TABLE OF CONTENTS

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 13, 2020
Registration No. 333-   
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
Bionano Genomics, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
3826
26-1756290
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
Bionano Genomics, Inc.
9540 Towne Centre Drive, Suite 100
San Diego, California 92121
(858) 888-7600
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
R. Erik Holmlin, Ph.D.
President and Chief Executive Officer
Bionano Genomics, Inc.
9540 Towne Centre Drive, Suite 100
San Diego, California 92121
(858) 888-7600
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
R. Erik Holmlin, Ph.D.
President and Chief Executive Officer
Bionano Genomics, Inc.
9540 Towne Centre Drive, Suite 100
San Diego, California 92121
(858) 888-7600
Thomas A. Coll, Esq.
James C. Pennington, Esq.
Cooley LLP
4401 Eastgate Mall
San Diego, California 92121
(858) 550-6000
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this Registration Statement becomes effective.
If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box:
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box: ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” or “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
 
 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of
Securities to be Registered(1)
Proposed Maximum
Aggregate Offering Price(2)
Amount of Registration
Fee(3)
Common stock, par value $0.0001 per share
Common stock, par value $0.0001 per share
Debt Securities
Warrants
Total
$125,000,000
$16,225
(1)
There are being registered hereunder such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock, such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities and such indeterminate number of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities as shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $125,000,000. If any debt securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the principal amount of such debt securities shall be in such greater amount as shall result in an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $125,000,000, less the aggregate dollar amount of all securities previously issued hereunder. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or in combination with other securities registered hereunder. The securities registered also include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock and amount of debt securities as may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for preferred stock or debt securities that provide for conversion or exchange, upon exercise of warrants or pursuant to the anti-dilution provisions of any such securities. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, the shares being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.
(2)
The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per class of security will be determined from time to time by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.
(3)
Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment that specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXPLANATORY NOTE
This registration statement contains two prospectuses:
a base prospectus which covers the offering, issuance and sale by Bionano Genomics, Inc., or Bionano, of such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock, such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities, and such indeterminate number of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities, which together shall have a maximum aggregate offering price not to exceed $125,000,000; and
a prospectus relating to an At Market Issuance Sales Agreement, or the Sales Agreement, with Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc., covering the offering, issuance and sale by Bionano of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $40,000,000 of Bionano’s common stock that may be offered, issued and sold from time to time under the Sales Agreement prospectus.
The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be provided in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus.
The prospectus relating to the Sales Agreement immediately follows the base prospectus. The $40,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold by Bionano under the Sales Agreement prospectus is included in the $125,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by Bionano under the base prospectus. Upon any termination of the Sales Agreement or suspension or termination of the Sales Agreement prospectus, any portion of the $40,000,000 included in the Sales Agreement prospectus that is not sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement, and if no shares are sold under the Sales Agreement, the full $40,000,000 of securities may be sold in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities or accept an offer to buy these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where such offer or sale is not permitted.
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED AUGUST 13, 2020
PROSPECTUS

$125,000,000
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Warrants
From time to time, we may offer and sell up to an aggregate amount of $125,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, either individually or in combination. We may also offer common stock or preferred stock upon conversion of debt securities, common stock upon conversion of preferred stock, or common stock, preferred stock or debt securities upon the exercise of warrants.
We will provide the specific terms of these offerings and securities in one or more supplements to this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated by reference, before buying any of the securities being offered.
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the trading symbol “BNGO.” On August 12, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $0.77 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to other listings, if any, on the Nasdaq Capital Market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, you should review carefully the risks described under the heading “Risk Factors” on page 6 of this prospectus and any similar section contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, and under similar headings in the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.
The securities may be sold directly by us to investors, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers, on a continuous or delayed basis. The supplements to this prospectus will provide the specific terms of the plan of distribution. If any agents or underwriters are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such agents or underwriters and any applicable fees, commissions, discounts and options to purchase additional shares will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is      , 2020

TABLE OF CONTENTS

i

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration statement, we may, from time to time, offer and sell, either individually or in combination, in one or more offerings, up to a total dollar amount of $125,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus.
This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain more specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We urge you to read carefully this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, together with the information incorporated herein by reference as described under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference,” before buying any of the securities being offered.
This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.
You should rely only on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus, any related prospectus supplement and in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with an offering. We have not authorized any other person to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are not making an offer to sell or soliciting an offer to buy our securities in any jurisdiction in which an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making that offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make an offer or solicitation. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any related prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, any related prospectus supplement and in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus, any related prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections of this prospectus captioned “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.”
We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, our securities only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus and any related prospectus supplement and the offering of our securities in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus and any related prospectus supplement must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of our securities and the distribution of this prospectus and any related prospectus supplement outside the United States. This prospectus and any related prospectus supplement does not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus and any related prospectus supplement by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.
We obtained the industry and market data in this prospectus from our own research as well as from industry and general publications, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. These data involve a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. In addition, projections, assumptions and estimates of our future performance and the future performance of the industry in which we operate is necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus, any related prospectus supplement and documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any related prospectus supplement. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by the independent parties and by us.
ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

For investors outside the United States: Neither we nor the selling stockholders have done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the shares of common stock and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States.
Unless otherwise stated, all references in this prospectus to “we,” “us,” “our,” “Bionano,” the “Company” and similar designations refer to Bionano Genomics, Inc. The Bionano Genomics logo is a trademark of Bionano Genomics, Inc. We use “Bionano Genomics” as a trademark in the United States and other countries and have registered this trademark in the United States. This prospectus contains references to our trademarks and to trademarks belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus, including logos, artwork and other visual displays, may appear without the ® or ™ symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names or trademarks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.
iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus and the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act. These statements relate to future events or to our future operating or financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performances or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements may include, but are not limited to, statements about:
the size and growth potential of the markets for our products, and our ability to serve those markets;
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and operations;
the rate and degree of market acceptance of our products;
ability to expand our sales organization to address effectively existing and new markets that we intend to target;
impact from future regulatory, judicial, and legislative changes or developments in the U.S. and foreign countries;
ability to compete effectively in a competitive industry;
the success of competing technologies that are or may become available;
the performance of our third-party contract sales organizations, suppliers and manufacturers;
our ability to attract and retain key scientific or management personnel;
the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues, reimbursement rates, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;
our ability to comply with the covenants and satisfy certain conditions of our debt facility;
our ability to obtain funding for our operations; and
our ability to attract collaborators and strategic partnerships.
In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “projects,” “predicts,” “potential” and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and are subject to risks and uncertainties. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. We discuss in greater detail many of these risks under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement, in any free writing prospectuses we may authorize for use in connection with a specific offering, and in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K and in our most recent quarterly report on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus in their entirety. Also, these forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of the document containing the applicable statement. Unless required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect new information or future events or developments. Thus, you should not assume that our silence over time means that actual events are bearing out as expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements. You should read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement, together with the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements in the foregoing documents by these cautionary statements.
iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
The following summary highlights information contained or incorporated by reference elsewhere in this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you should consider in making your investment decision. Before investing in our common stock, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as the information under the caption “Risk Factors” herein, the prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
Company Overview
We are a genome analysis company providing tools and services based on our Saphyr® system to scientists and clinicians conducting genetic research and patient testing. We developed the Saphyr system, a platform for ultra-sensitive and ultra-specific structural variation detection, that enables researchers and clinicians to accelerate the search for new diagnostics and therapeutic targets and to streamline the evaluation of changes in chromosomes, which is known as cytogenetics. Our commercial offering includes the Saphyr system, which is comprised of an instrument, chip consumables, reagents and a suite of data analysis tools, and genome analysis services to provide access to data generated by the Saphyr system for researchers who prefer not to adopt the Saphyr system in their labs.
Structural variation refers to large-scale structural differences in the genomic DNA of one individual compared to another. Each structural variation involves the rearrangement or repetition of as few as several hundred to as many as tens of millions of DNA base pairs. Structural variations may be inherited or arise spontaneously, and many structural variations cause genetic disorders and diseases. Until our commercial launch of the Saphyr system in February 2017, and since, we believe no other products existed or exist that could more comprehensively and cost and time-efficiently detect structural variation.
Our customers include researchers and clinicians who seek to uncover and understand the biological or clinical impact of genome variation to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with better clinical tests and new medicines or to replace existing cytogenetic tests that are expensive, slow and labor-intense, with a modern solution designed to simplify workflow and reduce cost and that has the potential to significantly increase diagnostic yields across the industry. Our customers also include researchers in non-human segments, such as agricultural genomics, seeking to advance their understanding of how structural variation impacts industrial applications of plants and animals. We have established relationships with key opinion leaders in genomics research and clinical applications, including rare diseases and oncology, and our installed base of over 138 systems made up of Saphyr and its predecessor system, includes some of the world’s most prominent clinical, translational research, basic research, academic and government institutions as well as leading pharmaceutical and diagnostic companies. Examples include Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Children’s National Health System, Boston Children’s Hospital, PerkinElmer, GeneDx, Mayo Clinic, Columbia University, DuPont Pioneer, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Genentech, McDonnell Genome Institute at Washington University, National Institutes of Health, Pennsylvania State University, Radboud University Medical Center and Salk Institute for Biological Studies.
Approximately 7,000 research use only, or RUO, high throughput sequencers are currently installed worldwide. These sequencers are developed and sold almost entirely by Illumina and are owned by an estimated 3,000 unique customers. Sequencing is very good at detecting genome differences involving just a few base pairs or single-nucleotide variations, which Saphyr cannot detect, but sequencing, including next-generation sequencing, or NGS, cannot reliably detect the larger structural variations that our Saphyr system can detect. Therefore, Saphyr is being adopted alongside this installed base of sequencers as a complement that is designed to give users the ability to see a much wider scope of genome variation than ever before.
The Saphyr system, which is for RUO, is also beginning to be adopted by cytogenetics labs that seek to use it in commercial clinical tests of its patients as a laboratory-developed test, or LDT. We estimate that approximately 2,500 cytogenetics labs exist worldwide. These labs currently rely on existing methods such as karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization, or FISH, and microarrays for clinical tests and research that look at chromosomal structure, location and function in cells. Major guidelines for oncology and genetic disease clinical diagnostics recommend first-line structural variation testing by these existing methods. The organizations issuing
1

TABLE OF CONTENTS

these guidelines include, among many others, World Health Organization (WHO), National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) and American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (ACOG).
More than 30 medical institutions are conducting more than 20 human translational research and human clinical studies in 2019 and 2020 to assess Saphyr’s ability to detect structural variations and diagnose patients and, in certain studies, to compare those results to those produced via existing cytogenetic methods. We expect the findings from these studies, whether assessed internally or published by the institution, beginning in late 2020 or early 2021.
Saphyr and its predecessor system have been cited by researchers and clinicians in hundreds of publications covering structural variations in areas of high unmet medical need and research interest, such as rare and undiagnosed pediatric diseases, muscular diseases, developmental delays and disorders, prostate cancer and leukemia. Importantly, Saphyr can be used alone to provide comprehensive detection of structural variations and enable diagnostic calls without the need for sequencing or cytogenetic technology. Saphyr enables these diagnostic calls with low cost per patient, high speed and industry leading performance. Saphyr’s performance characteristics include up to 99% sensitivity, less than 2% false positive rates and accurate diagnosis with allele fraction, or the percentage of sample exhibiting the variant, as low as between 3-5%.
In 2020, we launched a new commercial strategy based on the following three approaches:
Get the Service. Customers can submit samples to Bionano Data Services and receive an appropriately filtered set of structural variant calls. Structural variation data is then presented using the Bionano Access visualization software, and files can be exported in the format of choice. Pricing for this service is $650 per genome for standard samples and $750 per genome for mosaic and cancer samples.
Get the Consumables. For customers who commit to purchase at least 120 genomes every six months, the Bionano Support team will install the Saphyr System on the customer’s premises and provide training on sample preparation, instrument operation and data analysis. Pricing for this service is $550 per genome, with installation and training included at no cost, and the Saphyr instrument made available at no charge for the duration of the customer’s project.
Get the Saphyr System. For customers who purchase the Saphyr System, the Bionano Support team will install the Saphyr System and provide training on sample preparation, instrument operation and data analysis. Pricing begins at $150,000 for the Saphyr instrument, $550 per genome or $450 per genome with a 240 genome bundle, with installation and training included at no cost.
Corporate Information
We were formed in January 2003 as BioNanomatrix LLC, a Delaware limited liability company. In August 2007, we became BioNanomatrix Inc., a Delaware corporation. In October 2011, we changed our name to BioNano Genomics, Inc., and in July 2018, we changed our name to Bionano Genomics, Inc.
Our principal executive offices are located at 9540 Towne Centre Drive, Suite 100, San Diego, California 92121, and our telephone number is (858) 888-7600. Our website address is www.bionanogenomics.com and we regularly post copies of our press releases as well as additional information about us on our website.
Information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider information on our website to be part of this prospectus. Our design logo, “Bionano,” and our other registered and common law trade names, trademarks and service marks are the property of Bionano Genomics, Inc.
The trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trademarks, trade names or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies or products.
The Securities We May Offer
We may offer shares of our common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in combination, up to a total dollar amount of $125,000,000, from time to time under this prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplement and
2

TABLE OF CONTENTS

any related free writing prospectus, at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of any offering. We may also offer common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities upon the exercise of warrants. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:
designation or classification;
aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;
maturity date, if applicable;
original issue discount, if any;
rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;
redemption, conversion, exercise, exchange or sinking fund terms, if any;
conversion or exchange prices or rates, if any, and, if applicable, any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the conversion or exchange prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable upon conversion or exchange;
ranking;
restrictive covenants, if any;
voting or other rights, if any; and
material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations, if any.
The applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents we have incorporated by reference. However, no prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO CONSUMMATE A SALE OF SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.
We may sell the securities directly to investors or to or through agents, underwriters or dealers. We and our agents or underwriters, reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we do offer securities to or through agents or underwriters, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:
the names of those agents or underwriters;
applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;
details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and
the net proceeds to us.
Common Stock. We may issue shares of our common stock from time to time. The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any outstanding shares of preferred stock, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratably such dividends as may be declared by our board of directors out of legally available funds. Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock are entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of liabilities and the liquidation preferences of any outstanding shares of preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive rights and no right to convert their common stock into any other securities. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the common stock under “Description of Capital Stock — Common stock.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to any common stock being offered.
3

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preferred Stock. We may issue shares of our preferred stock from time to time, in one or more series. Our board of directors will determine the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, including dividend rights, conversion rights, preemptive rights, terms of redemption or repurchase, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of any series. Preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock or exchangeable for other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at your option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.
If we sell any series of preferred stock under this prospectus, we will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock of each series we issue under this prospectus, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that contains the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the preferred stock under “Description of Capital Stock — Preferred stock.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of preferred stock being offered, as well as the complete certificate of designation that contains the terms of the applicable series of preferred stock.
Debt Securities. We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. The senior debt securities will rank equally with any other unsecured and unsubordinated debt. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment, to the extent and in the manner described in the instrument governing the debt, to all of our senior indebtedness. Convertible debt securities will be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at your option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.
Any debt securities issued under this prospectus will be issued under one or more documents called indentures, which are contracts between us and a national banking association or other eligible party, as trustee. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the debt securities under “Description of Debt Securities.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of debt securities being offered, as well as the complete indentures that contain the terms of the debt securities. We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.
Warrants. We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or in combination with common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the warrants under “Description of Warrants.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the particular series of warrants being offered, as well as any warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants. We have filed forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants that may be offered as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants.
Any warrants issued under this prospectus may be evidenced by warrant certificates. Warrants also may be issued under an applicable warrant agreement that we enter into with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of warrants being offered.
4

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Use of Proceeds
Except as described in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by us hereunder, if any, for working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds” in this prospectus.
Nasdaq Capital Market Listing
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “BNGO.” The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to other listings, if any, on the Nasdaq Capital Market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company
We are an emerging growth company, as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in this prospectus and our periodic reports and proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding nonbinding advisory votes on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We can remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of (1) the last day of the fiscal year (a) ending December 31, 2023, which is the end of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the closing of our initial public offering, (b) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion, or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the prior June 30th, and (2) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period. Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, we may still qualify as a “smaller reporting company” which would allow us to take advantage of many of the same exemptions from disclosure requirements, including reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements. Additionally, even if we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, as long as we are neither a “large accelerated filer” nor an “accelerated filer,” we would not be required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.
We cannot predict if investors will find our securities less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions, which could result in a less active trading market for our securities and increased volatility in the price of our securities.
Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can also delay adopting new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until those standards apply to private companies. We have elected to use this extended transition period. As a result of this election, our timeline to comply with these standards will in many cases be delayed as compared to other public companies that are not eligible to take advantage of this election or have not made this election. Therefore, our financial statements may not be comparable to those of companies that comply with the public company effective dates for these standards.
In addition, if we cease to be an emerging growth company, we will no longer be able to use the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. As a result, changes in rules of U.S. generally accepted accounting principles or their interpretation, the adoption of new guidance or the application of existing guidance to changes in our business could significantly affect our financial position and results of operations.
Finally, we are a “smaller reporting company” (and may continue to qualify as such even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company) and accordingly may provide less public disclosure than larger public companies, including the inclusion of only two years of audited financial statements and only two years of related selected financial data and management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations disclosure. As a result, the information that we provide to our stockholders may be different than you might receive from other public reporting companies in which you hold equity interests.
5

TABLE OF CONTENTS

RISK FACTORS
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and discussed under the section entitled “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering. The risks described in these documents are not the only ones we face, but those that we consider to be material. There may be other unknown or unpredictable economic, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that could have material adverse effects on our future results. Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance, and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment. Please also read carefully the section below entitled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
6

TABLE OF CONTENTS

USE OF PROCEEDS
Except as described in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by us hereunder, if any, for working capital and general corporate purposes, including research and development expenses and capital expenditures, or for any other purpose we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement.
7

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
The following description of our capital stock, certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, and certain provisions of Delaware law are summaries. The following description is not complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, as well as the relevant provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law.
As of the date of this prospectus, our certificate of incorporation authorized us to issue 200,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share.
Common Stock
Voting Rights
Our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, including the election of directors, and does not have cumulative voting rights. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation establishes a classified board of directors that is divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms. Only the directors in one class will be subject to election by a plurality of the votes cast at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the directors in the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms.
Economic Rights
Except as otherwise expressly provided in our certificate of incorporation or required by applicable law, all shares of common stock have the same rights and privileges and rank equally, share ratably, and are identical in all respects for all matters, including those described below.
Dividends. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then-outstanding preferred stock, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of legally available funds.
Liquidation Rights. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, holders of our common stock are entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities, subject to the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any outstanding shares of preferred stock.
No Preemptive or Similar Rights
The holders of our shares of common stock are not entitled to preemptive rights, and are not subject to conversion, redemption or sinking fund provisions. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.
Fully Paid and Non-Assessable
All of our outstanding shares of common stock are, and the shares of common stock to be issued in this offering will be, fully paid and nonassessable.
Preferred Stock
Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of the common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in our control that may otherwise benefit holders of our common stock and may adversely affect the market price of the common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of common stock. We have no current plans to issue any shares of preferred stock.
8

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Anti-Takeover Provisions
The provisions of Delaware law, our eighth amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws, certain provisions of which are summarized below, may have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another person from acquiring control of our company. They are also designed, in part, to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to negotiate first with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with an unfriendly or unsolicited acquirer outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging a proposal to acquire us because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.
Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws to be in Effect upon the Closing of this Offering
Because our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights, stockholders holding a majority of the voting power of our shares of common stock may be able to elect all of our directors. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws provide for stockholder actions at a duly called meeting of stockholders or, before the date on which all shares of common stock convert into a single class, by written consent. A special meeting of stockholders may be called by a majority of our board of directors, the chair of our board of directors, or our chief executive officer. Our amended and restated bylaws establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of our stockholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors. Our board of directors is divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms.
The foregoing provisions make it difficult for another party to obtain control of us by replacing our board of directors. Since our board of directors has the power to retain and discharge our officers, these provisions could also make it more difficult for existing stockholders or another party to effect a change in management. In addition, the authorization of undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to change our control.
These provisions are designed to reduce our vulnerability to an unsolicited acquisition proposal and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. However, such provisions could have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares and may have the effect of deterring hostile takeovers or delaying changes in our control or management. As a consequence, these provisions may also inhibit fluctuations in the market price of our stock that could result from actual or rumored takeover attempts.
Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law
We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, subject to certain exceptions.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
Our transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC. The transfer agent for any series of preferred stock that we may offer under this prospectus will be named and described in the prospectus supplement related to that series.
Listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “BNGO.” The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing, if any, on the Nasdaq Capital Market or any securities market or other exchange of the preferred stock covered by such prospectus supplement.
9

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any debt securities offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the indenture, we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.
We will issue the debt securities under the indenture that we will enter into with trustee named in the indenture. The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act. We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.
The following summary of material provisions of the debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.
General
The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and may be in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations, financial condition or transactions involving us.
We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities,” which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount,” or OID, for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics or terms of the debt securities. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with OID will be described in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement.
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:
the title of the series of debt securities;
any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;
the maturity date or dates;
the form of the debt securities of the series;
the applicability of any guarantees;
whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;
whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;
if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;
10

TABLE OF CONTENTS

the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;
our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;
if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;
the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;
the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;
any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;
whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities;
the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities, and the depositary for such global security or securities;
if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;
if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;
additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;
additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;
additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;
additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;
additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;
the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;
whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;
the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;
any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and
11

TABLE OF CONTENTS

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.
Conversion or Exchange Rights
We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to settlement upon conversion or exchange and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.
Consolidation, Merger or Sale
Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indenture will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets (other than a subsidiary of ours) must assume all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.
Events of Default under the Indenture
Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:
if we fail to pay any installment of interest on any series of debt securities, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by us in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;
if we fail to pay the principal of, or premium, if any, on any series of debt securities as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to such series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;
if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement contained in the debt securities or the indenture, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such is a notice of default thereunder, from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and
if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.
If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.
The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.
12

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Subject to the terms of the indenture, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:
the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and
subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.
A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:
the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;
the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request,
such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and
the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.
These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.
We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indenture.
Modification of Indenture; Waiver
We and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters:
to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities of any series;
to comply with the provisions described above under “Description of Debt Securities—Consolidation, Merger or Sale;”
to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;
to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;
to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;
to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect;
to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the debt securities of any series as provided above under “Description of Debt Securities—General” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;
to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under any indenture by a successor trustee; or
13

TABLE OF CONTENTS

to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.
In addition, under the indenture, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:
extending the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series;
reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption of any series of any debt securities; or
reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.
Discharge
Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:
provide for payment;
register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;
replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;
pay principal of and premium and interest on any debt securities of the series;
maintain paying agencies;
hold monies for payment in trust;
recover excess money held by the trustee;
compensate and indemnify the trustee; and
appoint any successor trustee.
In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.
Form, Exchange and Transfer
We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indenture provides that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, or another depositary named by us and identified in the applicable prospectus supplement with respect to that series. To the extent the debt securities of a series are issued in global form and as book-entry, a description of terms relating to any book entry securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.
Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.
14

TABLE OF CONTENTS

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.
If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:
issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or
register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.
Information Concerning the Trustee
The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.
Payment and Paying Agents
Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.
We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.
All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.
Governing Law
The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is applicable.
15

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplements and in any related free writing prospectuses that we may authorize to be distributed to you, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may consist of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and be issued in one or more series. Warrants may be offered independently or in combination with common stock, preferred stock or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The following description of warrants will apply to the warrants offered by this prospectus unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement for a particular series of warrants may specify different or additional terms.
We have filed forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants that may be offered as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that describe the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the warrants are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement related to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectuses, and the complete form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements, that contain the terms of the warrants.
General
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of warrants being offered, including:
the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;
the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;
if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;
in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;
in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;
the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;
the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;
any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;
the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;
the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;
a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations of holding or exercising the warrants;
the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and
any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.
16

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including:
in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the right to receive payments of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities purchasable upon exercise or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture; or
in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the right to receive dividends, if any, or, payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any.
Exercise of Warrants
Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. The warrants may be exercised as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants offered. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, warrants may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants offered thereby. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.
Upon receipt of payment and the warrant or warrant certificate, as applicable, properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent, if any, or any other office, including ours, indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If less than all of the warrants (or the warrants represented by such warrant certificate) are exercised, a new warrant or a new warrant certificate, as applicable, will be issued for the remaining warrants.
Governing Law
Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, the warrants and any warrant agreements will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.
Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants
Each warrant agent, if any, will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.
17

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES
We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee, depositary or warrant agent maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.
Book-Entry Holders
We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.
Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Securities issued in global form will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for securities issued in global form, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.
As a result, investors in a book-entry security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not holders, of the securities.
Street Name Holders
We may terminate a global security or issue securities in non-global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.
For securities held in street name, we will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.
Legal Holders
Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee and of any third parties employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.
For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that holder is required, under agreements with depositary participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the consequences of a default or of our obligation to comply with a particular provision of the indenture or for other purposes. In such an event, we would seek approval only from the holders, and not the indirect holders, of the securities. Whether and how the holders contact the indirect holders is up to the holders.
18

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Special Considerations For Indirect Holders
If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:
how it handles securities payments and notices;
whether it imposes fees or charges;
how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;
whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;
how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and
if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.
Global Securities
A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.
Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, DTC will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.
A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under the section entitled “Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated” in this prospectus. As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.
If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued in global form only, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.
Special Considerations For Global Securities
The rights of an indirect holder relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.
If securities are issued only in the form of a global security, an investor should be aware of the following:
an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;
an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;
an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;
19

TABLE OF CONTENTS

an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in a global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;
the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in a global security;
we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in a global security, nor do we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;
the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in a global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and
financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in a global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities.
There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.
Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated
In a few special situations described below, the global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own name, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.
Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:
if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;
if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or
if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.
The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and not we or any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.
20

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, direct sales to the public, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods. We may sell the securities to or through underwriters or dealers, through agents, or directly to one or more purchasers. We may distribute securities from time to time in one or more transactions:
at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;
at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;
at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or
at negotiated prices.
A prospectus supplement or supplements (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:
the name or names of the underwriters, if any;
the purchase price of the securities or other consideration therefor, and the proceeds, if any, we will receive from the sale;
any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;
any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;
any public offering price;
any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and
any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.
Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement will be underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement.
If underwriters are used in the sale, they will acquire the securities for their own account and may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement. We may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate. Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement, other than securities covered by any over-allotment option. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may change from time to time. We may use underwriters with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter, the nature of any such relationship.
We may sell securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities and we will describe any commissions we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, our agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.
We may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.
We may provide agents and underwriters with indemnification against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to these liabilities. Agents and underwriters may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.
21

TABLE OF CONTENTS

All securities we may offer, other than common stock, will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities.
Any underwriter may engage in over-allotment, stabilizing transactions, short-covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act. Over-allotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum price. Syndicate-covering or other short-covering transactions involve purchases of the securities, either through exercise of the over-allotment option or in the open market after the distribution is completed, to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time.
Any underwriters or agents that are qualified market makers on the Nasdaq Capital Market may engage in passive market making transactions in the common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the common stock. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may stabilize the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.
In compliance with guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, the maximum consideration or discount to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker dealer may not exceed 8% of the aggregate amount of the securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.
22

TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXPERTS
The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus by reference from the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which is incorporated herein by reference (which report expresses an unqualified opinion on the financial statements and includes an explanatory paragraph referring to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern). Such financial statements have been so incorporated in reliance upon the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.
LEGAL MATTERS
Cooley LLP, San Diego, California, which has acted as our counsel in connection with this offering, will pass on certain legal matters with respect to U.S. federal law in connection with this offering.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
We must comply with the informational requirements of the Exchange Act, and we are required to file reports and proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy these reports, proxy statements and other information on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov, which contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers like us that file electronically with the SEC. We maintain a website at www.bionanogenomics.com. The information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference herein and is not part of this prospectus.
Statements contained in this prospectus as to the contents of any contract or other document are not necessarily complete, and in each instance we refer you to the copy of the contract or document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, each such statement being qualified in all respects by such reference.
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus. Information in this prospectus supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus, while information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus. We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus the documents listed below and any future filings made by us with the SEC (other than current reports or portions thereof furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items and other portions of documents that are furnished, but not filed, pursuant to applicable rules promulgated by the SEC) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, and (ii) after the effectiveness of the registration statement but prior to the termination of the offering of the securities covered by this prospectus:
our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 filed with the SEC on March 10, 2020;
our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020 and June 30, 2020 filed with the SEC on June 18, 2020 and August 13, 2020, respectively;
our Current Reports on Form 8-K (other than information furnished rather than filed) filed with the SEC on January 30, 2020, March 2, 2020, April 6, 2020, April 20, 2020, April 24, 2020, May 5, 2020, May 14, 2020, June 19, 2020 and July 2, 2020; and
the description of our common stock which is registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act, in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed on August 17, 2018, including any amendment or reports filed for the purposes of updating this description.
We will furnish without charge to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request, a copy of any document incorporated by reference. You should direct any requests for documents to Bionano Genomics, Inc. 9540 Towne Centre Drive, Suite 100, San Diego, California 92121; telephone: (858) 888-7600.
23

TABLE OF CONTENTS

In accordance with Rule 412 of the Securities Act, any statement contained in a document incorporated by reference herein shall be deemed modified or superseded to the extent that a statement contained herein or in any other subsequently filed document which also is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference herein modifies or supersedes such statement.
DISCLOSURE OF COMMISSION POSITION ON INDEMNIFICATION FOR SECURITIES ACT LIABILITY
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers, and controlling persons, we have been advised that in the opinion of the SEC this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore, unenforceable.
24

TABLE OF CONTENTS

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities or accept an offer to buy these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where such offer or sale is not permitted.
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED AUGUST 13, 2020
PROSPECTUS

$40,000,000

Common Stock
We have entered into an At Market Issuance Sales Agreement, or the sales agreement, with Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc., or Ladenburg, relating to shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $40,000,000 from time to time through Ladenburg acting as sales agent.
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the trading symbol “BNGO.” On August 12, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $0.77 per share.
Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be “at-the-market” equity offerings as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Ladenburg is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amounts of securities but will act as sales agent and use commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between Ladenburg and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
Ladenburg will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate of up to 3.0% of the aggregate gross sales price per share sold. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page 11 for additional information regarding Ladenburg’s compensation. In connection with the sale of our common stock on our behalf, Ladenburg may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Ladenburg may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, you should review carefully the risks described under the heading “Risk Factors” on page 4 of this prospectus and any similar section contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, and under similar headings in the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Ladenburg Thalmann
The date of this prospectus is    , 2020

TABLE OF CONTENTS

i

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under the shelf registration statement we may offer shares of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities and warrants, including common stock or preferred stock upon conversion of debt securities, common stock upon conversion of preferred stock, or common stock, preferred stock or debt securities upon the exercise of warrants, having an aggregate offering price of up to $125,000,000. Under this prospectus, we may offer shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $40,000,000 from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of offering.
We provide information to you about this offering of shares of our common stock in this prospectus, which describes the specific details regarding this offering. If information in this prospectus is inconsistent with documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus filed prior to the date of this prospectus, you should rely on this prospectus. However, if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement as our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since the earlier dates.
You should rely only on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering. We have not, and Ladenburg has not, authorized any other person to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We and Ladenburg take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are not, and Ladenburg is not, making an offer to sell or soliciting an offer to buy our securities in any jurisdiction in which an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making that offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make an offer or solicitation. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections of this prospectus captioned “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.”
We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference into this prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.
We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus and the offering of our common stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of our common stock and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States. This prospectus does not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.
We obtained the industry and market data in this prospectus from our own research as well as from industry and general publications, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. These data involve a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. In addition, projections, assumptions and estimates of our future performance and the future performance of the industry in which we
ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

operate is necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus and documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by the independent parties and by us.
This prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, include trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or others. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus are the property of their respective owners.
Unless otherwise stated, all references in this prospectus to “we,” “us,” “our,” “Bionano,” the “Company” and similar designations refer to Bionano Genomics, Inc. The Bionano Genomics logo is a trademark of Bionano Genomics, Inc. We use “Bionano Genomics” as a trademark in the United States and other countries and have registered this trademark in the United States. This prospectus contains references to our trademarks and to trademarks belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus, including logos, artwork and other visual displays, may appear without the ® or ™ symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names or trademarks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.
iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus and the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act. These statements relate to future events or to our future operating or financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performances or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements may include, but are not limited to, statements about:
the size and growth potential of the markets for our products, and our ability to serve those markets;
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and operations;
the rate and degree of market acceptance of our products;
ability to expand our sales organization to address effectively existing and new markets that we intend to target;
impact from future regulatory, judicial, and legislative changes or developments in the U.S. and foreign countries;
ability to compete effectively in a competitive industry;
the success of competing technologies that are or may become available;
the performance of our third-party contract sales organizations, suppliers and manufacturers;
our ability to attract and retain key scientific or management personnel;
the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues, reimbursement rates, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;
our ability to comply with the covenants and satisfy certain conditions of our debt facility;
our ability to obtain funding for our operations; and
our ability to attract collaborators and strategic partnerships.
In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “projects,” “predicts,” “potential” and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and are subject to risks and uncertainties. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. We discuss in greater detail many of these risks under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement, in any free writing prospectuses we may authorize for use in connection with a specific offering, and in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K and in our most recent quarterly report on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus in their entirety. Also, these forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of the document containing the applicable statement. Unless required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect new information or future events or developments. Thus, you should not assume that our silence over time means that actual events are bearing out as expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements. You should read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement, together with the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements in the foregoing documents by these cautionary statements.
iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
The following summary highlights information contained or incorporated by reference elsewhere in this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you should consider in making your investment decision. Before investing in our common stock, you should carefully read this entire prospectus and any related free writing prospectus, as well as the information under the caption “Risk Factors” herein and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
Company Overview
We are a genome analysis company providing tools and services based on our Saphyr® system to scientists and clinicians conducting genetic research and patient testing. We developed the Saphyr system, a platform for ultra-sensitive and ultra-specific structural variation detection, that enables researchers and clinicians to accelerate the search for new diagnostics and therapeutic targets and to streamline the evaluation of changes in chromosomes, which is known as cytogenetics. Our commercial offering includes the Saphyr system, which is comprised of an instrument, chip consumables, reagents and a suite of data analysis tools, and genome analysis services to provide access to data generated by the Saphyr system for researchers who prefer not to adopt the Saphyr system in their labs.
Structural variation refers to large-scale structural differences in the genomic DNA of one individual compared to another. Each structural variation involves the rearrangement or repetition of as few as several hundred to as many as tens of millions of DNA base pairs. Structural variations may be inherited or arise spontaneously, and many structural variations cause genetic disorders and diseases. Until our commercial launch of the Saphyr system in February 2017, and since, we believe no other products existed or exist that could more comprehensively and cost and time-efficiently detect structural variation.
Our customers include researchers and clinicians who seek to uncover and understand the biological or clinical impact of genome variation to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with better clinical tests and new medicines or to replace existing cytogenetic tests that are expensive, slow and labor-intense, with a modern solution designed to simplify workflow and reduce cost and that has the potential to significantly increase diagnostic yields across the industry. Our customers also include researchers in non-human segments, such as agricultural genomics, seeking to advance their understanding of how structural variation impacts industrial applications of plants and animals. We have established relationships with key opinion leaders in genomics research and clinical applications, including rare diseases and oncology, and our installed base of over 138 systems made up of Saphyr and its predecessor system, includes some of the world’s most prominent clinical, translational research, basic research, academic and government institutions as well as leading pharmaceutical and diagnostic companies. Examples include Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Children’s National Health System, Boston Children’s Hospital, PerkinElmer, GeneDx, Mayo Clinic, Columbia University, DuPont Pioneer, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Genentech, McDonnell Genome Institute at Washington University, National Institutes of Health, Pennsylvania State University, Radboud University Medical Center and Salk Institute for Biological Studies.
Approximately 7,000 research use only, or RUO, high throughput sequencers are currently installed worldwide. These sequencers are developed and sold almost entirely by Illumina and are owned by an estimated 3,000 unique customers. Sequencing is very good at detecting genome differences involving just a few base pairs or single-nucleotide variations, which Saphyr cannot detect, but sequencing, including next-generation sequencing, or NGS, cannot reliably detect the larger structural variations that our Saphyr system can detect. Therefore, Saphyr is being adopted alongside this installed base of sequencers as a complement that is designed to give users the ability to see a much wider scope of genome variation than ever before.
The Saphyr system, which is for RUO, is also beginning to be adopted by cytogenetics labs that seek to use it in commercial clinical tests of its patients as a laboratory-developed test, or LDT. We estimate that approximately 2,500 cytogenetics labs exist worldwide. These labs currently rely on existing methods such as karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization, or FISH, and microarrays for clinical tests and research that look at chromosomal structure, location and function in cells. Major guidelines for oncology and genetic disease clinical diagnostics recommend first-line structural variation testing by these existing methods. The organizations issuing
1

TABLE OF CONTENTS

these guidelines include, among many others, World Health Organization (WHO), National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) and American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (ACOG).
More than 30 medical institutions are conducting more than 20 human translational research and human clinical studies in 2019 and 2020 to assess Saphyr’s ability to detect structural variations and diagnose patients and, in certain studies, to compare those results to those produced via existing cytogenetic methods. We expect the findings from these studies, whether assessed internally or published by the institution, beginning in late 2020 or early 2021.
Saphyr and its predecessor system have been cited by researchers and clinicians in hundreds of publications covering structural variations in areas of high unmet medical need and research interest, such as rare and undiagnosed pediatric diseases, muscular diseases, developmental delays and disorders, prostate cancer and leukemia. Importantly, Saphyr can be used alone to provide comprehensive detection of structural variations and enable diagnostic calls without the need for sequencing or cytogenetic technology. Saphyr enables these diagnostic calls with low cost per patient, high speed and industry leading performance. Saphyr’s performance characteristics include up to 99% sensitivity, less than 2% false positive rates and accurate diagnosis with allele fraction, or the percentage of sample exhibiting the variant, as low as between 3-5%.
In 2020, we launched a new commercial strategy based on the following three approaches:
Get the Service. Customers can submit samples to Bionano Data Services and receive an appropriately filtered set of structural variant calls. Structural variation data is then presented using the Bionano Access visualization software, and files can be exported in the format of choice. Pricing for this service is $650 per genome for standard samples and $750 per genome for mosaic and cancer samples.
Get the Consumables. For customers who commit to purchase at least 120 genomes every six months, the Bionano Support team will install the Saphyr System on the customer’s premises and provide training on sample preparation, instrument operation and data analysis. Pricing for this service is $550 per genome, with installation and training included at no cost, and the Saphyr instrument made available at no charge for the duration of the customer’s project.
Get the Saphyr System. For customers who purchase the Saphyr System, the Bionano Support team will install the Saphyr System and provide training on sample preparation, instrument operation and data analysis. Pricing begins at $150,000 for the Saphyr instrument, $550 per genome or $450 per genome with a 240 genome bundle, with installation and training included at no cost.
Corporate Information
We were formed in January 2003 as BioNanomatrix LLC, a Delaware limited liability company. In August 2007, we became BioNanomatrix Inc., a Delaware corporation. In October 2011, we changed our name to BioNano Genomics, Inc., and in July 2018, we changed our name to Bionano Genomics, Inc.
Our principal executive offices are located at 9540 Towne Centre Drive, Suite 100, San Diego, California 92121, and our telephone number is (858) 888-7600. Our website address is www.bionanogenomics.com and we regularly post copies of our press releases as well as additional information about us on our website.
Information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider information on our website to be part of this prospectus. Our design logo, “Bionano,” and our other registered and common law trade names, trademarks and service marks are the property of Bionano Genomics, Inc.
The trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trademarks, trade names or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies or products.
2

TABLE OF CONTENTS

The Offering
Common stock offered by us
Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $40,000,000.
Common stock to be outstanding after this offering
Up to 143,923,096 shares (as more fully described in the notes following this table), assuming sales of 51,948,051 shares of our common stock in this offering at an offering price of $0.77 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on August 12, 2020. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.
Manner of offering
“At-the-market” offering that may be made from time to time through the sales agent, Ladenburg. See “Plan of Distribution” on page 11.
Use of proceeds
We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, for working capital and general corporate purposes, including research and development expenses, discharge of indebtedness and capital expenditures. See “Use of Proceeds” on page 6.
Risk factors
An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” and the other information included in this prospectus and incorporated by reference herein for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our common stock.
National Securities Exchange Listing
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “BNGO.”
The number of shares of our common stock that will be outstanding after this offering is based on 91,975,045 shares of common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020, and assumes the sale and issuance by us of 51,948,051 shares of common stock in this offering and excludes:
2,987,691 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding as of June 30, 2020 at a weighted average exercise price of $3.34 per share;
5,343,380 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan as of June 30, 2020;
341,427 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2018 Employee Stock Purchase Plan as of June 30, 2020;
75,414,050 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of common warrants outstanding as of June 30, 2020 at a weighted-average exercise price of $0.80 per share, under which 42,005,000 shares of common stock have been issued between July 1, 2020 and August 12, 2020; and
4,500,000 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of pre-funded warrants outstanding as of June 30, 2020 at a weighted-average exercise price of $0.001 per share, under which 4,500,000 shares of common stock have been issued between July 1, 2020 and August 12, 2020.
3

TABLE OF CONTENTS

RISK FACTORS
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should consider carefully the following risks and uncertainties as well as the risks and uncertainties described in the section entitled “Risk Factors” contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, as filed with the SEC on March 10, 2020, as well as in our subsequent Quarterly and Annual Reports filed with the SEC, which descriptions are incorporated in this prospectus by reference in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering. These risks and uncertainties are not the only risks and uncertainties we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us, or that we currently view as immaterial, may also impair our business. If any of the risks or uncertainties described in our SEC filings or any additional risks and uncertainties actually occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow could be materially and adversely affected. In that case, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you might lose all or part of your investment. You should carefully consider the following information about risks, together with the other information contained in this prospectus, before making an investment in our common stock.
Risks Related to This Offering
Management will have broad discretion as to the use of the proceeds from this offering, and may not use the proceeds effectively.
Because we have not designated the amount of net proceeds from this offering to be used for any particular purpose, our management will have broad discretion as to the application of the net proceeds from this offering and could use them for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of the offering. Our management may use the net proceeds for corporate purposes that may not improve our financial condition or market value.
You may experience immediate and substantial dilution.
The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. Assuming that 51,948,051 shares of our common stock are sold in this offering, based on an assumed sale price of $0.77 per share, the last sale price of a share of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on August 12, 2020, you will experience immediate dilution, representing the difference between the price you pay and our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2020, after giving effect to this offering, of $0.46 per share. The exercise of outstanding stock options may result in further dilution of your investment. See the section titled “Dilution” below for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you would incur if you participate in this offering.
Sales of our common stock in this offering, or the perception that such sales may occur, could cause the market price of our common stock to fall.
We may issue and sell shares of our common stock for aggregate gross proceeds of up to $40,000,000 from time to time in connection with this offering. The actual number of shares of common stock that may be issued and sold in this offering, as well as the timing of any such sales, will depend on a number of factors, including, among others, the prices at which any shares are actually sold this offering (which may be influenced by market conditions, the trading price of our common stock and other factors) and our determinations as to the appropriate timing, sources and amounts of funding we need. The issuance and sale from time to time of these new shares of common stock, or the mere fact that we are able to issue and sell these shares in this offering, could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.
You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.
To raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering.
4

TABLE OF CONTENTS

We do not intend to pay dividends in the foreseeable future.
We have never paid cash dividends on our common stock and currently do not plan to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.
It is not possible to predict the aggregate proceeds resulting from sales made under the sales agreement.
Subject to certain limitations in the sales agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a placement notice to the sales agent, Ladenburg, at any time throughout the term of the sales agreement. The number of shares that are sold through Ladenburg after delivering a placement notice will fluctuate based on a number of factors, including the market price of our common stock during the sales period, any limits we may set with Ladenburg in any applicable placement notice and the demand for our common stock. Because the price per share of each share sold pursuant to the sales agreement will fluctuate over time, it is not currently possible to predict the aggregate proceeds to be raised in connection with sales under the sales agreement.
Sales of common stock offered hereby will be in “at the market offerings,” and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.
Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and accordingly may experience different levels of dilution and different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices and number of shares sold in this offering. In addition, subject to the final determination by our board of directors or any restrictions we may place in any applicable placement notice delivered to Ladenburg, there is no minimum or maximum sales price for shares to be sold in this offering. Investors may experience a decline in the value of the shares they purchase in this offering as a result of sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.
5

TABLE OF CONTENTS

USE OF PROCEEDS
We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $40,000,000 from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required pursuant to the sales agreement, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. Actual net proceeds will depend on the number of shares we sell and the prices at which such sales occur. There can be no assurance that we will sell any shares under or fully utilize the sales agreement as a source of financing.
We currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the common stock offered by us hereunder, if any, for working capital and general corporate purposes, including research and development expenses and capital expenditures. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to repay indebtedness under the Innovatus Loan Agreement (as defined below) and co-develop, acquire or invest in products, technologies or businesses that are complementary to our business. However, we currently have no agreements or commitments for any such uses of proceeds.
As noted above, we may use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to repay some or all of the aggregate principal amount or accrued interest outstanding under our Loan and Security Agreement, or the Innovatus Loan Agreement, with Innovatus Life Sciences Lending Fund I, LP, a Delaware limited partnership, as collateral agent, and the Lenders listed on Schedule 1.1 thereto. The total interest rate under the Innovatus Loan Agreement is 10.25%, such that interest is payable in cash at a rate of 7.25% per annum, with the remaining 3.0% per annum of the interest added back to the outstanding principal amount. The Innovatus Loan Agreement matures on March 1, 2024.
The amounts and timing of our use of the net proceeds from this offering will depend on a number of factors, such as the timing and progress of our research and development efforts, the timing and progress of any partnering and commercialization efforts, technological advances and the competitive environment for our products. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to us from the sale of the securities offered by us hereunder. Accordingly, our management will have broad discretion in the timing and application of these proceeds. Pending application of the net proceeds as described above, we intend to temporarily invest the proceeds in short-term, interest-bearing instruments.
6

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DILUTION
If you invest in our common stock, your ownership interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share of our common stock and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after the closing of this offering.
Our historical net tangible book value as of June 30, 2020 was $5.8 million, or $0.06 per share of common stock. Our historical net tangible book value is the amount of our total tangible assets less our liabilities. Historical net tangible book value per common share is our historical net tangible book value divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020.
After giving effect to the assumed sale of 51,948,051 shares of our common stock at a sale price of $0.77 per share, the last sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on August 12, 2020, our net tangible book value as of June 30, 2020, would have been $44.3 million, or $0.31 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in the net tangible book value of $0.25 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $0.46 per share to new investors purchasing shares in this offering.
The following table illustrates this per share dilution:
Assumed offering price per share
 
$0.77
Historical net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2020
$0.06
 
Increase in as adjusted net tangible book value per share attributable to this offering
0.25
 
As adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering
 
0.31
Dilution per share to new investors in this offering
 
0.46
The discussion and table above assume no exercise of outstanding warrants to purchase our common stock and no exercise of outstanding options to purchase our common stock.
Changes in the assumed public offering price of $0.25 per share would not affect our as adjusted net tangible book value after this offering because this offering is currently limited to $40.0 million. However, a $0.25 increase in the assumed public offering price of $0.77 per share would increase the dilution per share to new investors by approximately $0.22 per share, and a $0.25 decrease in the assumed public offering price of $0.20 per share would decrease the dilution per share to new investors by approximately $0.77 per share, in each case assuming that the aggregate dollar amount of shares offered by us, as set forth above, remains at $40.0 million and after deducting the commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. The information discussed above is illustrative only and will adjust based on the actual public offering price, the actual number of shares that we offer in this offering, and other terms of this offering determined at the time of each offer and sale.
The number of shares of our common stock that will be outstanding after this offering is based on 91,975,045 shares of common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020, and assumes the sale and issuance by us of 51,948,051 shares of common stock in this offering and excludes:
2,987,691 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding as of June 30, 2020 at a weighted average exercise price of $3.34 per share;
5,343,380 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan as of June 30, 2020;
341,427 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2018 Employee Stock Purchase Plan as of June 30, 2020;
75,414,050 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of common warrants outstanding as of June 30, 2020 at a weighted-average exercise price of $0.80 per share, under which 42,005,000 shares of common stock have been issued between July 1, 2020 and August 12, 2020; and
4,500,000 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of pre-funded warrants outstanding as of June 30, 2020 at a weighted-average exercise price of $0.001 per share, under which 4,500,000 shares of common stock have been issued between July 1, 2020 and August 12, 2020.
7

TABLE OF CONTENTS

To the extent that warrants or options outstanding as of June 30, 2020, have been or are exercised, or other shares are issued, investors purchasing shares in this offering could experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations, even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.
8

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
The following description of our capital stock, certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, and certain provisions of Delaware law are summaries. The following description is not complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, as well as the relevant provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law.
As of the date of this prospectus, our certificate of incorporation authorized us to issue 200,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share.
Common Stock
Voting Rights
Our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, including the election of directors, and does not have cumulative voting rights. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation establishes a classified board of directors that is divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms. Only the directors in one class will be subject to election by a plurality of the votes cast at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the directors in the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms.
Economic Rights
Except as otherwise expressly provided in our certificate of incorporation or required by applicable law, all shares of common stock have the same rights and privileges and rank equally, share ratably, and are identical in all respects for all matters, including those described below.
Dividends. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then-outstanding preferred stock, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of legally available funds.
Liquidation Rights. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, holders of our common stock are entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities, subject to the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any outstanding shares of preferred stock.
No Preemptive or Similar Rights
The holders of our shares of common stock are not entitled to preemptive rights, and are not subject to conversion, redemption or sinking fund provisions. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.
Fully Paid and Non-Assessable
All of our outstanding shares of common stock are, and the shares of common stock to be issued in this offering will be, fully paid and nonassessable.
Preferred Stock
Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of the common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in our control that may otherwise benefit holders of our common stock and may adversely affect the market price of the common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of common stock. We have no current plans to issue any shares of preferred stock.
9

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Anti-Takeover Provisions
The provisions of Delaware law, our eighth amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws, certain provisions of which are summarized below, may have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another person from acquiring control of our company. They are also designed, in part, to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to negotiate first with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with an unfriendly or unsolicited acquirer outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging a proposal to acquire us because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.
Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws to be in Effect upon the Closing of this Offering
Because our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights, stockholders holding a majority of the voting power of our shares of common stock may be able to elect all of our directors. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws provide for stockholder actions at a duly called meeting of stockholders or, before the date on which all shares of common stock convert into a single class, by written consent. A special meeting of stockholders may be called by a majority of our board of directors, the chair of our board of directors, or our chief executive officer. Our amended and restated bylaws establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of our stockholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors. Our board of directors is divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms.
The foregoing provisions make it difficult for another party to obtain control of us by replacing our board of directors. Since our board of directors has the power to retain and discharge our officers, these provisions could also make it more difficult for existing stockholders or another party to effect a change in management. In addition, the authorization of undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to change our control.
These provisions are designed to reduce our vulnerability to an unsolicited acquisition proposal and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. However, such provisions could have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares and may have the effect of deterring hostile takeovers or delaying changes in our control or management. As a consequence, these provisions may also inhibit fluctuations in the market price of our stock that could result from actual or rumored takeover attempts.
Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law
We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, subject to certain exceptions.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
Our transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.
Listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “BNGO.”
10

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We have entered into a sales agreement with Ladenburg, under which we may offer and sell up to $40,000,000 of our shares of common stock from time to time through Ladenburg acting as agent. Sales of our shares of common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus will be made by any method that is deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act, or in privately negotiated transactions.
Each time we wish to issue and sell shares of common stock under the sales agreement, we will notify Ladenburg of the number of shares to be issued, the dates on which such sales may be made, any limitation on the number of shares to be sold in any one day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made. Once we have so instructed Ladenburg, unless Ladenburg declines to accept the terms of such notice, Ladenburg has agreed to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such shares up to the amount specified on such terms. The obligations of Ladenburg under the sales agreement to sell our shares of common stock are subject to a number of conditions that we must meet.
The settlement of sales of shares between us and Ladenburg is generally anticipated to occur on the second trading day following the date on which the sale was made, or on some other date that is agreed upon by and between us and Ladenburg in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. Sales of our shares of common stock as contemplated in this prospectus supplement will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and Ladenburg may agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
We will pay Ladenburg a commission in cash of up to 3.0% of the aggregate gross proceeds we receive from each sale of our shares of common stock. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. In addition, we have agreed to reimburse Ladenburg for the fees and disbursements of its counsel, payable upon execution of the sales agreement, in an amount not to exceed $50,000, in addition to certain ongoing disbursements of its legal counsel up to $3,000 per calendar quarter. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding any commissions or expense reimbursement payable to Ladenburg under the terms of the sales agreement, will be approximately $300,000. The remaining sale proceeds, after deducting any other transaction fees, will equal our net proceeds from the sale of such shares.
Ladenburg will provide written confirmation to us before the open on The Nasdaq Capital Market on the day following each day on which shares of common stock are sold under the sales agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares sold on that day, the aggregate gross proceeds of such sales and the proceeds to us.
In connection with the sale of the shares of common stock on our behalf, Ladenburg will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of Ladenburg will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to indemnify Ladenburg against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. We have also agreed to contribute to payments Ladenburg may be required to make in respect of such liabilities.
The offering of our shares of common stock pursuant to the sales agreement will terminate as permitted therein. We and Ladenburg may each terminate the sales agreement at any time upon 10 day’s prior notice.
Ladenburg and its affiliates have previously and may in the future provide various investment banking, commercial banking, financial advisory and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they have and may in the future receive customary fees. In the course of its business, Ladenburg may actively trade our securities for its own account or for the accounts of customers, and, accordingly, Ladenburg may at any time hold long or short positions in such securities.
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in electronic format may be made available on a website maintained by Ladenburg, and Ladenburg may distribute this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus electronically.
11

TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXPERTS
The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus by reference from the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which is incorporated herein by reference (which report expresses an unqualified opinion on the financial statements and includes an explanatory paragraph referring to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern). Such financial statements have been so incorporated in reliance upon the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.
LEGAL MATTERS
Cooley LLP, San Diego, California, which has acted as our counsel in connection with this offering, will pass on certain legal matters with respect to U.S. federal law in connection with this offering. Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C., New York, New York has acted as counsel to the agent in connection with this offering.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
We must comply with the informational requirements of the Exchange Act, and we are required to file reports and proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy these reports, proxy statements and other information on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov, which contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers like us that file electronically with the SEC. We maintain a website at www.bionanogenomics.com. The information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference herein and is not part of this prospectus.
Statements contained in this prospectus as to the contents of any contract or other document are not necessarily complete, and in each instance we refer you to the copy of the contract or document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, each such statement being qualified in all respects by such reference.
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus. Information in this prospectus supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus, while information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus. We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus the documents listed below and any future filings made by us with the SEC (other than current reports or portions thereof furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items and other portions of documents that are furnished, but not filed, pursuant to applicable rules promulgated by the SEC) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, and (ii) after the effectiveness of the registration statement but prior to the termination of the offering of the securities covered by this prospectus:
our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 filed with the SEC on March 10, 2020;
our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020 and June 30, 2020 filed with the SEC on June 18, 2020 and August 13, 2020, respectively;
our Current Reports on Form 8-K (other than information furnished rather than filed) filed with the SEC on January 30, 2020, March 2, 2020, April 6, 2020, April 20, 2020, April 24, 2020, May 5, 2020, May 14, 2020, June 19, 2020 and July 2, 2020; and
the description of our common stock which is registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act, in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed on August 17, 2018, including any amendment or reports filed for the purposes of updating this description.
12

TABLE OF CONTENTS

We will furnish without charge to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request, a copy of any document incorporated by reference. You should direct any requests for documents to Bionano Genomics, Inc. 9540 Towne Centre Drive, Suite 100, San Diego, California 92121; telephone: (858) 888-7600.
In accordance with Rule 412 of the Securities Act, any statement contained in a document incorporated by reference herein shall be deemed modified or superseded to the extent that a statement contained herein or in any other subsequently filed document which also is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference herein modifies or supersedes such statement.
DISCLOSURE OF COMMISSION POSITION ON INDEMNIFICATION FOR SECURITIES ACT LIABILITY
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers, and controlling persons, we have been advised that in the opinion of the SEC this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore, unenforceable.
13

TABLE OF CONTENTS


$40,000,000

Common Stock
PROSPECTUS
Ladenburg Thalmann
You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give information that is not contained in this prospectus. This prospectus is not an offer to sell nor is it seeking an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. The information contained in this prospectus is correct only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of the delivery of this prospectus or any sale of these securities.
The date of this prospectus is    , 2020

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS
Item 14.
Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.
The following table sets forth an estimate of the fees and expenses, other than the underwriting discounts and commissions, payable by Bionano Genomics, Inc. (“we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company” and similar designations) in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered.
Securities and Exchange Commission Registration Fee
$16,225
FINRA Filing Fee
$19,250
Legal Fees and Expenses
$*
Accounting Fees and Expenses
$*
Transfer Agent and Registrar Fees
*
Miscellaneous Fees and Expenses
$*
Total
$    *
*
Except for the SEC registration fee and FINRA filing fee, fees and expenses depend on the number of issuances and amount of securities sold, and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.
Item 15.
Indemnification of Directors and Officers.
We are incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware. Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law provides that a Delaware corporation may indemnify any persons who were, are, or are threatened to be made, parties to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of such corporation), by reason of the fact that such person is or was an officer, director, employee or agent of such corporation, or is or was serving at the request of such corporation as an officer, director, employee or agent of another corporation or enterprise. The indemnity may include expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding, provided that such person acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the corporation’s best interests and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe that his or her conduct was illegal. A Delaware corporation may indemnify any persons who were, are, or are threatened to be made, a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the corporation by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of such corporation, or is or was serving at the request of such corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation or enterprise. The indemnity may include expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit provided such person acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the corporation’s best interests except that no indemnification is permitted without judicial approval if the officer or director is adjudged to be liable to the corporation. Where an officer or director is successful on the merits or otherwise in the defense of any action referred to above, the corporation must indemnify him or her against the expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws provide for the indemnification of our directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted under the Delaware General Corporation Law.
Section 102(b)(7) of the Delaware General Corporation Law permits a corporation to provide in its certificate of incorporation that a director of the corporation shall not be personally liable to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duties as a director, except for liability for any:
transaction from which the director derives an improper personal benefit;
act or omission not in good faith or that involves intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;
unlawful payment of dividends or redemption of shares; or
breach of a director’s duty of loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders.
II-1

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation includes such a provision. Expenses incurred by any officer or director in defending any such action, suit or proceeding in advance of its final disposition will be paid by us upon delivery to us of an undertaking, by or on behalf of such director or officer, to repay all amounts so advanced if it shall ultimately be determined that such director or officer is not entitled to be indemnified by us.
Section 174 of the Delaware General Corporation Law provides, among other things, that a director who willfully or negligently approves of an unlawful payment of dividends or an unlawful stock purchase or redemption, may be held liable for such actions. A director who was either absent when the unlawful actions were approved or dissented at the time may avoid liability by causing his or her dissent to such actions to be entered in the books containing minutes of the meetings of the board of directors at the time such action occurred or immediately after such absent director receives notice of the unlawful acts.
As permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, we have entered into, and continue to enter, into separate indemnity agreements with each of our directors and executive officers that require us to indemnify such persons against any and all costs and expenses (including attorneys’, witness or other professional fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such persons in connection with any action, suit or proceeding (including derivative actions), whether actual or threatened, to which any such person may be made a party by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer or is or was acting or serving as an officer, director, employee or agent of ours or any of our affiliated enterprises. Under these agreements, we are not required to provide indemnification for certain matters, including:
indemnification beyond that permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law;
indemnification for any proceeding with respect to the unlawful payment of remuneration to the director or officer;
indemnification for certain proceedings involving a final judgment that the director or officer is required to disgorge profits from the purchase or sale of our stock;
indemnification for proceedings involving a final judgment that the director’s or officer’s conduct was in bad faith, knowingly fraudulent or deliberately dishonest or constituted willful misconduct or a breach of his or her duty of loyalty, but only to the extent of such specific determination;
indemnification for proceedings or claims brought by an officer or director against us or any of our directors, officers, employees or agents, except for (1) claims to establish a right of indemnification or proceedings, (2) claims approved by our board of directors, (3) claims required by law, (4) when there has been a change of control as defined in the indemnification agreement with each director or officer, or (5) by us in our sole discretion pursuant to the powers vested to us under the Delaware General Corporate Law;
indemnification for settlements the director or officer enters into without our consent; or
indemnification in violation of any undertaking required by the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, or in any registration statement we file.
The indemnification agreements also set forth certain procedures that will apply in the event of a claim for indemnification thereunder.
There is at present no pending litigation or proceeding involving any of our directors or executive officers as to which indemnification is required or permitted, and we are not currently aware of any threatened litigation or proceeding that may result in a claim for indemnification.
We have an insurance policy in place that covers our officers and directors with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act or otherwise.
II-2

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Item 16.
Exhibit Index.
Exhibit
Number
Description
1.1
At Market Issuance Sales Agreement, dated August 13, 2020, by and between the Company and Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc.
3.1(1)
Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation.
3.2(1)
Amended and Restated Bylaws.
4.1
Reference is made to Exhibits 3.1 and 3.2.
4.2(2)
Form of Common Stock Certificate.
4.3(2)
Form of Warrant to Purchase Series B-1 Preferred Stock issued to Square 1 Bank.
4.4(2)
Form of Warrant to Purchase Series D Preferred Stock issued to Western Alliance Bank.
4.5(2)
Warrant to Purchase Series D-1 Preferred Stock issued to Western Alliance Bank.
4.6(2)
Form of Warrant to Purchase Series D-1 Preferred Stock issued to MidCap Financial Trust.
4.7(2)
Form of Warrant to Purchase Common Stock issued to Underwriters in Initial Public Offering.
4.8(2)
Form of Warrant Certificate (included in Exhibit 4.9).
4.9(2)
Form of Warrant Agent Agreement by and between the Company and American Stock Transfer & Trust
4.10(3)
Form of Warrant to Purchase Common Stock for Service Providers.
4.11(4)
Form of Warrant to Purchase Common Stock for Innovatus, as amended.
4.12(4)
Registration Rights Agreement, dated March 14, 2019, between the Company and Aspire Capital Fund, LLC.
4.13(4)
Registration Rights Agreement, as amended, dated March 14, 2019, by and among the Company, Innovatus and Innovatus Offshore.
4.14(5)
Form of Warrant to Purchase Common Stock issued in October 2019 Public Offering.
4.15(5)
Form of Pre-Funded Warrant issued in October 2019 Public Offering.
4.16(2)
Fifth Amended and Restated Investors’ Rights Agreement, dated August 5, 2016 as amended.
4.17(6)
Form of Inducement Warrant.
4.18(7)
Form of Warrant to Purchase Common Stock issued in April 2020 Public Offering.
4.19(7)
Form of Pre-Funded Warrant issued in April 2020 Public Offering.
4.20*
Specimen Preferred Stock Certificate and Form of Certificate of Designation of Preferred Stock.
Form of Debt Indenture.
4.22*
Form of Debt Securities.
Form of Common Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.
Form of Preferred Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.
Form of Debt Securities Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.
5.1
Opinion of Cooley LLP.
Consent of Deloitte & Touche LLP, independent registered public accounting firm.
Consent of Cooley LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).
Power of Attorney (included on signature page).
25.1*
Statement of Eligibility of Trustee under the Debt Indenture.
*
To be filed by amendment or as an exhibit to a Current Report on Form 8-K and incorporated herein by reference, if applicable.
(1)
Incorporated by reference to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on August 24, 2018.
(2)
Incorporated by reference to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-225970), as amended.
(3)
Incorporated by reference to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on November 21, 2018.
(4)
Incorporated by reference to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on March 14, 2019.
(5)
Incorporated by reference to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-233828), as amended.
(6)
Incorporated by reference to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on March 2, 2020.
(7)
Incorporated by reference to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-237074), as amended.
II-3

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Item 17.
Undertakings.
The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:
(1)
To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
(i)
to include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;
(ii)
to reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement;
(iii)
to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;
provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the registration statement is on Form S-3 and the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act, that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.
(2)
That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(3)
To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
(4)
That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:
(i)
each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
(ii)
each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5) or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which the prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.
II-4

TABLE OF CONTENTS

(5)
That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:
(i)
Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;
(ii)
Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;
(iii)
The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and
(iv)
Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.
(6)
The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(7)
That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, (i) the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of the registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in the form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(l) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be a part of the registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and (ii) each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(8)
To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
II-5

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the city of San Diego, state of California, on August 13, 2020.
 
Bionano Genomics, Inc.
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ R. Erik Holmlin, Ph.D.
 
 
R. Erik Holmlin, Ph.D.
 
 
President and Chief Executive Officer
POWER OF ATTORNEY
Each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints R. Erik Holmlin, Ph.D. as his/her true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agent, each acting alone, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him/her and in his/her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any or all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this Registration Statement on Form S-3, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and all documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorney-in-fact and agent, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorney-in-fact and agent, or his substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
Signature
Title
Date
 
 
 
/s/ R. Erik Holmlin, Ph.D.
Chief Executive Officer and Director
(Principal Executive and Financial Officer)
August 13, 2020
R. Erik Holmlin, Ph.D.
 
 
 
/s/ Mark Adamchak
Controller
(Principal Accounting Officer)
August 13, 2020
Mark Adamchak
 
 
 
/s/ David L. Barker, Ph.D.
Director
August 13, 2020
David L. Barker, Ph.D.
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Yvonne Linney, Ph.D.
Director
August 13, 2020
Yvonne Linney, Ph.D.
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Albert A. Luderer, Ph.D.
Director
August 13, 2020
Albert A. Luderer, Ph.D.
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Hannah Mamuszka
Director
August 13, 2020
Hannah Mamuszka
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Christopher Twomey
Director
August 13, 2020
Christopher Twomey
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Kristiina Vuori, M.D., Ph.D.
Director
August 13, 2020
Kristiina Vuori, M.D., Ph.D.
 
 

Exhibit 1.1

Bionano Genomics, Inc.

Common Stock
(par value $0.0001 per share)

At Market Issuance Sales Agreement

August 13, 2020

Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc.
277 Park Avenue, 26th Floor
New York, NY 10172

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Bionano Genomics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc. (the “Agent”) as follows:

1.          Issuance and Sale of Shares.  The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through the Agent, shares (the “Placement Shares”) of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Common Stock”), provided however, that in no event shall the Company issue or sell through the Agent such number of Placement Shares that (a) exceeds the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock registered on the effective Registration Statement (as defined below) pursuant to which the offering is being made, (b) exceeds the number of shares or dollar amount registered on the Prospectus (as defined below), (c) exceeds the number of authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock (less shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise, conversion or exchange of any outstanding securities of the Company or otherwise reserved from the Company’s authorized capital stock) or (d) exceeds the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock permitted to be sold under Form S-3 (including General Instruction I.B.6 thereof, if applicable) (the lesser of (a), (b), (c) and (d), the “Maximum Amount”).  Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitations set forth in this Section 1 on the number of Placement Shares issued and sold under this Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company and that the Agent shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance.  The issuance and sale of Placement Shares through the Agent will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement to issue any Placement Shares.

On the date of this Agreement, the Company has filed, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Securities Act”), with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), a registration statement on Form S-3 (the “Current Registration Statement”), including a prospectus, relating to the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”).  The Company has prepared a prospectus supplement to the prospectus included as part of such registration statement specifically relating to the Placement Shares (the “Prospectus Supplement”).  The Company will furnish to the Agent, for use by the Agent, copies of the prospectus relating to the Placement Shares included as part of such registration statement, as supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement, if any.  Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement, and any post-effective amendment thereto, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B of the Securities Act or any subsequent registration statement on Form S-3 filed pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act by the Company to cover any securities registered pursuant the Current Registration Statement, including any Placement Shares, as a result of the end of the three-year period described in Rule 415(a)(5) of the Securities Act, is herein called the “Registration Statement.”  The prospectus specifically relating to the Placement Shares, including all documents incorporated or deemed incorporated therein by reference to the extent such information has not been superseded or modified in accordance with Rule 412 under the Securities Act (as qualified by Rule 430B(g) of the Securities Act), included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement, in the form in which such prospectus and/or Prospectus Supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, is herein called the “Prospectus.”  Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference therein, and any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing after the execution hereof of any document with the Commission deemed to be incorporated by reference therein (the “Incorporated Documents”).

For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include the most recent copy filed with the Commission pursuant to its Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval system, or if applicable, the Interactive Data Electronic Application system when used by the Commission (collectively, “EDGAR”).

2.          Placements.  Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell Placement Shares hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify the Agent by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) of the number of Placement Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made (a “Placement Notice”), the form of which is attached hereto as Schedule 1.  The receipt of each such Placement Notice shall be promptly acknowledged by the Agent by email confirmation to the Company.  The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 2 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from the Agent set forth on Schedule 2, as such Schedule 2 may be amended from time to time.  Provided that the Company is otherwise in compliance with the terms of this Agreement, the Placement Notice shall be effective immediately upon receipt by the Agent unless and until (i) the Agent declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, (ii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares thereunder have been sold, (iii) the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice or (iv) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 13.  The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to the Agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 3.  It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor the Agent will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to the Agent and the Agent does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein.  In the event of a conflict between the terms of Sections 2 or 3 of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.
2

3.          Sale of Placement Shares by the Agent.

a.          Subject to the terms and conditions of this Agreement, for the period specified in a Placement Notice, the Agent will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the “Exchange”), to sell the Placement Shares up to the amount specified in, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of, such Placement Notice.  The Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number of Placement Shares sold on such day, the compensation payable by the Company to the Agent pursuant to Section 2 with respect to such sales, and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company, with an itemization of the deductions made by the Agent (as set forth in Section 5(b)) from the gross proceeds that it receives from such sales.  Subject to the terms of a Placement Notice, the Agent agrees that all sales of the Placement Shares by the Agent will be made only by methods permitted by law and deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 of the Securities Act.  Subject to the terms of a Placement Notice, the Agent may also sell Placement Shares by any other method permitted by law, including but not limited to privately negotiated transactions, with the Company’s consent.  “Trading Day” means any day on which Common Stock is purchased and sold on the Exchange.

b.          For such time as the Agent is actively offering Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement, the Agent shall not for its own account engage in (i) any short sale of any security of the Company, (ii) any sale of any security of the Company that the Agent does not own for the account of the Agent or any sale which is consummated by the delivery of a security of the Company borrowed by, or for the account of, the Agent, or (iii) any market making, bidding, purchasing, stabilization or other trading activity with regard to the Common Stock or related derivative securities, or attempting to induce another person to do any of the foregoing, if such activity would be prohibited under Regulation M or other anti-manipulation rules under the Securities Act.  Neither Agent nor any of its affiliates or subsidiaries shall engage in any proprietary trading or trading for the Agent’s (or its affiliates’ or subsidiaries’) own account.  For the avoidance of doubt, this restriction shall not apply to transactions by or on behalf of any customer of the Agent or transactions by the Agent to facilitate any such transactions by or on behalf of any customer of the Agent.
3

4.          Suspension of Sales.  The Company or the Agent may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2), suspend any sale of Placement Shares (a “Suspension”); provided, however, that such Suspension shall not affect or impair any party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice.  While a Suspension is in effect, any obligation under Sections 7(l), 7(m), and 7(n) with respect to the delivery of certificates, opinions, or comfort letters to the Agent, shall be waived.  Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against any other party unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 2 hereto and acknowledged in accordance with this Section 4, as such Schedule may be amended from time to time.

5.          Sale and Delivery to the Agent; Settlement.

a.          Sale of Placement Shares.  On the basis of the representations and warranties herein contained and subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Agent’s acceptance of the terms of a Placement Notice, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, the Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Exchange to sell such Placement Shares up to the amount specified in, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of, such Placement Notice.  The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that the Agent will be successful in selling Placement Shares, (ii) the Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by the Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations and the rules of the Exchange to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Agreement and (iii) the Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise agreed by the Agent and the Company.

b.          Settlement of Placement Shares.  Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date”).  The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by the Agent, after deduction for (i) the Agent’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, and (ii) any transaction fees imposed by any Governmental Authority.
4

c.          Delivery of Placement Shares.  On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Placement Shares being sold by crediting the Agent’s or its designee’s account (provided the Agent shall have given the Company written notice of such designee at least one Trading Day prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System (“DWAC”) or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form.  On each Settlement Date, the Agent will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date.  The Agent will be responsible for providing DWAC instructions or instructions for delivery by other means with respect to the transfer of the Placement Shares being sold.  The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver Placement Shares on a Settlement Date through no fault of the Agent, then in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 11(a) hereto, it will (i) hold the Agent harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or reasonable, documented expense (including reasonable and documented legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable) and (ii) pay to the Agent (without duplication) any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.

d.          Limitations on Offering Size.  Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares if, after giving effect to the sale of such Placement Shares, the aggregate number of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement would exceed the lesser of (A) together with all sales of Placement Shares under this Agreement, the Maximum Amount, (B) the amount available for offer and sale under the Registration Statement and (C) the amount authorized from time to time to be issued and sold under this Agreement by the Company’s board of directors (the “Board”), a duly authorized committee thereof or a duly authorized executive committee, and notified to the Agent in writing.  Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement at a price lower than the minimum price authorized from time to time by the Board, a duly authorized committee thereof or a duly authorized executive committee, and notified to the Agent in writing.  Further, under no circumstances shall the Company cause or permit the aggregate offering amount of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement to exceed the Maximum Amount.

e.          Sales Through Agent.  The Company agrees that any offer to sell, any solicitation of an offer to buy, or any sales of Placement Shares shall only be effected by or through the Agent, and only the Agent, on any single given date; provided however that (i) the foregoing limitation shall not apply to (A) exercise of any option, warrant, right or any conversion privilege set forth in the instruction governing such securities, (B) sales solely to employees, directors or security holders of the Company or its Subsidiaries (as defined below), or to a trustee or other person acquiring such securities for the accounts of such person and (ii) such limitation shall not apply (A) on any day during which no sales are made pursuant to this Agreement or (B) during a period in which the Company has notified the Agent that it will not sell Common Stock under this Agreement and (1) no Placement Notice is pending or (2) after a Placement Notice has been withdrawn.
5

6.          Representations and Warranties of the Company.  Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement or Prospectus (including the Incorporated Documents), the Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with the Agent that as of the date of this Agreement and as of each Applicable Time (as defined below), unless such representation, warranty or agreement specifies a different date or time:

a.          Registration Statement and Prospectus.  The Company and, assuming no act or omission on the part of the Agent that would make such statement untrue, the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, meet the requirements for and comply with the applicable conditions for the use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.  The Registration Statement has been filed with the Commission and will be declared effective under the Securities Act prior to the issuance of any Placement Notices by the Company. The Prospectus Supplement names Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc. as the Agent in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution.” The Company has not received, and has no notice of, any order of the Commission preventing or suspending the use of the Registration Statement, or threatening or instituting proceedings for that purpose.  The Registration Statement and the offer and sale of Placement Shares as contemplated hereby meet the requirements of Rule 415 under the Securities Act and, at the time it becomes effective, and as of each Applicable Time, if any, will comply in all material respects with said Rule.  Any statutes, regulations, contracts or other documents that are required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement have been so described or filed.  Copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, and any such amendments or supplements and all documents incorporated by reference therein that were filed with the Commission on or prior to the date of this Agreement have been delivered, or are available through EDGAR, to the Agent and its counsel.  The Company has not distributed and, prior to the later to occur of each Settlement Date and completion of the distribution of the Placement Shares, will not distribute, any offering material in connection with the offering or sale of the Placement Shares other than the Registration Statement (once effective) and the Prospectus and any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (as defined below) to which the Agent has consented, any such consent not to be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed.  The Common Stock is currently quoted on the Exchange.  Except as contemplated or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, the Company (i) has not, in the 12 months preceding the date hereof, received notice from the Exchange to the effect that the Company is not in compliance with the listing or maintenance requirements of the Exchange and (ii) has no reason to believe that it will not in the foreseeable future maintain compliance with all such listing and maintenance requirements.

b.          No Misstatement or Omission.  At each Settlement Date, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as of such date, will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act.  The Registration Statement, did not, and will not, contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.  The Prospectus and any amendment and supplement thereto, on the date thereof and at each Applicable Time (defined below), did not or will not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.  The documents incorporated by reference in the Prospectus or any Prospectus Supplement did not, and any further documents filed and incorporated by reference therein will not, when filed with the Commission, contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated in such document or necessary to make the statements in such document, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.  The foregoing shall not apply to statements in, or omissions from, any such document made in reliance upon, and in conformity with the Agent’s Information.
6

c.          Conformity with Securities Act and Exchange Act.  The Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto, and the Incorporated Documents, when such documents were or are filed with the Commission under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or became or become effective under the Securities Act, as the case may be, conformed or will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable.

d.          Financial Information.  The consolidated financial statements of the Company included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, together with the related notes and schedules, present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company as of the dates indicated and the consolidated results of operations, cash flows and changes in stockholders’ equity of the Company for the periods specified and have been prepared in compliance in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and Exchange Act, as applicable, as in effect as of the time of filing and in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States as in effect as of the time of filing (“GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis (except (i) for such adjustments to accounting standards and practices as are noted therein and (ii) in the case of unaudited interim statements, to the extent they may exclude footnotes or may be condensed or summary statements) during the periods involved; the other financial and statistical data with respect to the Company contained or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, are accurately and fairly presented in all material respects and prepared on a basis materially consistent with the financial statements and books and records of the Company; there are no financial statements (historical or pro forma) that are required to be included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, or the Prospectus that are not included or incorporated by reference as required; the Company does not have any material liabilities or obligations, direct or contingent (including any off balance sheet obligations), not described in the Registration Statement (including the exhibits thereto and documents incorporated by reference thereto), and the Prospectus which are required to be described in the Registration Statement or Prospectus (including the exhibits thereto and documents incorporated by reference thereto); and all disclosures contained or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, if any, regarding “non-GAAP financial measures” (as such term is defined by the rules and regulations of the Commission) comply in all material respects with Regulation G of the Exchange Act and Item 10 of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act, to the extent applicable;

e.          Conformity with EDGAR Filing.  The Prospectus delivered to the Agent for use in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement will be identical to the versions of the Prospectus created to be transmitted to the Commission for filing via EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T.
7

f.          Organization.  The Company is and will be, duly organized, validly existing as a corporation and in good standing under the laws of its jurisdiction of organization.  The Company is, and will be, duly licensed or qualified as a foreign corporation for transaction of business and in good standing under the laws of each other jurisdiction in which its ownership or lease of property or the conduct of its business requires such license or qualification, and has all corporate power and authority necessary to own or hold its properties and to conduct its businesses as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (including the exhibits thereto and documents incorporated by reference thereto), except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing or have such power or authority would not, individually or in the aggregate, be reasonably likely to result in a material adverse effect upon the business, properties, operations, financial position, results of operations or prospects of the Company and its Subsidiaries, taken as a whole, or in its ability to perform its obligations under this Agreement (a “Material Adverse Effect”)

g.          Subsidiaries.  The subsidiaries set forth in Exhibit 21.1 of the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Commission and incorporated into the Registration Statement (each, a “Subsidiary” and collectively, the “Subsidiaries”) are the Company’s only significant subsidiaries (as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated by the Commission).  Each Subsidiary is duly organized and validly existing as a corporation or other entity under the laws of its respective jurisdictions of organization and is in good standing under such laws.  Each of the Subsidiaries has requisite corporate or other organizational power to carry on its business as described in the Prospectus.  Each of the Subsidiaries is duly qualified to transact business and is in good standing in all jurisdictions in which the conduct of its business requires such qualification; except where the failure to be so qualified or to be in good standing would not result in a Material Adverse Effect.

h.          No Violation or Default.  Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries are (i) in violation of its charter or by-laws or similar organizational documents; (ii) in default, and no event has occurred that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute such a default, in the due performance or observance of any term, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which the Company is bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company is subject; or (iii) in violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any Governmental Authority, except, in the case of each of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such violation or default that would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.  To the Company’s knowledge, no other party under any material contract or other agreement to which it or any of its Subsidiaries is a party is in default in any respect thereunder where such default would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

i.          No Material Adverse Effect.  Since the date of the most recent financial statements of the Company included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and Prospectus, there has not been (i) any Material Adverse Effect, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, with respect to the business, properties, management, condition (financial or otherwise), results of operations, or prospects of the Company or its Subsidiaries, (ii) other than the transactions contemplated by this Agreement or transactions in the ordinary course of business, any transaction which is material to the Company or its Subsidiaries, taken as a whole, (iii) other than in the ordinary course of business, any obligation or liability, direct or contingent (including any off-balance sheet obligations), incurred by the Company or its Subsidiaries, which is material to the Company or its Subsidiaries, taken as a whole, (iv) any material change in the Company’s capital stock (other than (A) the grant of additional options or other equity awards under the Company’s existing equity incentive plans, (B) changes in the number of outstanding Common Stock of the Company due to the issuance of shares upon the exercise or conversion of securities exercisable for, or convertible into, Common Stock outstanding on the date hereof, (C) as a result of the issuance of Placement Shares, (D) any repurchases of capital stock of the Company, (E) as described in a proxy statement filed on Schedule 14A or a Registration Statement on Form S-4, or (F) otherwise publicly announced) or outstanding long-term indebtedness of the Company or (v) any dividend or distribution of any kind declared, paid or made on the capital stock of the Company, other than in each case above (A) in the ordinary course of business or, (B) as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement or Prospectus (including any document incorporated by reference therein).
8

j.          Capitalization.  The issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company have been validly issued, are fully paid and non-assessable and, other than as disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, are not subject to any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or similar rights.  The Company has an authorized, issued and outstanding capitalization as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as of the dates referred to therein (other than (i) the grant of additional options or other equity awards under the Company’s existing equity incentive plans, (ii) changes in the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock of the Company due to the issuance of shares upon the exercise or conversion of securities exercisable for, or convertible into, Common Stock outstanding on the date hereof, (iii) as a result of the issuance of Placement Shares, or (iv) any repurchases of capital stock of the Company) and such authorized capital stock conforms in all material respects to the description thereof set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.  The description of the Common Stock in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus is complete and accurate in all material respects.

k.          S-3 Eligibility.  At the time of filing the Registration Statement, the Company met the then applicable requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.

l.          Authorization; Enforceability.  The Company has full legal right, power and authority to enter into this Agreement and perform the transactions contemplated hereby.  This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and is a legal, valid and binding agreement of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms, except to the extent that (i) enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally and by general equitable principles and (ii) the indemnification and contribution provisions of Section 11 hereof may be limited by federal or state securities laws and public policy considerations in respect thereof.

m.          Authorization of Placement Shares.  The Placement Shares, when issued and delivered pursuant to the terms approved by the Board or a duly authorized committee thereof, or a duly authorized executive committee, against payment therefor as provided herein, will be duly and validly authorized and issued and fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of any pledge, lien, encumbrance, security interest or other claim (other than any pledge, lien, encumbrance, security interest or other claim arising from an act or omission of the Agent or a purchaser), including any statutory or contractual preemptive rights, resale rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights, and will be registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act.  The Placement Shares, when issued, will conform in all material respects to the description thereof set forth in or incorporated into the Prospectus.
9

n.          No Consents Required.  No consent, approval, authorization, order, registration or qualification of or with any Governmental Authority is required for the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement, and the issuance and sale by the Company of the Placement Shares as contemplated hereby, except for (i) the registration of the Placement Shares under the Securities Act and pursuant to the Registration Statement, (ii) such consents, approvals, authorizations, orders and registrations or qualifications as may be required under applicable state or foreign securities or Blue Sky laws or by the by-laws and rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) or the Exchange, including any notices that may be required by Exchange, (iii) such consents and approvals as have been obtained and are in full force and effect, and (iv) such consents, approvals, orders, authorizations and filings the failure of which to make or obtain is not reasonably likely to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

o.          No Preferential Rights.  (i) No person, as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated under the Securities Act (each, a “Person”), has the right, contractual or otherwise, to cause the Company to issue or sell to such Person any Common Stock or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company (other than upon the exercise of options or warrants to purchase Common Stock or upon the exercise of options that may be granted from time to time under the Company’s equity incentive plans), (ii) no Person has any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal, or any other rights (whether pursuant to a “poison pill” provision or otherwise) to purchase any Common Stock or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company from the Company which have not been duly waived with respect to the offering contemplated hereby, (iii) no Person has the right to act as an underwriter or as a financial advisor to the Company in connection with the offer and sale of the Common Stock, and (iv) no Person has the right, contractual or otherwise, to require the Company to register under the Securities Act any Common Stock or shares of any other capital stock or other securities of the Company, or to include any such shares or other securities in the Registration Statement or the offering contemplated thereby, whether as a result of the filing or effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated thereby or otherwise, except in each case for such rights as have been waived on or prior to the date hereof.

p.          Independent Public Accountant.  To the Company’s knowledge, the Company’s accountants whose report on the consolidated financial statements of the Company is filed with or incorporated into the Commission as part of the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Commission and incorporated into the Registration Statement, are and, during the periods covered by their report, were independent public accountants within the meaning of the Securities Act and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States).  To the Company’s knowledge, the Company’s accountants are not in violation of the auditor independence requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) with respect to the Company.
10

q.          Enforceability of Agreements.  All agreements between the Company and third parties expressly referenced in the Prospectus, other than such agreements that have expired by their terms or whose termination is disclosed in documents filed by the Company on EDGAR, are legal, valid and binding obligations of the Company enforceable in accordance with their respective terms, against the Company and, to the Company’s knowledge, the other parties thereto, except to the extent that (i) enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally and by general equitable principles, (ii) the indemnification provisions of certain agreements may be limited by federal or state securities laws or public policy considerations in respect thereof and (iii) the remedy of specific performance and injunctive and other forms of equitable relief may be subject to the equitable defenses and to the discretion of the court before which any proceeding therefor may be brought, and except for any unenforceability that, individually or in the aggregate, would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

r.          No Litigation.  There are no legal, governmental or regulatory actions, suits or proceedings pending, nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any legal, governmental or regulatory investigations, to which the Company or its Subsidiaries is a party or to which any property of the Company or its Subsidiaries is the subject that, individually or in the aggregate, if determined adversely to the Company or its Subsidiaries, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect or materially and adversely affect the ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement; to the Company’s knowledge, no such actions, suits or proceedings are threatened or contemplated by any Governmental Authority or threatened by others that, individually or in the aggregate, if determined adversely to the Company, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and (i) there are no current or pending legal, governmental or regulatory actions, suits or proceedings, or, to the Company’s knowledge, investigations, that are required under the Securities Act to be described in the Prospectus that are not so described in the Prospectus including any Incorporated Document; and (ii) there are no contracts or other documents that are required under the Securities Act to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement that are not so filed.

s.          Licenses and Permits.  The Company and its Subsidiaries possess and have obtained all licenses, certificates, consents, orders, approvals, permits and other authorizations issued by, and have made all declarations and filings with, the appropriate Governmental Authority that are necessary for the ownership or lease of their respective properties or the conduct of their respective businesses as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (the “Permits”), in each case except where the failure to possess, obtain or make the same would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.  The Company and its Subsidiaries have not received written notice of any proceeding relating to revocation or modification of any such Permit or has any reason to believe that such Permit will not be renewed in the ordinary course, except where the failure to obtain any such renewal would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

t.          No Material Defaults.  The Company and its Subsidiaries have not defaulted on any installment on indebtedness for borrowed money or on any rental on one or more long-term leases, which defaults, individually or in the aggregate, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.  The Company has not filed a report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act since the filing of its last Annual Report on Form 10-K, indicating that it (i) has failed to pay any dividend or sinking fund installment on preferred stock or (ii) has defaulted on any installment on indebtedness for borrowed money or on any rental on one or more long-term leases, which defaults, individually or in the aggregate, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
11

u.          Certain Market Activities.  Neither the Company, nor any of its directors, officers or controlling persons has taken, directly or indirectly, any action designed, or that has constituted or would reasonably be expected to cause or result in, under the Exchange Act or otherwise, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement Shares.

v.          Broker/Dealer Relationships.  Neither the Company nor its Subsidiaries (i) are required to register as a “broker” or “dealer” in accordance with the provisions of the Exchange Act or (ii) directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is a “person associated with a member” or “associated person of a member” (within the meaning set forth in the FINRA Manual).

w.          Reliance.  The Company has not relied upon the Agent or legal counsel for the Agent for any legal, tax or accounting advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares.

x.          Taxes.  The Company and its Subsidiaries have filed all federal, state, local and foreign tax returns which have been required to be filed and paid all taxes shown thereon through the date hereof, to the extent that such taxes have become due and are not being contested in good faith, except where the failure to do so would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.  Except as otherwise disclosed in or contemplated by the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, no tax deficiency has been determined adversely to the Company or its Subsidiaries which has had, or would reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect.  The Company has no knowledge of any federal, state or other governmental tax deficiency, penalty or assessment which has been asserted or threatened against it which would have a Material Adverse Effect.

y.          Title to Real and Personal Property.  The Company and its Subsidiaries have good and valid title in fee simple to all items of real property and good and valid title to all personal property described in the Registration Statement or Prospectus as being owned by them that are material to the businesses of the Company and its Subsidiaries, in each case, free and clear of all liens, encumbrances and claims, except those that (i) do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and its Subsidiaries or (ii) would reasonably be expected to not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.  Any real property described in the Registration Statement or Prospectus as being leased by the Company or its Subsidiaries is held by them under valid, existing and enforceable leases, except those that (i) do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and its Subsidiaries or (ii) would not be reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.
12

z.          Intellectual Property.  To the Company’s knowledge, the Company and its Subsidiaries own or possess adequate enforceable rights to use all patents, patent applications, trademarks (both registered and unregistered), service marks, trade names, trademark registrations, service mark registrations, copyrights, licenses and know-how (including trade secrets and other unpatented and/or unpatentable proprietary or confidential information, systems or procedures) (collectively, the “Intellectual Property”), necessary for the conduct of the Company’s businesses in the manner described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; the Company and its Subsidiaries have not received any written notice of any claim of infringement or conflict which asserted Intellectual Property rights of others, which infringement or conflict, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, would result in a Material Adverse Effect; there are no pending, or to the Company’s knowledge, threatened judicial proceedings or interference proceedings against the Company or its Subsidiaries challenging the Company’s rights in or to or the validity of the scope of any of the Company’s patents, patent applications or proprietary information, except such proceedings that would not reasonably be expected to, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect; to the Company’s knowledge, no other entity or individual has any right or claim in any of the Company’s or its Subsidiaries’ patents, patent applications or any patent to be issued therefrom by virtue of any contract, license or other agreement entered into between such entity or individual and the Company or by any non-contractual obligation, other than by written licenses granted by the Company; the Company and its Subsidiaries have not received any written notice of any claim challenging the rights of the Company in or to any Intellectual Property owned, licensed or optioned by the Company or its Subsidiaries which claim, if the subject of an unfavorable decision would result in a Material Adverse Effect.

aa.          Environmental Laws.  The Company (i) is in compliance with any and all applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws, rules and regulations relating to the protection of human health and safety, the environment or hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants which are applicable to the Company’s business (collectively, “Environmental Laws”); (ii) has received and is in compliance with all permits, licenses or other approvals required of it under applicable Environmental Laws to conduct its businesses as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; and (iii) has not received notice of any actual or potential liability for the investigation or remediation of any disposal or release of hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants, except, in the case of any of clauses (i), (ii) or (iii) above, for any such failure to comply or failure to receive required permits, licenses, other approvals or liability as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

bb.          Disclosure Controls.  The Company maintains systems of internal accounting controls designed to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain asset accountability; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences.  The Company is not aware of any material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting (other than as set forth in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus).  Since the date of the latest audited financial statements of the Company included in the Prospectus, there has been no significant change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (other than as set forth in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus).  The Company has established disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15 and 15d-15) for the Company and designed such disclosure controls and procedures to ensure that material information relating to the Company is made known to the certifying officers by others within those entities, particularly during the period in which the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K or Quarterly Report on Form 10- Q, as the case may be, is being prepared.  The Company’s certifying officers have evaluated the effectiveness of the Company’s controls and procedures as of a date within 90 days prior to the filing date of the Form 10-K for the fiscal year most recently ended (such date, the “Evaluation Date”).  The Company presented in its Form 10-K for the fiscal year most recently ended the conclusions of the certifying officers about the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures based on their evaluations as of the most recent Evaluation Date.  Since the most recent Evaluation Date, there have been no significant changes in the Company’s internal controls (as such term is defined in Item 307(b) of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act) or, to the Company’s knowledge, in other factors that could significantly affect the Company’s internal controls.
13

cc.          Sarbanes-Oxley Act.  There is and has been no failure on the part of the Company or, to the knowledge of the Company, any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply in all material respects with any applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.  Each of the principal executive officer and the principal financial officer of the Company (or each former principal executive officer of the Company and each former principal financial officer of the Company as applicable) has made all certifications required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act with respect to all reports, schedules, forms, statements and other documents required to be filed by it or furnished by it to the Commission during the past 12 months.  For purposes of the preceding sentence, “principal executive officer” and “principal financial officer” shall have the meanings given to such terms in the Exchange Act Rules 13a-15 and 15d-15.

dd.          Finder’s Fees.  The Company has not incurred any liability for any finder’s fees, brokerage commissions or similar payments in connection with the transactions herein contemplated, except as may otherwise exist with respect to the Agent pursuant to this Agreement.

ee.          Labor Disputes.  No labor disturbance by or dispute with employees of the Company or its Subsidiaries exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is threatened which would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

ff.          Investment Company Act.  Neither the Company or its Subsidiaries is or, after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Placement Shares, will be, an “investment company” or an entity “controlled” by an “investment company,” as such terms are defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”).

gg.          Operations.  The operations of the Company and its Subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance in all material respects with applicable financial record keeping and reporting requirements of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, the money laundering statutes of all jurisdictions to which the Company and its Subsidiaries are subject, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any Governmental Authority (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”), except as would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect; and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any Governmental Authority involving the Company or its Subsidiaries with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.
14

hh.          Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements.  Except as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no material off-balance sheet arrangements (as defined in Item 303 of Regulation S-K) that have or are reasonably likely to have a material current or future effect on the Company’s financial condition, revenues or expenses, changes in financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources.

ii.          Underwriter Agreements.  The Company is not a party to any agreement with an agent or underwriter for any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction.

jj.          ERISA.  No “prohibited transaction” (as defined in Section 406 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, including the regulations and published interpretations thereunder (“ERISA”), or Section 4975 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended from time to time (the “Code”)) or “accumulated funding deficiency” (as defined in Section 302 of ERISA) or any of the events set forth in Section 4043(b) of ERISA (other than events with respect to which the thirty (30)-day notice requirement under Section 4043 of ERISA has been waived) has occurred or could reasonably be expected to occur with respect to any “employee benefit plan” (as defined under ERISA) established or maintained by the Company or any of its subsidiaries which would reasonably be expected to, singularly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. Each “employee benefit plan” established or maintained by the Company or any of its subsidiaries is in compliance in all material respects with applicable law, including ERISA and the Code. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has incurred or reasonably expects to incur any material liability under (A) Title IV of ERISA with respect to the termination of, or withdrawal from, any “employee benefit plan” or (B) Sections 412, 4971, 4975 or 4980B of the Code. Each “employee benefit plan” established or maintained by the Company or its subsidiaries that is intended to be qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code is so qualified, and, to the Company’s knowledge, nothing has occurred, whether by action or by failure to act, which could, singularly or in the aggregate, cause the loss of such qualification.

kk.          Forward-Looking Statements.  The Company had a reasonable basis for, and made in good faith, each “forward-looking statement” (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act or Section 21E of the Exchange Act) included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus.

ll.          Margin Rules.  Neither the issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares nor the application of the proceeds thereof by the Company as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus will violate Regulation T, U or X of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.
15

mm.          Insurance.  The Company and its Subsidiaries carry, or are covered by, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as the Company and its Subsidiaries, as applicable, reasonably believes are adequate for the conduct of their business and as is customary for companies of similar size engaged in similar businesses in similar industries.

nn.          No Improper Practices.  (i) Neither the Company nor to the Company’s knowledge, any of its respective executive officers has, in the past five years, made any unlawful contributions to any candidate for any political office (or failed fully to disclose any contribution in violation of law) or made any contribution or other payment to any official of, or candidate for, any federal, state, municipal, or foreign office or other person charged with similar public or quasi-public duty in violation of any law or of the character required to be disclosed in the Prospectus; (ii) no relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, any affiliate of the Company, on the one hand, and the directors, officers and stockholders of the Company or, on the other hand, that is required by the Securities Act to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus that is not so described; (iii) no relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, any affiliate of the Company, on the one hand, and the directors, officers or stockholders of the Company, on the other hand, that is required by the rules of FINRA to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus that is not so described; (iv) there are no material outstanding loans or advances or material guarantees of indebtedness by the Company to or for the benefit of any of its officers or directors or any of the members of the families of any of them; and (v) the Company has not offered, or caused any placement agent to offer, Common Stock to any person with the intent to influence unlawfully (A) a customer or supplier of the Company to alter the customer’s or supplier’s level or type of business with the Company or (B) a trade journalist or publication to write or publish favorable information about the Company or any of its products or services, and, (vi) neither the Company nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any employee or agent acting on behalf of the Company has made any payment of funds of the Company or received or retained any funds in violation of any law, rule or regulation (including, without limitation, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977), which payment, receipt or retention of funds is of a character required to be disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus.

oo.          Status Under the Securities Act.  The Company was not and is not an ineligible issuer as defined in Rule 405 at the times specified in Rules 164 and 433 under the Securities Act in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares.

pp.          No Misstatement or Omission in an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus.  Each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, as of its issue date and as of each Applicable Time (as defined in Section 25 below), did not, does not and will not include any information that conflicted, conflicts or will conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, including any incorporated document deemed to be a part thereof that has not been superseded or modified.  The foregoing sentence does not apply to statements in or omissions from any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus based upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Agent specifically for use therein.

qq.          No Conflicts.  Neither the execution of this Agreement, nor the issuance, offering or sale of the Placement Shares, nor the consummation of any of the transactions contemplated herein and therein, nor the compliance by the Company with the terms and provisions hereof and thereof will conflict with, or will result in a breach of, any of the terms and provisions of, or has constituted or will constitute a default under, or has resulted in or will result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property or assets of the Company pursuant to the terms of any contract or other agreement to which the Company is a party to or to which any of the property or assets of the Company is subject, except (i) such conflicts, breaches, defaults, liens, charges or encumbrances as may have been waived and (ii) such conflicts, breaches, defaults, liens, charges or encumbrances that would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; nor will such action result (x) in any violation of the provisions of the organizational or governing documents of the Company, or (y) in any material violation of the provisions of any statute or any order, rule or regulation applicable to the Company or of any Governmental Authority, except where such violation would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
16

rr.          Compliance with Applicable Laws.  Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company and its Subsidiaries: (A) are and at all times have been in compliance with all statutes, rules, and regulations applicable to Company and its Subsidiaries related to the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, marketing, labeling, promotion, sale, offer for sale, storage, import, export or disposal of any product manufactured or distributed by the Company (“Applicable Laws”), except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect; (B) have not received any FDA, Form 483, notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence or notice from any governmental authority alleging or asserting noncompliance with any Applicable Laws or any licenses, certificates, approvals, clearances, authorizations, permits and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such Applicable Laws (“Authorizations”); (C) possess all material Authorizations and such Authorizations are valid and in full force and effect and are not in material violation of any term of any such Authorizations; (D) have not received notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from any governmental authority or third party alleging that any product operation or activity is in violation of any Applicable Laws or Authorizations and have no knowledge that any such governmental authority or third party is considering any such claim, litigation, arbitration, action, suit, investigation or proceeding; (E) have not received notice that any governmental authority has taken, is taking or intends to take action to limit, suspend, modify or revoke any Authorizations and the Company has no knowledge that any such governmental authority is considering such action; (F) have not, either voluntarily or involuntarily, initiated, conducted, or issued or caused to be initiated, conducted or issued, any recall, market withdrawal or replacement, safety alert, post-sale warning, “dear doctor” letter, or other notice or action relating to the alleged lack of safety, efficacy or regulatory compliance of any product or any alleged product defect or violation and, to the Company’s knowledge, no third party has initiated or conducted any such notice or action and there are no facts which are reasonably likely to cause, and the Company has not received any written notice from the FDA or any other regulatory agency regarding, a material recall, market withdrawal or replacement of any Company product sold or intended to be sold by the Company, a material change in the marketing classification or a material adverse change in the labeling of any such Company products, or a termination or suspension of the manufacturing, marketing, or distribution of such Company products; and (G) have filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Applicable Laws or Authorizations and that all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were complete and correct in all material respects on the date filed (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission).
17

ss.          OFAC. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries or any director or officer of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any employee, representative, agent or affiliate of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or any other person acting on behalf of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is currently subject to any U.S. sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Treasury Department (“OFAC”); and the Company will not directly or indirectly use the proceeds of the offering of the Placement Shares contemplated hereby, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any person or entity, for the purpose of financing the activities of any person currently subject to any U.S. sanctions administered by OFAC.

tt.          Stock Transfer Taxes.  On each Settlement Date, all material stock transfer or other taxes (other than income taxes) which are required to be paid by the Company in connection with the sale and transfer of the Placement Shares to be sold hereunder will be, or will have been, fully paid or provided for by the Company and all laws imposing such taxes will be or will have been fully complied with by the Company in all material respects.

Any certificate signed by an officer of the Company and delivered to the Agent or to counsel for the Agent pursuant to or in connection with this Agreement shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty by the Company, as applicable, to the Agent as to the matters set forth therein.

7.          Covenants of the Company.  The Company covenants and agrees with the Agent that:

a.          Registration Statement Amendments.  After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agent under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act) (the “Prospectus Delivery Period”), (i) the Company will notify the Agent promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference or amendments not related to any Placement, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus related to the Placement or for additional information related to the Placement, (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon the Agent’s request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in the Agent’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by the Agent (provided, however, that the failure of the Agent to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agent shall have with respect to the failure to make such filing shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into the Placement Shares (other than an Incorporated Document) unless a copy thereof has been submitted to the Agent within a reasonable period of time before the filing and the Agent has not reasonably objected thereto within two (2) Business Days (as defined below) (provided, however, that (A) the failure of the Agent to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and (B) the Company has no obligation to provide the Agent any advance copy of such filing or to provide the Agent an opportunity to object to such filing if the filing does not name the Agent or does not relate to the transaction herein provided; and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agent shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to obtain such consent shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement) and the Company will furnish to the Agent at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; and (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act or, in the case of any document to be incorporated therein by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the Exchange Act, within the time period prescribed (the determination to file or not file any amendment or supplement with the Commission under this Section 7(a), based on the Company’s reasonable opinion or reasonable objections, shall be made exclusively by the Company).
18

b.          Notice of Commission Stop Orders.  The Company will advise the Agent, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued.  The Company will advise the Agent promptly after it receives any request by the Commission for any amendments to the Registration Statement or any amendment or supplements to the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or for additional information related to the offering of the Placement Shares or for additional information related to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus.

c.          Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes.  During the Prospectus Delivery Period, the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and to file on or before their respective due dates all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act.  If the Company has omitted any information from the Registration Statement pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, it will use its commercially reasonable efforts to comply with the provisions of and make all requisite filings with the Commission pursuant to said Rule 430B and to notify the Agent promptly of all such filings.  If during the Prospectus Delivery Period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such Prospectus Delivery Period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify the Agent to suspend the offering of Placement Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance; provided, however, that the Company may delay the filing of any amendment or supplement, if in the judgment of the Company, it is in the best interest of the Company.
19

d.          Listing of Placement Shares.  During the Prospectus Delivery Period, the Company will use its reasonable best efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on the Exchange and to qualify the Placement Shares for sale under the securities laws of such jurisdictions in the United States as the Agent reasonably designates and to continue such qualifications in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required in connection therewith to qualify as a foreign corporation or dealer in securities or file a general consent to service of process in any jurisdiction.

e.          Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus.  The Company will furnish to the Agent and its counsel (at the reasonable expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all documents incorporated by reference therein) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during the Prospectus Delivery Period (including all documents filed with the Commission during such period that are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as the Agent may from time to time reasonably request and, at the Agent’s request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to the Agent to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

f.          Earnings Statement.  The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earnings statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) and Rule 158 of the Securities Act.

g.          Use of Proceeds.  The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

h.          Notice of Other Sales.  Without the prior written consent of the Agent, the Company will not, directly or indirectly, offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, Common Stock during the period beginning on the date on which any Placement Notice is delivered to the Agent hereunder and ending on the third (3rd) Trading Day immediately following the final Settlement Date with respect to Placement Shares sold pursuant to such Placement Notice (or, if the Placement Notice has been terminated or suspended prior to the sale of all Placement Shares covered by a Placement Notice, the date of such suspension or termination); and will not directly or indirectly in any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, Common Stock prior to the termination of this Agreement; provided, however, that such restrictions will not be required in connection with the Company’s issuance or sale of (i) Common Stock, options to purchase Common Stock or Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of options, pursuant to any employee or director stock option or benefits plan, stock ownership plan or dividend reinvestment plan (but not Common Stock subject to a waiver to exceed plan limits in its dividend reinvestment plan) of the Company whether now in effect or hereafter implemented; (ii) Common Stock issuable upon conversion of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding, and disclosed in filings by the Company available on EDGAR or otherwise in writing to the Agent; (iii) Common Stock, or securities convertible into or exercisable for Common Stock, offered and sold in a privately negotiated transaction to vendors, customers, strategic partners or potential strategic partners or other investors conducted in a manner so as not to be integrated with the offering of Common Stock hereby; and (iv) Common Stock in connection with any acquisition, strategic investment or other similar transaction (including any joint venture, strategic alliance or partnership).
20

i.          Change of Circumstances.  The Company will, at any time during the pendency of a Placement Notice, advise the Agent promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document required to be provided to the Agent pursuant to this Agreement.

j.          Due Diligence Cooperation.  During the term of this Agreement, the Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by the Agent or their representatives in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as the Agent may reasonably request.

k.          Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares.  To the extent that the filing of a prospectus supplement with the Commission with respect to a placement of Placement Shares becomes required under Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, the Company agrees that on such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (each and every filing date under Rule 424(b), a “Filing Date”), which prospectus supplement will set forth, within the relevant period, the amount of Placement Shares sold through the Agent, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to the Agent with respect to such Placement Shares, and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market.
21

l.          Representation Dates; Certificate.  Each time during the term of this Agreement that the Company:

(i)          amends or supplements (other than a prospectus supplement relating solely to an offering of securities other than the Placement Shares) the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of documents by reference into the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares;

(ii)          files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act (including any Form 10-K/A containing amended financial information or a material amendment to the previously filed Form 10-K);

(iii)          files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or

(iv)          files a current report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than information “furnished” pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or to provide disclosure pursuant to Item 8.01 of Form 8-K relating to the reclassification of certain properties as discontinued operations in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 144) under the Exchange Act

(Each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a “Representation Date.”)

the Company shall furnish the Agent (but in the case of clause (iv) above only if the Agent reasonably determines that the information contained in such Form 8-K is material) with a certificate, in substantially the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(l).  The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(l) shall be waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and the next occurring Representation Date on which the Company files its annual report on Form 10-K.  Notwithstanding the foregoing, (i) upon the delivery of the first Placement Notice hereunder and (ii) if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Representation Date when the Company relied on such waiver and did not provide the Agent with a certificate under this Section 7(l), then before the Agent sells any Placement Shares, the Company shall provide the Agent with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(l), dated the date of the Placement Notice.

m.          Legal Opinion.

(i)          Company Counsel.  On or prior to the date of the first Placement Notice given hereunder, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agent a written opinion and a negative assurance letter of Cooley LLP (“Company Counsel”), or other counsel reasonably satisfactory to the Agent, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent.  Thereafter, within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in substantially the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(l) for which no waiver is applicable, and not more than once per calendar quarter, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agent a written opinion and a negative assurance letter of Company Counsel in form and substance previously agreed, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided that, in lieu of such opinion and negative assurance for subsequent periodic filings under the Exchange Act, Company Counsel may furnish the Agent with a letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to the effect that the Agent may rely on the opinion and negative assurance letter previously delivered under this Section 7(m) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior letter shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented as of the date of the Reliance Letter).
22

(ii)          Intellectual Property Counsel.  On or prior to the date of the first Placement Notice given hereunder, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agent a written opinion and a negative assurance letter of each of Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton LLP and Riverside Law LLP (collectively, “Intellectual Property Counsel”), or other counsel reasonably satisfactory to the Agent, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent.  Thereafter, within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in substantially the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(l) for which no waiver is applicable, and not more than once per calendar quarter, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agent written opinions and negative assurance letters of Intellectual Property Counsel in form and substance previously agreed, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided that, in lieu of such opinions and negative assurance for subsequent periodic filings under the Exchange Act, Intellectual Property Counsel may furnish the Agent with a Reliance Letter to the effect that the Agent may rely on the opinions and negative assurance letter previously delivered under this Section 7(m) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior letter shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented as of the date of the Reliance Letter).

n.          Comfort Letter.  On or prior to the date of the first Placement Notice given hereunder and within five (5) Trading Days after each subsequent Representation Date, other than pursuant to Section 7(l)(iii), the Company shall cause its independent accountants to furnish the Agent letters (the “Comfort Letters”), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, which shall meet the requirements set forth in this Section 7(n); provided, that if requested by the Agent, the Company shall cause a Comfort Letter to be furnished to the Agent within five (5) Trading Days of such request following the date of occurrence of any restatement of the Company’s financial statements.  The Comfort Letter from the Company’s independent accountants shall be in a form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent, (i) confirming that they are an independent public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) stating, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to underwriters in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the “Initial Comfort Letter”) and (iii) updating the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.
23

o.          Market Activities.  The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or would reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of Common Stock or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase Common Stock in violation of Regulation M, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than the Agent.

p.          Investment Company Act.  The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that it will not be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act.

q.          No Offer to Sell.  Other than an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus approved in advance by the Company and the Agent in their capacity as agent hereunder pursuant to Section 23, neither of the Agent nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than the Agent in their capacity as such) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Placement Shares hereunder.

r.          Sarbanes-Oxley Act.  The Company will maintain and keep accurate books and records reflecting its assets and maintain internal accounting controls in a manner designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP and including those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company, (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit the preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP, (iii) that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with management’s and the Company’s directors’ authorization, and (iv) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on its financial statements.  The Company will use commercially reasonable efforts to maintain such controls and other procedures, including, without limitation, those required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and the applicable regulations thereunder that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including its principal executive officer and principal financial officer, or persons performing similar functions, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure and to ensure that material information relating to the Company is made known to them by others within those entities, particularly during the period in which such periodic reports are being prepared.

8.          Representations and Covenants of the Agent.  The Agent represents and warrants that it is duly registered as a broker-dealer under FINRA, the Exchange Act and the applicable statutes and regulations of each state in which the Placement Shares will be offered and sold, except such states in which the Agent is exempt from registration or such registration is not otherwise required.  The Agent shall continue, for the term of this Agreement, to be duly registered as a broker-dealer under FINRA, the Exchange Act and the applicable statutes and regulations of each state in which the Placement Shares will be offered and sold, except such states in which it is exempt from registration or such registration is not otherwise required, during the term of this Agreement.  The Agent shall comply with all applicable law and regulations, including but not limited to Regulation M, in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, including the issuance and sale through the Agent of the Placement Shares.
24

9.          Payment of Expenses.  The Company will pay all expenses incident to the performance of its obligations under this Agreement, including (i) the preparation, filing, including any fees required by the Commission, and printing of the Registration Statement (including financial statements and exhibits) as originally filed and of each amendment and supplement thereto and each Free Writing Prospectus, in such number as the Agent shall deem reasonably necessary, (ii) the printing and delivery to the Agent of this Agreement and such other documents as may be reasonably required in connection with the offering, purchase, sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares, (iii) the preparation, issuance and delivery of the certificates, if any, for the Placement Shares to the Agent, including any stock or other transfer taxes and any capital duties, stamp duties or other duties or taxes payable upon the sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares to the Agent, (iv) the fees and disbursements of the counsel, accountants and other advisors to the Company, (v) the fees and disbursements of counsel to the Agent up to $50,000 payable upon execution of this Agreement and up to $3,000 for each calendar quarter for expenses associated with ongoing due diligence; (vi) the fees and expenses of the transfer agent and registrar for the Common Stock, (vii) the filing fees incident to any review by FINRA of the terms of the sale of the Placement Shares, and (viii) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing of the Placement Shares on the Exchange.

10.          Conditions to the Agent’s Obligations.  The obligations of the Agent hereunder with respect to a Placement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein (other than those representations and warranties made as of a specific date or time), to the due performance in all material respects by the Company of its obligations hereunder, to the completion by the Agent of a due diligence review satisfactory to it in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing reasonable satisfaction (or waiver the Agent in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

a.          Registration Statement Effective.  The Registration Statement shall have become effective and shall be available for the sale of all Placement Shares contemplated to be issued by any Placement Notice.

b.          No Material Notices.  None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other Governmental Authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus which have not, as of the time of such Placement, been so made; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, that in the case of the Prospectus, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, which changes shall not as of the time of such Placement have been so made.
25

c.          No Misstatement or Material Omission.  The Agent shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

d.          Material Changes.  Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any Material Adverse Effect, or any development that would reasonably be expected to cause a Material Adverse Effect, or a downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities) by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), the effect of which, in the case of any such action by a rating organization described above, in the reasonable judgment of the Agent (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

e.          Legal Opinions.  The Agent shall have received the opinions and negative assurances of Company Counsel and Intellectual Property Counsel required to be delivered pursuant Section 7(m) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinions are required pursuant to Section 7(m).

f.          Comfort Letter.  The Agent shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant Section 7(n) on or before the date on which such delivery of such letter is required pursuant to Section 7(n).

g.          Representation Certificate.  The Agent shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(l) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(l).
26

h.          Secretary’s Certificate.  On or prior to the first Representation Date, the Agent shall have received a certificate, signed on behalf of the Company by its corporate Secretary, in form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel.

i.          No Suspension.  Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on the Exchange and the Common Stock shall not have been delisted from the Exchange.

j.          Other Materials.  On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(l), the Company shall have furnished to the Agent such appropriate further information, certificates and documents as the Agent may reasonably request and which are usually and customarily furnished by an issuer of securities in connection with a securities offering of the type contemplated hereby.

k.          Securities Act Filings Made.  All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.

l.          Approval for Listing.  The Placement Shares shall either have been approved for listing on the Exchange, subject only to notice of issuance, or the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on the Exchange at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice.

m.          No Termination Event; Insurance.  There shall not have occurred any event that would permit the Agent to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 13(a).  The Company and its Subsidiaries shall maintain, or caused to be maintained, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as is reasonable and customary for the business in which it is engaged.

n.          FINRA.  The Agent shall have received a letter from the Corporate Financing Department of FINRA confirming that such department has determined to raise no objection with respect to the fairness or reasonableness of the terms and arrangements related to the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement.

11.          Indemnification and Contribution.

a.          Company Indemnification.  The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Agent, its partners, members, managers, directors, officers, employees and agents and each person, if any, who controls the Agent within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act as follows:

(i)          against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever, as incurred, joint or several, arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement (or any amendment thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, or arising out of any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact included in any related Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading;
27

(ii)          against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever, as incurred, joint or several, to the extent of the aggregate amount paid in settlement of any litigation, or any investigation or proceeding by any Governmental Authority, commenced or threatened, or of any claim whatsoever based upon any such untrue statement or omission, or any such alleged untrue statement or omission; provided that (subject to Section 11(d) below) any such settlement is effected with the written consent of the Company, which consent shall not unreasonably be delayed or withheld; and

(iii)          against any and all expense whatsoever, as incurred (including the reasonable and documented out-of-pocket fees and disbursements of counsel), reasonably incurred in investigating, preparing or defending against any litigation, or any investigation or proceeding by any Governmental Authority, commenced or threatened, or any claim whatsoever based upon any such untrue statement or omission, or any such alleged untrue statement or omission, to the extent that any such expense is not paid under (i) or (ii) above,

provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to any loss, liability, claim, damage or expense to the extent arising out of any untrue statement or omission or alleged untrue statement or omission made in the Registration Statement (or any amendment thereto) or in any related Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) solely in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information.

b.          Indemnification by the Agent.  The Agent agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Company against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 11(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or in any related Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information.
28

c.          Procedure.  Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 11 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 11, notify each such indemnifying party of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 11 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 11 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture or material impairment of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party.  If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any legal or other expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense.  Each indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict of interest exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel to assume the defense of such action within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases the reasonable and documented out-of-pocket fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties.  It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable and documented out-of-pocket fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for an indemnified party.  All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly after the indemnifying party receives a written invoice relating to fees, disbursements and other charges in reasonable detail.  An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent.  No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 11 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent (1) includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party from all liability arising out of such litigation, investigation, proceeding or claim and (2) does not include a statement as to or an admission of fault, culpability or a failure to act by or on behalf of any indemnified party.
29

d.          Contribution.  In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 11 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable from the Company or the Agent, the Company and the Agent will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit or proceeding or any claim asserted, but after deducting any contribution received by the Company from persons other than the Agent, such as persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, officers of the Company who signed the Registration Statement and directors of the Company, who also may be liable for contribution) to which the Company and the Agent may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agent on the other hand.  The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agent on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total Net Proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by the Agent (before deducting expenses) from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company.  If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering.  Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or the Agent, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission.  The Company and the Agent agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 11(d) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein.  The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense, or damage, or action in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 11(d) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 11(d), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action or claim to the extent consistent with Section 11(c) hereof.  Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 11(d), the Agent shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation.  For purposes of this Section 11(d), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, and any officers, directors, partners, employees or agents of the Agent, will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each officer and director of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof.  Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 11(d), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 11(d) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought.  Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 11(c) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 11(c) hereof.
30

12.          Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery.  The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 11 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of the Agent, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

13.          Termination.

a.          The Agent may terminate this Agreement, by written notice to the Company, as hereinafter specified at any time (1) if there has been, since the time of execution of this Agreement or since the date as of which information is given in the Prospectus, any Material Adverse Effect, or any development that is reasonably likely to have a Material Adverse Effect or, in the reasonable judgment of the Agent, is material and adverse and makes it impractical or inadvisable to market the Placement Shares or to enforce contracts for the sale of the Placement Shares, (2) if there has occurred any material adverse change in the financial markets in the United States or the international financial markets, any outbreak of hostilities or escalation thereof or other calamity or crisis or any change or development involving a prospective change in national or international political, financial or economic conditions, in each case the effect of which is such as to make it, in the reasonable judgment of the Agent, impracticable or inadvisable to market the Placement Shares or to enforce contracts for the sale of the Placement Shares, (3) if trading in the Common Stock has been suspended or limited by the Commission or the Exchange, or if trading generally on the Exchange has been suspended or limited, or minimum prices for trading have been fixed on the Exchange, (4) if any suspension of trading of any securities of the Company on any exchange or in the over-the-counter market shall have occurred and be continuing, (5) if a major disruption of securities settlements or clearance services in the United States shall have occurred and be continuing, or (6) if a banking moratorium has been declared by either U.S.  Federal or New York authorities.  Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 9 (Payment of Expenses), Section 11 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 12 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 18 (Governing Law and Time; Waiver of Jury Trial) and Section 19 (Consent to Jurisdiction) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.  If the Agent elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 13(a), the Agent shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 14 (Notices).

b.          The Company shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days written notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement.  Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 9 (Payment of Expenses), Section 11 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 12 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 18 (Governing Law and Time; Waiver of Jury Trial) and Section 19 (Consent to Jurisdiction) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

c.          The Agent shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days written notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement.  Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 9 (Payment of Expenses), Section 11 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 12 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 18 (Governing Law and Time; Waiver of Jury Trial) and Section 19 (Consent to Jurisdiction) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.
31

d.          Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 13, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Placement Shares through the Agent on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein except that the provisions of Section 9 (Payment of Expenses), Section 11 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 12 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 18 (Governing Law and Time; Waiver of Jury Trial) and Section 19 (Consent to Jurisdiction) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

e.          This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 13(a), (b), (c), or (d) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 9 (Payment of Expenses), Section 11 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 12 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 18 (Governing Law and Time; Waiver of Jury Trial) and Section 19 (Consent to Jurisdiction) shall remain in full force and effect.  Upon termination of this Agreement, the Company shall not have any liability to the Agent for any discount, commission or other compensation with respect to any Placement Shares not otherwise sold by the Agent under this Agreement.

f.          Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by the Agent or the Company, as the case may be.  If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

14.          Notices.  All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified, and if sent to the Agent, shall be delivered to:

Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc.
277 Park Avenue, 26th Floor
New York, NY 10172
Attention:  Joseph Giovanniello, Counsel
Tel:  (212) 409-2544
Email:  jgiovanniello@ladenburg.com

with a copy to:

Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C.
666 Third Avenue
New York, NY 10017
Attention:  Ivan K. Blumenthal, Esq.
Telephone:  (212) 692-6784
Email:  ikblumenthal@mintz.com
32

and if to the Company, shall be delivered to:

9540 Towne Centre Drive
Suite 100
San Diego, CA 92121
Attention:  R. Erik Holmlin, Ph.D., President and Chief Executive Officer
Telephone:  (858) 888-7601
Email:  eholmlin@bionanogenomics.com

with a copy to:

Cooley LLP
4401 Eastgate Mall
San Diego, CA 92121
Attention:  Thomas A. Coll
Telephone:  (858) 550-6420
Email:  collta@cooley.com

Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose.  Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally, by email, or by verifiable facsimile transmission (with an original to follow) on or before 4:30 p.m., New York City time, on a Business Day or, if such day is not a Business Day, on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier and (iii) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S.  mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid).  For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Exchange and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

An electronic communication (“Electronic Notice”) shall be deemed written notice for purposes of this Section 14 if sent to the electronic mail address specified by the receiving party under separate cover.  Electronic Notice shall be deemed received at the time the party sending Electronic Notice receives confirmation of receipt by the receiving party.  Any party receiving Electronic Notice may request and shall be entitled to receive the notice on paper, in a nonelectronic form (“Nonelectronic Notice”) which shall be sent to the requesting party within ten (10) days of receipt of the written request for Nonelectronic Notice.

15.          Successors and Assigns.  This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and the Agent and their respective successors and the affiliates, controlling persons, officers and directors referred to in Section 11 hereof.  References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of such party.  Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto or their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement.  Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party.
33

16.          Adjustments for Stock Splits.  The parties acknowledge and agree that all share- related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any share consolidation, stock split, stock dividend, corporate domestication or similar event effected with respect to the Placement Shares.

17.          Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability.  This Agreement (including all schedules and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof.  Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and the Agent.  In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement.

18.          GOVERNING LAW AND TIME; WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL.  THIS AGREEMENT SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITHOUT REGARD TO THE PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICTS OF LAWS.  SPECIFIED TIMES OF DAY REFER TO NEW YORK CITY TIME.  EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

19.          CONSENT TO JURISDICTION.  EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY SUBMITS TO THE NON-EXCLUSIVE JURISDICTION OF THE STATE AND FEDERAL COURTS SITTING IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK, BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN, FOR THE ADJUDICATION OF ANY DISPUTE HEREUNDER OR IN CONNECTION WITH ANY TRANSACTION CONTEMPLATED HEREBY, AND HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, AND AGREES NOT TO ASSERT IN ANY SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING, ANY CLAIM THAT IT IS NOT PERSONALLY SUBJECT TO THE JURISDICTION OF ANY SUCH COURT, THAT SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING IS BROUGHT IN AN INCONVENIENT FORUM OR THAT THE VENUE OF SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING IS IMPROPER.  EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES PERSONAL SERVICE OF PROCESS AND CONSENTS TO PROCESS BEING SERVED IN ANY SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING BY MAILING A COPY THEREOF (CERTIFIED OR REGISTERED MAIL, RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED) TO SUCH PARTY AT THE ADDRESS IN EFFECT FOR NOTICES TO IT UNDER THIS AGREEMENT AND AGREES THAT SUCH SERVICE SHALL CONSTITUTE GOOD AND SUFFICIENT SERVICE OF PROCESS AND NOTICE THEREOF.  NOTHING CONTAINED HEREIN SHALL BE DEEMED TO LIMIT IN ANY WAY ANY RIGHT TO SERVE PROCESS IN ANY MANNER PERMITTED BY LAW.
34

20.          Use of Information.  The Agent may not use any information gained in connection with this Agreement and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, including due diligence, to advise any party with respect to transactions not expressly approved by the Company.

21.          Counterparts.  This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument.  Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile transmission.

22.          Effect of Headings.  The section and Exhibit headings herein are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

23.          Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses.

The Company represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior consent of the Agent, which shall not be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed, and the Agent represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior consent of the Company, which shall not be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed, it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Placement Shares that would constitute an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, or that would otherwise constitute a “free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 405, required to be filed with the Commission.  Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Agent or by the Company, as the case may be, is hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company represents and warrants that it has treated and agrees that it will treat each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433, and has complied and will comply with the requirements of Rule 433 applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, including timely filing with the Commission where required, legending and record keeping.  For the purposes of clarity, the parties hereto agree that all free writing prospectuses, if any, listed in Exhibit 23 hereto are Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses.

24.          Absence of Fiduciary Relationship.  The Company acknowledges and agrees that:

a.          The Agent is acting solely as agent in connection with the public offering of the Placement Shares and in connection with each transaction contemplated by this Agreement and the process leading to such transactions, and no fiduciary or advisory relationship between the Company or any of its affiliates, stockholders (or other equity holders), creditors or employees or any other party, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, has been or will be created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether or not the Agent has advised or is advising the Company on other matters, and the Agent has no obligation to the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement except the obligations expressly set forth in this Agreement;

b.          it is capable of evaluating and understanding, and understands and accepts, the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;
35

c.          No Agent has provided any legal, accounting, regulatory or tax advice with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and it has consulted its own legal, accounting, regulatory and tax advisors to the extent it has deemed appropriate;

d.          it is aware that the Agent and its respective affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and the Agent has no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship or otherwise; and

e.          it waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against the Agent for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty in connection with the sale of Placement Shares under this Agreement and agrees that the Agent shall not have any liability (whether direct or indirect, in contract, tort or otherwise) to it in respect of such a fiduciary duty claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on its behalf or in right of it or the Company, employees or creditors of Company, other than in respect of the Agent’s obligations under this Agreement and to keep information provided by the Company to the Agent and its counsel confidential to the extent not otherwise publicly-available.

25.          Definitions.

As used in this Agreement, the following terms have the respective meanings set forth below:

Agent’s Information” means information furnished to the Company by the Agent for use in preparation of the Registration Statement (or any amendment thereto) or in any related Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto). The parties acknowledge that no such information has been provided as of the date of this Agreement.

Applicable Time” means (i) each Representation Date and (ii) the time of each sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement.

Governmental Authority” means any arbitrator, court, governmental body, regulatory body, administrative agency or other authority, body or agency (whether foreign or domestic) having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or any of their respective properties, assets or operations.

Issuer Free Writing Prospectus” means any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433, relating to the Placement Shares that (1) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company, (2) is a “road show” that is a “written communication” within the meaning of Rule 433(d)(8)(i) whether or not required to be filed with the Commission, or (3) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i) because it contains a description of the Placement Shares or of the offering that does not reflect the final terms, in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g) under the Securities Act.

Rule 172,” “Rule 405,” “Rule 415,” “Rule 424,” “Rule 424(b),” “Rule 430B,” and “Rule 433” refer to such rules under the Securities Act.
36

All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information that is “contained,” “included” or “stated” in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information that is incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be.

All references in this Agreement to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to any of the foregoing shall be deemed to include the copy filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR; all references in this Agreement to any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (other than any Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses that, pursuant to Rule 433, are not required to be filed with the Commission) shall be deemed to include the copy thereof filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR; and all references in this Agreement to “supplements” to the Prospectus shall include, without limitation, any supplements, “wrappers” or similar materials prepared in connection with any offering, sale or private placement of any Placement Shares by the Agent outside of the United States.

[Remainder of the page intentionally left blank]
37

If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and the Agent, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and the Agent.

 
Very truly yours,
     
 
BIONANO GENOMICS, INC.
     
 
By:
/s/ R. Erik Holmlin, Ph.D.
 
Name:
R. Erik Holmlin, Ph.D.
 
Title:
Chief Executive Officer
     
 
ACCEPTED as of the date first-above written:
     
 
LADENBURG THALMANN & CO. INC.
     
 
By:
/s/ Vlad Ivanov
 
Name:
Vlad Ivanov
 
Title:
Managing Director

38

SCHEDULE 1

FORM OF PLACEMENT NOTICE


From:
Bionano Genomics, Inc.
   
To:
[•]
   
Attention:
[•]
   
Subject:
At Market Issuance--Placement Notice
   
Date:
_____________, 20___

Gentlemen:

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the At Market Issuance Sales Agreement between Bionano Genomics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc. (the “Agent”) dated August [__], 2020, the Company hereby requests that the Agent sell up to [_____] shares of the Company’s Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share, at a minimum market price of $[____] per share, during the time period beginning [month, day, time] and ending [month, day, time].


SCHEDULE 2

Notice Parties


The Company

R. Erik Holmlin, Ph.D. – eholmlin@bionanogenomics.com

The Agent

David Rosenberg – dr@ladenburg.com
David Strupp – dstrupp@ladenburg.com
Vlad Ivanov – vivanov@ladenburg.com


SCHEDULE 3

Compensation


The Company shall pay to the Agent in cash, upon each sale of Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement, an amount equal to up to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from each sale of Placement Shares.


EXHIBIT 7(l)

Form of Representation Date Certificate

____________, 20__

This Representation Date Certificate (this “Certificate”) is executed and delivered in connection with Section 7(l) of the At Market Issuance Sales Agreement (the “Agreement”), dated August 13, 2020 and entered into between Bionano Genomics, Inc. (the “Company”) Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc. (the “Agent”).  All capitalized terms used but not defined herein shall have the meanings given to such terms in the Agreement.

The Company hereby certifies as follows:

1.          As of the date of this Certificate (i) the Registration Statement does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading and (ii) neither the Registration Statement nor the Prospectus contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading and (iii) no event has occurred as a result of which it is necessary to amend or supplement the Prospectus in order to make the statements therein not untrue or misleading for this paragraph 1 to be true.

2.          The representations and warranties of the Company in Section 6 of the Agreement (A) to the extent such representations and warranties are subject to qualifications and exceptions contained therein relating to materiality or Material Adverse Effect, are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date, and (B) to the extent such representations and warranties are not subject to any qualifications or exceptions, are true and correct in all material respects as of the date hereof as if made on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date.

3.          Each of the covenants required to be performed by the Company in the Agreement on or prior to the date of the Agreement, this Representation Date, and each such other date prior to the date hereof as set forth in the Agreement, has been duly, timely and fully performed in all material respects and each condition required to be complied with by the Company on or prior to the date of the Agreement, this Representation Date, and each such other date prior to the date hereof as set forth in the Agreement has been duly, timely and fully complied with in all material respects.

4.          Subsequent to the date of the most recent financial statements in the Prospectus, and except as described in the Prospectus, including Incorporated Documents, there has been no Material Adverse Effect.

5.          No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or of any part thereof has been issued, and to the Company’s knowledge, no proceedings for that purpose have been instituted or are pending or threatened by any securities or other governmental authority (including, without limitation, the Commission).

6.          No order suspending the qualification or registration of the Placement Shares under the securities or Blue Sky laws of any jurisdiction are in effect and no proceeding for such purpose is pending before, or threatened, to the Company’s knowledge or in writing by, any securities or other Governmental Authority (including, without limitation, the Commission).

The undersigned has executed this Representation Date Certificate as of the date first written above.

 
BIONANO GENOMICS, INC.
     
 
By:
 
     
 
Name:
 
     
 
Title:
 
     

EXHIBIT 23

Permitted Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses

None.



Exhibit 4.21



BIONANO GENOMICS, INC.,

Issuer

AND

[TRUSTEE],
Trustee



INDENTURE

Dated as of [•], 20__

Debt Securities





Table Of Contents


         Page
         
ARTICLE 1
DEFINITIONS

1
         
 
Section 1.01
Definitions of Terms
1
         
ARTICLE 2
ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION
AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES
5
         
 
Section 2.01
Designation and Terms of Securities
5
         
 
Section 2.02
Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate
8
         
 
Section 2.03
Denominations: Provisions for Payment
8
         
 
Section 2.04
Execution and Authentications
10
         
 
Section 2.05
Registration of Transfer and Exchange
10
         
 
Section 2.06
Temporary Securities
12
         
 
Section 2.07
Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities
12
         
 
Section 2.08
Cancellation
13
         
 
Section 2.09
Benefits of Indenture
13
         
 
Section 2.10
Authenticating Agent
14
         
 
Section 2.11
Global Securities
14
         
 
Section 2.12
CUSIP Numbers
15
         
ARTICLE 3
REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS
15
         
 
Section 3.01
Redemption
15
         
 
Section 3.02
Notice of Redemption
16
         
 
Section 3.03
Payment Upon Redemption
17
         
 
Section 3.04
Sinking Fund
17
         
 
Section 3.05
Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities
18
         
 
Section 3.06
Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund
18
         
ARTICLE 4
COVENANTS
18
         
 
Section 4.01
Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest
18
         
 
Section 4.02
Maintenance of Office or Agency
19
         
 
Section 4.03
Paying Agents
19
         
 
Section 4.04
Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee
20
         



i

Table Of Contents
(continued)


      Page
       
ARTICLE 5
SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY
AND THE TRUSTEE
20
         
 
Section 5.01
Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders
20
         
 
Section 5.02
Preservation Of Information; Communications With Securityholders
21
         
 
Section 5.03
Reports by the Company
21
         
 
Section 5.04
Reports by the Trustee
22
         
ARTICLE 6
REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON
EVENT OF DEFAULT
22
         
 
Section 6.01
Events of Default
22
         
 
Section 6.02
Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee
24
         
 
Section 6.03
Application of Moneys Collected
25
         
 
Section 6.04
Limitation on Suits
26
         
 
Section 6.05
Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver
26
         
 
Section 6.06
Control by Securityholders
27
         
 
Section 6.07
Undertaking to Pay Costs
27
         
ARTICLE 7
CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE
28
         
 
Section 7.01
Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee
28
         
 
Section 7.02
Certain Rights of Trustee
29
         
 
Section 7.03
Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities
31
         
 
Section 7.04
May Hold Securities
31
         
 
Section 7.05
Moneys Held in Trust
32
         
 
Section 7.06
Compensation and Reimbursement
32
         
 
Section 7.07
Reliance on Officer’s Certificate
32
     
 
Section 7.08
Disqualification; Conflicting Interests
33
         
 
Section 7.09
Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility
33
         
 
Section 7.10
Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor
33
         
 
Section 7.11
Acceptance of Appointment By Successor
34
         
 
Section 7.12
Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business
36
         






























































ii

Table Of Contents
(continued)


        Page
         
 
Section 7.13
Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company
36
         
 
Section 7.14
Notice of Default.
36
         
ARTICLE 8
CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS
37
         
 
Section 8.01
Evidence of Action by Securityholders
37
         
 
Section 8.02
Proof of Execution by Securityholders
37
         
 
Section 8.03
Who May be Deemed Owners
38
         
 
Section 8.04
Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded
38
         
 
Section 8.05
Actions Binding on Future Securityholders
38
         
ARTICLE 9
SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES
39
         
 
Section 9.01
Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders
39
         
 
Section 9.02
Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders
40
         
 
Section 9.03
Effect of Supplemental Indentures
40
         
 
Section 9.04
Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures
40
         
 
Section 9.05
Execution of Supplemental Indentures
41
         
ARTICLE 10
SUCCESSOR ENTITY
41
         
 
Section 10.01
Company May Consolidate, Etc.
41
         
 
Section 10.02
Successor Entity Substituted
42
         
ARTICLE 11
SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE
42
         
 
Section 11.01
Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture
42
         
 
Section 11.02
Discharge of Obligations
43
         
 
Section 11.03
Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust
43
         
 
Section 11.04
Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents
43
         
 
Section 11.05
Repayment to Company
44
         
ARTICLE 12
IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS
AND DIRECTORS
44
         
 
Section 12.01
No Recourse
44
         
ARTICLE 13
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
45
         
 
Section 13.01
Effect on Successors and Assigns
45
         
 
Section 13.02
Actions by Successor
45
         
 
Section 13.03
Surrender of Company Powers
45
 
 

 




































































iii

Table Of Contents
(continued)


      Page
       
 
Section 13.04
Notices
45
         
 
Section 13.05
Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver
45
         
 
Section 13.06
Treatment of Securities as Debt
46
         
 
Section 13.07
Certificates and Opinions as to Conditions Precedent
46
         
 
Section 13.08
Payments on Business Days
46
         
 
Section 13.09
Conflict with Trust Indenture Act
47
         
 
Section 13.10
Counterparts
47
         
 
Section 13.11
Separability
47
         
 
Section 13.12
Compliance Certificates
47
         
 
Section 13.13
Patriot Act
47
         
 
Section 13.14
Force Majeure
48
         
 
Section 13.12
Table of Contents; Headings
48


iv

INDENTURE

Indenture, dated as of [•], 20__, among Bionano Genomics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [Trustee], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

Whereas, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

Whereas, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

Whereas, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

Now, Therefore, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS

Section 1.01          Definitions of Terms.

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular.  All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

Authenticating Agent” means the Trustee or an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors (or the functional equivalent thereof) of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

1

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors (or duly authorized committee thereof) and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which federal or state banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City of New York, or in the city of the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

 “Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act, or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

Company” means Bionano Genomics, Inc., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware, and, subject to the provisions of Article Ten, shall also include its successors and assigns.

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at [•].

Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

Defaulted Interest” has the meaning set forth in Section 2.03.

Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or 2.11.

Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

Exchange Act” means the United States Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission thereunder.

The term “given”, “mailed”, “notify” or “sent” with respect to any notice to be given to a Securityholder pursuant to this Indenture, shall mean notice (x) given to the Depositary (or its designee) pursuant to the standing instructions from the Depositary or its designee, including by electronic mail in accordance with accepted practices or procedures at the Depositary (in the case of a Global Security) or (y) mailed to such Securityholder by first class mail, postage prepaid, at its address as it appears on the Security Register (in the case of a definitive Security).  Notice so “given” shall be deemed to include any notice to be “mailed” or “delivered,” as applicable, under this Indenture.

2

Global Security” means a Security issued to evidence all or a part of any series of Securities which is executed by the Company and authenticated and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with the Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (a) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (b) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof at any time prior to the stated maturity of the Securities, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

herein”, “hereof and “hereunder”, and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 2.01.

Interest Payment Date”, when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

Officer” means, with respect to the Company, the chairman of the Board of Directors, a chief executive officer, a president, a chief financial officer, a chief operating officer, any executive vice president, any senior vice president, any vice president, the treasurer or any assistant treasurer, the controller or any assistant controller or the secretary or any assistant secretary.

 “Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer.  Each such certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

3

Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing subject to customary exceptions of legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company, that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof.  Each such opinion shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as provided in Article Three, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, joint-stock company, limited liability company, association, trust, unincorporated organization, any other entity or organization, including a  government or political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality thereof.

Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a lost, destroyed or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the lost, destroyed or stolen Security.

Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee means any officer within the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee (or any successor group of the Trustee) or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject and in each case who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.

 “Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and more particularly means any Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

Securityholder”, “holder of Securities”, “registered holder”, or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security is registered on the Security Register kept for that purpose in accordance with the terms of this Indenture.

4

 “Security Register” and “Security Registrar” shall have the meanings as set forth in Section 2.05.

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, any corporation, association, partnership or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of capital stock or other interests (including partnership interests) entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers, general partners or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by (i) such Person; (ii) such Person and one or more Subsidiaries of such Person; or (iii) one or more Subsidiaries of such Person.

Trustee” means [•], and, subject to the provisions of Article Seven, shall also include its successors and assigns, and, if at any time there is more than one Person acting in such capacity hereunder, “Trustee” shall mean each such Person.  The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

“U.S.A. Patriot Act” means the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107-56, as amended and signed into law October 26, 2001.

ARTICLE 2

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND
EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

Section 2.01          Designation and Terms of Securities.

(a)          The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.  The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto.  Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

(1)          the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that series from all other Securities);

(2)          any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

(3)          the maturity date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable;

5

(4)          the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the certificate of authentication for such series;

(5)          the applicability of any guarantees;

(6)          whether or not the Securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

(7)          whether the Securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

(8)        if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such Securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such Securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

(9)         the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

(10)        the Company’s right, if any, to defer the payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

(11)        if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, the Company may at its option, redeem the series of Securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

(12)       the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which the Company is obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the Securityholder’s option to purchase, the series of Securities and the currency or currency unit in which the Securities are payable;

(13)        the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable, if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof;

(14)         any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the Securities of that series and any security for the obligations of the Company with respect to such Securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;

(15)       whether the Securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a Global Security or Securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such Global Security or Securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual Securities; and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities;

6

(16)        if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at the Company’s option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange, which may, without limitation, include the payment of cash as well as the delivery of securities;

(17)        if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01;

(18)        additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the series of Securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

(19)        additions to or changes in the Events of Default with respect to the Securities and any change in the right of the Trustee or the Securityholders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such Securities to be due and payable;

(20)        additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

(21)        additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture;

(22)        additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of this Indenture both with and without the consent of Securityholders of Securities issued under this Indenture;

(23)        the currency of payment of Securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

(24)        whether interest will be payable in cash or additional Securities at the Company’s or the Securityholders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

(25)        the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Company shall pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the Securities of the series to any Securityholder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

(26)        any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the Securities of the series; and

7

(27)        any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the Securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of this Indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officer’s Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.

Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.

Section 2.02          Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate.

The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, and they may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any securities exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.

Section 2.03          Denominations: Provisions for Payment.

The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(a)(13).  The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series.  Subject to Section 2.01(a)(23), the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption or repurchase thereof prior to maturity, and any cash amount due upon conversion or exchange thereof, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose.  Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.  Interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.

The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment.  In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.

8

Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

(1)          The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered in the Security Register at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided.  Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment.  The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be sent to each Securityholder not less than 10 days prior to such special record date.  Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been sent as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered in the Security Register on such special record date.

(2)          The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities and any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the first day of the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.

9

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.

Section 2.04          Execution and Authentications.

The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by one of its Officers.  Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature.

The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been an Officer (at the time of execution), notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be such an officer of the Company.  The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage.  Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication by the Trustee.

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated manually by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent.  Such signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.  At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by an Officer, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.

Upon the Company’s delivery of any such authentication order to the Trustee at any time after the initial issuance of Securities under this Indenture, the Trustee shall be provided with, and (subject to Sections 315(a) through 315(d) of the Trust Indenture Act) shall be fully protected in relying upon, (1) an Opinion of Counsel or reliance letter and (2) an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent to the execution, authentication and delivery of such Securities are in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.

The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

Section 2.05          Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

(a)          Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section.  In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.

10

(b)          The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee.  The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution or supplemental indenture (the “Security Registrar”).

Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.

The Company initially appoints the Trustee as Security Registrar for each series of Securities.

All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.

(c)          Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, no service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series or repurchase, conversion or exchange of less than the entire principal amount of a Security, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, Section 3.03(b) and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.

(d)          The Company and the Security Registrar shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the sending of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such sending, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption or surrendered for repurchase, but not validly withdrawn, other than the unredeemed portion of any such Securities being redeemed in part or not surrendered for repurchase, as the case may be.  The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11 hereof.

11

The Trustee shall have no obligation or duty to monitor, determine or inquire as to compliance with any restrictions on transfer imposed under this Indenture or under applicable law with respect to any transfer of any interest in any Security (including any transfers between or among Depositary participants or beneficial owners of interests in any Global Security) other than to require delivery of such certificates and other documentation or evidence as are expressly required by, and to do so if and when expressly required by the terms of, this Indenture, and to examine the same to determine substantial compliance as to form with the express requirements hereof.

Section 2.06          Temporary Securities.

Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination.  Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company.  Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series.  Without unnecessary delay the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the Securityholders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose, and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company.  Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.

Section 2.07          Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.

In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen.  In every case the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof.  The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company.  Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

12

In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder.  All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

Section 2.08          Cancellation.

All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, repurchase, exchange, registration of transfer or conversion shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent (or any other applicable agent), be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture.  On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee.  In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company.  If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

Section 2.09          Benefits of Indenture.

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities.

13

Section 2.10          Authenticating Agent.

So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint.  Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption, repurchase or conversion thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder.  All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series.  Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authorities.  If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.

Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company.  The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company.  Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company.  Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.

Section 2.11          Global Securities.

(a)          If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, a Global Security that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, all of the Outstanding Securities of such series, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction (or if the Depositary names the Trustee as its custodian, retained by the Trustee), and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

(b)          Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.

14

(c)          If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, or if an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing and the Company has received a request from the Depositary or from the Trustee, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company will execute, and subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security.  In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series.  In such event the Company will execute and, subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security.  Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee.  Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(c) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee.  The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

Section 2.12          CUSIP Numbers.

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Securityholders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers.  The Company will promptly notify the Trustee of any change in the “CUSIP” numbers.

ARTICLE 3

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

Section 3.01          Redemption.

The Company may redeem the Securities of any series issued hereunder on and after the dates and in accordance with the terms established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

15

Section 3.02          Notice of Redemption.

(a)          In case the Company shall desire to exercise such right to redeem all or, as the case may be, a portion of the Securities of any series in accordance with any right the Company reserved for itself to do so pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the Company shall, or shall cause the Trustee to, give notice of such redemption to holders of the Securities of such series to be redeemed by mailing (or with regard to any Global Security held in book entry form, by electronic mail in accordance with the applicable procedures of the Depositary), a notice of such redemption not less than 30 days and not more than 90 days before the date fixed for redemption of that series to such Securityholders, unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed.  Any notice that is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the registered holder receives the notice.  In any case, failure duly to give such notice to the holder of any Security of any series designated for redemption in whole or in part, or any defect in the notice, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities of such series or any other series.  In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officer’s Certificate evidencing compliance with any such restriction.

Each such notice of redemption shall identify the Securities to be redeemed (including CUSIP numbers, if any), specify the date fixed for redemption and the redemption price at which Securities of that series are to be redeemed, and shall state that payment of the redemption price of such Securities to be redeemed will be made at the office or agency of the Company, upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in said notice, that from and after said date interest will cease to accrue and that the redemption is from a sinking fund, if such is the case.  If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the notice to the holders of Securities of that series to be redeemed in part shall specify the particular Securities to be so redeemed.

In case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice that relates to such Security shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed, and shall state that on and after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

(b)          If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company shall give the Trustee at least 45 days’ notice (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) in advance of the date fixed for redemption as to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series to be redeemed, and thereupon the Securities to be redeemed shall be selected, by lot, on a pro rata basis, or in such other manner as the Company shall deem appropriate and fair in its discretion and that may provide for the selection of a portion or portions (equal to one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof) of the principal amount of such Securities of a denomination larger than $1,000, the Securities to be redeemed and shall thereafter promptly notify the Company in writing of the numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, in whole or in part.  The Company may, if and whenever it shall so elect, by delivery of instructions signed on its behalf by an Officer, instruct the Trustee or any paying agent to call all or any part of the Securities of a particular series for redemption and to give notice of redemption in the manner set forth in this Section, such notice to be in the name of the Company or its own name as the Trustee or such paying agent may deem advisable.  In any case in which notice of redemption is to be given by the Trustee or any such paying agent, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to, or permit to remain with, the Trustee or such paying agent, as the case may be, such Security Register, transfer books or other records, or suitable copies or extracts therefrom, sufficient to enable the Trustee or such paying agent to give any notice by mail that may be required under the provisions of this Section.

16

Section 3.03          Payment Upon Redemption.

(a)          If the giving of notice of redemption shall have been completed as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities of the series to be redeemed specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to, but excluding, the date fixed for redemption and interest on such Securities or portions of Securities shall cease to accrue on and after the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such redemption price and accrued interest with respect to any such Security or portion thereof.  On presentation and surrender of such Securities on or after the date fixed for redemption at the place of payment specified in the notice, said Securities shall be paid and redeemed at the applicable redemption price for such series, together with interest accrued thereon to, but excluding, the date fixed for redemption (but if the date fixed for redemption is an Interest Payment Date, the interest installment payable on such date shall be payable to the registered holder at the close of business on the applicable record date pursuant to Section 2.03).

(b)          Upon presentation of any Security of such series that is to be redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and the office or agency where the Security is presented shall deliver to the Securityholder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security of the same series of authorized denominations in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

Section 3.04          Sinking Fund.

The provisions of Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06 shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series.

The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”.  If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 3.05.  Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.

17

Section 3.05          Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

The Company (i) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series and (ii) may apply as a credit Securities of a series that have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited.  Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the redemption price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.

Section 3.06          Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

Not less than 45 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities (unless a shorter period shall be satisfactory to the Trustee), the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of the series, the portion thereof, if any, that is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 3.05 and the basis for such credit and will, together with such Officer’s Certificate, deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered.  Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date shall be selected in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and the Company shall cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.02.  Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Section 3.03.

ARTICLE 4

COVENANTS

Section 4.01          Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.

The Company will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series at the time and place and in the manner provided herein and established with respect to such Securities. Payments of principal on the Securities may be made at the time provided herein and established with respect to such Securities by U.S. dollar check drawn on and mailed to the address of the Securityholder entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register, or U.S. dollar wire transfer to, a U.S. dollar account if such Securityholder shall have furnished wire instructions to the Trustee no later than 15 days prior to the relevant payment date. Payments of interest on the Securities may be made at the time provided herein and established with respect to such Securities by U.S. dollar check mailed to the address of the Securityholder entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register, or U.S. dollar wire transfer to, a U.S. dollar account if such Securityholder shall have furnished wire instructions in writing to the Security Registrar and the Trustee no later than 15 days prior to the relevant payment date.

18

Section 4.02          Maintenance of Office or Agency.

So long as any series of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Company agrees to maintain an office or agency with respect to each such series and at such other location or locations as may be designated as provided in this Section 4.02, where (i) Securities of that series may be presented for payment, (ii) Securities of that series may be presented as herein above authorized for registration of transfer and exchange, and (iii) notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be given or served, such designation to continue with respect to such office or agency until the Company shall, by written notice signed by any officer authorized to sign an Officer’s Certificate and delivered to the Trustee, designate some other office or agency for such purposes or any of them.  If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, notices and demands.  The Company initially appoints the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee as its paying agent with respect to the Securities.

Section 4.03          Paying Agents.

(a)          If the Company shall appoint one or more paying agents for all or any series of the Securities, other than the Trustee, the Company will cause each such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:

(1)          that it will hold all sums held by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any other obligor of such Securities) in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto;

(2)         that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Company (or by any other obligor of such Securities) to make any payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series when the same shall be due and payable;

(3)          that it will, at any time during the continuance of any failure referred to in the preceding paragraph (a)(2) above, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent; and

(4)          that it will perform all other duties of paying agent as set forth in this Indenture.

(b)          If the Company shall act as its own paying agent with respect to any series of the Securities, it will on or before each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on Securities of that series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient to pay such principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due on Securities of that series until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of such action, or any failure (by it or any other obligor on such Securities) to take such action.  Whenever the Company shall have one or more paying agents for any series of Securities, it will, prior to each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal, premium or interest, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of this action or failure so to act.

19

(c)          Notwithstanding anything in this Section to the contrary, (i) the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, and (ii) the Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or direct any paying agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such paying agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same terms and conditions as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such paying agent; and, upon such payment by the Company or any paying agent to the Trustee, the Company or such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.

Section 4.04          Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee.

The Company, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 7.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder.

ARTICLE 5

SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

Section 5.01          Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders.

The Company will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee (a) within 15 days after each regular record date (as defined in Section 2.03) a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the holders of each series of Securities as of such regular record date, provided that the Company shall not be obligated to furnish or cause to furnish such list at any time that the list shall not differ in any respect from the most recent list furnished to the Trustee by the Company and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished; provided, however, that, in either case, no such list need be furnished for any series for which the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar.

20

Section 5.02          Preservation Of Information; Communications With Securityholders.

(a)          The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity).

(b)          The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

(c)          Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities, and, in connection with any such communications, the Trustee shall satisfy its obligations under Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the provisions of Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Section 5.03          Reports by the Company.

(a)          The Company will at all times comply with Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.  The Company covenants and agrees to provide (which delivery may be via electronic mail) to the Trustee within 30 days, after the Company files the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) that the Company is required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; provided, however, the Company shall not be required to deliver to the Trustee any correspondence filed with the Commission or any materials for which the Company has sought and received confidential treatment by the Commission; and provided further, that so long as such filings by the Company are available on the Commission’s Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval System (EDGAR), or any successor system, such filings shall be deemed to have been filed with the Trustee for purposes hereof without any further action required by the Company. For the avoidance of doubt, a failure by the Company to file annual reports, information and other reports with the Commission within the time period prescribed thereof by the Commission shall not be deemed a breach of this Section 5.03.

(b)          Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under Section 5.03 is for informational purposes only and the information and the Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein, or determinable from information contained therein including the Company’s compliance with any of their covenants thereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on an Officer’s Certificate).  The Trustee is under no duty to examine any such reports, information or documents delivered to the Trustee or filed with the Commission via EDGAR to ensure compliance with the provision of this Indenture or to ascertain the correctness or otherwise of the information or the statements contained therein.  The Trustee shall have no responsibility or duty whatsoever to ascertain or determine whether the above referenced filings with the Commission on EDGAR (or any successor system) has occurred.

21

Section 5.04          Reports by the Trustee.

(a)           If required by Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee, within sixty (60) days after each May 1, shall send to the Securityholders a brief report dated as of such May 1, which complies with Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.

(b)           The Trustee shall comply with Section 313(b) and 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act.

(c)           A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Securityholders, be filed by the Trustee with the Company, with each securities exchange upon which any Securities are listed (if so listed) and also with the Commission.  The Company agrees to notify the Trustee when any Securities become listed on any securities exchange.

ARTICLE 6

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF
DEFAULT

Section 6.01          Events of Default.

(a)          Whenever used herein with respect to Securities of a particular series, “Event of Default” means any one or more of the following events that has occurred and is continuing:

(1)         the Company defaults in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of that series, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by the Company in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

(2)         the Company defaults in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such Securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

(3)         the Company fails to observe or perform any other of its covenants or agreements with respect to that series contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to that series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof (other than a covenant or agreement that has been expressly included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of one or more series of Securities other than such series) for a period of 90 days after the date on which written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder, shall have been given to the Company by the Trustee, by registered or certified mail, or to the Company and the Trustee by the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Securities of that series at the time Outstanding;

22

(4)          the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law (i) commences a voluntary case, (ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case, (iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property or (iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or

(5)          a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order under any Bankruptcy Law that (i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case, (ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company for all or substantially all of its property or (iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 days.

(b)          In each and every such case (other than an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above), unless the principal of all the Securities of that series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by such Securityholders), may declare the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable.  If an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above occurs, the principal of and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series shall automatically be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or the holders of the Securities.

(c)          At any time after the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on the Securities of that series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if: (i) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of that series and the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any and all Securities of that series that shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and premium, if any, and, to the extent that such payment is enforceable under applicable law, upon overdue installments of interest, at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series to the date of such payment or deposit) and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06, and (ii) any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the nonpayment of principal on (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on Securities of that series that shall not have become due by their terms, shall have been remedied or waived as provided in Section 6.06.

No such rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.

23

(d)          In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right with respect to Securities of that series under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned because of such rescission or annulment or for any other reason or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceedings, the Company and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Company and the Trustee shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

Section 6.02          Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

(a)          The Company covenants that (i) in case it shall default in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of a series, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series as and when the same shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 90 days, or (ii) in case it shall default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of a series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of a series or upon redemption or upon declaration or otherwise then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Company will pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the holders of the Securities of that series, the whole amount that then shall have been become due and payable on all such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) or interest, or both, as the case may be, with interest upon the overdue principal (and premium, if any) and (to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law) upon overdue installments of interest at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series; and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06.

(b)          If the Company shall fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law or equity out of the property of the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series, wherever situated.

(c)          In case of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, readjustment, arrangement, composition or judicial proceedings affecting the Company, or its creditors or property, the Trustee shall have power to intervene in such proceedings and take any action therein that may be permitted by the court and shall (except as may be otherwise provided by law) be entitled to file such proofs of claim and other papers and documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee and of the holders of Securities of such series allowed for the entire amount due and payable by the Company under the Indenture at the date of institution of such proceedings and for any additional amount that may become due and payable by the Company after such date, and to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claim, and to distribute the same after the deduction of the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and any receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization is hereby authorized by each of the holders of Securities of such series to make such payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to such Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it under Section 7.06.

24

(d)          All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the terms established with respect to Securities of that series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of such Securities, or the production thereof at any trial or other proceeding relative thereto, and any such suit or proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for payment to the Trustee of any amounts due under Section 7.06, be for the ratable benefit of the holders of the Securities of such series.

In case of an Event of Default hereunder, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any of such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in the Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture, or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of that series or the rights of any Securityholder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.

Section 6.03          Application of Moneys Collected.

Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article with respect to a particular series of Securities shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, upon presentation of the Securities of that series, and notation thereon of the payment, if only partially paid, and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

FIRST: To the payment of costs and expenses of collection and of all amounts payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06;

SECOND: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon Securities of such series for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, respectively; and

THIRD: To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Company or any other Person lawfully entitled thereto.

25

Section 6.04          Limitation on Suits.

No holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any suit, action or proceeding in equity or at law upon or under or with respect to this Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless (i) such Securityholder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof with respect to the Securities of such series specifying such Event of Default, as hereinbefore provided; (ii) the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action, suit or proceeding in its own name as Trustee hereunder; (iii) such Securityholder or Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred in compliance with such request; (iv) the Trustee for 90 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity, shall have failed to institute any such action, suit or proceeding and (v) during such 90 day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series do not give the Trustee a direction inconsistent with the request.

Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary or any other provisions of this Indenture, the right of any holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Security, as therein provided, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security (or in the case of redemption, on the redemption date), or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates or redemption date, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such holder and by accepting a Security hereunder it is expressly understood, intended and covenanted by the taker and holder of every Security of such series with every other such taker and holder and the Trustee, that no one or more holders of Securities of such series shall have any right in any manner whatsoever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of the holders of any other of such Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such holder, or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all holders of Securities of such series.  For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

Section 6.05          Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

(a)          Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.07, all powers and remedies given by this Article to the Trustee or to the Securityholders shall, to the extent permitted by law, be deemed cumulative and not exclusive of any other powers and remedies available to the Trustee or the holders of the Securities, by judicial proceedings or otherwise, to enforce the performance or observance of the covenants and agreements contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to such Securities.

(b)          No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any holder of any of the Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power, or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such default or an acquiescence therein; and, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, every power and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders.

26

Section 6.06          Control by Securityholders.

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to such series; provided, however, that such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture or subject the Trustee in its sole discretion to personal liability.  Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer or officers of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed, subject to the Trustee’s duties under the Trust Indenture Act, would involve the Trustee in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the Securityholders not involved in the proceeding.  The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding affected thereby, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, may on behalf of the holders of all of the Securities of such series waive any past default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.01 with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities otherwise than by acceleration (unless such default has been cured and a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest and principal and any premium has been deposited with the Trustee (in accordance with Section 6.01(c)).  Upon any such waiver, the default covered thereby shall be deemed to be cured for all purposes of this Indenture and the Company, the Trustee and the holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon.

Section 6.07          Undertaking to Pay Costs.

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each holder of any Securities by such holder’s acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees and expenses, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder, or group of Securityholders, holding more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

27

ARTICLE 7

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

Section 7.01          Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee.

(a)          The Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing of all Events of Default with respect to the Securities of that series that may have occurred, shall undertake to perform with respect to the Securities of such series such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee.  In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (that has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs.

(b)          No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:

(i)          prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing or waiving of all such Events of Default with respect to that series that may have occurred:

(A)        the duties and obligations of the Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of such series be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to the Securities of such series except for the performance of such duties and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and

(B)          in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may with respect to the Securities of such series conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions that by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture;

(ii)          the Trustee shall not be liable to any Securityholder or to any other Person for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

28