf by an Officer, instruct the Trustee or any paying agent to call all or any part of the Securities of a particular series for redemption and to give notice of redemption in the manner set forth in this Section, such notice to be in the name of the Company or its own name as the Trustee or such paying agent may deem advisable. In any case in which notice of redemption is to be given by the Trustee or any such paying agent, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to, or permit to remain with, the Trustee or such paying agent, as the case may be, such Security Register, transfer books or other records, or suitable copies or extracts therefrom, sufficient to enable the Trustee or such paying agent to give any notice by mail that may be required under the provisions of this Section.

 

Section 3.03 Payment Upon Redemption.

 

(a) If the giving of notice of redemption shall have been completed as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities of the series to be redeemed specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to, but excluding, the date fixed for redemption and interest on such Securities or portions of Securities shall cease to accrue on and after the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such redemption price and accrued interest with respect to any such Security or portion thereof. On presentation and surrender of such Securities on or after the date fixed for redemption at the place of payment specified in the notice, said Securities shall be paid and redeemed at the applicable redemption price for such series, together with interest accrued thereon to, but excluding, the date fixed for redemption (but if the date fixed for redemption is an Interest Payment Date, the interest installment payable on such date shall be payable to the registered holder at the close of business on the applicable record date pursuant to Section 2.03).

 

(b) Upon presentation of any Security of such series that is to be redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and the office or agency where the Security is presented shall deliver to the Securityholder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security of the same series of authorized denominations in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

 

Section 3.04 Sinking Fund.

 

The provisions of Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06 shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series.

 

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The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”. If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 3.05. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.

 

Section 3.05 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

 

The Company (i) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series and (ii) may apply as a credit Securities of a series that have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the redemption price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.

 

Section 3.06 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

 

Not less than 45 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities (unless a shorter period shall be satisfactory to the Trustee), the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of the series, the portion thereof, if any, that is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 3.05 and the basis for such credit and will, together with such Officer’s Certificate, deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered. Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date shall be selected in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and the Company shall cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.02. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Section 3.03.

 

ARTICLE 4

 

COVENANTS

 

Section 4.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.

 

The Company will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series at the time and place and in the manner provided herein and established with respect to such Securities. Payments of principal on the Securities may be made at the time provided herein and established with respect to such Securities by U.S. dollar check drawn on and mailed to the address of the Securityholder entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register, or U.S. dollar wire transfer to, a U.S. dollar account if such Securityholder shall have furnished wire instructions to the Trustee no later than 15 days prior to the relevant payment date. Payments of interest on the Securities may be made at the time provided herein and established with respect to such Securities by U.S. dollar check mailed to the address of the Securityholder entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register, or U.S. dollar wire transfer to, a U.S. dollar account if such Securityholder shall have furnished wire instructions in writing to the Security Registrar and the Trustee no later than 15 days prior to the relevant payment date.

 

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Section 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency.

 

So long as any series of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Company agrees to maintain an office or agency with respect to each such series and at such other location or locations as may be designated as provided in this Section 4.02, where (i) Securities of that series may be presented for payment, (ii) Securities of that series may be presented as herein above authorized for registration of transfer and exchange, and (iii) notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be given or served, such designation to continue with respect to such office or agency until the Company shall, by written notice signed by any officer authorized to sign an Officer’s Certificate and delivered to the Trustee, designate some other office or agency for such purposes or any of them. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, notices and demands. The Company initially appoints the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee as its paying agent with respect to the Securities.

 

Section 4.03 Paying Agents.

 

(a) If the Company shall appoint one or more paying agents for all or any series of the Securities, other than the Trustee, the Company will cause each such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:

 

(1) that it will hold all sums held by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any other obligor of such Securities) in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto;

 

(2) that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Company (or by any other obligor of such Securities) to make any payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series when the same shall be due and payable;

 

(3) that it will, at any time during the continuance of any failure referred to in the preceding paragraph (a)(2) above, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent; and

 

(4) that it will perform all other duties of paying agent as set forth in this Indenture.

 

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(b) If the Company shall act as its own paying agent with respect to any series of the Securities, it will on or before each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on Securities of that series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient to pay such principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due on Securities of that series until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of such action, or any failure (by it or any other obligor on such Securities) to take such action. Whenever the Company shall have one or more paying agents for any series of Securities, it will, prior to each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal, premium or interest, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of this action or failure so to act.

 

(c) Notwithstanding anything in this Section to the contrary, (i) the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, and (ii) the Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or direct any paying agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such paying agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same terms and conditions as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such paying agent; and, upon such payment by the Company or any paying agent to the Trustee, the Company or such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.

 

Section 4.04 Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee.

 

The Company, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 7.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder.

 

ARTICLE 5

 

SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 5.01 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders.

 

The Company will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee (a) within 15 days after each regular record date (as defined in Section 2.03) a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the holders of each series of Securities as of such regular record date, provided that the Company shall not be obligated to furnish or cause to furnish such list at any time that the list shall not differ in any respect from the most recent list furnished to the Trustee by the Company and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished; provided, however, that, in either case, no such list need be furnished for any series for which the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar.

 

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Section 5.02 Preservation Of Information; Communications With Securityholders.

 

(a) The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity).

 

(b) The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

 

(c) Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities, and, in connection with any such communications, the Trustee shall satisfy its obligations under Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the provisions of Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Section 5.03 Reports by the Company.

 

(a) The Company will at all times comply with Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act. The Company covenants and agrees to provide (which delivery may be via electronic mail) to the Trustee within 30 days, after the Company files the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) that the Company is required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; provided, however, the Company shall not be required to deliver to the Trustee any correspondence filed with the Commission or any materials for which the Company has sought and received confidential treatment by the Commission; and provided further, that so long as such filings by the Company are available on the Commission’s Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval System (EDGAR), or any successor system, such filings shall be deemed to have been filed with the Trustee for purposes hereof without any further action required by the Company. For the avoidance of doubt, a failure by the Company to file annual reports, information and other reports with the Commission within the time period prescribed thereof by the Commission shall not be deemed a breach of this Section 5.03.

 

(b) Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under Section 5.03 is for informational purposes only and the information and the Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein, or determinable from information contained therein including the Company’s compliance with any of their covenants thereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on an Officer’s Certificate). The Trustee is under no duty to examine any such reports, information or documents delivered to the Trustee or filed with the Commission via EDGAR to ensure compliance with the provision of this Indenture or to ascertain the correctness or otherwise of the information or the statements contained therein. The Trustee shall have no responsibility or duty whatsoever to ascertain or determine whether the above referenced filings with the Commission on EDGAR (or any successor system) has occurred.

 

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Section 5.04 Reports by the Trustee.

 

(a) If required by Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee, within sixty (60) days after each May 1, shall send to the Securityholders a brief report dated as of such May 1, which complies with Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(b) The Trustee shall comply with Section 313(b) and 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(c) A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Securityholders, be filed by the Trustee with the Company, with each securities exchange upon which any Securities are listed (if so listed) and also with the Commission. The Company agrees to notify the Trustee when any Securities become listed on any securities exchange.

 

ARTICLE 6

 

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

 

Section 6.01 Events of Default.

 

(a) Whenever used herein with respect to Securities of a particular series, “Event of Default” means any one or more of the following events that has occurred and is continuing:

 

(1) the Company defaults in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of that series, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by the Company in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

(2) the Company defaults in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such Securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

(3) the Company fails to observe or perform any other of its covenants or agreements with respect to that series contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to that series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof (other than a covenant or agreement that has been expressly included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of one or more series of Securities other than such series) for a period of 90 days after the date on which written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder, shall have been given to the Company by the Trustee, by registered or certified mail, or to the Company and the Trustee by the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Securities of that series at the time Outstanding;

 

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(4) the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law (i) commences a voluntary case, (ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case, (iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property or (iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or

 

(5) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order under any Bankruptcy Law that (i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case, (ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company for all or substantially all of its property or (iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 days.

 

(b) In each and every such case (other than an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above), unless the principal of all the Securities of that series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by such Securityholders), may declare the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above occurs, the principal of and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series shall automatically be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or the holders of the Securities.

 

(c) At any time after the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on the Securities of that series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if: (i) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of that series and the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any and all Securities of that series that shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and premium, if any, and, to the extent that such payment is enforceable under applicable law, upon overdue installments of interest, at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series to the date of such payment or deposit) and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06, and (ii) any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the nonpayment of principal on (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on Securities of that series that shall not have become due by their terms, shall have been remedied or waived as provided in Section 6.06.

 

No such rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

(d) In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right with respect to Securities of that series under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned because of such rescission or annulment or for any other reason or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceedings, the Company and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Company and the Trustee shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

 

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Section 6.02 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

 

(a) The Company covenants that (i) in case it shall default in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of a series, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series as and when the same shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 90 days, or (ii) in case it shall default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of a series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of a series or upon redemption or upon declaration or otherwise then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Company will pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the holders of the Securities of that series, the whole amount that then shall have been become due and payable on all such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) or interest, or both, as the case may be, with interest upon the overdue principal (and premium, if any) and (to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law) upon overdue installments of interest at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series; and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06.

 

(b) If the Company shall fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law or equity out of the property of the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series, wherever situated.

 

(c) In case of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, readjustment, arrangement, composition or judicial proceedings affecting the Company, or its creditors or property, the Trustee shall have power to intervene in such proceedings and take any action therein that may be permitted by the court and shall (except as may be otherwise provided by law) be entitled to file such proofs of claim and other papers and documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee and of the holders of Securities of such series allowed for the entire amount due and payable by the Company under the Indenture at the date of institution of such proceedings and for any additional amount that may become due and payable by the Company after such date, and to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claim, and to distribute the same after the deduction of the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and any receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization is hereby authorized by each of the holders of Securities of such series to make such payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to such Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it under Section 7.06.

 

(d) All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the terms established with respect to Securities of that series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of such Securities, or the production thereof at any trial or other proceeding relative thereto, and any such suit or proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for payment to the Trustee of any amounts due under Section 7.06, be for the ratable benefit of the holders of the Securities of such series.

 

In case of an Event of Default hereunder, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any of such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in the Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture, or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

 

Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of that series or the rights of any Securityholder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.

 

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Section 6.03 Application of Moneys Collected.

 

Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article with respect to a particular series of Securities shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, upon presentation of the Securities of that series, and notation thereon of the payment, if only partially paid, and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

FIRST: To the payment of costs and expenses of collection and of all amounts payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06;

 

SECOND: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon Securities of such series for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, respectively; and

 

THIRD: To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Company or any other Person lawfully entitled thereto.

 

Section 6.04 Limitation on Suits.

 

No holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any suit, action or proceeding in equity or at law upon or under or with respect to this Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless (i) such Securityholder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof with respect to the Securities of such series specifying such Event of Default, as hereinbefore provided; (ii) the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action, suit or proceeding in its own name as Trustee hereunder; (iii) such Securityholder or Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred in compliance with such request; (iv) the Trustee for 90 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity, shall have failed to institute any such action, suit or proceeding and (v) during such 90 day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series do not give the Trustee a direction inconsistent with the request.

 

Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary or any other provisions of this Indenture, the right of any holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Security, as therein provided, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security (or in the case of redemption, on the redemption date), or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates or redemption date, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such holder and by accepting a Security hereunder it is expressly understood, intended and covenanted by the taker and holder of every Security of such series with every other such taker and holder and the Trustee, that no one or more holders of Securities of such series shall have any right in any manner whatsoever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of the holders of any other of such Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such holder, or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all holders of Securities of such series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

 

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Section 6.05 Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

 

(a) Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.07, all powers and remedies given by this Article to the Trustee or to the Securityholders shall, to the extent permitted by law, be deemed cumulative and not exclusive of any other powers and remedies available to the Trustee or the holders of the Securities, by judicial proceedings or otherwise, to enforce the performance or observance of the covenants and agreements contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to such Securities.

 

(b) No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any holder of any of the Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power, or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such default or an acquiescence therein; and, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, every power and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders.

 

Section 6.06 Control by Securityholders.

 

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to such series; provided, however, that such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture or subject the Trustee in its sole discretion to personal liability. Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer or officers of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed, subject to the Trustee’s duties under the Trust Indenture Act, would involve the Trustee in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the Securityholders not involved in the proceeding. The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding affected thereby, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, may on behalf of the holders of all of the Securities of such series waive any past default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.01 with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities otherwise than by acceleration (unless such default has been cured and a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest and principal and any premium has been deposited with the Trustee (in accordance with Section 6.01(c)). Upon any such waiver, the default covered thereby shall be deemed to be cured for all purposes of this Indenture and the Company, the Trustee and the holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

Section 6.07 Undertaking to Pay Costs.

 

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each holder of any Securities by such holder’s acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees and expenses, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder, or group of Securityholders, holding more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

 

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ARTICLE 7

 

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 7.01 Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee.

 

(a) The Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing of all Events of Default with respect to the Securities of that series that may have occurred, shall undertake to perform with respect to the Securities of such series such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (that has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs.

 

(b) No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:

 

(i) prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing or waiving of all such Events of Default with respect to that series that may have occurred:

 

(A) the duties and obligations of the Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of such series be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to the Securities of such series except for the performance of such duties and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and

 

(B) in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may with respect to the Securities of such series conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions that by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture;

 

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(ii) the Trustee shall not be liable to any Securityholder or to any other Person for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

 

(iii) the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of that series;

 

(iv) none of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers if there is reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or liability is not reasonably assured to it under the terms of this Indenture or adequate indemnity against such risk is not reasonably assured to it;

 

(v) The Trustee shall not be required to give any bond or surety in respect of the performance of its powers or duties hereunder;

 

(vi) The permissive right of the Trustee to do things enumerated in this Indenture shall not be construed as a duty of the Trustee; and

 

(vii) No Trustee shall have any duty or responsibility for any act or omission of any other Trustee appointed with respect to a series of Securities hereunder.

 

Section 7.02 Certain Rights of Trustee.

 

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01:

 

(a) The Trustee may conclusively rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

 

(b) Any request, direction, order or demand of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution or an instrument signed in the name of the Company by any authorized Officer of the Company (unless other evidence in respect thereof is specifically prescribed herein);

 

(c) The Trustee may consult with counsel and the opinion or written advice of such counsel or, if requested, any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken or suffered or omitted hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;

 

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(d) The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity reasonably acceptable to the Trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities that may be incurred therein or thereby; nothing contained herein shall, however, relieve the Trustee of the obligation, upon the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to a series of the Securities (that has not been cured or waived), to exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and to use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs;

 

(e) The Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

 

(f) The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security, or other papers or documents or inquire as to the performance by the Company of one of its covenants under this Indenture, unless requested in writing so to do by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of the particular series affected thereby (determined as provided in Section 8.04); provided, however, that if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require security or indemnity reasonably acceptable to the Trustee against such costs, expenses or liabilities as a condition to so proceeding. The reasonable expense of every such examination shall be paid by the Company or, if paid by the Trustee, shall be repaid by the Company upon demand;

 

(g) The Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder;

 

(h) In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services; it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances;

 

(i) In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for special, indirect, punitive or consequential loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including, but not limited to, loss of profit) irrespective of whether the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage and regardless of the form of action; and

 

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(j) The Trustee agrees to accept and act upon instructions or directions pursuant to this Indenture sent by unsecured e-mail, facsimile transmission or other similar unsecured electronic methods; provided, however, that such instructions or directions shall be signed by an authorized representative of the party providing such instructions or directions. If the party elects to give the Trustee e-mail or facsimile instructions (or instructions by a similar electronic method) and the Trustee in its discretion elects to act upon such instructions, the Trustee’s understanding of such instructions shall be deemed controlling. The Trustee shall not be liable for any losses, costs or expenses arising directly or indirectly from the Trustee’s reliance upon and compliance with such instructions notwithstanding such instructions conflict or are inconsistent with a subsequent written instruction. The party providing electronic instructions agrees to assume all risks arising out of the use of such electronic methods to submit instructions and directions to the Trustee, including without limitation the risk of the Trustee acting on unauthorized instructions, and the risk or interception and misuse by third parties. The Trustee may request that the Company deliver an Officer’s Certificate setting forth the names of individuals and/or titles of officers authorized at such time to furnish the Trustee with Officer’s Certificates, Company Orders and any other matters or directions pursuant to this Indenture.

 

(k) The rights, privileges, protections, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee, including, without limitation, its right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by, the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder and under the Securities, and each agent, custodian or other person employed to act under this Indenture.

 

(l) The Trustee shall not be deemed to have knowledge of any Default or Event of Default (other than an Event of Default constituting the failure to pay the interest on, or the principal of, the Securities if the Trustee also serves the paying agent for such Securities) until the Trustee shall have received written notification in the manner set forth in this Indenture or a Responsible Officer of the Trustee shall have obtained actual knowledge.

 

Section 7.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities.

 

(a) The recitals contained herein and in the Securities shall be taken as the statements of the Company, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same. The Trustee shall not be responsible for any statement in any registration statement, prospectus, or any other document in connection with the sale of Securities. The Trustee shall not be responsible for any rating on the Securities or any action or omission of any rating agency.

 

(b) The Trustee makes no representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities.

 

(c) The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Company of any of the Securities or of the proceeds of such Securities, or for the use or application of any moneys paid over by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture or established pursuant to Section 2.01, or for the use or application of any moneys received by any paying agent other than the Trustee.

 

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Section 7.04 May Hold Securities.

 

The Trustee or any paying agent or Security Registrar, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, paying agent or Security Registrar.

 

Section 7.05 Moneys Held in Trust.

 

Subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder except such as it may agree with the Company to pay thereon.

 

Section 7.06 Compensation and Reimbursement.

 

(a) The Company shall pay to the Trustee for each of its capacities hereunder from time to time compensation for its services as the Company and the Trustee shall from time to time agree upon in writing. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee upon request for all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred by it. Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.

 

(b) The Company shall indemnify each of the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder against any loss, liability or expense (including the cost of defending itself and including the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel) incurred by it except as set forth in Section 7.06(c) in the exercise or performance of its powers, rights or duties under this Indenture as Trustee or Agent. The Trustee shall notify the Company promptly of any claim for which it may seek indemnity. The Company shall defend the claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense. The Trustee may have one separate counsel and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel. The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld. This indemnification shall apply to officers, directors, employees, shareholders and agents of the Trustee.

 

(c) The Company need not reimburse any expense or indemnify against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee or by any officer, director, employee, shareholder or agent of the Trustee through negligence or bad faith.

 

(d) To ensure the Company’s payment obligations in this Section, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities on all funds or property held or collected by the Trustee, except that held in trust to pay principal of or interest on particular Securities. When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services in connection with an Event of Default specified in Section 6.01(4) or (5), the expenses (including the reasonable fees and expenses of its counsel) and the compensation for services in connection therewith are to constitute expenses of administration under any bankruptcy law. The provisions of this Section 7.06 shall survive the termination of this Indenture and the resignation or removal of the Trustee.

 

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Section 7.07 Reliance on Officer’s Certificate.

 

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01, whenever in the administration of the provisions of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it reasonably necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting to take any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.

 

Section 7.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests.

 

If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Company shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Section 7.09 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility.

 

There shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to the Securities issued hereunder which shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America or any state or territory thereof or of the District of Columbia, or a corporation or other Person permitted to act as trustee by the Commission, authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers, having a combined capital and surplus of at least fifty million U.S. dollars ($50,000,000), and subject to supervision or examination by federal, state, territorial, or District of Columbia authority.

 

If such corporation or other Person publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of the aforesaid supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation or other Person shall be deemed to be