As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 14, 2017 pursuant to the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act

Registration No. 333-      

 

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549



 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT ON FORM F-1
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933



 

FARMMI, INC.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)



 

Not Applicable

(Translation of Registrant’s Name into English)

   
Cayman Islands   5149   Not Applicable
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)


 

 
No. 307, Tianning Industrial Area
Lishui, Zhejiang Province
People’s Republic of China 323000
+86-057-1875555801 — telephone
+86-057-1875555826 — facsimile
  The Corporation Trust Company
Corporation Trust Center
1209 Orange Street
Wilmington, DE 19801
+1-800-677-3394 — telephone
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number,
including area code, of principal executive offices)
  (Name, address, including zip code, and telephone
number, including area code, of agent for service)


 

Copies to:

 
Anthony W. Basch, Esq.
Xiaoqin Li, Esq.
Kaufman & Canoles, P.C.
Two James Center, 14 th Floor
1021 East Cary Street
Richmond, Virginia 23219
+1-804-771-5700 — telephone
+1-888-360-9092 — facsimile
  Richard I. Anslow, Esq.
Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP
1345 Avenue of the Americas
New York, New York 10105
+1-212-370-1300 — telephone
+1-212-370-7889 — facsimile


 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to public: As soon as practicable after the effective date of this Registration Statement.

If any securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act, check the following box. o

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. o

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. o

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933.

Emerging growth company x

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. o

The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

       
Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered   Amount to be Registered   Proposed Maximum Aggregate Price
Per Share
  Proposed Maximum Aggregate
Offering Price (1)
  Amount of Registration Fee
Ordinary Shares, par value $0.001 per share                $ 6     $ 5,000,000     $ 622.5 (2)  

(1) Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(a) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
(2) To be paid upon first non-confidential filing of registration statement with Securities and Exchange Commission.

The Registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 


 
 

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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We will not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

Subject to Completion, Dated November 14, 2017

Ordinary Shares

[GRAPHIC MISSING]

FARMMI, Inc.

This is an initial public offering of      Ordinary Shares of Farmmi, Inc., a Cayman Islands exempted company. Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for our Ordinary Shares. We expect the initial public offering price of our Ordinary Shares to be between $4 and $6 per share. We intend to apply to list our Ordinary Shares on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “FAMI.” We cannot assure you that our application will be approved; if it is not approved, we will not complete this offering.

We are an “emerging growth company” under the federal securities laws and will be subject to reduced public company reporting requirements. Investing in our Ordinary Shares involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 10 .

   
  Per Ordinary
Share
  Total
Assumed public offering price   $        $ 5,000,000  
Underwriting discount   $     $  
Proceeds to us, before expenses   $     $  

We expect our total cash expenses for this offering (including cash expenses payable to our underwriter for its out-of-pocket expenses and the underwriting discount) to be approximately $    . In addition, we will pay additional items of value in connection with this offering that are viewed by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, as underwriting compensation. These payments will further reduce proceeds available to us before expenses. See “Underwriting.”

This offering is being conducted on a firm commitment basis. The underwriter, ViewTrade Securities Inc., is obligated to take and pay for all of the shares if any such shares are taken. We have granted the underwriter an option for a period of 45 days after the closing of this offering to purchase up to 15% of the total number of our Ordinary Shares to be offered by us pursuant to this offering (excluding shares subject to this option), solely for the purpose of covering over-allotments, at the initial public offering price less the underwriting discount. If the underwriter exercises the option in full, the total underwriting discounts and commissions payable will be $    , and the total proceeds to us, before expenses, will be $    . If we complete this offering, net proceeds will be delivered to our company on the closing date. We will not be able to use such proceeds in China, however, until we complete capital contribution procedure which requires prior approval from each of the respective local counterparts of MOFCOM, SAIC and SAFE in China. See remittance procedures in the section titled “Use of Proceeds” beginning on page 35 . The underwriter expects to deliver our shares to purchasers in the offering on or about            , 2017.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense .

[GRAPHIC MISSING]

The date of this prospectus is            , 2017.


 
 

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Table of Contents

 
Prospectus Summary     1  
Risk Factors     10  
Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements     35  
Use of Proceeds     35  
Dividend Policy     37  
Exchange Rate Information     38  
Capitalization     39  
Dilution     40  
Post-Offering Ownership     40  
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations     41  
Business     58  
Regulations     91  
Our Employees     98  
Description of Property     99  
Management     102  
Executive Compensation     108  
Related Party Transactions     110  
Principal Shareholders     113  
Description of Share Capital     114  
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk     127  
Shares Eligible for Future Sale     128  
Material Tax Consequences Applicable to U.S. Holders of Our Ordinary Shares     130  
Enforceability of Civil Liabilities     136  
Underwriting     138  
Legal Matters     143  
Experts     143  
Interests of Named Experts and Counsel     143  
Disclosure of Commission Position on Indemnification     143  
Where You Can Find Additional Information     143  

Neither we nor the underwriter has authorized anyone to provide any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectuses we have prepared. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of our Ordinary Shares only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted.

The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and is subject to change. No person should rely on the information contained in this document for any purpose other than participating in our proposed initial public offering, and only the preliminary prospectus issued           , 2017 is authorized by us to be used in connection with our proposed initial public offering. The preliminary prospectus will only be distributed by us and the underwriter named herein and no other person has been authorized by us to use this document to offer or sell any of our securities.

Until           , 2017 (25 days after the commencement of our initial public offering), all dealers that buy, sell, or trade our Ordinary Shares, whether or not participating in our initial public offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This delivery requirement is in addition to the obligation of dealers to deliver a prospectus when acting as underwriter and with respect to their unsold allotments or subscriptions.

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Prospectus Summary

This summary highlights information contained in greater detail elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information you should consider in making your investment decision. You should read the entire prospectus carefully before making an investment in our Ordinary Shares. You should carefully consider, among other things, our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and the sections entitled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this prospectus.

Company Overview

We process and/or sell four categories of agricultural products: Shiitake mushrooms, Mu Er mushrooms, other edible fungi, and other agricultural products. Shiitake mushrooms and Mu Er mushrooms are our major products. We do not grow fungi, but instead purchase mushrooms from third parties, clean, process and package such products for sale. The production volume of the global mushroom market was 48,040,000 tons in 2016. We sell substantially all of our products to domestic distributors in China, which then sell in China and internationally. We estimate approximately 90% of our products are sold in China and the remaining 10% are resold internationally, including USA, Japan, Canada, Europe and the Middle East, through distributors. In addition to our edible fungi products, since January 2017, we have also begun to generate on average approximately 1% of revenues from our trading activities. These trading activities are purchasing other agricultural products, such as tea, produced by third-party manufacturers, and selling these products in our online store Farmmi Liangpin Mall ( www.farmmi.com/www.farmmi88.com ). Our online store Farmmi Liangpin Mall sells these products and our edible fungi products, and our online mall is operated by our variable interest entity (“VIE”) Hangzhou Nongyuan Network Technology Co., Ltd.

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Company Structure

Our current corporate structure is as follows:

[GRAPHIC MISSING]

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Following completion of our initial public offering, ownership of Farmmi, Inc. will be as follows:

 
[GRAPHIC MISSING]   [GRAPHIC MISSING]
Assumes no exercise of over-allotment option and no exercise of underwriter warrant   Assumes full exercise of over-allotment option and no exercise of underwriter warrant

To the extent the over-allotment option is partially exercised, the post-offering ownership interests would be between the above charts.

To comply with PRC laws and regulations, such as the Circular on Strengthening the Administration of Foreign Investment in Value-added Telecommunications Services issued by the MIIT in July 2006, we conduct our e-commerce operations in China principally through Hangzhou Nongyuan Network Technology Co., Ltd. (“Nongyuan Network”), which we treat as our consolidated affiliated entity in China. Hangzhou Suyuan Agriculture Technology Co., Ltd. (“Suyuan Agriculture”) has entered into a series of VIE agreements with Nongyuan Network and its sole shareholder Mr. Zhengyu Wang, the husband of Ms. Yefang Zhang. Pursuant to these agreements, Suyuan Agriculture has the exclusive rights to provide to Nongyuan Network consulting services related to business operation and management, Suyuan Agriculture is obligated to absorb all of the loss from Nongyuan Network’s activities and is entitled to receive all of its residual returns, Nongyuan Network’s sole shareholder irrevocably authorizes Suyuan Agriculture to exercise voting rights and all other rights as the shareholder, Suyuan Agriculture can exercise management control over the activities that most significantly impact the economic performance of Nongyuan Network, Suyuan Agriculture has an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests in Nongyuan Network, and Nongyuan Network’s shareholder pledged all of his equity interests in Nongyuan Network to Suyuan Agriculture as collateral to secure performance of all of his obligations under these agreements. See “BUSINESS — Corporate Information — Hangzhou Nongyuan Network Technology Co., Ltd. (‘Nongyuan Network’) ” for detailed descriptions of each of the VIE agreements we have entered into. These contractual arrangements enable us to exercise effective control over Nongyuan Network and receive all of the economic benefits from it.

Industry and Market Background

Edible fungi is our major product category. The production volume of the global mushroom market was 48,040,000 tons in 2016, and is expected to reach to 50,600,000 tons in 2017.

Our company’s primary market is China. In the six months ended March 31, 2017, we sold approximately 90% of our edible fungi products in China. In the fiscal year ended September 30, 2016, we sold approximately 87% of our edible fungi products in China. China is the largest producer of edible fungi. China produced 76.71% of the global edible fungi in 2016 (source: China Edible Fungi Market Research and Development Trend Forecast (2017) issued by QYR Food Research Center).

Most of the edible fungi produced by China is for domestic consumption. In 2015, the export portion of edible fungi was only 1.73% of the annual production in China (source: China Edible Fungi Market Research and Development Trend Forecast (2016) issued by QYR Food Research Center). Edible fungi, especially Shitake mushroom and Mu Er (also known as wood ear mushrooms), have become important food sources for the Chinese.

In general, the consumption volume of edible fungi in China is growing. From 2006 to 2016, the edible fungi consumed by China market increased from 14,140,000 metric tons (approximately 31 billion pounds) to 36,860,000 metric tons (approximately 81 billion pounds). The 2017 number is expected to be 38,710,000 metric tons (approximately 85 billion pounds).

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Our Opportunity and Strategy

Our growth strategy is as follows, although there is no guarantee that our growth plan will be successful:

1. Expanding export customers of our existing products of edible fungi

We plan to continue increasing our export sales and develop more export customers. We intend to further investing our resources in promoting overseas market, including attending more export fairs and developing cross-border e-commerce.

2. Increasing varieties of agricultural products

Currently our main products are edible fungi. We plan to increase varieties of our agricultural products. We have begun to sell tea processed by a local company. We plan to sell other agricultural products manufactured by other companies, such as rice and nuts.

3. Expanding our e-commerce platform

We have established our online store Farmmi Liangpin Mall (meaning “mall of products of good quality;” “农米良品商城” in Chinese; www.farmmi.com/www.farmmi88.com ). We plan to expand it by using two thirds of the proceeds from this offering to further promote the store, develop mobile application, and set up one or more physical experience stores.

Competitive Strengths

We believe we have the following competitive strengths. Some of our competitors may have these or other competitive strengths.

1. Sophisticated Quality Control System. Product quality is always our major focus. We enforce a series of quality standards for our edible fungi products, adopt sound quality control systems and have been awarded various quality certificates. In addition, our workers must follow specific quality control procedures in the factories. In addition, our traceability system allows us to trace and correct any quality issues.
2. Established supplier relationships. We have strong and long-term relationships with many family farms as suppliers to ensure our access to relatively high-quality dried edible fungi.
3. Stable and experienced factory employees. Among our current approximately 80 factory workers, there are over 20 employees who have worked with our founders, Ms. Zhang and Mr. Wang, for over 10 years. They are great assets to us as they are loyal to the company and have rich experience in processing edible fungi.
4. Favorable location. We are based in Lishui, a city in the southwest of Zhejiang province. It is in an important mushroom resource base, giving our company access to an abundance of high quality, affordable raw materials.

Our Challenges and Risks

We recommend that you consider carefully the risks discussed below and under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page 10 of this prospectus before purchasing our Ordinary Shares. If any of these risks occur, business, prospects, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and ability to make distributions to our shareholders could be materially and adversely affected. In that case, the trading price of our Ordinary Shares could decline and you could lose some or all of your investment. These risks include, among others, the following:

PRC Legal Challenges.

º Under PRC laws and regulations, we are permitted to use the proceeds from this offering to fund our PRC subsidiaries only through parent/subsidiary loans or capital contributions, subject to applicable government registration and approval requirements. We plan to remit the proceeds from this offering to China using the capital contribution method. We currently anticipate using approximately 80% of the gross proceeds from this offering to increase the registered capital of

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Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology (after which time Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology may apply such funds to the purposes described in “Use of Proceeds”). The increase in registered capital will require prior approval from (i) The Ministry of Commerce (“MOFCOM”) of the Government of China to increase Farmmi Enterprise’s and Farmmi Technology’s registered capital, (ii) the State Administration for Industry and Commerce (“SAIC”) to alter Farmmi Enterprise’s and Farmmi Technology’s business certificate to reflect the increase in registered capital and (iii) the State Administration of Foreign Exchange (“SAFE”) to allow Farmmi Enterprise’s and Farmmi Technology’s bank to convert U.S. dollars into RMB in order to fund such increased registered capital, or each of the foregoing agencies’ respective local counterparts. This approval process typically takes 30 to 90 days in total, and sometimes longer, from the time MOFCOM or its local branches receive all the required application documents to begin such process. The remaining approximately 20% of such gross proceeds will be used to pay expenses related to this offering and for other general corporate purposes. The approval from MOFCOM is the key approval in the capital contribution process, and we believe all other approvals are ministerial if MOFCOM approves such increase in registered capital. We have not yet initiated this process but intend to start the process immediately upon completion of the offering. We do not foresee any problem receiving necessary government approvals for a capital contribution; however, if our application is rejected, we would remit money to China through a parent/subsidiary loan instead. If we were to provide funding to Farmmi Enterprise’s and Farmmi Technology’s through parent/subsidiary loans, the total amount of such parent/subsidiary loans may not exceed the difference between Farmmi Enterprise’s and Farmmi Technology’s total investment amount as approved by the foreign investment authorities and Farmmi Enterprise’s and Farmmi Technology’s registered capital. Such parent/subsidiary must also be registered with the SAFE, which registration usually takes no more than 20 business days after application to complete. The cost for obtaining such approvals and completing such registration is no more than US $3,000. See “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — PRC regulation of parent/subsidiary loans and direct investment by offshore holding companies to PRC entities may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make parent/subsidiary loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC operating subsidiaries, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business”.

º Under the Enterprise Income Tax Law, we may be classified as a “Resident Enterprise” of China. Such classification will likely result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC stockholders.

º Since our operations and assets are located in the PRC, shareholders may find it difficult to enforce a U.S. judgment against the assets of our company, our directors and executive officers.
Reputation risk.   If we become directly subject to the recent scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity involving U.S.-listed Chinese companies, we may have to expend significant resources, including but not limited to money and personnel, to investigate and resolve the matter which could harm our business operations, this offering and our reputation and could result in a loss of your investment in our shares, especially if such matter cannot be addressed and resolved favorably.
Low barrier to entry.   We believe the barrier to entry in our industry is relatively low. Although we believe we distinguish our company from competitors on the basis of quality, to the extent our customer base focuses heavily on price, many of our competitors can provide products at relatively low prices, affecting our profit margins as we seek to compete with them.
Expansion risk.   We have devoted resources, approximately $59,256, to our decision to build and develop our online store Farmmi Liangpin Mall in China. We plan to use two thirds of the proceeds from this offering to further expand it. While this decision may offer new opportunities to our

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company, it also is a new venture and has only recently begun to operate. Farmmi Liangpin Mall is not well known by consumers yet. As a result, we have no guarantee that we will be successful in this new expansion. If we do not manage our expansion effectively, our business prospects could be impaired.
Reliance risk.   We are subject to risks related to our heavy dependence on our major clients China National Forest Products Corp. and China National Tree Seed Corporation. If we cannot maintain long-term relationships with these two companies, the loss of our sales to them could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Limits to increase efficiency.   Our plans to continue to improve productivity and reduce costs may not be successful, which would adversely affect our ability to compete.

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other burdens that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include:

the ability to include only two years of audited financial statements and only two years of related management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations disclosure; and
an exemption from the auditor attestation requirement in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.

We may take advantage of these provisions for up to five years or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. We would cease to be an emerging growth company if we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenue, have more than $700 million in market value of our Ordinary Shares held by non-affiliates or issue more than $1 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period.

Prospectus Conventions

Except where the context otherwise requires and for purposes of this prospectus only, “we,” “us,” “our company,” “our” and “Farmmi” refer to:

Farmmi, Inc., a Cayman Islands company limited by shares (“FMI” when individually referenced);
Farmmi International Limited, a Hong Kong limited company (“Farmmi International” when individually referenced), which is a wholly owned subsidiary of FMI;
Farmmi (Hangzhou) Enterprise Management Co., Ltd., a PRC company (“Farmmi Enterprise”) (also referred to as 农米 (杭州) 企业管理有限公司 in Chinese), which is a wholly owned subsidiary of Farmmi International;
Lishui Farmmi Technology Co., Ltd., a PRC company (“Farmmi Technology”) (also referred to as 丽水农米科技有限公司 in Chinese), which is a wholly owned subsidiary of Farmmi International;
Hangzhou Suyuan Agriculture Technology Co., Ltd., a PRC company (“Suyuan Agriculture”) (also referred to as 杭州素源农业科技有限公司 in Chinese), 50% of which is owned by Farmmi Enterprise and 50% of which is owned by Farmmi Technology;
Hangzhou Nongyuan Network Technology Co., Ltd., a PRC company (“Nongyuan Network”) (also referred to as 杭州农源网络科技有限公司 in Chinese), which is wholly owned by Mr. Zhengyu Wang, a PRC citizen and wholly controlled by Suyuan Agriculture through VIE;
Zhejiang FLS Mushroom Co., Ltd., a PRC company (“FLS Mushroom”) (also referred to as 浙江富来森食用菌有限公司 in Chinese), which is a wholly owned subsidiary of Suyuan Agriculture; and
Zhejiang Forest Food Co., Ltd., a PRC company (“Forest Food”) (also referred to as 浙江富来森食品有限公司 in Chinese), which is a 96.1528%-owned subsidiary of Suyuan Agriculture, the remaining 3.8472% of Forest Food being held by The National Trust Ltd. (“National Trust”), a PRC company and a non-affiliated third party.

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This prospectus contains translations of certain RMB amounts into U.S. dollar amounts at a specified rate solely for the convenience of the reader. The exchange rates in effect as of March 31, 2017, September 30, 2016 and September 30, 2015 were RMB 1 for $0.1451, $0.1499 and $0.1572, respectively. The average exchange rates for the six months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016 were RMB 1 for $0.1458 and $0.1547, respectively. The average exchange rates for the years ended September 30, 2016 and 2015 were RMB 1 for $0.1531 and $0.1622, respectively. We use period-end exchange rates for assets and liabilities and average exchange rates for revenue and expenses. Capital accounts are translated at their historical exchange rates when the capital transactions occurred. Any discrepancies in any table between the amounts identified as total amounts and the sum of the amounts listed therein are due to rounding.

For the sake of clarity, this prospectus follows English naming convention of first name followed by last name, regardless of whether an individual’s name is Chinese or English. For example, the name of our chief executive officer will be presented as “Yefang Zhang,” even though, in Chinese, Ms. Zhang’s name is presented as “Zhang Yefang.”

We have relied on statistics provided by a variety of publicly-available sources regarding China’s expectations of growth, China’s demand for edible fungi and China’s edible fungi industry. We did not, directly or indirectly, sponsor or participate in the publication of such materials, and these materials are not incorporated in this prospectus other than to the extent specifically cited in this prospectus. We have sought to provide current information in this prospectus and believe that the statistics provided in this prospectus remain up-to-date and reliable, and these materials are not incorporated in this prospectus other than to the extent specifically cited in this prospectus.

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The Offering

Shares Offered by Us:    
         Ordinary Shares
Shares Outstanding Prior to Completion of Offering:    
    10,000,000 Ordinary Shares
Shares to be Outstanding after Offering:    
         Ordinary Shares
Assumed Offering Price per Share:    
    $    
Gross Proceeds to Us, Net of Underwriting Discount but before Expenses:    
    $    
Anticipated Nasdaq Capital Market Symbol:    
    “FAMI” (CUSIP No. G33277 107)
Transfer Agent:    
    Island Capital Management, LLC, doing business as “Island Stock Transfer”
15500 Roosevelt Boulevard
Suite 301
Clearwater, FL 33760
Risk Factors:    
    Investing in these securities involves a high degree of risk. As an investor, you should be able to bear a complete loss of your investment. You should carefully consider the information set forth in the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus beginning on page 10 before deciding to invest in our Ordinary Shares.
Use of Proceeds:    
    We plan to devote the net proceeds of this offering to (i) product development, (ii) family farms, and (iii) Farmmi Liangpin Mall. See the “Use of Proceeds” section beginning on page 35 .
Dividend Policy:    
    We have no present plans to declare dividends and plan to retain our earnings to continue to grow our business.

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Summary Financial Information

In the table below, we provide you with historical selected financial data for the six months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, and the fiscal years ended September 30, 2016 and 2015. This information is derived from our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any future period. When you read this historical selected financial data, it is important that you read it along with the historical financial statements and related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this prospectus.

(All amounts in U.S. dollars)

Statement of operations data:

       
  For the six months ended
March 31,
  For the years ended September 30,
     2017   2016   2016   2015
Revenues   $ 11,268,264     $ 10,002,117     $ 20,715,230     $ 11,405,499  
Gross profit   $ 1,974,990     $ 1,595,195     $ 3,343,814     $ 1,719,946  
Operating expenses   $ 719,640     $ 202,043     $ 474,361     $ 387,865  
Income from operations   $ 1,255,350     $ 1,393,152     $ 2,869,453     $ 1,332,081  
Provision for Income taxes   $ 7,870     $ 314,046     $ 269,367     $ 229,313  
Net income   $ 1,135,882     $ 903,421     $ 2,310,090     $ 760,850  

Balance sheet data:

       
  As of March 31,   As of September 30,
     2017   2016   2016   2015
Current assets   $ 12,437,227     $ 15,965,537     $ 13,053,584     $ 8,694,706  
Total assets   $ 12,508,740     $ 16,155,050     $ 13,135,055     $ 9,037,840  
Current liabilities   $ 4,325,722     $ 12,097,399     $ 5,847,672     $ 6,786,436  
Total liabilities   $ 4,325,722     $ 12,779,839     $ 5,847,672     $ 7,478,116  
Total shareholders’ equity (net assets)   $ 7,317,094     $ 3,375,211     $ 6,391,882     $ 1,559,724  

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Risk Factors

Before you decide to purchase our Ordinary Shares, you should understand the high degree of risk involved. You should consider carefully the following risks and other information in this prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected. As a result, the trading price of our Ordinary Shares could decline, perhaps significantly.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

The loss of any of our key customers could reduce our revenues and our profitability.

Our key customers are principally China National Forest Products Corp. (“China Forest”) and China National Tree Seed Corporation (“China Tree Seed”), large state-owned enterprises under China Forestry Group Corporation. They are all unrelated parties. For the six months ended March 31, 2017, sales to China Forest amounted in the aggregate to approximately 81% of our total revenue. For the six months ended March 31, 2016, sales to China Forest and China Tree Seed, amounted in the aggregate to 71% and 10% of our total revenue, respectively. For the year ended September 30, 2016, sales to China Forest amounted in the aggregate to 80.18% of our total revenue. For the year ended September 30, 2015, sales to China Forest and China Tree Seed, amounted in the aggregate to 50.12% and 19.99% of our total revenue, respectively. In addition, in the year ended September 30, 2015, 10.06% of our revenues came from Forasen Group, a related party. There can be no assurance that we will maintain or improve the relationships with these customers, or that we will be able to continue to supply these customers at current levels or at all. Any failure to pay by these customers could have a material negative effect on our company’s business. In addition, having a relatively small number of customers may cause our quarterly results to be inconsistent, depending upon when these customers pay for outstanding invoices.

During the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, we had one and two customers, respectively, that accounted for 10% or more of our revenues. During the years ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, we had one and three customers, respectively, that accounted for 10% or more of our revenues.

       
Customer Name   Six Months
Ended
March 31,
2017
  Six Months
Ended
March 31,
2016
  Year Ended
September 30,
2016
  Year Ended
September 30,
2015
China Forest     81 %       71 %       80.18 %       50.12 %  
China Tree Seed         10 %           19.99 %  
Forasen Group                 10.06 %  

* Less than 10% during the period.

If we cannot maintain long-term relationships with these major customers, the loss of our sales to them could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We buy our supplies from a relatively limited number of suppliers.

During the six months ended March 31, 2017, our largest supplier accounted for approximately 72% of our total purchases. During the six months ended March 31, 2016, our largest supplier accounted for approximately 45% of our total purchases. During the year ended September 30, 2016, our largest supplier accounted for approximately 57.05% of our total purchases. During the year ended September 30, 2015, our seven largest suppliers accounted for approximately 51.44% of our total purchases. During the six months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, we had two and two suppliers that accounted for 10% or more of our purchases. During the years ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively, we had two and one suppliers that accounted for 10% or more of our purchases.

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Supplier Name   Six Months
Ended
March 31,
2017
  Six Months
Ended
March 31,
2016
  Year Ended
September 30,
2016
  Year Ended
September 30,
2015
Jingning Liannong Trading Co., Ltd.     72 %       45 %       57.05 %      
Qingyuan Nongbang Mushroom Industry Co., Ltd.     10 %       38 %       30.10 %      
Yang Wang (owner of a family farm)                 20.68 %  

* Less than 10% during the period.

Because we purchase a material amount of our raw materials from these suppliers, the loss of any such suppliers could result in increased expenses for our company and result in adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our failure to comply with PRC food safety laws may require us to incur significant costs.

Manufacturers in the Chinese food industry are subject to compliance with PRC food safety laws and regulations. These food safety laws require all enterprises engaged in the production of edible fungi and various vegetables and fruits to obtain a food production license for each of their production facilities. Such laws also require manufacturers to comply with regulations with respect to food, food additives, packaging, and food production sites, facilities and equipment. Meanwhile, a separate food distribution license is required for engaging in the sale of food. Failure to comply with PRC food safety laws may result in fines, suspension of operations, loss of licenses and, in more extreme cases, criminal proceedings against an enterprise and its management. The Chinese government may also change the existing laws or regulations or impose additional or stricter laws or regulations, compliance with which may cause us to incur significant capital expenditures, which we may be unable to pass on to our customers through higher prices for our products.

We lack product and business diversification. Accordingly, our future revenues and earnings are more susceptible to fluctuations than a more diversified company.

Our current primary business activities focus on edible fungi products. Because our focus is limited in this way, any risk affecting the edible fungi industry or consumers’ desire for edible fungi products could disproportionately affect our business. Our lack of product and business diversification could inhibit the opportunities for growth of our business, revenues and profits.

Governmental support to the agriculture industry and/or our business may decrease or disappear.

Currently the Chinese government is supporting agriculture with tax exemption, especially e-commerce in agriculture. In addition, our local government has been supporting our company by providing subsidies from time to time. These beneficial policies may change, so the support we receive from the government may decrease or disappear, which may impact our development.

Beneficial tax incentives may disappear.

We operate our business through our Chinese subsidiaries. Currently the agriculture industry is highly supported by the Chinese government. As an agricultural production enterprise, we are enjoying certain tax benefits, including a tax waiver for our dried mushroom wholesale business. If the tax policies change in a way that some or all of the tax benefits we presently receive are cancelled, we may need to pay much higher taxes which will reduce or eliminate our profit margin.

We are subject to extensive regulations by the Chinese government.

The food industry is subject to extensive regulations by Chinese government agencies. Among other things, these regulations govern the manufacturing, importation, processing, packaging, storage, exportation, distribution and labeling of our products. New or amended statutes and regulations, increased production at our existing facilities, and our expansion into new operations and jurisdictions may require us to obtain new licenses and permits and could require us to change our methods of operations at costs that could be substantial.

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Changes in trade policies may make our products more expensive to end purchasers in those countries.

We currently receive incentives and support from our local government. Further, China has policy support for the agricultural sector. Because we export approximately 13% of our products for sale outside China, we are subject to the risk that foreign governments will view such support, either now or in the future, as unfair trade practices. If this were to happen, our products could be subjected to tariffs or other taxes that cause such products to be more expensive and thus less attractive to potential purchasers.

The edible fungi cultivated by our suppliers is subject to risks related to diseases, pests, abnormal temperature change and extreme weather events.

Edible fungi are exposed to diseases and pests. Pests and diseases during the cultivation process may significantly decrease the quantity of the qualified edible fungi provided to us, which may force us to breach our contracts with our clients by not being able to supply enough products to them timely, and further impact our revenues.

Temperature can have a significant impact on the growth and the quality of edible fungi. Mushrooms can only grow under certain temperature. If the temperature is too low, the edible fungi may grow slowly or even not grow at all. If the temperature is too high, the edible fungi may grow too fast and have a worse texture.

Global warming is increasing the frequency and severity of extreme weather events around the world. Although our suppliers are using more and more carefully managed environments for cultivation, extreme weather events may still impact our cultivation process. As a result, the supply of our raw materials may be affected. For example, because of the warm winter in 2016, the quantity of edible fungi cultivated in Lishui, Zhejiang Province increased, but the quality decreased and the price decreased accordingly.

Our supplier farms may fail to comply with the legal requirements and our quality standards and negatively affect the quality of our raw materials.

Our supplier farms are responsible for complying with the legal requirements. It is possible that they fail to comply with any PRC law relating to food safety during their production process. If the governmental agency determines they are not eligible to continue the operation, we will need to find alternative supplier farms to meet our demands. The supplier farms may also fail to comply with our quality standards. As a result, our raw materials provided by these family farms will be negatively affected. If we are unable to inspect and rule out any affected fungi and we sell them to our clients, our reputation will be harmed. Our clients may cease purchasing products from us. Even if we are able to inspect the affected fungi, we will need to spend extra time to find alternative suppliers to supplement our raw materials.

The purchase price of dried edible fungi is based on local market price which we cannot control and predict.

When we purchase dried edible fungi from our suppliers, we usually reach a price slightly higher than the local market price on that day or during that period because we seek to purchase top quality dried mushrooms, which command premium prices. If the local market price is unusually higher on that day or during that period, and if we have to purchase certain amount of edible fungi to fulfill our clients’ orders, we will spend more on the costs than expected. Because we receive the orders from our clients first when the sale price is set, and then purchase dried edible fungi accordingly, a higher purchase price will reduce our profit margin.

Increases in edible fungi costs may negatively affect our operating results.

The price of edible fungi may be inelastic when we wish to purchase supplies. While we have attempted to mitigate this risk by taking advantage of decreases in other expenses (due to better transportation infrastructure reducing the cost of bringing materials to our company and from our company to our customers) and improving efficiency, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to control our material expenses. In addition, as we are competing based upon low price, we will risk losing customers by increasing our selling prices. To the extent our expenses increase beyond the price we can charge our customers, our operating results could be harmed.

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Our products are not nationally well known.

Our product visibility in general is not high in China. Although we plan to participate in industry events to improve recognition and drive revenues, we have no guarantee that we will be able to materially increase the market recognition of all our edible fungi products. To the extent we are unable to increase our product visibility, we may face challenges in increasing revenues or increasing the profit margin for such products.

Our products have relatively low technical requirements; therefore, barriers to entry are minimal.

Processing edible fungi does not require complicated technology. Our competitors can create similar products at a relatively low cost because there are minimal barriers of entry. To the extent our customers discriminate based on price, we may find that we lose market share to new producers. Moreover, we may be required to reduce our price in order to maintain or slow loss of market share for such products.

Our e-commerce strategy may not succeed.

We have devoted approximately $50,000 to build and develop our online store Farmmi Liangpin Mall. We also plan to use two thirds of the proceeds from this offering to expand it. While this decision may offer new opportunities to our company, it also is a new venture and has only recently begun to operate. As a result, we have no guarantee that we will be successful in this new expansion. If we do not manage our expansion effectively, our business prospects could be impaired.

Our directors’ and executive officers’ other business activities may pose conflicts of time commitment and conflicts of interest.

Our directors and executive officers have other business interests outside the company that could potentially give rise to conflicts of time commitment. For example, our Chief Executive Officer and Chairwoman, Yefang Zhang, and her husband and one of our directors, Zhengyu Wang, collectively own all of Forasen Group. Zhengyu Wang is also the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Tantech Holdings Ltd (“Tantech”), another Nasdaq listed company, and Yefang Zhang is its director.

Ms. Zhang has historically devoted approximately 85% of her time to matters concerning Farmmi, approximately 5% of her time to matters for Tantech, and. approximately 10% of her time to matters concerning Forasen Group. Mr. Wang has historically devoted approximately 15% of his time to matters concerning Farmmi, approximately 70% of his time to matters for Tantech, and approximately 15% of his time to matters concerning Forasen Group. As Ms. Zhang and Mr. Wang devote considerable time and effort to Tantech and Forasen Group, these sort of business activities could both distract them from focusing on Farmmi and pose a conflict of time commitment.

In addition, our company and Forasen Group signed a Non-Competition Agreement which provides that Forasen Group should not engage in any business that our company engages in, except purchasing products from us. In addition, Mr. Wang and Ms. Zhang signed a Non-Competition Agreement with our company and Tantech which provides that Mr. Wang and Ms. Zhang shall not vote in favor or otherwise cause Tantech to engage in the business that we conduct. Although because of these non-competition agreements, we do not believe that there are business activities of Mr. Wang and Ms. Zhang that will compete directly with our business operations, it is possible that the enforceability of these agreements is challenged and a conflict of interest occurs.

Outstanding bank loans may reduce our available funds.

We have approximately $3,957,888 in outstanding bank loans as of September 30, 2016. The loans are held at multiple banks and were or are secured by related parties, such as our CEO Ms. Yefang Zhang, our director Mr. Zhengyu Wang, Zhejiang Forasen Group Co., Ltd. (“Forasen Group”) and unrelated parties, such as Zhejiang Lishui Xinyite Automation Technology Co., Ltd. (“Zhejiang Xinyite”) and Zhejiang Meifeng Tea Industry Co., Ltd. (“Zhejiang Meifeng”). While we believe we have adequate capital to repay these bank loans at present, there can be no guarantee that we will be able to pay all amounts when due or to refinance the amounts on terms that are acceptable to us or at all. If we are unable to make our payments when due or to refinance such amounts, our property could be foreclosed and our business could be negatively affected.

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While we do not believe they will impact our liquidity, the terms of the debt agreements impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us. These restrictions could also have a negative impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations by significantly limiting or prohibiting us from engaging in certain transactions, including but not limited to: incurring or guaranteeing additional indebtedness; transferring or selling assets currently held by us; and transferring ownership interests in certain of our subsidiaries. The failure to comply with any of these covenants could cause a default under our other debt agreements. Any of these defaults, if not waived, could result in the acceleration of all of our debt, in which case the debt would become immediately due and payable. If this occurs, we may not be able to repay our debt or borrow sufficient funds to refinance it on favorable terms, if any.

We may be unable to refinance our short-term loans.

We expect to be able to refinance our short-term loans based on past experience and our good credit history. We do not believe failure to refinance from certain banks will have significant negative impact on our normal business operations. In both of the six months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, our operating cash flow was positive. In addition, our related parties including our major shareholders and affiliate companies, are willing to provide us financial support. However, it is possible for us to have negative cash flow in the future, and for our related parties to be unable to provide us financial support as needed. As a result, the failure to refinance our short-term loans could potentially affect our capital expenditure and expansion of business.

We have guaranteed third parties’ debt, and a failure by such parties to repay their debts may be enforced against our company.

As a condition of obtaining bank financing, smaller companies in China sometimes enter into reciprocal debt guaranties with third parties, pursuant to which the bank agrees to provide loans to one or more unrelated entities if such entities agree to guaranty the loans made to the other entities.

Over the years, our subsidiaries were the guarantors of third parties’ debts and were also beneficiaries of third parties’ guaranties.

We are not currently guaranteeing any third party debts or intend to enter into any third party guarantees after completion of this offering. We have also adopted a policy that restricts third party guarantees. In addition, no banks currently require such guarantee arrangements from us. However, it is possible that we may, in the future, require bank loans to support our business or expand our operations and be unable to obtain unguaranteed loans. If this were to occur in the future, future lenders might demand unrelated third party guarantees. If we were to enter into any other guarantees for third party debts and they failed to pay, our cash position could be adversely affected and we might be unable to be made whole by our counter-guarantor.

If we guarantee related parties’ debt in the future, we may be liable if they fail to pay the underlying debt.

In the past, we have facilitated the operations of our related party Forasen Group by agreeing to guarantee their obligations.

For example, on December 20, 2013, Forasen Group signed a guarantee agreement with Bank of China to guarantee the loan and credit of up to RMB 15,000,000 on a loan from the Bank of China to Zhejiang Feiyan Down Products Co., Ltd. (“Feiyan”). Relying on this guarantee, Feiyan was able to borrow RMB 15,000,000 from the Bank of China.

Feiyan subsequently defaulted on its debt and Forasen Group entrusted FLS Mushroom to repay the money on Forasen Group’s behalf. Accordingly, FLS Mushroom signed a credit transfer agreement with Bank of China by which it promised to honor the guarantee in Forasen Group’s place.

In five installments paid in 2015, 2016 and 2017, Forasen Group fully repaid all outstanding amounts, and FLS Mushroom has no remaining liability for its guarantee.

If we enter into related party guarantees in the future and we are unable to cause a related party to honor such obligations, we could find that our company bears primary responsibility for such obligations.

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If China’s currency appreciates, our products may become more expensive to export to other countries.

Although 2014 through 2016 saw the Renminbi weakening against the U.S. dollar, these three years followed seven years of consistent appreciation against the U.S. dollar. We do not sell any products in currencies other than Renminbi, but we are subject to exchange rate risk between U.S. dollar and Renminbi because we sell our products internationally through our export distributors who settle in U.S. dollar may be affected by U.S. dollar exchange rate. Among our export sales in the six months ended March 31, 2017, approximately 31% were sold to U.S., approximately 26% were sold to Canada, approximately 33% were sold to Japan, and approximately 10% were sold to other countries. Settlement currency is USD for export transactions no matter what the destination country is.

We may require additional financing in the future and our operations could be curtailed if we are unable to obtain required additional financing when needed.

We may need to obtain additional debt or equity financing to fund future capital expenditures. While we do not anticipate seeking additional financing in the immediate future, any additional equity may result in dilution to the holders of our outstanding shares of capital stock. Additional debt financing may include conditions that would restrict our freedom to operate our business, such as conditions that:

limit our ability to pay dividends or require us to seek consent for the payment of dividends;
increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
require us to dedicate a portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our debt, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow to fund capital expenditures, working capital and other general corporate purposes; and
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and our industry.

We cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain any additional financing on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all.

Our results of operations fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter which may make it difficult to predict our future performance.

Our results of operations fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter so it may be hard to predict our future performance.

Most of the sales of FLS Mushroom are from China Forest and China Tree Seed. Sales increase from July to September because these two clients place more orders with FLS Mushroom during this period. From December to January, there is a peak because customers spend more on food including edible fungi to prepare for coming holidays. From January to February, the sales of FLS Mushroom decrease because of the Chinese New Year holiday, during which time consumers generally spend less.

Forest Food focuses on producing and exporting small packages of dried edible fungi. The sales peak is from December to January, as customers spend more on food including edible fungi to prepare for coming holidays.

Our bank accounts are not fully insured or protected against loss.

We maintain our cash with various banks and trust companies located in mainland China, HK and the U.S. Our cash accounts in the PRC and HK are not insured or otherwise protected. Should any bank or trust company holding our cash deposits become insolvent, or if we are otherwise unable to withdraw funds, we would lose the cash on deposit with that particular bank or trust company.

We are substantially dependent upon our senior management.

We are highly dependent on our senior management to manage our business and operations. In particular, we rely substantially on our Chief Executive Officer and Chairwoman, Ms. Yefang Zhang to manage our operations. Ms. Zhang has been involved in the mushroom industry for more than twenty years. Ms. Zhang cofounded Lishui Jingning Huali Co., Ltd. in 1994 with her husband Mr. Zhengyu Wang to engage in the mushroom business. Due to her experience in the industry and long relationships with our customer base, Ms. Zhang would be difficult to replace.

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While we provide the legally required personal insurance for the benefit of our employees, we do not maintain key person life insurance on any of our senior management, including Ms. Zhang. The loss of any one of them would have a material adverse effect on our business and operations. Competition for senior management and our other key personnel is intense, and the pool of suitable candidates is limited. We may be unable to quickly locate a suitable replacement for any senior management that we lose. In addition, if any member of our senior management joins a competitor or forms a competing company, they may compete with us for customers, business partners and other key professionals and staff members of our company. Although some of our senior management of Forest Food and Nongyuan Network have signed confidentiality agreements in connection with their employment with us, we cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully enforce these provisions in the event of a dispute between us and any member of our senior management.

Failure to manage our growth could strain our management, operational and other resources, which could materially and adversely affect our business and prospects.

Our growth strategy includes developing export customers of our existing products of edible fungi, increasing varieties of agricultural products and expanding our e-commerce platforms. Pursuing these strategies has resulted in, and will continue to result in substantial demands on management resources. In particular, the management of our growth will require, among other things:

stringent cost controls and sufficient liquidity;
strengthening of financial and management controls;
increased marketing, sales and support activities; and
hiring and training of new personnel.

If we are not able to manage our growth successfully, our business and prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

An insufficient amount of insurance could expose us to significant costs and business disruption.

While we have purchased insurance, including insurance for inventory of Forest Food, to cover certain assets and property of our business, the amounts and scope of coverage could leave our business inadequately protected from loss. For example, not all of our subsidiaries have coverage of business interruption insurance. If we were to incur substantial losses or liabilities due to fire, explosions, floods, other natural disasters or accidents or business interruption, our results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

If we fail to protect our intellectual property rights, it could harm our business and competitive position.

We rely on a combination of trademark, domain name laws and non-disclosure agreements and other methods to protect our intellectual property rights.

Implementation of PRC intellectual property-related laws has historically been lacking, primarily because of ambiguities in the PRC laws and enforcement difficulties. Accordingly, intellectual property rights and confidentiality protections in China may not be as effective as in the United States or other western countries. Furthermore, policing unauthorized use of proprietary technology is difficult and expensive, and we may need to resort to litigation to enforce or defend patents issued to us or to determine the enforceability, scope and validity of our proprietary rights or those of others. Such litigation and an adverse determination in any such litigation, if any, could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention, which could harm our business and competitive position.

We may be exposed to trademark infringement and other claims by third parties which, if successful, could disrupt our business and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

If we sell our branded products internationally, and as litigation becomes more common in China, we face a higher risk of being the subject of claims for trademark infringement, invalidity or indemnification relating to other parties’ proprietary rights. The defense of trademark suits, including of trademark infringement suits, and related legal and administrative proceedings can be both costly and time consuming and may significantly

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divert the efforts and resources of our management personnel. Furthermore, an adverse determination in any such litigation or proceedings to which we may become a party could cause us to:

pay damage awards;
seek licenses from third parties;
pay ongoing royalties;
redesign our branded products; or
be restricted by injunctions,

each of which could effectively prevent us from pursuing some or all of our business and result in our customers or potential customers deferring or limiting their purchase or use of our products. This could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to Doing Business in China

Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.

The PRC legal system is based on written statutes. Unlike common law systems, it is a system in which legal cases have limited value as precedents. In the late 1970s, the PRC government began to promulgate a comprehensive system of laws and regulations governing economic matters in general. The overall effect of legislation over the past three decades has significantly increased the protections afforded to various forms of foreign or private-sector investment in China. Our PRC subsidiaries are subject to various PRC laws and regulations generally applicable to companies in China. However, since these laws and regulations are relatively new and the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involve uncertainties.

From time to time, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce our legal rights. However, since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules (some of which are not published in a timely manner or at all) that may have retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of these policies and rules until sometime after the violation. Such uncertainties, including uncertainty over the scope and effect of our contractual, property (including intellectual property) and procedural rights, and any failure to respond to changes in the regulatory environment in China could materially and adversely affect our business and impede our ability to continue our operations.

The enforcement of the PRC Labor Contract Law and other labor-related regulations in the PRC may adversely affect our business and our results of operations.

The PRC Labor Contract Law became effective and was implemented on January 1, 2008, which was amended on December 28, 2012. It has reinforced the protection of employees who, under the PRC Labor Contract Law, have the right, among others, to have written labor contracts, to enter into labor contracts with no fixed terms under certain circumstances, to receive overtime wages and to terminate or alter terms in labor contracts. According to the PRC Social Insurance Law, which became effective on July 1, 2011, and the Administrative Regulations on the Housing Funds, Companies operating in China are required to participate in pension insurance, work-related injury insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance, maternity insurance and housing funds plans, and the employers must pay all or a portion of the social insurance premiums and housing funds for their employees.

As a result of these laws and regulations designed to enhance labor protection, we expect our labor costs will continue to increase. In addition, as the interpretation and implementation of these laws and regulations are still evolving, our employment practice may not at all times be deemed in compliance with the new laws and regulations. If we are subject to severe penalties or incur significant liabilities in connection with labor disputes or investigations, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.

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We may be exposed to liabilities under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Chinese anti-corruption law.

In connection with this offering, we will become subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), and other laws that prohibit improper payments or offers of payments to foreign governments and their officials and political parties by U.S. persons and issuers as defined by the statute for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. We are also subject to Chinese anti-corruption laws, which strictly prohibit the payment of bribes to government officials. We have operations, agreements with third parties, and make sales in China, which may experience corruption. Our activities in China create the risk of unauthorized payments or offers of payments by one of the employees, consultants or distributors of our company, because these parties are not always subject to our control. We are in process of implementing an anticorruption program, which prohibits the offering or giving of anything of value to foreign officials, directly or indirectly, for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. The anticorruption program also requires that clauses mandating compliance with our policy be included in all contracts with foreign sales agents, sales consultants and distributors and that they certify their compliance with our policy annually. It further requires that all hospitality involving promotion of sales to foreign governments and government-owned or controlled entities be in accordance with specified guidelines. In the meantime, we believe to date we have complied in all material respects with the provisions of the FCPA and Chinese anti-corruption law. However, our existing safeguards and any future improvements may prove to be less than effective, and the employees, consultants or distributors of our Company may engage in conduct for which we might be held responsible. Violations of the FCPA or Chinese anti-corruption law may result in severe criminal or civil sanctions, and we may be subject to other liabilities, which could negatively affect our business, operating results and financial condition. In addition, the government may seek to hold our Company liable for successor liability FCPA violations committed by companies in which we invest or that we acquire.

Fluctuations in exchange rates could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

The value of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar and other currencies may fluctuate and is affected by, among other things, changes in political and economic conditions in China and by China’s foreign exchange policies. On July 21, 2005, the PRC government changed its decade-old policy of pegging the value of the Renminbi to the U.S. dollar, and the Renminbi appreciated more than 20% against the U.S. dollar over the following three years. Between July 2008 and June 2010, this appreciation halted and the exchange rate between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar remained within a narrow band. Since June 2010, the Renminbi has fluctuated against the U.S. dollar, at times significantly and unpredictably. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy may impact the exchange rate between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar in the future.

Currently, we do not sell any products in currencies other than Renminbi, but we are subject to exchange rate risk between U.S. dollar and Renminbi because our export distributors settle in U.S. dollar and these distributors may be affected by U.S. dollar exchange rate. If China’s currency appreciates, our products may become more expensive to export to other countries and our sales may be negatively affected by the appreciation.

Significant revaluation of the Renminbi may have a material and adverse effect on your investment. For example, to the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars we receive from this offering into Renminbi for our operations, appreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the Renminbi amount we would receive from the conversion. Conversely, if we decide to convert our Renminbi into U.S. dollars for the purpose of making payments for dividends on our Ordinary Shares or for other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the Renminbi would have a negative effect on the U.S. dollar amount available to us.

Very limited hedging options are available in China to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. To date, we have not entered into any hedging transactions in an effort to reduce our exposure to foreign currency exchange risk. While we may decide to enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these hedges may be limited and we may not be able to adequately hedge our exposure or at all. In addition, our currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert Renminbi into foreign currency.

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We will not have immediate access to the offering proceeds to develop our business because such proceeds must be remitted to China pending governmental approval pursuant to applicable PRC regulations and the delay could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

Any capital contributions or parent/subsidiary loans that we, as an offshore entity, make to our Company’s PRC subsidiaries, including from the proceeds of this offering, are subject to PRC regulations. Therefore, we will not have immediate access to the offering proceeds to develop our business because such proceeds must be remitted to China through loans or capital contributions, which require PRC governmental approval under applicable PRC laws and regulations.

If Farmmi International makes loans to Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology, those parent/subsidiary loans are required to be registered and approved by the local branch of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange (“SAFE”). Companies generally receive approval within 20 business days and the total amount of such loans cannot exceed the difference between the total investment amount approved by PRC Ministry of Commerce (“MOFCOM”) and the registered capital of Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology.

If we make capital contributions instead, the total amount of investment in each of our Company’s PRC subsidiaries must be approved by several agencies or their local counterparts. A capital contribution requires (i) the approval of MOFCOM to increase the registered capital of Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology, (ii) the approval of the State Administration for Industry and Commerce (“SAIC”)’s approval to alter the business certificate to reflect such increased registered capital and (iii) the approval of SAFE approval to allow Farmmi Enterprise’s and Farmmi Technology’s bank to convert U.S. dollars into RMB in order to fund such increased registered capital, or each of the foregoing agencies’ respective local counterparts. The process of completing a capital contribution generally requires 30 to 90 business days from the initial filing with MOFCOM, rather than 20 business days for a parent/subsidiary loan. On the other hand, there is no limit to the amount we can fund through a capital contribution, and capital contributions do not require repayment or, as a result, payment of interest. For these reasons, although the process of receiving approvals is more arduous, we prefer to (and plan to) fund Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology’s operations through a capital contribution rather than a parent/subsidiary loan.

We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain these approvals in a timely manner or at all. If we fail to obtain such approvals or make such registration, our ability to make equity contributions or provide loans to our Company’s PRC subsidiaries or to fund their operations may be negatively affected, which may adversely affect their liquidity and ability to fund their working capital and expansion projects and meet their obligations and commitments.

If the PRC government finds that the agreements that establish the structure for operating our services in China do not comply with PRC governmental restrictions on foreign investment in internet businesses, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.

The PRC government regulates telecommunications-related businesses through strict business licensing requirements and other government regulations. These laws and regulations also include limitations on foreign ownership of PRC companies that engage in telecommunications-related businesses.

Because we are a Cayman Islands company, we are classified as a foreign enterprise under PRC laws and regulations, and our wholly owned PRC subsidiaries, (Farmmi Enterprise, Farmmi Technology, Suyuan Agriculture, FLS Mushroom and Forest Food), are foreign-invested enterprises, or FIEs. To comply with PRC laws and regulations, we conduct our e-commerce operations in China through contractual arrangements with our VIE and its shareholder. These contractual arrangements provide us with effective control over our VIE and enable us to receive substantially all of the economic benefits of our VIE in consideration for the services provided by our wholly-owned PRC subsidiaries, and have an exclusive option to purchase all of the equity interest in our VIE when permissible under PRC laws. For a description of our VIE structure and these contractual arrangements, see “BUSINESS — Overview —  Hangzhou Nongyuan Network Technology Co., Ltd. (‘Nongyuan Network’).”

Based on the advice of our PRC legal counsel, Deheng Law Offices, the corporate structure of our VIE in China are in compliance with all existing PRC laws and regulations. However, as there are substantial

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uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of PRC laws and regulations, we cannot assure you that the PRC government would agree that our corporate structure or any of the above contractual arrangements comply with PRC licensing, registration or other regulatory requirements, with existing policies or with requirements or policies that may be adopted in the future. PRC laws and regulations governing the validity of these contractual arrangements are uncertain and the relevant government authorities have broad discretion in interpreting these laws and regulations.

If we or any of our current or future VIE are found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities, including the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or MIIT, which regulates internet information services companies, SAIC, which regulates advertising companies, and the CSRC would have broad discretion in dealing with such violations, including levying fines, confiscating our income or the income of Suyuan Agriculture and the VIE, revoking the business licenses or operating licenses of Suyuan Agriculture and the VIE, shutting down our servers or blocking our websites, discontinuing or placing restrictions or onerous conditions on our operations, requiring us to undergo a costly and disruptive restructuring, restricting our rights to use the proceeds from this offering to finance our business and operations in China, or taking other enforcement actions that could be harmful to our business.

Any of these actions could cause significant disruption to our business operations and severely damage our reputation, which would in turn materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. In addition, if the imposition of any of these penalties causes us to lose the rights to direct the activities of the VIE or our right to receive their economic benefits, we would no longer be able to consolidate the VIE. Our VIE was engaged in development of our web store, which launched in October 2016. Accordingly, our VIE had revenue of $714,798 in the six months ended March 31, 2017, and no revenues in the six months ended March 31, 2016 and the years ended September 30, 2016 or 2015.

Our contractual arrangements with our VIE may not be as effective in providing operational control as direct ownership.

We have relied and expect to continue to rely on contractual arrangements with Nongyuan Network and its shareholder to operate our e-commerce business. For a description of our VIE structure and these contractual arrangements, see “BUSINESS — Overview —  Hangzhou Nongyuan Network Technology Co., Ltd. (‘Nongyuan Network’).” These contractual arrangements may not be as effective in providing us with control over the VIE as direct ownership. If we had direct ownership of our VIE, we would be able to exercise our rights as a shareholder to effect changes in the Board of Directors, which in turn could effect changes, subject to any applicable fiduciary obligations, at the management level. However, under the current contractual arrangements, we rely on the performance of the contractual obligations by our VIE and its shareholder to exercise control over our VIE. Therefore, our contractual arrangements with our VIE may not be as effective in ensuring our control over our e-commerce operations in China as direct ownership would be.

Our VIE may conduct actions which cause our loss.

The Exclusive Call Option Agreement between Suyuan Agriculture, Mr. Wang and our VIE Nongyuan Network provides that Nongyuan Network may not conduct key actions without the prior written consent of Suyuan Agriculture, such as amending its articles of association. See “BUSINESS — Overview —  Hangzhou Nongyuan Network Technology Co., Ltd. (‘Nongyuan Network’).” However, the list of these key actions may not be comprehensive enough to protect us. For example, the key actions requiring Suyuan Agriculture’s prior written consent exclude entering into material contracts in the ordinary course of business. It is possible that contracts entered by Nongyuan Network in the ordinary course of business, such as procurement agreements with exceptionally high amount, may be detrimental to its business. As we are obligated to absorb all of our VIE’s loss from its activities, entry in these agreements by our VIE may cause our loss.

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The shareholder of our VIE may breach, or cause our VIE to breach, or refuse to renew, the existing contractual arrangements we have with him and our VIE. Any failure by our VIE or its shareholder to perform his obligations under our contractual arrangements with him would have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

Mr. Zhengyu Wang, one of the directors of our Company and the husband of our chair and Chief Executive Officer, Ms. Yefang Zhang, is the sole shareholder of our VIE. He may breach, or cause our VIE to breach, or refuse to renew, the existing contractual arrangements we have with him and our VIE. If our VIE or its shareholder fails to perform their respective obligations under the contractual arrangements, we may have to incur substantial costs and expend resources to enforce our rights under the contracts. We may have to rely on legal remedies under PRC law, including seeking specific performance or injunctive relief and claiming damages, which may not be effective. For example, if the shareholder of Nongyuan Network were to refuse to transfer his equity interests in Nongyuan Network to us or our designee when we exercise the call option pursuant to these contractual arrangements, if he transfer the equity interests to other persons against our interests, or if he were otherwise to act in bad faith toward us, then we may have to take legal actions to compel him to perform his contractual obligations.

All of these contractual arrangements are governed by PRC law and provide for the resolution of disputes through arbitration in the PRC. Accordingly, these contracts would be interpreted in accordance with PRC law and any disputes would be resolved in accordance with PRC legal procedures. The legal system in the PRC is not as developed as in other jurisdictions, such as the United States. As a result, uncertainties in the PRC legal system could limit our ability to enforce these contractual arrangements. Under PRC law, rulings by arbitrators are final, parties cannot appeal the arbitration results in courts, and the prevailing parties may only enforce the arbitration awards in PRC courts through arbitration award recognition proceedings, which would incur additional expenses and delay. In the event we are unable to enforce these contractual arrangements, we may not be able to exert effective control over our VIE, and our ability to conduct our e-commerce business may be negatively affected.

Contractual arrangements our subsidiary has entered into with our VIE may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities and a finding that we or our VIE owe additional taxes could substantially reduce our consolidated net income and the value of your investment.

Under PRC laws and regulations, arrangements and transactions among related parties may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities within ten years after the taxable year when the transactions are conducted. We could face material and adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities determine that the contractual arrangements among Suyuan Agriculture, our VIE and the shareholder of our VIE do not represent arm’s-length prices and consequently adjust Suyuan Agriculture’s or our VIE’s income in the form of a transfer pricing adjustment. A transfer pricing adjustment could, among other things, result in a reduction, for PRC tax purposes, of expense deductions recorded by our VIE, which could in turn increase their tax liabilities. In addition, the PRC tax authorities may impose late payment fees and other penalties on Suyuan Agriculture or our VIE for any unpaid taxes. Our consolidated net income may be materially and adversely affected if Suyuan Agriculture or our VIE’s tax liabilities increase or if they are subject to late payment fees or other penalties.

The shareholders and director of our VIE may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our e-commerce business.

Mr. Zhengyu Wang, one of our directors, is the shareholder and executive director (legal representative) of our VIE Nongyuan Network, and the executive director (legal representative) of Suyuan Agriculture. As Mr. Wang is affiliated with both parties of the contractual arrangements, conflicts of interest may arise for Mr. Wang. For example, it is in Suyuan Agriculture’s interest to collect as much service fees as possible from Nongyuan Network. However, as the shareholder and executive director (legal representative) of Nongyuan Network, Mr. Wang may have personal benefits to limit the service fees paid by Nongyuan Network to Suyuan Agriculture. We cannot assure you that when conflicts of interest arise, this equity holder will act in the best interests of our company or that such conflicts will be resolved in our favor; provided, however, that Mr. Wang is still a director at the time of such a conflict, we might have recourse for a claim of breach of his fiduciary obligations to our Company. We currently rely on Mr. Wang to comply with the laws of China,

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which protect contracts, provide that directors and executive officers owe a duty of loyalty and a duty of diligence to our company and require him to avoid conflicts of interest and not to take advantage of his position for personal gains. We also rely on the laws of Cayman Islands, which provide that directors owe a duty of care and a duty of loyalty to our company. However, the legal frameworks of China and the Cayman Islands do not provide guidance on resolving conflicts in the event of a conflict with another corporate governance regime. If we cannot resolve any conflict of interest or dispute between us and the shareholder of our VIE, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which could result in disruption of our business and subject us to substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.

We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulation of internet-related business and companies.

The PRC government extensively regulates the internet industry, including foreign ownership of, and the licensing and permit requirements pertaining to, companies in the internet industry. These internet-related laws and regulations are relatively new and evolving, and their interpretation and enforcement involves significant uncertainties. As a result, in certain circumstances it may be difficult to determine what actions or omissions may be deemed to be in violation of applicable laws and regulations. Issues, risks and uncertainties relating to PRC governmental regulation of the internet industry include, but are not limited to, the following.

We only have control over our websites through contractual arrangements. We do not own the website in China due to the restriction of foreign investment in businesses providing value-added telecommunication services in China, including internet information provision services. This may significantly disrupt our e-commerce business, subject us to sanctions, compromise enforceability of related contractual arrangements, or have other harmful effects on us.

The evolving PRC regulatory system for the internet industry may lead to the establishment of new regulatory agencies. For example, in May 2011, the State Council announced the establishment of a new department, the State Internet Information Office (with the involvement of the State Council Information Office, the MIIT, and the Ministry of Public Security). The primary role of this new agency is to facilitate the policy-making and legislative development in this field, to direct and coordinate with the relevant departments in connection with online content administration and to deal with cross-ministry regulatory matters in relation to the internet industry.

We are required to obtain and maintain various licenses and permits and fulfill registration and filing requirements in order to conduct and operate our e-commerce business. If these new laws and regulations are promulgated, additional licenses may be required for our operations. If our operations do not comply with these new regulations at the time they become effective, or if we fail to obtain any licenses required under these new laws and regulations, we could be subject to penalties.

The Circular on Strengthening the Administration of Foreign Investment in an Operation of Value-added Telecommunications Business, issued by the MIIT in July 2006, prohibits domestic telecommunication service providers from leasing, transferring or selling telecommunications business operating licenses to any foreign investor in any form, or providing any resources, sites or facilities to any foreign investor for their illegal operation of a telecommunications business in China. According to this circular, either the holder of a value-added telecommunication services operation permit or its shareholders must directly own the domain names and trademarks used by such license holders in their provision of value-added telecommunication services. The circular also requires each license holder to have the necessary facilities, including servers, for its approved business operations and to maintain such facilities in the regions covered by its license. If an ICP license holder fails to comply with the requirements and also fails to remediate such non-compliance within a specified period of time, the MIIT or its local counterparts have the discretion to take administrative measures against such license holder, including revoking its ICP license. Currently, Nongyuan Network, our PRC consolidated VIE, holds an ICP license and operates our websites (farmmi88.com; Farmmi.com; Farmmi.com.cn). Nongyuan Network owns the relevant domain names and has the necessary personnel to operate such websites.

The interpretation and application of existing PRC law, regulations and policies and possible new laws, regulations or policies relating to the internet industry have created substantial uncertainties regarding the legality of existing and future foreign investments in, and the businesses and activities of, internet businesses

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in China, including our e-commerce business. We cannot assure you that we have obtained all the permits or licenses required for conducting our e-commerce business in China or will be able to maintain our existing licenses or obtain new ones.

Our business may be materially and adversely affected if any of our PRC subsidiaries declares bankruptcy or becomes subject to a dissolution or liquidation proceeding.

The Enterprise Bankruptcy Law of the PRC, or the Bankruptcy Law, came into effect on June 1, 2007. The Bankruptcy Law provides that an enterprise will be liquidated if the enterprise fails to settle its debts as and when they fall due and if the enterprise’s assets are, or are demonstrably, insufficient to clear such debts.

Our PRC subsidiaries hold certain assets that are important to our business operations. If any of our PRC subsidiaries undergoes a voluntary or involuntary liquidation proceeding, unrelated third-party creditors may claim rights to some or all of these assets, thereby hindering our ability to operate our business, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

According to the SAFE’s Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Further Improving and Adjusting Foreign Exchange Administration Policies for Direct Investment, effective on December 17, 2012, and the Provisions for Administration of Foreign Exchange Relating to Inbound Direct Investment by Foreign Investors, effective May 13, 2013, if any of our PRC subsidiaries undergoes a voluntary or involuntary liquidation proceeding, prior approval from the SAFE for remittance of foreign exchange to our shareholders abroad is no longer required, but we still need to conduct a registration process with the SAFE local branch. It is not clear whether “registration” is a mere formality or involves the kind of substantive review process undertaken by SAFE and its relevant branches in the past.

PRC regulations relating to foreign exchange registration of overseas investment by PRC residents may subject our PRC resident beneficial owners or our PRC subsidiaries to liability or penalties, limit our ability to inject capital into these subsidiaries, limit these PRC subsidiaries’ ability to increase their registered capital or distribute profits to us, or may otherwise adversely affect us.

On July 4, 2014, the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues Relating to Domestic Resident’s Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 37, which replaced the former Notice on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Administration for PRC Residents to Engage in Financing and Inbound Investment via Overseas Special Purpose Vehicles (generally known as SAFE Circular 75) promulgated by SAFE on October 21, 2005. On February 13, 2015, SAFE further promulgated the Circular on Further Simplifying and Improving the Administration of the Foreign Exchange Concerning Direct Investment, or SAFE Circular 13, which took effect on June 1, 2015. This SAFE Circular 13 has amended SAFE Circular 37 by requiring PRC residents or entities to register with qualified banks rather than SAFE or its local branch in connection with their establishment or control of an offshore entity established for the purpose of overseas investment or financing.

These circulars require PRC residents to register with qualified banks in connection with their direct establishment or indirect control of an offshore entity, for the purpose of overseas investment and financing, with such PRC residents’ legally owned assets or equity interests in domestic enterprises or offshore assets or interests, which is referred to in SAFE Circular 37 as a “special purpose vehicle.” These circulars further require amendment to the registration in the event of any significant changes with respect to the special purpose vehicle, such as an increase or decrease of capital contributed by PRC residents, share transfer or exchange, merger, division or other material events. In the event that a PRC resident holding interests in a special purpose vehicle fails to complete the required SAFE registration, the PRC subsidiary of that special purpose vehicle may be prohibited from making profit distributions to the offshore parent and from carrying out subsequent cross-border foreign exchange activities, and the special purpose vehicle may be restricted in its ability to contribute additional capital into its PRC subsidiary. Furthermore, failure to comply with the various SAFE registration requirements described above could result in liability under PRC law for evasion of foreign exchange controls.

While Ms. Yefang Zhang, a citizen of the Philippines, is not required to register with qualified bank according to the various SAFE registration requirements, we may not at all times be fully aware or informed of the

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identities of all our shareholders or beneficial owners that are required to make such registrations, and we may not always be able to compel them to comply with all relevant foreign exchange regulations. As a result, we cannot assure you that all of our shareholders or beneficial owners who are PRC residents will at all times comply with, or in the future make or obtain any applicable registrations or approvals required by all relevant foreign exchange regulations. The failure or inability of such individuals to comply with the registration procedures set forth in these regulations may subject us to fines or legal sanctions, restrictions on our cross-border investment activities or Our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to distribute dividends to, or obtain foreign-exchange-dominated loans from, our company, or prevent us from making distributions or paying dividends. As a result, our business operations and our ability to make distributions to you could be materially and adversely affected.

Furthermore, as these foreign exchange regulations are still relatively new and their interpretation and implementation has been constantly evolving, it is unclear how these regulations, and any future regulation concerning offshore or cross-border transactions, will be interpreted, amended and implemented by the relevant government authorities. We cannot predict how these regulations will affect our business operations or future strategy. In addition, if we decide to acquire a PRC domestic company, we cannot assure you that we or the owners of such company, as the case may be, will be able to obtain the necessary approvals or complete the necessary filings and registrations required by the foreign exchange regulations. This may restrict our ability to implement our acquisition strategy and could adversely affect our business and prospects.

Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, we may be classified as a PRC “resident enterprise” for PRC enterprise income tax purposes. Such classification would likely result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, or the EIT Law, that became effective in January, 2008, an enterprise established outside the PRC with “de facto management bodies” within the PRC is considered a “resident enterprise” for PRC enterprise income tax purposes and is generally subject to a uniform 25% enterprise income tax rate on its worldwide income. Under the implementation rules to the EIT Law, a “de facto management body” is defined as a body that has material and overall management and control over the manufacturing and business operations, personnel and human resources, finances and properties of an enterprise. In addition, a circular, known as SAT Circular 82, issued in April 2009 by the State Administration of Taxation, or the SAT, specifies that certain offshore incorporated enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups will be classified as PRC resident enterprises if the following are located or resident in the PRC: senior management personnel and departments that are responsible for daily production, operation and management; financial and personnel decision making bodies; key properties, accounting books, company seal, and minutes of board meetings and shareholders’ meetings; and half or more of the senior management or directors having voting rights. Further to SAT Circular 82, the SAT issued a bulletin, known as SAT Bulletin 45, which took effect in September 2011, to provide more guidance on the implementation of SAT Circular 82 and clarify the reporting and filing obligations of such “Chinese-controlled offshore incorporated resident enterprises.” SAT Bulletin 45 provides procedures and administrative details for the determination of resident status and administration on post-determination matters. Although both SAT Circular 82 and SAT Bulletin 45 only apply to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups, not those controlled by PRC individuals or foreign individuals, the determining criteria set forth in SAT Circular 82 and SAT Bulletin 45 may reflect the SAT’s general position on how the “de facto management body” test should be applied in determining the tax resident status of offshore enterprises, regardless of whether they are controlled by PRC enterprises, PRC enterprise groups or by PRC or foreign individuals.

If the PRC tax authorities determine that the actual management organ of Farmmi, Inc. (“FMI”) is within the territory of China, Farmmi, Inc. (“FMI”) may be deemed to be a PRC resident enterprise for PRC enterprise income tax purposes and a number of unfavorable PRC tax consequences could follow. First, we will be subject to the uniform 25% enterprise income tax on our world-wide income, which could materially reduce our net income. In addition, we will also be subject to PRC enterprise income tax reporting obligations.

Up to the date of this prospectus, FMI has not been notified or informed by the PRC tax authorities that it has been deemed to be a resident enterprise for the purpose of the EIT Law.

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Finally, dividends payable by us to our investors and gains on the sale of our shares may become subject to PRC withholding tax, at a rate of 10% in the case of non-PRC enterprises or 20% in the case of non-PRC individuals (in each case, subject to the provisions of any applicable tax treaty), if such gains are deemed to be from PRC sources. It is unclear whether non-PRC shareholders of our company would be able to claim the benefits of any tax treaties between their country of tax residence and the PRC in the event that we are treated as a PRC resident enterprise. Any such tax may reduce the returns on your investment in our shares.

Value-added tax, or VAT, is imposed to replace the business tax, which could result in unfavourable tax consequences to us.

In 2012 the Chinese government embarked upon an ambitious staged reform program as part of its 12 th Five Year Plan, designed to replace Business Tax (“BT”) with a Value Added Tax (“VAT”) throughout the services sector of the economy. These reforms were designed to overcome the problem of tax cascading arising whenever business-to-business transactions took place under the BT system. The reforms were intended to overcome mismatches occurring whenever BT taxpayers purchased goods for which they were unable to claim input VAT credits, and similarly overcome the problem of VAT taxpayers being unable to claim credits for the BT incurred on the services they purchased. To date, the VAT pilot program has extended from the modern services and transportation industry in Shanghai (in 2012), to a national basis (in 2013), and then further expanded to cover television, radio and film broadcasting services (in 2013), and postal and telecommunications services (in 2014). The Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation jointly issued Circular 36 on March 23, 2016, which announced that the major industries still paying BT would be transitioned to the VAT regime. Effective as of May 1, 2016, the construction, finance, lifestyle (including hospitality, food and beverage, healthcare, and entertainment), and real estate sectors were introduced to the VAT, essentially eliminating BT from China’s tax system.

The food and beverage services industry pays BT at the rate of 5% for “food consumed on the spot”, whereas sales of food items in places such as grocery stores constitute the sale of goods which is typically subject to either 17% VAT, or 3% simplified VAT for food sold by restaurants and hotels which is “not consumed on the spot”. The transition to VAT for the services sector should largely remove this distinction. However, this distinction will remain to some extent if the VAT rate for food and beverage services is 6%, while the rate for sales of food items for take-away purposes is 17%.

Although a taxpayer is allowed to offset the qualified input VAT paid on taxable purchases against the output VAT chargeable on the revenue from services provided, our effective tax rate could be higher. Forest Food is subject to VAT at rate of 17%. The replacement of the business tax with a VAT on our services could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us.

Enhanced scrutiny over acquisition transactions by the PRC tax authorities may have a negative impact on potential acquisitions we may pursue in the future.

Pursuant to the Notice on Strengthening Administration of Enterprise Income Tax for Share Transfers by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises, or SAT Circular 698, issued by the SAT on December 10, 2009, where a foreign investor transfers the equity interests of a resident enterprise indirectly via disposition of the equity interests of an overseas holding company, or an “indirect transfer,” and such overseas holding company is located in a tax jurisdiction that (i) has an effective tax rate less than 12.5% or (ii) does not tax foreign income of its residents, the foreign investor shall report the indirect transfer to the competent tax authority. The PRC tax authority will examine the true nature of the indirect transfer, and if the tax authority considers that the foreign investor has adopted an “abusive arrangement” in order to avoid PRC tax, it may disregard the existence of the overseas holding company and re-characterize the indirect transfer and as a result, gains derived from such indirect transfer may be subject to PRC withholding tax at a rate of up to 10%.

On February 3, 2015, the SAT issued the Announcement of the State Administration of Taxation on Several Issues Concerning the Enterprise Income Tax on Indirect Property Transfer by Non-Resident Enterprises, or SAT Bulletin 7, to supersede existing provisions in relation to the “indirect transfer” as set forth in Circular 698, while the other provisions of Circular 698 remain in force. Pursuant to SAT Bulletin 7, where a non-resident enterprise indirectly transfers properties such as equity in PRC resident enterprises without any justifiable business purposes and aiming to avoid the payment of enterprise income tax, such indirect transfer

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must be reclassified as a direct transfer of equity in PRC resident enterprise. To assess whether an indirect transfer of PRC taxable properties has reasonable commercial purposes, all arrangements related to the indirect transfer must be considered comprehensively and factors set forth in SAT Bulletin 7 must be comprehensively analyzed in light of the actual circumstances. SAT Bulletin 7 also provides that, where a non-PRC resident enterprise transfers its equity interests in a resident enterprise to its related parties at a price lower than the fair market value, the competent tax authority has the power to make a reasonable adjustment to the taxable income of the transaction.

There is little practical experience regarding the application of SAT Bulletin 7 because it was newly issued in February 2015. During the effective period of SAT Circular 698, some intermediary holding companies were actually looked through by the PRC tax authorities, and consequently the non-PRC resident investors were deemed to have transferred the PRC subsidiary and PRC corporate taxes were assessed accordingly. It is possible that we or our non-PRC resident investors may become at risk of being taxed under SAT Bulletin 7 and may be required to expend valuable resources to comply with SAT Bulletin 7 or to establish that we or our non-PRC resident investors should not be taxed under SAT Bulletin 7, which may have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations or such non-PRC resident investors’ investment in us.

Our PRC subsidiaries are subject to restrictions on paying dividends or making other payments to us, which may restrict our ability to satisfy our liquidity requirements.

We are a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. We may need dividends and other distributions on equity from our PRC subsidiaries to satisfy our liquidity requirements. Current PRC regulations permit our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends to us only out of their accumulated profits, if any, determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, Our PRC subsidiaries are required to set aside at least 10% of their respective accumulated profits each year, if any, to fund certain reserve funds until the total amount set aside reaches 50% of their respective registered capital. Our PRC subsidiaries may also allocate a portion of its after-tax profits based on PRC accounting standards to employee welfare and bonus funds at their discretion. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends. Furthermore, if Our PRC subsidiaries incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other payments to us. In addition, the PRC tax authorities may require us to adjust our taxable income under the contractual arrangements we currently have in place in a manner that would materially and adversely affect Our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends and other distributions to us. Any limitation on the ability of our subsidiary to distribute dividends to us or on the ability of our PRC consolidated VIE to make payments to us may restrict our ability to satisfy our liquidity requirements.

In addition, the EIT Law, and its implementation rules provide that a withholding tax rate of up to 10% will be applicable to dividends payable by Chinese companies to non-PRC-resident enterprises unless otherwise exempted or reduced according to treaties or arrangements between the PRC central government and governments of other countries or regions where the non-PRC-resident enterprises are incorporated.

Governmental control of currency conversion may affect the value of your investment.

The PRC government imposes controls on the convertibility of the RMB into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. We receive substantially all of our revenues in RMB. Under our current corporate structure, our company in the Cayman Islands may rely on dividend payments from our PRC subsidiaries to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, such as profit distributions and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval from SAFE by complying with certain procedural requirements. Therefore, our PRC subsidiaries are able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to us without prior approval from SAFE, subject to the condition that the remittance of such dividends outside of the PRC complies with certain procedures under PRC foreign exchange regulation, such as the overseas investment registrations by our shareholders or the ultimate shareholders of our corporate shareholders who are PRC residents. But approval from or registration with appropriate government authorities is required where RMB is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies. The PRC government may also at its discretion restrict access in the future to foreign currencies

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for current account transactions. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currencies to satisfy our foreign currency demands, we may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders.

The approval of the China Securities Regulatory Commission may be required in connection with this offering under a regulation adopted in August 2006, and, if required, we cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain such approval.

The Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Companies by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, adopted by six PRC regulatory agencies in 2006 and amended in 2009, requires an overseas special purpose vehicle formed for listing purposes through acquisitions of PRC domestic companies and controlled by PRC companies or individuals to obtain the approval of the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC, prior to the listing and trading of such special purpose vehicle’s securities on an overseas stock exchange. In September 2006, the CSRC published a notice on its official website specifying documents and materials required to be submitted to it by a special purpose vehicle seeking CSRC approval of its overseas listings. The application of the M&A Rules remains unclear. Currently, there is no consensus among leading PRC law firms regarding the scope and applicability of the CSRC approval requirement.

Our PRC counsel, Deheng Law Offices, has advised us based on their understanding of the current PRC law, rules and regulations that the CSRC’s approval is not required for the listing and trading of our shares on the Nasdaq in the context of this offering, given that:

the CSRC currently has not issued any definitive rule or interpretation concerning whether offerings like ours under this prospectus are subject to this regulation;
we established our PRC subsidiaries, Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology, by means of direct investment rather than by merger with or acquisition of PRC domestic companies; and
no explicit provision in the M&A Rules clearly classifies the acquisition of Suyuan Agriculture by Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology as a type of transaction falling under the M&A Rules.

However, our PRC legal counsel has further advised us that there remains some uncertainty as to how the M&A Rules will be interpreted or implemented in the context of an overseas offering and its opinions summarized above are subject to any new laws, rules and regulations or detailed implementations and interpretations in any form relating to the M&A Rules. We cannot assure you that relevant PRC governmental agencies, including the CSRC, would reach the same conclusion as we do. If it is determined that CSRC approval is required for this offering, we may face sanctions by the CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies for failure to seek CSRC approval for this offering. These sanctions may include fines and penalties on our operations in the PRC, limitations on our operating privileges in the PRC, delays in or restrictions on the repatriation of the proceeds from this offering into the PRC, restrictions on or prohibition of the payments or remittance of dividends by our China subsidiary, or other actions that could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, reputation and prospects, as well as the trading price of our Shares. The CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies may also take actions requiring us, or making it advisable for us, to halt this offering before the settlement and delivery of the Shares that we are offering. Consequently, if you engage in market trading or other activities in anticipation of and prior to the settlement and delivery of the shares we are offering, you would be doing so at the risk that the settlement and delivery may not occur.

The M&A Rules and certain other PRC regulations establish complex procedures for some acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign investors, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China.

The M&A Rules discussed in the preceding risk factor and recently adopted regulations and rules concerning mergers and acquisitions established additional procedures and requirements that could make merger and acquisition activities by foreign investors more time consuming and complex. For example, the M&A Rules require that the Ministry of Commerce be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise, if (i) any important industry is concerned, (ii) such transaction involves factors that have or may have impact on the national economic security, or

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(iii) such transaction will lead to a change in control of a domestic enterprise which holds a famous trademark or PRC time-honored brand. Mergers, acquisitions or contractual arrangements that allow one market player to take control of or to exert decisive impact on another market player must also be notified in advance to the Ministry of Commerce when the threshold under the Provisions on Thresholds for Prior Notification of Concentrations of Undertakings, or the Prior Notification Rules, issued by the State Council in August 2008 is triggered. In addition, the security review rules issued by the Ministry of Commerce that became effective in September 2011 specify that mergers and acquisitions by foreign investors that raise “national defense and security” concerns and mergers and acquisitions through which foreign investors may acquire de facto control over domestic enterprises that raise “national security” concerns are subject to strict review by the Ministry of Commerce, and the rules prohibit any activities attempting to bypass a security review, including by structuring the transaction through a proxy or contractual control arrangement. In the future, we may grow our business by acquiring complementary businesses. Complying with the requirements of the above-mentioned regulations and other relevant rules to complete such transactions could be time consuming, and any required approval processes, including obtaining approval from the Ministry of Commerce or its local counterparts may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions. It is clear that our business would not be deemed to be in an industry that raises “national defense and security” or “national security” concerns. However, the Ministry of Commerce or other government agencies may publish explanations in the future determining that our business is in an industry subject to the security review, in which case our future acquisitions in the PRC, including those by way of entering into contractual control arrangements with target entities, may be closely scrutinized or prohibited. Our ability to expand our business or maintain or expand our market share through future acquisitions would as such be materially and adversely affected.

Risks Related to Our Initial Public Offering and Ownership of Our Ordinary Shares

Entity controlled by our Chairwoman and Chief Executive Officer will control a majority of our Ordinary Shares, decreasing your influence on shareholder decisions.

Upon completion of this offering, FarmNet Limited, an entity controlled by Ms. Yefang Zhang, our Chairwoman and Chief Executive Officer, will continue to own a majority of our outstanding shares. As a result, Ms. Zhang and her husband Mr. Zhengyu Wang who is also a director of our Company will possess substantial ability to impact our management and affairs and the outcome of matters submitted to shareholders for approval. These shareholders, acting individually or as a group, could exert control and substantial influence over matters such as electing directors and approving mergers or other business combination transactions. This concentration of ownership and voting power may also discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company, which could deprive our shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of a sale of our company and might reduce the price of our Ordinary Shares. These actions may be taken even if they are opposed by our other shareholders, including those who purchase shares in this offering. See “PRINCIPAL SHAREHOLDERS.”

We are an “emerging growth company,” and we cannot be certain if the reduced reporting requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our Ordinary Shares less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, or the JOBS Act. For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We could be an emerging growth company for up to five years, although we could lose that status sooner if our revenues exceed $1.07 billion, if we issue more than $1.07 billion in non-convertible debt in a three year period, or if the market value of our Ordinary Shares held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of any June 30 before that time, in which case we would no longer be an emerging growth company as of the following December 31. We cannot predict if investors will find our Ordinary Shares less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our Ordinary Shares less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our Ordinary Shares and our share price may be more volatile.

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Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can also delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We have irrevocably elected not to avail our company of this exemption from new or revised accounting standards and, therefore, will be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.

We are a Cayman Islands exempted company with limited liability. The rights of our shareholders may be different from the rights of shareholders governed by the laws of U.S. jurisdictions.

We are a Cayman Islands exempted company with limited liability. Our corporate affairs are governed by our First Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association and by the laws of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders and the responsibilities of members of our Board of Directors may be different from the rights of shareholders and responsibilities of directors in companies governed by the laws of U.S. jurisdictions. In the performance of its duties, the Board of Directors of a solvent Cayman Islands exempted company is required to consider the company’s interests, and the interests of its shareholders as a whole, which may differ from the interests of one or more of its individual shareholders. See “Description of Share Capital — Corporate Governance.”

We are a “foreign private issuer,” and our disclosure obligations differ from those of U.S. domestic reporting companies. As a result, we may not provide you the same information as U.S. domestic reporting companies or we may provide information at different times, which may make it more difficult for you to evaluate our performance and prospects.

We are a foreign private issuer and, as a result, we are not subject to the same requirements as U.S. domestic issuers. Under the Exchange Act, we will be subject to reporting obligations that, to some extent, are more lenient and less frequent than those of U.S. domestic reporting companies. For example, we will not be required to issue quarterly reports or proxy statements. We will not be required to disclose detailed individual executive compensation information. Furthermore, our directors and executive officers will not be required to report equity holdings under Section 16 of the Exchange Act and will not be subject to the insider short-swing profit disclosure and recovery regime.

As a foreign private issuer, we will also be exempt from the requirements of Regulation FD (Fair Disclosure) which, generally, are meant to ensure that select groups of investors are not privy to specific information about an issuer before other investors. However, we will still be subject to the anti-fraud and anti-manipulation rules of the SEC, such as Rule 10b-5 under the Exchange Act. Since many of the disclosure obligations imposed on us as a foreign private issuer differ from those imposed on U.S. domestic reporting companies, you should not expect to receive the same information about us and at the same time as the information provided by U.S. domestic reporting companies.

As a foreign private issuer, we are permitted to rely on exemptions from certain Nasdaq corporate governance standards applicable to U.S. issuers, including the requirement that a majority of an issuer’s directors consist of independent directors. If we opt to rely on such exemptions in the future, such decision might afford less protection to holders of our Ordinary Shares.

Section 5605(b)(1) of the Nasdaq Listing Rules requires listed companies to have, among other things, a majority of its board members to be independent, and Section 5605(d) and 5605(e) require listed companies to have independent director oversight of executive compensation and nomination of directors. As a foreign private issuer, however, we are permitted to follow home country practice in lieu of the above requirements.

The corporate governance practice in our home country, the Cayman Islands, does not require a majority of our board to consist of independent directors or the implementation of a nominating and corporate governance committee. Since a majority of our Board of Directors would not consist of independent directors if we relied on the foreign private issuer exemption, fewer board members would be exercising independent judgment and the level of board oversight on the management of our company might decrease as a result. In addition, we could opt to follow Cayman Islands law instead of the Nasdaq requirements that mandate that we obtain shareholder approval for certain dilutive events, such as an issuance that will result in a change of control, certain transactions other than a public offering involving issuances of 20% or greater interests in the company and certain acquisitions of the shares or assets of another company. For a description of the material corporate

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governance differences between the Nasdaq requirements and Cayman Islands law, see “Description of Share Capital — Differences in Corporate Law”.

If we are unable to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in the future, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our Ordinary Shares may decline.

As a public company, we will be required to maintain internal control over financial reporting and to report any material weaknesses in such internal control. In addition, beginning with our 2018 annual report on Form 20-F to be filed in 2019, we will be required to furnish a report by management on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We are in the process of designing, implementing, and testing the internal control over financial reporting required to comply with this obligation, which process is time consuming, costly, and complicated. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting beginning with our annual report on Form 20-F following the date on which we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” which may be up to five full years following the date of this offering. If we identify material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, if we are unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner or assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting when required, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our Ordinary Shares could be negatively affected, and we could become subject to investigations by the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.

The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources and divert management’s attention.

As a public company, we will be subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Act, the listing requirements of the securities exchange on which we list, and other applicable securities rules and regulations. Despite recent reforms made possible by the JOBS Act, compliance with these rules and regulations will nonetheless increase our legal and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming or costly and increase demand on our systems and resources, particularly after we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” We must now engage U.S. securities law counsel and U.S. auditors that we did not require prior to this offering, and we will have annual payments for listing on a stock exchange if we are so listed. In addition, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and rules and regulations implemented by the SEC and The Nasdaq Capital Market require significantly heightened corporate governance practices for public companies. The Exchange Act requires, among other things, that we file annual and current reports with respect to our business and operating results. In addition, as long as we are listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market, we are also required to file semi-annual financial statements. While it is impossible to determine the amounts of such expenses in advance, we expect that we will incur expenses of between $500,000 and $1 million per year that we did not experience prior to commencement of this offering. We do not expect to incur materially greater costs as a result of becoming a public company than those incurred by similarly sized foreign private issuers.

If we fail to comply with these rules and regulations, we could become the subject of a governmental enforcement action, investors may lose confidence in us and the market price of our Ordinary Shares could decline.

As a result of disclosure of information in this prospectus and in filings required of a public company, our business and financial condition will become more visible, which we believe may result in threatened or actual litigation, including by competitors and other third parties. If such claims are successful, our business and operating results could be harmed, and even if the claims do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor, these claims, and the time and resources necessary to resolve them, could divert the resources of our management and adversely affect our business, brand and reputation and results of operations.

We also expect that being a public company and these rules and regulations will make it more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or

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incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our Board of Directors, particularly to serve on our audit committee and compensation committee, and qualified executive officers.

The obligation to disclose information publicly may put us at a disadvantage to competitors that are private companies.

Upon completion of this offering, we will be a publicly listed company in the United States. As a publicly listed company, we will be required to file periodic reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission upon the occurrence of matters that are material to our company and shareholders. In some cases, we will need to disclose material agreements or results of financial operations that we would not be required to disclose if we were a private company. Our competitors may have access to this information, which would otherwise be confidential. This may give them advantages in competing with our company. Similarly, as a U.S.-listed public company, we will be governed by U.S. laws that our non-publicly traded competitors are not required to follow. To the extent compliance with U.S. laws increases our expenses or decreases our competitiveness against such companies, our public listing could affect our results of operations.

The market price of our Ordinary Shares may be volatile or may decline regardless of our operating performance, and you may not be able to resell your shares at or above the initial public offering price.

The initial public offering price for our Ordinary Shares will be determined through negotiations between the Underwriter and us and may vary from the market price of our Ordinary Shares following our initial public offering. If you purchase our Ordinary Shares in our initial public offering, you may not be able to resell those shares at or above the initial public offering price. We cannot assure you that the initial public offering price of our Ordinary Shares, or the market price following our initial public offering, will equal or exceed prices in privately negotiated transactions of our shares that have occurred from time to time prior to our initial public offering. The market price of our Ordinary Shares may fluctuate significantly in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our revenue and other operating results;
the financial projections we may provide to the public, any changes in these projections or our failure to meet these projections;
actions of securities analysts who initiate or maintain coverage of us, changes in financial estimates by any securities analysts who follow our company, or our failure to meet these estimates or the expectations of investors;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant products or features, technical innovations, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, or capital commitments;
price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market, including as a result of trends in the economy as a whole;
lawsuits threatened or filed against us; and
other events or factors, including those resulting from war or incidents of terrorism, or responses to these events.

In addition, the stock markets have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies. Stock prices of many companies have fluctuated in a manner unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. In the past, stockholders have filed securities class action litigation following periods of market volatility. If we were to become involved in securities litigation, it could subject us to substantial costs, divert resources and the attention of management from our business, and adversely affect our business.

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from our initial public offering and may not use them effectively.

To the extent (i) we raise more money than required for the purposes explained in the section titled “Use of Proceeds” or (ii) we determine that the proposed uses set forth in that section are no longer in the best

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interests of our Company, we cannot specify with any certainty the particular uses of such net proceeds that we will receive from our initial public offering. However, we will advise shareholders as required in our annual reports on Form 20-F of any changes in application of funds and will file a current report on Form 6-K to the extent we determine such changes in application must be disclosed more quickly.

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of such net proceeds, including working capital, possible acquisitions, and other general corporate purposes, and we may not spend or invest these proceeds in a way with which our stockholders agree. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business and financial condition. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from our initial public offering in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value.

We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future.

We currently intend to retain any future earnings to finance the operation and expansion of our business, and we do not expect to declare or pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. As a result, you may only receive a return on your investment in our Ordinary Shares if the market price of our Ordinary Shares increases.

There may not be an active, liquid trading market for our Ordinary Shares.

Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for our Ordinary Shares. An active trading market for our Ordinary Shares may not develop or be sustained following this offering. You may not be able to sell your shares at the market price, if at all, if trading in our shares is not active. The initial public offering price was determined by negotiations between us and the Underwriter based upon a number of factors which are descried in the “Underwriting” section. The initial public offering price may not be indicative of prices that will prevail in the trading market.

Shares eligible for future sale may adversely affect the market price of our Ordinary Shares, as the future sale of a substantial amount of outstanding Ordinary Shares in the public marketplace could reduce the price of our Ordinary Shares.

The market price of our shares could decline as a result of sales of substantial amounts of our shares in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur. In addition, these factors could make it more difficult for us to raise funds through future offerings of our Ordinary Shares. An aggregate of   shares will be outstanding before the consummation of this offering and   shares will be outstanding immediately after this offering. All of the shares sold in the offering will be freely transferable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act. The remaining shares will be “restricted securities” as defined in Rule 144. These shares may be sold in the future without registration under the Securities Act to the extent permitted by Rule 144 or other exemptions under the Securities Act. See “Shares Eligible for Future Sale.”

You will experience immediate and substantial dilution.

The initial public offering price of our shares is substantially higher than the pro forma net tangible book value per share of our Ordinary Shares. Upon the completion of this offering, if you purchase shares in this offering underwriter, you will incur immediate dilution of approximately $     or approximately     % in the pro forma net tangible book value per share from the price per share that you pay for the shares; if you purchase shares in this offering and assuming full exercise of the underwriter’s over-subscription option, you will incur immediate dilution of approximately $     or approximately     % in the pro forma net tangible book value per share from the price per share that you pay for the shares. Accordingly, if you purchase shares in this offering, you will incur immediate and substantial dilution of your investment. See “Dilution.”

Our shareholders may face difficulties in protecting their interests because we are a Cayman Islands exempted company.

Our corporate affairs are governed by our First Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association, by the Companies Law (as revised) of the Cayman Islands and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors under the laws of the Cayman Islands are not as clearly defined as under statutes or judicial precedent in existence in jurisdictions in the United States. Therefore, you may have more difficulty protecting your interests than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a jurisdiction in the United States, due to the comparatively less formal nature of Cayman Islands law in this area.

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While Cayman Islands law allows a dissenting shareholder to express the shareholder’s view that a court sanctioned reorganization of a Cayman Islands company would not provide fair value for the shareholder’s shares, Cayman Islands statutory law does not specifically provide for shareholder appraisal rights in connection with a merger or consolidation of a company. This may make it more difficult for you to assess the value of any consideration you may receive in a merger or consolidation or to require that the acquirer gives you additional consideration if you believe the consideration offered is insufficient. However, Cayman Islands statutory law provides a mechanism for a dissenting shareholder in a merger or consolidation to apply to the Grand Court for a determination of the fair value of the dissenter’s shares if it is not possible for the company and the dissenter to agree on a fair price within the time limits prescribed.

Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies (such as us) have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records and accounts or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders. Our directors have discretion under our First Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest. Subject to limited exceptions, under Cayman Islands’ law, a minority shareholder may not bring a derivative action against the Board of Directors. Class actions are not recognized in the Cayman Islands, but groups of shareholders with identical interests may bring representative proceedings, which are similar.

United States civil liabilities and certain judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable.

We are a Cayman Islands exempted company and substantially all of our assets are located outside of the United States. In addition, the majority of our directors and officers are nationals and residents of countries other than the United States. A substantial portion of the assets of these persons is located outside of the United States. As a result, it may be difficult to effect service of process within the United States upon these persons. It may also be difficult to enforce in U.S. courts judgments obtained in U.S. courts based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws against us and our officers and directors who are not resident in the United States and the substantial majority of whose assets are located outside of the United States.

Further, it is unclear if original actions predicated on civil liabilities based solely upon U.S. federal securities laws are enforceable in courts outside the United States, including in the Cayman Islands. Courts of the Cayman Islands may not, in an original action in the Cayman Islands, recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state of the United States on the grounds that such provisions are penal in nature. Although there is no statutory enforcement in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the United States, courts of the Cayman Islands will recognize and enforce a foreign judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction if such judgment is final, for a liquidated sum, provided it is not in respect of taxes or a fine or penalty, is not inconsistent with a Cayman Islands’ judgment in respect of the same matters, and was not obtained in a manner which is contrary to the public policy of the Cayman Islands. In addition, a Cayman Islands court may stay proceedings if concurrent proceedings are being brought elsewhere.

Our Board of Directors may decline to register transfers of Ordinary Shares in certain circumstances.

Our Board of Directors may, in its sole discretion, decline to register any transfer of any ordinary share which is not fully paid up or on which we have a lien. Our directors may also decline to register any transfer of any share unless (i) the instrument of transfer is lodged with us, accompanied by the certificate for the shares to which it relates and such other evidence as our Board of Directors may reasonably require to show the right of the transferor to make the transfer; (ii) the instrument of transfer is in respect of only one class of shares; (iii) the instrument of transfer is properly stamped, if required; (iv) in the case of a transfer to joint holders, the number of joint holders to whom the share is to be transferred does not exceed four; (v) the shares conceded are free of any lien in favor of us; or (vi) a fee of such maximum sum as Nasdaq may determine to be payable, or such lesser sum as our Board of Directors may from time to time require, is paid to us in respect thereof.

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If our directors refuse to register a transfer they shall, within one month after the date on which the instrument of transfer was lodged, send to each of the transferor and the transferee notice of such refusal. The registration of transfers may, on 14 days’ notice being given by advertisement in such one or more newspapers or by electronic means, be suspended and the register closed at such times and for such periods as our Board of Directors may from time to time determine, provided, however, that the registration of transfers shall not be suspended nor the register closed for more than 30 days in any year.

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Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements. All statements contained in this prospectus other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, our business strategy and plans, and our objectives for future operations, are forward-looking statements. The words “believe,” “may,” “will,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “expect,” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, short-term and long-term business operations and objectives, and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described in the “Risk Factors” section. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the future events and trends discussed in this prospectus may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance, or achievements. We do not undertake to update any of these forward-looking statements after the date of this prospectus or to conform these statements to actual results or revised expectations, other than required by the federal securities laws or other applicable laws.

Use of Proceeds

We expect to receive net proceeds of approximately $    ($    offering, less underwriting discount of $    , non-accountable expense allowance of $     and offering expenses of approximately $    ).

The net proceeds from this offering must be remitted to China before we will be able to use the funds to grow our business. We are permitted under PRC laws and regulations to provide funding to Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology, through capital contributions or parent/subsidiary loans, subject to approvals from or registrations with relevant PRC government authorities. We plan to use the capital contribution to fund Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology. We expect that a properly submitted application will be approved in the ordinary course of business; however, we cannot guarantee such an approval will occur or be timely. If our application for a capital contribution is denied, we will use the parent/subsidiary loan method of funding Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology.

As mentioned, we currently anticipate financing our subsidiaries by means of capital contributions. We currently anticipate using approximately 80% of the gross proceeds from this offering to increase the registered capital of Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology (after which time Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology may apply such funds to the purposes described herein). The increase in registered capital will require prior approval from (i) MOFCOM to increase Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology’s registered capital, (ii) SAIC to alter Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology’s business certificate to reflect the increase in registered capital and (iii) SAFE to allow Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology’s bank to convert U.S. dollars into RMB in order to fund such increased registered capital, or each of the foregoing agencies’ respective local counterparts. This approval process typically takes 30 to 90 days in total, and sometimes longer, from the time MOFCOM or its local branches receive all the required application documents to begin the process. The remaining approximately 20% of such gross proceeds will be used to pay expenses related to this offering as well as for other general corporate purposes.

We plan to remit money to China using the capital contribution method. The approval from MOFCOM is the key approval in the capital contribution process, and we believe all other approvals are ministerial if MOFCOM approves such increase in registered capital. We have not yet initiated this process but intend to start the process immediately upon completion of the offering. We do not foresee any problem receiving necessary government approvals for a capital contribution; however, if our application is rejected, we would

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remit money to China through a parent/subsidiary loan instead. If we were to provide funding to Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology through parent/subsidiary loans (rather than the capital contribution method), the total amount of such loans may not exceed $60,000,000), which is the difference between Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology’s total investment amount as approved by the foreign investment authorities (currently $60,000,000), and Farmmi Enterprise’s registered capital (currently $30,000,000), and Farmmi Technology’s registered capital (currently $30,000,000). Such parent/subsidiary loans must also be registered with the SAFE, which registration usually takes no more than 20 business days after application to complete. The cost for obtaining such approvals and completing such registration is minimal.

We cannot assure you that we will be able to complete these government registrations or obtain the relevant approvals on a timely basis, if at all. The procedure to remit funds may take several months after completion of this offering, and we will be unable to use the funds in China until remittance is completed. We have not yet initiated the process of remitting money to China using either method but will begin to do so promptly upon completion of this offering. See “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — PRC regulation of parent/subsidiary loans and direct investment by offshore holding companies to PRC entities may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds of this offering to make loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC operating subsidiaries, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.”

We intend to use the net proceeds of this offering as follows (as to such uses in China, after we complete the remittance process described below), and we have listed the specific uses of proceeds below.

   
Description of Use   Amount   Percentage of
Net Proceeds
Product Development
                 
Improving Packing Technology of Current Products   $ 166,800       4.17 %  
Developing New Products     333,200       8.33 %  
Developing Processing Technology of New Products     166,800       4.17 %  
Subtotal     666,800       16.67 %  
Family Farms
                 
Searching Additional Family Farms for Raw Materials     166,800       4.17 %  
Providing Technical Support to New Family Farms     500,000       12.50 %  
Subtotal     666,800       16.67 %  
Farmmi Liangpin Mall
                 
Developing and Marketing Mobile Application     333,200       8.33 %  
Marketing     666,800       16.67 %  
Setting Up Physical Experience Store     1,666,400       41.66 %  
Subtotal     2,666,400       66.66 %  
Total   $ 4,000,000       100 %  

Pending use of the net proceeds, we intend to invest our net proceeds in short-term, interest bearing, investment-grade obligations. These investments may have a material adverse effect on the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in our Ordinary Shares. It is possible that we may become a passive foreign investment company for U.S. federal income taxpayers, which could result in negative tax consequences to you. These consequences are discussed in more detail in “Material Tax Consequences Applicable to U.S. Holders of Our Ordinary Shares.”

The foregoing represents our current intentions with respect of the use and allocation of the net proceeds of this offering based upon our present plans and business conditions, but our management will have significant flexibility and discretion in applying the net proceeds of this offering. The occurrence of unforeseen events or changed business conditions may result in application of the proceeds of this offering in a manner other than as described in this prospectus.

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Dividend Policy

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our Ordinary Shares. We anticipate that we will retain any earnings to support operations and to finance the growth and development of our business. Therefore, we do not expect to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination relating to our dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on a number of factors, including future earnings, capital requirements, financial conditions and future prospects and other factors the Board of Directors may deem relevant.

Under Cayman Islands law, a Cayman Islands company may pay a dividend out of either its profit or share premium account, but a dividend may not be paid if this would result in the company being unable to pay its debts as they fall due in the ordinary course of business. According to our First Amended and Restated Articles of Association, dividends can be declared and paid out of funds lawfully available to us, which include the share premium account. Dividends, if any, would be paid in proportion to the number of Ordinary Shares a shareholder holds. For further information, see “Certain Tax Considerations — Cayman Islands Tax Considerations.”

If we determine to pay dividends on any of our Ordinary Shares in the future, as a holding company, we will be dependent on receipt of funds from our Chinese subsidiaries, Nongyuan Network, Forest Food and FLS Mushroom. Current PRC regulations permit our indirect PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends to their shareholders only out of their accumulated profits, if any, determined in accordance with Chinese accounting standards and regulations. In addition, each of our subsidiaries in China is required to set aside at least 10% of its after-tax profits each year, if any, to fund a statutory reserve until such reserve reaches 50% of its registered capital. Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology also required to further set aside a portion of its after-tax profits to fund the employee welfare fund, although the amount to be set aside, if any, is determined at the discretion of its Board of Directors. Although the statutory reserves can be used, among other ways, to increase the registered capital and eliminate future losses in excess of retained earnings of the respective companies, the reserve funds are not distributable as cash dividends except in the event of liquidation.

In addition, pursuant to the EIT Law and its implementation rules, dividends generated after January 1, 2008 and distributed to Farmmi International by Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology are subject to withholding tax at a rate of 10% unless otherwise exempted or reduced according to treaties or arrangements between the PRC central government and governments of other countries or regions where the non-PRC-resident enterprises are incorporated.

Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, including profit distributions, interest payments and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, by complying with certain procedural requirements. Specifically, under the existing exchange restrictions, without prior approval of SAFE, cash generated from operations in China may be used to pay dividends to our company. Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology may go to a licensed bank to remit its after-tax profits out of China. Nevertheless, the bank will require Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology to produce the following documents for verification before it may transfer the dividends to Farmmi International’s overseas bank account of: (1) tax payment statement and tax return; (2) auditor’s report issued by a Chinese certified public accounting firm confirming the availability of profits and dividends for distribution in the current year; (3) the Board minutes authorizing the distribution of dividends to its shareholders; (4) the foreign exchange registration certificate issued by SAFE; (5) the capital verification report issued by a Chinese certified public accounting firm; (6) if the declared dividends will be distributed out of accumulated profits earned in prior years, Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology must appoint a Chinese certified public accounting firm to issue an auditors’ report to the bank to certify Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology’s financial position during the years from which the profits arose; and (7) other information as required by SAFE.

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Exchange Rate Information

Our financial information is presented in U.S. dollars. Our functional currency is Renminbi (“RMB”), the currency of the PRC. Transactions denominated in currencies other than RMB are translated into RMB at the exchange rate quoted by the People’s Bank of China at the dates of the transactions. Exchange gains and losses resulting from transactions denominated in a currency other than the RMB are included in statements of operations as foreign currency transaction gains or losses. Our financial statements have been translated into U.S. dollars in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standard (“SFAS”) No. 52, “Foreign Currency Translation”, which was subsequently codified within ASC 830, “Foreign Currency Matters”. The financial information is first prepared in RMB and then is translated into U.S. dollars at period-end exchange rates as to assets and liabilities and average exchange rates as to revenue and expenses. Capital accounts are translated at their historical exchange rates when the capital transactions occurred. The effects of foreign currency translation adjustments are included as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in shareholders’ equity. The relevant exchange rates are listed below:

       
  For the six months ended March 31,   For the years ended
September 30,
     2017   2016   2016   2015
Period Ended RMB exchange rate   $ 0.1451     $ 0.1551     $ 0.1499     $ 0.1572  
Period Average RMB exchange rate   $ 0.1458     $ 0.1547     $ 0.1531     $ 0.1622  

We make no representation that any RMB or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or RMB, as the case may be, at any particular rate, or at all. The PRC government imposes control over its foreign currency reserves in part through direct regulation of the conversion of RMB into foreign exchange and through restrictions on foreign trade. We do not currently engage in currency hedging transactions.

The following table sets forth information concerning exchange rates between the RMB and the U.S. dollar for the periods indicated ( www.oanda.com ).

       
  Midpoint of Buy and Sell Prices for U.S. Dollar per RMB
Period   Period-End   Average   High   Low
2012     6.3090       6.3115       6.3862       6.2289  
2013     6.1090       6.1938       6.3087       6.1084  
2014     6.1484       6.1458       6.2080       6.0881  
2015     6.4917       6.2288       6.4917       6.0933  
2016     6.9448       6.6441       7.0672       6.4494  
2017
                                   
January     6.8817       6.8987       6.9535       6.8466  
February     6.8689       6.8723       6.8842       6.8541  
March     6.8889       6.8971       6.9161       6.8757  
April     6.8969       6.8890       6.9094       6.8457  
May     6.8284       6.8852       6.9063       6.8284  
June     6.7774       6.8090       6.8382       6.7774  
July     6.7252       6.7721       6.8054       6.7252  
August     6.5939       6.6718       6.7316       6.5912  
September     6.6545       6.5657       6.6623       6.4680  
October     6.6332       6.6275       6.6550       6.5792  

Over the past several years, the RMB has moved from a period of being tightly linked to the US dollar, to a period of revaluation and strengthening against the dollar and into a second period of current relative stability. Our primary exportation outside China occur in Japan, the United States and Canada, but all such exportation outside China are made in RMB because we export our products through other trading companies or Forasen Group.

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Capitalization

The following table sets forth our capitalization as of March 31, 2017 on an actual and a pro forma as adjusted basis giving effect to the completion of the offering at an assumed public offering price of $     per share and to reflect the application of the proceeds after deducting the estimated underwriting fees. You should read this table in conjunction with our financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this prospectus and “Use of Proceeds” and “Description of Share Capital.”

Capitalization
 
As of March 31, 2017

   
  Actual   Pro forma (1)
Indebtedness:
                 
Short-term debt   $ 6,180,397     $       
Long-term debt               
Total indebtedness     6,180,397             
Shareholder’s Equity:               
Ordinary Shares $0.001 par value per share, 205,000,000 shares authorized, 10,000,000 shares issued and outstanding; (3) pro forma reflects shares issued and outstanding               
Additional paid-in capital (2)     5,033,080           
Statutory reserves               
Retained earnings     2,267,392           
Accumulated other comprehensive gain     438,695           
Total shareholders’ equity     7,739,167           
Non-controlling interest     866,711           
Total capitalization   $ 14,786,275     $       

(1) Gives effect to completion of the offering, at an assumed public offering price of $     per share and to reflect the application of the proceeds after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and our estimated offering expenses. (See note 2 below.)
(2) Pro forma additional paid in capital reflects the net proceeds we expect to receive, after deducting underwriting discount, underwriter expense allowance and other expenses. We expect to receive net proceeds of approximately $     ($     offering, less underwriting discount of $    , non-accountable expense allowance of $      and offering expenses of approximately $    ).
(3) Assumes completion of recapitalization.

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Dilution

If you invest in our Ordinary Shares, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per Ordinary Share and the pro forma net tangible book value per Ordinary Share after the offering. Dilution results from the fact that the per Ordinary Share offering price is substantially in excess of the book value per Ordinary Share attributable to the existing shareholders for our presently outstanding Ordinary Shares. Our net tangible book value attributable to shareholders on March 31, 2017 was $8,183,018, or approximately $0.82 per Ordinary Share outstanding as of March 31, 2017. Net tangible book value per Ordinary Share represents the amount of total assets less intangible assets and total liabilities, divided by the number of Ordinary Shares outstanding.

Upon completion of this offering, we will have     Ordinary Shares outstanding. Our post offering pro forma net tangible book value, which gives effect to receipt of the net proceeds from the offering and issuance of additional shares in the offering, but does not take into consideration any other changes in our net tangible book value after March 31, 2017, will be approximately $     or $     per Ordinary Share. This would result in dilution to investors in this offering of approximately $     per Ordinary Share or approximately    % from the assumed offering price of $     per Ordinary Share. Net tangible book value per Ordinary Share would increase to the benefit of present shareholders by $     per share attributable to the purchase of the Ordinary Shares by investors in this offering.

The following table sets forth the estimated net tangible book value per Ordinary Share after the offering and the dilution to persons purchasing Ordinary Shares based on the foregoing offering assumptions.

 
  Post-Offering (1)
Assumed offering price per Ordinary Share   $  
Net tangible book value per Ordinary Share before the offering   $ 0.82  
Increase per Ordinary Share attributable to payments by new investors   $       
Pro forma net tangible book value per Ordinary Share after the offering   $       
Dilution per Ordinary Share to new investors   $       

(1) Assumes gross proceeds from offering of      Ordinary Shares.

A US$1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed public offering price of $     per share (the midpoint of the estimated initial public offering price range shown on the cover page of this prospectus) would increase (decrease) our pro forma net tangible book value after giving effect to the offering by $     million, the pro forma net tangible book value per Ordinary Share and per share by $     per Ordinary Share and the dilution in pro forma net tangible book value per Ordinary Share to new investors in this offering by $    per Ordinary Share, assuming no change to the number of shares offered by us as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the estimated underwriting fee and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

Post-Offering Ownership

The following chart illustrates our pro forma proportionate ownership, upon completion of the offering, by present shareholders and investors in this offering, compared to the relative amounts paid by each. The charts reflect payment by present shareholders as of the date the consideration was received and by investors in this offering at the offering price without deduction of commissions or expenses. The charts further assume no changes in net tangible book value other than those resulting from the offering.

         
  Shares Purchased   Total Consideration   Average Price
Per Share
     Amount   Percent   Amount   Percent
Existing shareholders                $              $       
New investors                $              $       
Total              100.00 %     $            100.00 %     $      

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Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis of our company’s financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this report. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results and the timing of selected events could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors.

Business Overview

Farmmi, Inc. (“FMI” or the “Company”) is a holding company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands on July 28, 2015. Acting through its subsidiaries, the Company is engaged in processing and distributing dried edible mushrooms, mainly Shiitake and Mu Er mushrooms, and trading other agricultural products such as tea.

Ms. Yefang Zhang, as the sole shareholder of FarmNet Limited which is the sole shareholder of FMI, and her husband Mr. Zhengyu Wang, a director of FMI, are the ultimate shareholders of FMI (“Controlling Shareholders”). The Company completed a reorganization of its legal structure (“Reorganization”) in preparation for its planned initial public offering.

The Reorganization involved the incorporation of FMI, a Cayman Islands holding company; the incorporation of Farmmi International Limited (“Farmmi International”), a Hong Kong company; the incorporation of Hangzhou Suyuan Agriculture Technology Co., Ltd. (“Suyuan Agriculture”), a PRC company; the incorporation of Farmmi (Hangzhou) Enterprise Management Co., Ltd. (“Farmmi Enterprise”) and Lishui Farmmi Technology Co., Ltd. (“Farmmi Technology”), two new wholly foreign-owned entities (“WFOE”) formed by Farmmi International under the laws of China; and the equity transfer of Suyuan Agriculture, Zhejiang Forest Food Co., Ltd. (“Forest Food”) and Zhejiang FLS Mushroom Co., Ltd. (“FLS Mushroom”) (collectively, the “Transferred Entities”) from the controlling shareholders Zhengyu Wang and Yefang Zhang (“Controlling Shareholders”).

On July 5, 2016 and August 10, 2016, Zhengyu Wang transferred all of his equity interests in Suyuan Agriculture to Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology with each owning 50% of Suyuan Agriculture. On November 24, 2016, Zhengyu Wang, the controlling shareholder of Forest Food transferred 96.15% of his interest in Forest Food to Suyuan Agriculture. On October 24, 2016, Zhengyu Wang, the controlling shareholder of FLS Mushroom transferred 100% of his interest in FLS Mushroom to Suyuan Agriculture. After the Reorganization, FMI, the ultimate holding company, owns 100% equity interest of Suyuan Agriculture and FLS Mushroom, and 96.15% equity interest of Forest Food. The remaining 3.85% equity interest of Forest Food is owned by the National Trust Limited, a non-affiliated third party.

On September 18, 2016, Suyuan Agriculture entered into a series of contractual agreements with Zhengyu Wang, the owner of Hangzhou Nongyuan Network Technology Co., Ltd. (“Nongyuan Network”) and Nongyuan Network. Nongyuan Network is a company incorporated on December 8, 2015 that focuses on the development of network marketing and provides a network platform for sales of agriculture products. These Exclusive Management Consulting and Technology Service Agreement, Proxy Agreement, Equity Pledge Agreement and Executive Call Option Agreement. Pursuant to these agreements, Suyuan Agriculture has the exclusive rights to provide to Nongyuan Network consulting services related to business operation and management. All the above contractual agreements obligate Suyuan Agriculture to absorb all of the loss from Nongyuan Network’s activities and entitle Suyuan Agriculture to receive all of its residual returns. In essence, Suyuan Agriculture has gained effective control over Nongyuan Network. Therefore, the Company believes that Nongyuan Network should be considered as Variable Interest Entity (“VIE”) under the Statement of Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 810 “Consolidation”. Accordingly, the accounts of this entity are consolidated with those of Suyuan Agriculture.

Since FMI and its subsidiaries are effectively controlled by the same Controlling Shareholders before and after the Reorganization, they are considered under common control. The above mentioned transactions were accounted for as a recapitalization. The consolidation of FMI and its subsidiaries has been accounted for at historical cost and prepared on the basis as if the aforementioned transactions had become effective as of the beginning of the first period presented in the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

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FMI, Farmmi international, Farmmi Enterprise, Farmmi Technology, Suyuan Agriculture, Forest Food, FLS Mushroom and Nongyuan Network (herein collectively referred to as the “Company”) are engaged in the processing, packaging and distributing of fungi food, which uses modern food processing technology to develop a series of safe, nutritious and healthy products. In order to provide green, organic, healthy forest food to global customers, the Company cooperates with family farms to promote standardized cultivation and production so it can ensure high quality of edible fungi raw materials. The Company has also established industrial production workshop and fully implemented the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (“HACCP”) international food safety and health management system. We have also obtained BRC certification issued by Intertek Certification Ltd to certify we meet the BRC Global Standard for Food Safety, and Food Safety Management System Certificate issued by China Quality Certification Centre to certify we meet the GB/T 22000-2006/ISO 22000:2005 standard.

We currently produce and/or sell four categories of agricultural products: Shiitake mushrooms, Mu Er mushrooms, other edible fungi, and other agricultural products such as tea. We do not grow fungi. We purchase dried edible fungi from third party suppliers, mainly from family farms, Jingning Liannong Trading Co. Ltd. (“JLT”) and Qingyuan Nongbang Mushroom Industry Co., Ltd. (“QNMI”). JLT and QNMI are two companies in Lishui area where our facilities are located. They are co-operatives representing family farms which plant and provide edible fungi. JLT and QNMI themselves do not have any facility and do not process any fungi. They are established to share resources such as procurement information and to enjoy the advantage of scale. After we select and filter the dried edible fungi for specific size and better quality, we may dehydrate them again to ensure the uniform level of dryness of our products. We then package the fungi products for resale. The only products we process and package are edible fungi. We process and package all of our edible fungi products at our own processing plants. For other agricultural products, such as tea, we purchase them from third-party suppliers, and sell these products at our online store Farmmi Liangpin Mall ( www.farmmi.com/www.farmmi88.com ). Mainly through distributors, we offer gourmet dried mushrooms to domestic and overseas retail supermarkets, produce distributors and foodservice distributors and operators. We have become an enterprise with advanced processing equipment and business management experience, and we pride ourselves on consistently producing quality mushrooms and serving our customers with a high level of commitment.

Currently, we estimate that approximately 90% of our products are sold in China to domestic distributors and the remaining 10% are sold internationally, including USA, Japan, Canada, Europe and the Middle East, through distributors. In addition, in order to enhance our e-commerce marketing presence, we developed our own e-commerce website http://www.farmmi.com , and we also sold our products on other third-party e-commerce websites such as www.taobao.com , and www.jd.com .

Our total revenues for the six months ended March 31, 2017 increased by $1,668,274 or 16.68%, compared to the same period ended March 31, 2016. Our total revenues for the year ended September 30, 2016 increased by $9,309,731 or 81.62%, compared to the fiscal year ended September 30, 2015. We expect our sales of edible fungi products will continue to grow in the coming years, as the consumption of fungi food in China has been rising significantly and has become one of the most important parts of planting industry. Meanwhile, although China has the largest production of edible fungi, consumption of edible fungi per capita is much lower than other countries such as USA and Japan. Therefore, there is much potential for the sales of edible fungi in the Chinese market as well as the international market. We believe our sales will continue to grow in the future with our increased brand awareness and brand awareness will continue to grow along with demand for edible fungi products. We are presently unaware of any specific known trends, uncertainties or events that are reasonably likely to have a material effect on our sales or revenue.

Growth Strategy

Increasing our market share —  the expansion of the consumer group who desires green and pesticide-free agricultural products and the increasing trend of favoring healthy food in China will hopefully lead to an increasing demand in Farmmi and Forasen brand products, which will bring positive impact on our financial condition. Our plan targets fungi lovers and mainly focuses on developing high-quality agricultural products market. Through our continued efforts of building e-commerce platform, expansion of distributors, and mergers and acquisitions of producers of agricultural products, we could likely expand our product lines and improve our brand awareness and customer loyalty, to meet the demands of market and customers, and to improve our sales performance.

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Expansion of our sources of supply, productivity and sales network —  to meet the increasing demand, we will emphasize cooperation with major suppliers as well as small family farms to ensure the quantity and quality of raw materials. While expanding supply resource, we also plan to increase our processing capability and update production equipment to enhance productivity. In addition to our present sales network, we intend to invest more in our online sales platform, continue to train our employees, update relevant information technology and supply chain system, with the goal of making an integrated sales network with an international approach.

Maintaining effective control of our costs and expenses —  cost control depends on our productivity and our cooperative relationship with family farms and supplier companies. We emphasize improving technology and signing long-term agreements with family farms and supplier companies to ensure competitive price and steady supplies of raw materials.

Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations

Government Policy May Impact our Business and Operating Results

We have not seen any impact of unfavorable government policy upon our business in recent years. However, our business and operating results will be affected by China’s overall economic growth and government policy. Unfavorable changes in government policies could affect the demand for our products and could materially and adversely affect our results of operations. Our edible fungi products are currently eligible for certain favorable government tax incentive and other incentives, any future changes in the government’s policy upon edible fungi industry may have a negative effect on our operations. However, the Company will seek to make adjustments as required if and when government policy shifts.

Price Inelasticity of Raw Materials May Reduce Our Profit

As a processor of edible fungi, we rely on a continuous and stable supply of edible fungi raw materials to ensure our operation and expansion. The price of edible fungi may be inelastic when we wish to purchase supplies, resulting in an increase in raw material prices and thus reduce our profit. In addition, although we compete primarily on the basis of the flavor, texture and quality of our products, we risk losing customers by increasing our selling prices.

Competition in Edible Fungi Industry

Although we have a lot of competitive advantages, such as premium product quality, stable and experienced factory employees, favorable production location within proximity of significant mushroom planting bases and strong relationships with our significant suppliers, we face a series of challenges.

Our products face competition from a number of companies operating in the vicinity. One of the largest competitors has high sales volume, which enables this competitor to purchase and sell edible fungi at a relatively lower price. Another major competitor has much larger plants and warehouses than we have and its main product is Mu Er mushrooms with different sorts and qualities. Competition from these two major competitors may prevent us from increasing our revenue.

On the other hand, the edible fungi industry is fragmented and subject to relatively low barriers of entry. Although we believe we distinguish our company from competitors on the basis of quality, to the extent our customer base focuses heavily on price, many of our competitors can provide products at relatively lower prices, affecting our profit margins as we seek to compete with them.

At last, we have devoted significant resources to build and develop our online store Farmmi Liangpin Mall. For example, we plan to use two thirds of the proceeds from this offering to expand Farmmi Liangpin Mall. While this decision may offer new opportunities to our company, it is also a new venture and has recently started to operate. Our online store Farmmi Liangpin Mall is not well known by consumers yet, and we do not have rich experience in e-commerce operation. As a result, we have no guarantee that we will be successful in this new expansion. If we do not manage our expansion effectively, our business prospects could be impaired.

Economy and Politics

Our ability to be successful in China depends in part on our awareness of trends in politics that may affect our company, including, for example, government initiatives that would either encourage or discourage programs and companies that produce healthy foods or efforts to increase export of natural food products. In addition,

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we must be aware of political situations in destination countries of our products, particularly if such countries take action to stifle importation of food products from abroad.

Trend Information

We have noted the existence of the following trends since October 2016, all of which are likely to affect our business to the extent they continue in the future:

China’s edible fungi industry is growing, both in absolute terms and in market share.

Through its development of enoki mushroom industrialization technology in the 1960s, Japan became the world leader in mushroom farming. As other countries’ fungi farming technology improved, China began to supplant Japan and now accounts for more than 75% of worldwide edible mushroom production, according to QYR Food Research Center, an independent research institution.

[GRAPHIC MISSING]

China’s growth has outpaced worldwide production growth rates. While China’s growth rates in the past much higher than world growth rates, it appears to be moving from rapid expansion to a more mature industry.

       
Year   World
Production
(Million
Metric Tons)
  Worldwide Growth Rate   China
Production
(Million
Metric Tons)
  China Growth Rate
2011     35.67       6.65 %       25.72       13.73 %  
2012     38.61       8.22 %       28.28       9.96 %  
2013     42.44       9.93 %       31.70       12.08 %  
2014     43.60       2.73 %       32.70       3.16 %  
2015     46.12       5.78 %       35.02       7.09 %  
2016     48.04       4.17 %       36.85       5.23 %  
2017E     50.60       5.33 %       39.21       6.40 %  

(Source: QYR Food Research Center)

As the chart below illustrates, our sales volume of Shiitake for period from October 2016 to July 2017 is about 822 tons, and the expected total sales volume of Shiitake for the fiscal year 2017 is about 1,095 tons. This number represents a slight increase compared with 1,046 tons sales volume of Shiitake for the fiscal year 2016. In the meanwhile, our sales volume of Mu Er for period from October 2016 to July 2017 is about 664 tons, and the expected total sales volume of Mu Er for the fiscal year 2017 is about 682 tons. This number represents a significant increase compared with 395 tons sales volume of Mu Er for the fiscal year 2016. This was primarily a result of China Forest increasing its orders of Mu Er from us. China Forest is one of our largest clients and also one of the most powerful enterprises distributing forest products in China. As China’s

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mushroom industry is moving from rapid expansion to a more mature industry, we expect the effect of industry growth on promoting our sales volume will decrease.

   
Period   Shiitake   Mu Er
Oct-16     45 tons       52 tons  
Nov-16     96 tons       75 tons  
Dec-16     111 tons       91 tons  
Jan-17     110 tons       69 tons  
Feb-17     75 tons       78 tons  
Mar-17     20 tons       8 tons  
Apr-17     80 tons       55 tons  
May-17     84 tons       65 tons  
Jun-17     86 tons       71 tons  
Jul-17     115 tons       100 tons  
Subtotal     822 tons       664 tons  
Aug-17 to Sep-17 E     273 tons       18 tons  
2017 E     1,095 tons       682 tons  

Our aggregate employee salaries have been relatively stable.

During the period of October 2016 to July 2017, our monthly employee salaries were as follows:

[GRAPHIC MISSING]

Although the monthly employee salaries of February and March decreased slightly as a result of the Chinese New Year holiday when some employees quit job and used the holiday as a transition period of their careers, the monthly salaries during the period from October 2016 to July 2017 remain relatively stable, fluctuating within roughly 4%.

As our e-commerce platform Farmmi Liangpin Mall has been successfully built, our employee salaries are likely to remain relatively stable in the future, fluctuating within roughly 5%.

Raw material costs have been relatively stable.

As a company in the agriculture sector, we are subject to seasonality in our raw material purchases, both in availability and cost. For this reason, we seek to purchase raw material for inventory at the beginning and the end of year, when our suppliers’ inventory tends to be higher. If we gauge our timing properly, we should be able to obtain favorable pricing. We tend to purchase sufficient raw materials to satisfy our historical order volume. In addition, our customer orders have grown recently, requiring us to purchase additional raw

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materials to satisfy the new demand. We expect the raw material costs in fiscal year 2017 will be relatively stable, fluctuating between 5% and 6% of the raw material costs in fiscal year 2016.

During the period from October 2016 to July 2017, our average monthly unit price for Shiitake and Mu Er we purchased were as follows:

[GRAPHIC MISSING]

We anticipate that for the year ended September 30, 2017, the average unit price of Shiitake and Mu Er we purchase will be $11,370 per ton and $9,491 per ton, respectively. The stable raw material costs contribute to stabilizing our gross margin. We expect our gross margin will be 17% in fiscal year 2017 while our gross margin was 16.14% in fiscal year 2016.

We expect the agriculture industry in China will become increasingly reliant on Internet sales.

Government initiatives such as the concept of “Internet+” articulated by Premier Li Keqiang beginning in 2015, reflect the government’s push to incorporate Internet and other information technology in conventional industries. One of the specific applications of this concept has been “Internet + Agriculture”, which reflects the increased use of technology both in the growing and sales sides of farming.

In addition, we have seen shifts of Chinese consumers to purchase products — including food products like ours — online. We have been building our online store Farmmi Liangpin Mall to adapt to these changing preferences and expect them to continue in the future.

Before we launched our online store Farmmi Liangpin Mall, this trend did not have significant impact on our revenues. Since we began to operate our online store Farmmi Liangpin Mall in December 2016, our online sales have been increasing rapidly.

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During the period between October 2016 and July 2017, our online sales accounted 7.57% of our total sales, and the sales by Farmmi Liangpin Mall contributed 99.53% of our online sales. From October 2016 to July 2017, our aggregate online sales were $1,533,190 and the average monthly online sales were $153,319. The following chart shows our sales of Farmmi Liangpin Mall and our online sales for each month from October 2016 to July 2017:

[GRAPHIC MISSING]

We anticipate the increasing reliance on internet sales will help our online sales more significantly. Our online sales are expected to reach over $1,772,000 for the fiscal year 2017, about 35 times of online sales for the fiscal year 2016.

China Forest has increased procurement from us.

Our biggest client China Forest has increased its procurement from us. Based on our communication with China Forest, we expect that our revenue from China Forest for the year ended September 30, 2017 will be approximately $18,850,000, an increase of 13.49% from $16,609,173 for the year ended September 30, 2016. We the Mu Er products to be procured by China Forest for the year ended September 30, 2017 will be 597 tons, an increase of 71% from 350 tons for the year ended September 30, 2016, and we expect the Shiitake products to be procured by China Forest for the year ended September 30, 2017 will be 850 tons, a slight decrease of 1% from 859 tons for the year ended September 30, 2016.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles requires the use of estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosures in the financial statements. Critical accounting policies are those accounting policies that may be material due to the levels of subjectivity and judgment necessary to account for highly uncertain matters or the susceptibility of such matters to change, and that have a material impact on financial condition or operating performance. While we base our estimates and judgments on our experience and on various other factors that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. We believe the following critical accounting policies used in the preparation of our financial statements require significant judgments and estimates. For additional information relating to these and other accounting policies, see Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.

Use of Estimates

In preparing the consolidated financial statements in conformity with US GAAP, management makes estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the dates of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements, as well as the

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reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting year. Significant items subject to such estimates and assumptions include the useful lives of property and equipment; allowances pertaining to the allowance for doubtful accounts; the valuation of inventories; and the valuation of deferred tax assets.

Revenue Recognition

The Company recognizes revenues under FASB Codification Topic 605 (“ASC 605”). Revenue is recognized when all of the following have occurred: (i) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, (ii) delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, (iii) the price is fixed or determinable, and (iv) the ability to collect is reasonably assured. These criteria are generally satisfied by the Company at the time of delivery for sales, which is the point when risk of loss and title passes to the customer.

The delivery of goods either occurs when (a) goods leave the Company’s warehouse or production facilities or (b) goods are delivered and accepted by customer, usually at a location outside the Company. For sales under free on board (“FOB”) warehouse or production facilities terms, the Company recognizes revenue when product leaves the Company’s warehouse or production facility. Product delivery is evidenced by warehouse shipping log as well as signed shipping bills from the shipping company. For sales under FOB destination term, the Company recognizes revenue when product is delivered and accepted by customer. Product delivery is evidenced by signed receipt document upon delivery. The delivery term is negotiated between the Company and customers on a customer by customer base.

Revenue is reported net of all value added taxes. The Company does not routinely permit customers to return products and historically, customer returns have been immaterial.

Receivables

Trade receivables are carried at the original invoiced amount less a provision for any potential uncollectible amounts. Provisions are applied to trade receivables where events or changes in circumstances indicate that the balance may not be collectible. The identification of doubtful accounts requires the use of judgment and estimates of management. Our management must make estimates of the collectability of our accounts receivable. Management specifically analyzes accounts receivable, historical bad debts, customer creditworthiness, current economic trends and changes in our customer payment terms when evaluating the adequacy of the allowance for doubtful accounts. Increases in our allowance for doubtful accounts would lower our net income and earnings per share.

Inventory

The Company values its inventories at the lower of cost, determined on a weighted average basis, or market. The Company reviews its inventories periodically to determine if any reserves are necessary for potential obsolescence or if a write-down is necessary if the carrying value exceeds net realizable value.

Recent accounting pronouncements

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, which clarifies the definition of a business to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. The standard will be effective in the first quarter of fiscal 2019. The Company expects that the adoption of this ASU would not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-03, Accounting Changes and Error Corrections (Topic 250) and Investments — Equity Method and Joint Ventures (Topic 323). The amendments amended Accounting Changes and Error Corrections (Topic 250) to state that registrants should consider additional qualitative disclosures if the impact of an issued but not yet adopted ASU is unknown or cannot be reasonably estimated and to include a description of the effect of the accounting policies that the registrant expects to apply, if determined. Transition guidance included in certain issued but not yet adopted ASUs was also updated to reflect this amendment. The Company does not expect that the adoption of this guidance will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.

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Results of Operations for the Six Months Ended March 31, 2017 and 2016

Overview

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the six months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016:

       
  Six Months Ended March 31,   Variance
     2017   2016   Amount   %
Revenue   $ 11,670,391     $ 10,002,117     $ 1,668,274       16.68 %  
Cost of revenue     9,695,401       8,406,922       1,288,479       15.33 %  
Gross profit     1,974,990       1,595,195       379,795       23.81 %  
Selling and distribution expense     54,593       25,138       29,455       117.17 %  
General and administrative expense     665,047       176,905       488,142       275.93 %  
Income from operations     1,255,350       1,393,152       (137,802 )       (9.89 )%  
Interest income     172       218       (46 )       (21.10 )%  
Interest expense     (111,209 )       (131,565 )       20,356       (15.47 )%  
Other expense     (561 )       (44,338 )       43,777       (98.73 )%  
Income before income taxes     1,143,752       1,217,467       (73,715 )       (6.05 )%  
Income tax expenses     7,870       314,046       (306,176 )       (97.49 )%  
Net income   $ 1,135,882     $ 903,421     $ 232,461       25.73 %  

Revenue

Currently, we have three main types of revenue streams deriving from our three major products categories: Shiitake, Mu Er and other edible fungi. The Company has not been able to generate any revenue from other agricultural products until January 2017. However, the revenue generated since January 2017 was insignificant so we did not include it in our segment reporting analysis.

The following table sets forth the breakdown of our revenue for the six months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively:

           
  Six Months Ended March 31,   Variance
     2017   %   2016   %   Amount   %
Shiitake   $ 5,764,369       49.39 %     $ 7,628,357       76.26 %     $ (1,863,988 )       (24.43 )%  
Mu Er     5,135,190       44.00 %       2,245,122       22.45 %       2,890,068       128.73 %  
Other edible fungi     770,832       6.61 %       128,638       1.29 %       642,194       499.23 %  
Total Amount   $ 11,670,391       100.00 %     $ 10,002,117       100.00 %     $ 1,668,274       16.68 %  

Our total revenues for the six months ended March 31, 2017 was $11,670,391, an increase of $1,668,274 or 16.68% from $10,002,117 for the six months ended March 31, 2016.

For the six months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, revenue from sales of Shiitake was $5,764,369 and $7,628,357, respectively, which represented a decrease of $1,863,988 or 24.43%. The decrease of revenue from this product category was due to both the decreased sales volume and the unit sales price of our products. For the six months ended March 31, 2017, we have received less order on Shiitake mushrooms from our main customer. China Forest. On the other hand, our average unit sales price of Shiitake decreased by 6.12% as the purchase cost decreased during the six months ended March 31, 2017, as compared to the same period of fiscal year 2016.

For the six months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, revenue from sales of Mu Er was $5,135,190 and $2,245,122, respectively, which represented an increase of $2,890,068 or 128.73%. The primary reason of the increase of revenue from this product category was we received significant more orders of Mu Er from China Forest in the six months ended March 31, 2017, compared to the same period of fiscal year 2016. We have sold 329 tons, out of the total sales quantities — 363 tons, of Mu Er to China Forest for the six months ended March 31, 2017, an increase of 182.50%, as compared to 120 tons for the six months ended March 31, 2016.

For the six months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, revenue from sales of other edible fungi was $770,832 and $128,638, respectively, which represented an increase of $642,194 or 499.23%. The major reason for the

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increase was that we sold $443,451 of Maitake mushroom in January 2017 to fill an unusual order of a client. The increase was also attributable to our online store Farmmi Liangpin Mall — sales of other edible fungi derived from which was $291,205 for the six months ended March 31, 2017, compared to nil of the corresponding period of fiscal year 2016.

Cost of Revenue

The following table sets forth the breakdown of the Company’s cost of revenue for the six months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively:

           
  Six Months Ended March 31,   Variance
     2017   %   2016   %   Amount   %
Shiitake   $ 4,785,954       49.36 %     $ 6,412,427       76.27 %     $ (1,626,473 )       (25.36 )%  
Mu Er     4,254,922       43.89 %       1,887,007       22.45 %       2,367,915       125.49 %  
Other edible fungi     654,525       6.75 %       107,488       1.28 %       547,037       508.93 %  
Total Amount   $ 9,695,401       100.00 %     $ 8,406,922       100.00 %     $ 1,288,479       15.33 %  

For the six months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, cost of revenue from sales of our Shiitake was $4,785,954 and $6,412,427, respectively, representing a decrease of $1,626,473 or 25.36%; cost of revenue from sales of our Mu Er was $4,254,922 and $1,887,007, respectively, representing an increase of $2,367,915 or 125.49%; cost of revenue from sales of our other edible fungi products was $654,525 and $107,488, respectively, representing an increase of $547,037 or 508.93%. The percentage of the variance in costs was proportional to the percentage of the variance in sales due to the stable gross margin of our products.

Gross Profit

The following table sets forth the breakdown of the Company’s gross profit for the six months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively:

           
  Six Months Ended March 31,   Variance
     2017   %   2016   %   Amount   %
Shiitake   $ 978,415       49.54 %     $ 1,215,930       76.22 %     $ (237,515 )       (19.53 )%  
Mu Er     880,268       44.57 %       358,115       22.45 %       522,153       145.81 %  
Other edible fungi     116,307       5.89 %       21,150       1.33 %       95,157       449.91 %  
Total Amount   $ 1,974,990       100.00 %     $ 1,595,195       100.00 %     $ 379,795       23.81 %  

For the six months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, gross profit from sales of our Shiitake was $978,415 and $1,215,930, respectively, representing a decrease of $237,515 or 19.53%; gross profit from sales of Mu Er was $880,268 and $358,115, respectively, representing an increase of $522,153 or 145.81%; gross profit from sales of other edible fungi increased by $95,157 or 449.91% from $21,150 for the six months ended March 31, 2016 to $116,307 for the same period in 2017. The percentage of the variance in gross profit was proportional to the percentage of the variance in sales due to the stable gross margin of our products.

The overall gross profit margin increased slightly by 0.97% from 15.95% for the six months ended March 31, 2016 to 16.92% for the six months ended March 31, 2017. The slight increase in overall gross profit margin was primarily due to increasing proportion of online sales, with higher gross profit margin, in this reporting period.

Selling and Distribution Expense

For the six months ended March 31, 2017, our selling and distribution expense was $54,593, representing an increase of $29,455 or 117.17%, as compared to the same period of 2016. The significant increase was mainly due to the increased shipping fee in line with our increased sales volume.

General and Administrative Expense

For the six months ended March 31, 2017, our general and administrative expense were $665,047, representing an increase of $488,142 or 275.93%, as compared to the same period of 2016. The increase was primarily attributable to the increased initial public offerings related expenses, such as legal fees and auditing fees, during the six months ended March 31, 2017 as compared to the same period of fiscal year 2016.

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Interest Expense

For the six months ended March 31, 2017, our interest expense was $111,209 as compared to interest expense of $131,565 in the same period of 2016. The decrease in net interest expense was attributable to decreased short-term bank loans.

Income Tax Expenses

For the six months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016, our income tax expense decreased by $306,176 or 97.49% from $314,046 for the six months ended March 31, 2016 to $7,870 for the six months ended March 31, 2017. The decrease in income tax expense was primarily due to the effect of the local preferential income tax policies, pursuant to which, an aggregate of RMB 10.24 million (approximately $1.5 million) net income was exempt from income tax for the six months ended March 31, 2017.

Our preferential tax status will terminate on December 31, 2018, unless we stop the listing application process earlier. The aggregate amount of our tax holiday for the six months ended March 31, 2017 is approximately $360,000. From April 1, 2017 to December 31, 2018, we expect to enjoy the tax exemption for 90% of our taxable income. The summary is below:

   
  Exempted Net Income   Tax holiday
October 1, 2016 – March 31, 2017   RMB 10.24 million (approximately
$1.5 million)
  RMB 2.5 million (approximately $360,000)
April 1, 2017 – September 30, 2017   90% of Taxable Income     
October 1, 2017 – December 31, 2018   90% of Taxable Income     

Net Income

As a result of the factors described above, our net income was $1,135,882 for the six months ended March 31, 2017, an increase of $232,461 from net income of $903,421 for the same period of fiscal year 2016.

Results of Operations for the Years Ended September 30, 2016 and 2015
 
Overview

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the years ended September 30, 2016 and 2015:

       
  Years End September 30,   Variance
     2016   2015   Amount   %
Revenue   $ 20,715,230     $ 11,405,499     $ 9,309,731       81.62 %  
Cost of revenue     17,371,416       9,685,553       7,685,863       79.35 %  
Gross profit     3,343,814       1,719,946       1,623,868       94.41 %  
Selling and distribution expense     78,507       81,150       (2,643 )       (3.26 )%  
General and administrative expense     395,854       306,715       89,139       29.06 %  
Income from operations     2,869,453       1,332,081       1,537,372       115.41 %  
Interest income     475       446       29       6.5 %  
Interest expense     (250,732 )       (263,427 )       12,695       (4.82 )%  
Other expense     (39,739 )       (8,937 )       (30,802 )       344.66 %  
Income before income taxes     2,579,457       1,060,163       1,519,294       143.31 %  
Income tax expenses     269,367       299,313       (29,946 )       (10.00 )%  
Net income   $ 2,310,090     $ 760,850     $ 1,549,240       203.62 %  

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Revenue

Currently, we have three types of revenue streams deriving from our three major products categories: Shiitake, Mu Er and other edible fungi.

The following table sets forth the breakdown of our revenue for the years ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively:

           
  Years Ended September 30,   Variance
     2016   %   2015   %   Amount   %
Shiitake   $ 14,658,325       70.76 %     $ 6,768,723       59.35 %     $ 7,889,602       116.56 %  
Mu Er     6,015,519       29.04 %       4,005,509       35.12 %       2,010,010       50.18 %  
Other edible fungi     41,386       0.20 %       631,267       5.53 %       (589,881 )       (93.44 )%  
Total Amount   $ 20,715,230       100.00 %     $ 11,405,499       100.00 %     $ 9,309,731       81.62 %  

Our total revenues for the year ended September 30, 2016 was $20,715,230, an increase of $9,309,731 or 81.62% from $11,405,499 for the year ended September 30, 2015.

For the years ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, revenue from sales of Shiitake was $14,658,325 and $6,768,723, respectively, which represented an increase of $7,889,602 or 116.56%. The reason of the increase of revenue from this product category was we received significantly increased orders from China Forest in the year ended September 30, 2016, compared to the same period of fiscal year 2015. China Forest is one of the largest enterprises distributing forest products in China. With its influence and large network of distributors, we were able to increase our sales significantly.

For the years ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, revenue from sales of Mu Er was $6,015,519 and $4,005,509, respectively, which represented an increase of $2,010,010 or 50.18%. The increase of revenue from this product category was primarily due to increased sales volume of Mu Er resulting from increased orders from China Forest in the year ended September 30, 2016, compared to the year ended September 30, 2015. The increase was also attributable to the increased export revenue of Mu Er. For the year ended September 30, 2016, the export volume of Mu Er was 161.95 tons, as compared to 116.83 tons for the year ended September 30, 2015.

For the years ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, revenue from sales of other edible fungi was $41,386 and $631,267, respectively, which represented a decrease of $589,881 or 93.44%. The main reason is that FLS mushroom sold Maitake of $613,505 during the year ended September 30, 2015, as compared to nil during the year ended September 30, 2016.

Cost of Revenue

The following table sets forth the breakdown of the Company’s cost of revenue for the years ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively:

           
  Years Ended September 30,   Variance
     2016   %   2015   %   Amount   %
Shiitake   $ 12,313,221       70.89 %     $ 5,717,222       59.03 %     $ 6,595,999       115.37 %  
Mu Er     5,024,346       28.92 %       3,433,953       35.45 %       1,590,393       46.31 %  
Other edible fungi     33,849       0.19 %       534,378       5.52 %       (500,529 )       (93.67 )%  
Total Amount   $ 17,371,416       100.00 %     $ 9,685,553       100.00 %     $ 7,685,863       79.35 %  

For the years ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, cost of revenue from sales of our Shiitake was $12,313,221 and $5,717,222, respectively, representing an increase of $6,595,999 or 115.37%; Cost of revenue from sales of our Mu Er was $5,024,346 and $3,433,953, respectively, representing an increase of $1,590,393 or 46.31%; cost of revenue from sales of our other edible fungi products was $33,849 and $534,378, respectively, representing a decrease of $500,529 or 93.67%. The percentage of the variance in costs was proportional to the percentage of the variance in sales due to the stable gross margin of our products.

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Gross Profit

The following table sets forth the breakdown of the Company’s gross profit for the years ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively:

           
  Years Ended September 30,   Variance
     2016   %   2015   %   Amount   %
Shiitake   $ 2,345,104       70.13 %     $ 1,051,501       61.14 %     $ 1,293,603       123.02 %  
Mu Er     991,173       29.64 %       571,556       33.23 %       419,617       73.42 %  
Other edible fungi     7,537       0.23 %       96,889       5.63 %       (89,352 )       (92.22 )%  
Total Amount   $ 3,343,814       100.00 %     $ 1,719,946       100.00 %     $ 1,623,868       94.41 %  

For the years ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, gross profit from sales of our Shiitake was $2,345,104 and $1,051,501, respectively, representing an increase of $1,293,603 or 123.02%; gross profit from sales of Mu Er was $991,173 and $571,556, respectively, representing an increase of $419,617 or 73.42%; gross profit from sales of other edible fungi decreased by $89,352 or 92.22% from $96,889 for the year ended September 30, 2015 to $7,537 for the same period in 2016. The percentage of the variance in gross profit was proportional to the percentage of the variance in sales due to the stable gross margin of our products.

The overall gross profit margin increased slightly by 1.06% from 15.08% for the year ended September 30, 2015 to 16.14% for the year ended September 30, 2016. The slight increase in overall gross profit margin was primarily due to increasing proportion of high gross profit margin products of Mu Er in our annual sales.

Selling and Distribution Expense

For the year ended September 30, 2016, our selling and distribution expense was $78,507, representing a decrease of $2,643 or 3.26%, as compared to the same period of 2015. We are able to maintain low distribution expenses by having our customers bear the cost of transportation. The decrease was primarily due to decreased commodity inspection fees and software service expenses, partially offset by increased shipping and handling expenses.

General and Administrative Expenses

For the year ended September 30, 2016, our general and administrative expenses were $395,854, representing an increase of $89,139 or 29.06%, as compared to the same period of 2015. The increase was primarily attributable to increased payroll expense due to the additional staffs hired in connection with the newly formed subsidiary of Nongyuan Network, and partially offset by the reverse of prior year allowance for inventory totaling $57,095 for the years ended September 30, 2016 as compared to the same period of 2015.

Interest Expense

For the year ended September 30, 2016, our interest expense was $250,732 as compared to interest expense of $263,427 in the same period of 2015. The decrease in net interest expense was attributable to decreased short-term bank loans.

Income Tax Expenses

For the years ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, our income tax expense decreased by $29,946 or 10% from $299,313 for the year ended September 30, 2015 to $269,367 for the year ended September 30, 2016. The decrease in income tax expense was primarily due to the local preferential income tax policies, pursuant to which, an aggregate of RMB 7.8 million (approximately $1.2 million) net income was exempt from income tax for the year ended September 30, 2016.

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Our preferential tax status will terminate on December 31, 2018, unless we stop the listing application process earlier. The aggregate amount of our tax holiday for the year ended September 30, 2016 is approximately $280,000. From October 1, 2016 (the beginning of the year ended September 30, 2017) to December 31, 2018, we expect to enjoy the tax exemption for 90% of our taxable income. The summary is below:

   
  Exempted Net Income   Tax holiday
October 1, 2015 – September 30, 2016   RMB 7.8 million (approximately
$1.2 million)
  RMB 1.87 million (approximately $280,000)
October 1, 2016 – September 30, 2017   90% of Taxable Income     
October 1, 2017 – December 31, 2018   90% of Taxable Income     

Net Income

As a result of the factors described above, our net income was $2,310,090 for the year ended September 30, 2016, an increase of $1,549,240 from net income of $760,850 for the same period of 2015.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

We are a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. We may need dividends and other distributions on equity from our PRC subsidiaries to satisfy our liquidity requirements. Current PRC regulations permit our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends to us only out of their accumulated profits, if any, determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, our PRC subsidiaries are required to set aside at least 10% of their respective accumulated profits each year, if any, to fund certain reserve funds until the total amount set aside reaches 50% of their respective registered capital. Our PRC subsidiaries may also allocate a portion of its after-tax profits based on PRC accounting standards to employee welfare and bonus funds at their discretion. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends.

Further, although instruments governing the current debts incurred by our PRC subsidiaries do not have restrictions on their abilities to pay dividend or make other payments to us, the lender may impose such restriction in the future. As a result, our ability to distribute dividends largely depends on earnings from our PRC subsidiaries and its ability to pay dividends out of its earnings. Management believes that our current cash, cash flows provided by operating activities, and access to loans will be sufficient to meet our working capital needs for at least the next 12 months. We intend to continue to carefully execute our growth plans and manage market risk.

Six Months Ended March 31, 2017 and 2016

As of March 31, 2017 and September 30, 2016, we had cash in the amount of $58,480 and $47,241, respectively. Total current assets as of March 31, 2017, amounted to $12,437,227, a decrease of $616,357 compared to $13,053,584 at September 30, 2016. The decrease in total current assets at March 31, 2017 compared to September 30, 2016 was mainly due to a decrease in accounts receivable and other current assets, partially offset by an increase in advance to suppliers, due from related parties and inventory. Current liabilities amounted to $4,325,722 at March 31, 2017, in comparison to $5,847,672 at September 30, 2016. This decrease of liabilities was attributable mainly to a decrease in advance from customers and short-term bank loans, partially offset by the increase in other current liabilities and accounts payable.

Indebtedness.   As of March 31, 2017, we incurred $2,466,938 of short-term bank loans and $638,502 of long-term bank loans. Besides these loans, we did not have any finance leases or purchase commitments, guarantees or other material contingent liabilities.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements.   We have not entered into any financial guarantees or other commitments to guarantee the payment obligations of any third parties. In addition, we have not entered into any derivative contracts that are indexed to our own shares and classified as shareholders’ equity, or that are not reflected in our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements. Furthermore, we do not have any retained or contingent interest in assets transferred to an unconsolidated entity that serves as credit, liquidity or market risk support to such entity. Moreover, we do not have any variable interest in any unconsolidated entity that we provide financing, liquidity, market risk or credit support to or engages in leasing, hedging or research and development services with us.

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Capital Resources.   We have historically funded our working capital needs from operations, bank borrowings, advance payments from customers and additional capital contributions from shareholders. Presently, our principal sources of liquidity are generated from our operations and loans from commercial banks. We anticipate that we will complete our initial public offering within next four months, which will provide us additional capital resources. The primary drivers and material factors impacting our liquidity and capital resources include our ability to generate sufficient cash flows from our operations, our ability to renew commercial bank loans and whether or not we can successfully complete our initial public offering to ensure our future growth and expansion plans. As of March 31, 2017, we had total assets of approximately $12.5 million, which includes advance to suppliers of approximately $5.3 million, due from related parties of approximately $3.1 million and inventory of approximately $2.0 million, working capital of approximately $8.1 million, and shareholders’ equity of approximately $7.3 million. No provision was made for accounts receivable as of March 31, 2017. We collected 99% outstanding accounts receivable subsequently.

Working Capital.   Total working capital as of March 31, 2017 amounted to $8,111,505, compared to $7,205,912 as of September 30, 2016. Our working capital requirements are influenced by the level of our operations, the numerical and dollar volume of our sales contracts, the progress of execution on our customer contracts, and the timing of accounts receivable collections.

Capital Needs.   Our capital needs include our daily working capital needs and capital needs to finance our development of our business (See “Use of Proceeds”). With the uncertainty of the current market, our management believes it is necessary to enhance collection of outstanding balance of accounts receivable and other receivables, and to be cautious on operational decisions and project selection. Our management believes that our current operations can satisfy our daily working capital needs over the next 12 months. We may also raise capital through public offering or private placement to finance our development of our business and to consummate any merger and acquisition, if necessary.

Cash Flows

The following table provides detailed information about our net cash flows for the six months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016.

   
  For the six months ended March 31,
     2017   2016
Net cash provided by operating activities   $ 1,767,427     $ 3,300,785  
Net cash used in investing activities     (977,875 )       (3,382,172 )  
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities     (776,745 )       32,919  
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash     (1,568 )       (2,216 )  
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents     11,239       (50,684 )  
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period     47,241       156,490  
Cash and cash equivalents, end of period   $ 58,480     $ 105,806  

Operating Activities

Net cash provided by operating activities was $1,767,427 for the six months ended March 31, 2017. This was a decrease of $1,533,358 compared to net cash provided by operating activities of $3,300,785 for the six months ended March 31, 2016. The decrease in net cash provided by operating activities was primarily attributable to a decrease of $1,709,633 in advance to suppliers, a decrease of $1,091,118 in advance from customers and a decrease of $860,637 in inventories, partially offset by an increase of $836,047 in accounts payable, an increase of $799,432 in accounts receivable, an increase of $338,520 in other current assets and an increase of $150,940 in other current liabilities.

Investing Activities

For the six months ended March 31, 2017, net cash used in investing activities amounted to $977,875 as compared to net cash used in investing activities of $3,382,172 for the same period of 2016. The decrease of $2,404,297 was primarily due to a decrease of $2,404,313 in loans to related parties.

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Financing Activities

Net cash used in financing activities amounted to $776,745 for the six months ended March 31, 2017, as compared to net cash provided by financing activities of $32,919 for the same period in 2016. The decrease of $809,664 was mainly due to an increase of $1,478,200 in repayments of bank loans and a decrease of $928,167 in proceeds from capital contribution, partially offset by an increase of $1,058,800 in new borrowings from bank loans and a decrease of $330,413 in repayments of loans from third party and a decrease of $207,490 in repayments of loans from related parties.

Years Ended September 30, 2016 and 2015

As of September 30, 2016, we had cash in the amount of $47,241. As of September 30, 2015, we had cash in the amount of $156,490. Total current assets as of September 30, 2016 amounted to $13,053,584, an increase of $4,358,878 compared to $8,694,706 at September 30, 2015. The increase in total current assets at September 30, 2016 compared to September 30, 2015 was mainly due to increase in advance to suppliers and due from related parties, partially offset by a decrease in accounts receivable and inventory. Current liabilities amounted to $5,847,672 at September 30, 2016, in comparison to $6,786,436 at September 30, 2015. This decrease of liabilities was attributable mainly to a decrease in loans from third parties.

Indebtedness.   As of September 30, 2016, we incurred $3,298,240 of short-term bank loans and $659,648 of long-term bank loans. Besides these loans, we did not have any finance leases or purchase commitments, guarantees or other material contingent liabilities.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements.   We have not entered into any financial guarantees or other commitments to guarantee the payment obligations of any third parties. In addition, we have not entered into any derivative contracts that are indexed to our own shares and classified as shareholders’ equity, or that are not reflected in our financial statements. Furthermore, we do not have any retained or contingent interest in assets transferred to an unconsolidated entity that serves as credit, liquidity or market risk support to such entity. Moreover, we do not have any variable interest in any unconsolidated entity that we provide financing, liquidity, market risk or credit support to or engages in leasing, hedging or research and development services with us.

Capital Resources.   We have historically funded our working capital needs from operations, bank borrowings, advance payments from customers and additional capital contributions from shareholders. Presently, our principal source of liquidity are generated from our operations and loans from commercial banks. We anticipate that we will complete our initial public offering within next four months, which will provide us additional capital resources. The primary drivers and material factors impacting our liquidity and capital resources include our ability to generate sufficient cash flows from our operations, our ability to renew commercial bank loans and whether or not we can successfully complete our initial public offering to ensure our future growth and expansion plans. As of September 30, 2016, we had total assets of approximately $13.1 million, which includes net accounts receivable approximately $5.3 million, due from related parties of approximately $2.2 million, working capital of approximately $7.2 million, and shareholders’ equity of approximately $6.4 million. No provision was made for accounts receivable as of September 30, 2016. We collected all outstanding accounts receivable subsequently.

Working Capital.   Total working capital as of September 30, 2016 amounted to $7,205,912, compared to $1,908,270 as of September 30, 2015. Our working capital requirements are influenced by the level of our operations, the numerical and dollar volume of our sales contracts, the progress of execution on our customer contracts, and the timing of accounts receivable collections.

Capital Needs.   Our capital needs include our daily working capital needs and capital needs to finance our development of our business (See “Use of Proceeds”). With the uncertainty of the current market, our management believes it is necessary to enhance collection of outstanding balance of accounts receivable and other receivables, and to be cautious on operational decisions and project selection. Our management believes that our current operations can satisfy our daily working capital needs over the next 12 months. We may also raise capital through public offering or private placement to finance our development of our business and to consummate any merger and acquisition, if necessary.

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Cash Flows

The following table provides detailed information about our net cash flows for the years ended September 30, 2016 and 2015.

   
  For the years ended
September 30,
     2016   2015
Net cash used in operating activities   $ (640,899 )     $ (729,050 )  
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities     (1,524,599 )       3,492,596  
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities     2,061,320       (2,638,559 )  
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash     (5,071 )       (5,022 )  
Net increase (decrease) in cash     (109,249 )       119,965  
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of year     156,490       36,525  
Cash and cash equivalents, end of year   $ 47,241     $ 156,490  

Operating Activities

Net cash used in operating activities was $640,899 for the year ended September 30, 2016. This was an increase of $88,151 compared to net cash used in operating activities of $729,050 for the year ended September 30, 2015. The increase in net cash used in operating activities was primarily attributable to an increase of $2,723,358 in accounts receivable, an increase of $1,549,240 in net income, an increase of $1,118,150 in advance from customers and an increase of $851,634 in inventories, partially offset by a decrease of $4,081,526 in other current assets and a decrease of $2,001,047 in accounts payable.

Investing Activities

For the years ended September 30, 2016, net cash used in investing activities amounted to $1,524,599 as compared to net cash provided by investing activities of $3,492,596 for the same period of 2015. The decrease of $5,017,195 was primarily due to a decrease of $3,415,841 in loans to related parties and a decrease of $1,602,282 in loans to third parties.

Financing Activities

Net cash provided by financing activities amounted to $2,061,320 for the year ended September 30, 2016, as compared to net cash used in financing activities of $2,638,559 for the same period in 2015. The increase of $4,699,879 was mainly due to an increase of $3,154,239 in proceeds from capital contribution, an increase of $4,926,825 in borrowings of loans from related parties, a decrease of $1,144,765 in repayments of loans from third party, a decrease of $1,304,820 in repayments of bank loans, and a decrease of $931,600 in borrowings from bank loans.

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Business

Overview

We are a supplier of agricultural products. We currently focus on processing and selling edible fungi, mainly Shiitake and Mu Er mushrooms. According to the QYR Food Research Center, the production volume of the global mushroom market was 48,040,000 tons in 2016, and is expected to reach 50,600,000 tons in 2017. In addition to our edible fungi products, we also have begun to derive revenues from our trading activities, which primarily relate to purchases and sales of tea products.

Our founders Ms. Yefang Zhang and Mr. Zhengyu Wang started their edible fungi business in November 1994 by establishing Lishui Jingning Huali Co., Ltd. They established our first Farmmi/Forasen entity, Forest Food, in May 2003. Forest Food focuses on export sales, while FLS Mushroom, which was founded in March 2011, focuses on the Chinese domestic market. Our business office is located in Binjiang district of Hangzhou city in Zhejiang. We have two processing factories in Lishui. Our raw materials are directly or indirectly provided by family farms from various counties of Lishui in Zhejiang along with other provinces in China.

We are headquartered in the edible fungi rich southwest of Zhejiang Province, in the city of Lishui. Zhejiang province, located in southeastern coastal China, is China’s eleventh largest province in population in 2015, with 46.5 million residents, and eighth in terms of population density. The first province in China without any counties in the poverty-county list of the central government, Zhejiang has become one of the wealthiest and most developed provinces in China. Its province-wide GDP of approximately RMB 4.3 trillion in 2015 places it as the fourth highest in China in aggregate amount and fifth per capita.

Lishui is a prefecture-level city located in southwest Zhejiang province. Approximately 2.1 million residents live in the city, and city-wide GDP is approximately RMB 110 billion in 2015. Lishui’s primary industries include food processing, wood and bamboo production, ore smelting, textile, clothes making, construction materials, pharmaceuticals and electronic machinery. Lishui has cultivated edible fungi for almost 1,000 years. It is one of the major production areas of edible fungi in the southeastern China. Lishui produces approximately 0.6 million tons of edible fungi every year, contributing to 50% volume of Zhejiang Province. Lishui also has rich species of edible fungi, among which there are over 30 species of commercially cultivated mushroom.

[GRAPHIC MISSING]

We sell substantially all of our products to domestic distributions in China, which then sell in China and internationally. We estimate approximately 90% of our products are sold in China and the remaining 10% are resold internationally, including USA, Japan, Canada, Europe and the Middle East. We also sell products online through Taobao and Jingdong Mall, both of which are third-party Internet distribution platforms, and our new internet platform, Farmmi Liangpin Mall, which opened in December, 2016.

Our typical agreements with the distributors which sell the products in China, such as China Forest and China Tree Seed, provide that payment is due upon receipt of a value-added tax invoice, and the customer should make the payment by bank’s acceptance bill or wire transfer. Delivery is set at our factory, and the customer is responsible for the cost of transportation. Products are deemed to be accepted upon receipt unless the

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customer rejects the delivery. Our cooperation with other distributors which sell products in China is similar, except the delivery is set at the distributor’s warehouse. For new clients, we may require full payment before we delivering the products to them.

We supply mushroom products indirectly to foreign customers such as supermarkets through Chinese distributors. Our typical agreements with these Chinese distributors provide that payment is due upon receipt of a value-added tax invoice and a copy of bill of lading, and the Chinese distributor should make the payment by wire transfer. Our products are required to meet the exportation requirements. Delivery is set at a warehouse designated by the Chinese distributor, and we are responsible for the cost of transportation from our warehouse to the warehouse designated by the Chinese distributor. Products are deemed to be accepted upon receipt unless the foreign customers raises objections.

Product quality is always our main focus. We have established a food quality traceability system to trace and correct any possible quality issues in any step. We have also established a sound quality management system, and have obtained the BRC international food certification issued by Intertek Certification Ltd to certify we meet the BRC Global Standard for Food Safety, and Food Safety Management System Certificate issued by China Quality Certification Centre to certify we meet the GB/T 22000-2006/ISO 22000:2005 standard.

As of the date of this filing, we hold over 70 registered trademarks about or related to “Farmmi”, “Farmmi Liangpin” and “Forasen” in different applicable trademark categories in China. We received the “Forasen” trademark in April 2016.

Corporate Information

Overview

Farmmi, Inc. (“FMI”) is a Cayman Islands holding company incorporated on July 28, 2015. We conduct our operations in China principally through our wholly-owned PRC subsidiaries. FMI’s registered office is at the office of NovaSage Incorporations (Cayman) Limited, Floor 4, Willow House, Cricket Square, P.O. Box 2582, Grand Cayman KY1-1103, Cayman Islands. Its registered office’s telephone number is +1.345.949.2648. Farmmi, Inc.’s agent in the U.S. is Yunhao Chen, with the address of 3165 Windmill Ranch Rd, Weston, FL 33331.

Our two major operating entities are Forest Food and FLS Mushroom. Previously they were under mushroom business sectors of Forasen Group, which is controlled by Ms. Yefang Zhang and Mr. Zhengyu Wang. Forasen Group (initially named as Lishui Forasen Green Industry Group) was established in April 2003. Forasen Group’s primary business areas used to include rubber trading, mushroom sales, biomass power generation, and marketing.

Mr. Wang and Ms. Zhang decided to spin off various business sectors from Forasen Group and to develop them separately. Since 2010, they began to spin off bamboo-based charcoal businesses by establishing several offshore and domestic companies and re-organizing related operating entities in China. In 2011, they established Tantech Holdings Ltd. which completed an IPO and listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market in March 2015. Since 2015, Ms. Zhang and Mr. Wang started to spin off the edible fungi business from Forasen Group by establishing several offshore companies and re-organizing related operating entities in China. In July 2015, FMI was established. After a series of transactions, Forest Food and FLS Mushroom are indirectly controlled by FMI and no longer have any common relationship with Forasen Group. FMI also controls some other companies which focus on developing our e-commerce business of edible fungi products and other agricultural products.

Historical Timeline

November 1994: our Chairwoman and CEO Ms. Yefang Zhang and her husband Mr. Zhengyu Wang founded Lishui Jingning Huali Co., Ltd. in China to start edible fungi business by selling dried edible fungi.
May 2003: Forest Food was established in China.
December 2006: We passed ISO 22000 certification.
December 2008: We passed QS certification.

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August 2010: We passed BRC certification.
March 2011: FLS Mushroom was established in China.
July 2015: Farmmi, Inc. was incorporated in the Cayman Islands.
August 2015: Farmmi International was incorporated in Hong Kong.
December 2015: Nongyuan Network was established in China.
December 2015: Suyuan Agriculture was established in China.
May 2016: Farmmi Enterprise was established in China.
July 2016: Farmmi Technology was established in China.
December 2016: our online store Farmmi Liangpin Mall
( www.farmmi.com/www.farmmi88.com/ ) began operating.

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Corporate Structure

The chart below summarizes our corporate legal structure and identifies the significant subsidiaries described above, as of the date of this prospectus:

[GRAPHIC MISSING]

Farmmi, Inc. (“FMI”)

FMI is the listing company. It was incorporated on July 28, 2015 under the Companies Law (as revised) of the Cayman Islands as an exempted company limited by shares. The authorized share capital of the Company is US $205,000, consisting of (a) 200 million Ordinary Shares, US $0.001 par value per share and (b) 5 million other shares, US $0.001 par value per share, in such class or classes as the company’s Board of Directors may designate from time to time. FMI has full power and authority to carry out any business not prohibited by Cayman Islands law; provided, however, that the company may not operate the business of a bank, trust company, insurance business or company manager unless it obtains the proper licensure in the Cayman Islands for such businesses. As of the date of this filing, FMI has issued one ordinary share and no other shares. We are registering and offering our Ordinary Shares in this offering. Its sole shareholder is FarmNet Limited which is controlled by Ms. Yefang Zhang.

Farmmi International Limited (“Farmmi International”)

Farmmi International is currently a holding company, and it may participate in offshore acquisition and trading of agricultural products in the future. Farmmi International was incorporated on August 20, 2015 in

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Hong Kong under the Companies Ordinance (Chapter 622) as a private company limited by shares. As a private company limited by shares, Farmmi International may not sell its shares publicly and may not have more than 50 members. The share capital of the Company is HK $10,000, consisting of 10,000 Ordinary Shares, HK $1.00 par value per share. As of the date of this filing, Farmmi International has issued and outstanding 10,000 Ordinary Shares, all of which are held by Farmmi, Inc.

Farmmi (Hangzhou) Enterprise Management Co., Ltd. (“Farmmi Enterprise”)

Farmmi Enterprise is a company to manage Farmmi’s fund and e-commerce business. It was incorporated on May 23, 2016 under the laws of the PRC with registered capital of $30 million. The operating period on the business license is from May 23, 2016 to May 22, 2036, when the business license can be renewed. Its business scope covers technology development, technology service: internet technology, computer software; enterprise management consultation, economic information consultation (except commodities agency), excluding matters forbidden and restricted by China. Farmmi International Limited is its sole shareholder. Farmmi Enterprise is considered a wholly foreign owned enterprise (“WFOE”) in China by virtue of Farmmi International’s 100% ownership.

Lishui Farmmi Technology Co., Ltd. (“Farmmi Technology”)

Farmmi Technology is a company to manage Farmmi’s business of edible fungi. It was incorporated on July 6, 2016 under the laws of the PRC by Farmmi International with registered capital of $30 million. The operating period on the business license is from July 6, 2016 to July 3, 2036, when the business license can be renewed. Its business scope covers trading of agricultural products (except grain and cotton); technology development; technology service: agricultural technology, agricultural products, excluding matters forbidden and restricted by China. Farmmi International is its sole shareholder. Farmmi Technology is considered a wholly foreign owned enterprise (“WFOE”) in China by virtue of Farmmi International’s 100% ownership.

Hangzhou Suyuan Agriculture Technology Co., Ltd. (“Suyuan Agriculture”)

Suyuan Agriculture is a holding company which will be the platform to acquire Chinese companies in the same or similar industry. It was established by Mr. Zhengyu Wang on December 8, 2015 under the laws of the PRC with initial registered capital of RMB 5 million. The operating period on the business license has no ending date. The business scope of Suyuan Agriculture covers technology development, technology service, technology consulting and transfer of achievements: agricultural technology. On June 27, 2016, Mr. Zhengyu Wang transferred 50% stock rights of Suyuan Agriculture to Farmmi Enterprise. On August 9, 2016, Mr. Zhengyu Wang transferred remaining 50% stock rights of Suyuan Agriculture to Farmmi Technology. Currently each of Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology holds 50% of Suyuan Agriculture.

Khorgos Farmmi Enterprise Service Co., Ltd. (“Khorgos Farmmi”)

Khorgos Farmmi is a company wholly owned by Suyuan Agriculture. It was established on October 12, 2017 in Khorgos City, Xinjiang, under the laws of the PRC with the registered capital of RMB 5 million. The operating period on the business license has no ending date. The business scope of Khorgos Farmmi covers market sale and planning, business information consultation and service, internet technology and development and transfer, marketing, consulting service, software development, production and consulting, trade consulting, enterprise management and consulting. Khorgos City is providing a beneficial tax policy which waives the enterprise income tax for five years since the first time the company incurs any operation income. We plan to use Khorgos Farmmi as a platform to provide the software, consulting service, technology service and all related service within Khorgos Farmmi’s business scope to all of our subsidiaries. In this way, it is expected to transfer part of our revenues from other subsidiaries to Khorgos Farmmi to enjoy this beneficial tax treatment. Assuming we had this arrangement for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2016, we would have transferred RMB 8 million to RMB 10 million taxable income and saved RMB 2 million to RMB 2.5 million tax. Khorgos Farmmi was appointed by Suyuan Agriculture provide part of the consulting and technology service to Nongyuan Network, based on the Exclusive Management Consulting and Technology Service Agreement signed by Suyuan Agriculture and Nongyuan Network.

Hangzhou Nongyuan Network Technology Co., Ltd. (“Nongyuan Network”)

Nongyuan Network is our major e-commerce platform. Nongyuan Network primarily engages in the business of operating Farmmi Liangpin mall. It was established on December 8, 2015 under the laws of the PRC with

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initial registered capital of RMB 5 million. The operating period on the business license has no ending date. Forasen Group was the sole shareholder of Nongyuan Network. In June 2016, Forasen Group transferred all of its interests in Nongyuan Network to Mr. Zhengyu Wang. The business scope of Nongyuan Network covers technology development, technology service, technology consultancy and transfer of achievements: network technology, computer soft/hardware and electronic products; online sales: unprocessed edible agricultural products (other than food and medicines), pre-packaged food and bulk food.

Mr. Wang, who is the husband of our CEO and Chair Ms. Yefang Zhang, Suyuan Agriculture and Nongyuan Network have signed a series of VIE agreements. Foreign investment in Internet companies is currently subject to significant restrictions under PRC laws and regulations. As a Cayman Islands holding company, we do not qualify to conduct these businesses under PRC regulations. In addition, foreign investment in the online service industry requires the foreign investor to possess certain qualifications, which we do not have, and one of our PRC subsidiaries, Suyuan Agriculture, is considered a foreign invested enterprise by virtue of its ownership by Farmmi Enterprise and Farmmi Technology, both of which are WFOEs. As a result, Suyuan Agriculture is restricted from holding the licenses that are essential to the operation of our e-commerce business, such as licenses for operating our website. See “Regulations”. As a result, Suyuan Agriculture has entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Nongyuan Network and we exercise effective control over the operations of Nongyuan Network. We conduct our e-commerce operations in China principally through Nongyuan Network, which we treated as our consolidated affiliated entity in China. The contractual arrangements between Suyuan Agriculture, Nongyuan Network and Mr. Wang were entered into in September 2016. These contractual arrangements enable us to exercise effective control over Nongyuan Network and receive all of the economic benefits from it.

The following diagram illustrates the flow of economic benefits from Nongyuan Network to Suyuan Agriculture stipulated under the VIE agreements:

[GRAPHIC MISSING]

Exclusive Management Consulting and Technology Service Agreement.   Suyuan Agriculture and Nongyuan Network entered into an exclusive management consulting and technology service agreement, under which Nongyuan Network agrees to engage Suyuan Agriculture as its exclusive provider of management consulting, technical support, intellectual property license and relevant services, including all services within Nongyuan Network’s business scope and decided by Suyuan Agriculture from time to time as necessary. Suyuan Agriculture is obligated to absorb all of the loss from Nongyuan Network’s activities and is entitled to receive all of its residual returns. Nongyuan Network shall pay to Suyuan Agriculture service fees within three months after each fiscal year end. The service fees should be 100% of the after-tax profit after the deficit of the prior fiscal year is covered and the statutory common reserve is extracted. According to Chinese law, when a company distributes its after-tax profits for a given year, it shall allocate 10% of profits to its statutory common reserve until the aggregate amount of such reserve exceeds 50% of its registered capital. With Suyuan Agriculture’s prior written consent, the percentage of the service fee may be adjusted based on Nongyuan Network’s operation performance. Suyuan Agriculture exclusively owns any intellectual property arising from the performance of the exclusive management consulting and technology service agreement. The exclusive management consulting and technology service agreement is effective for twenty years unless earlier

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terminated as set forth in the agreement or other written agreements entered into by the parties thereto. The exclusive management consulting and technology service agreement shall be extended automatically by the expiry thereof, until Suyuan Agriculture’s business term or Nongyuan Network’s business term expires, unless otherwise notified by Suyuan Agriculture in writing. During the term of the exclusive management consulting and technology service agreement, Nongyuan Network may not terminate the agreements except in the case of Suyuan Agriculture’s gross negligence or fraud, or this agreement or laws provide otherwise. Suyuan Agriculture may terminate this agreement by 30-day written notice to Nongyuan Network at any time.

On October 20, 2017, based on the Exclusive Management Consulting and Technology Service Agreement, by issuing an instruction letter, Suyuan Agriculture appointed Khorgos Farmmi to provide part of the consulting and technology service to Nongyuan Network. By such appointment, we plan to transfer part of our revenues from Nongyuan Network to Khorgos Farmmi which is entitled to enjoy 5 years’ beneficial tax treatment. For the beneficial tax treatment, please see “ Khorgos Farmmi Enterprise Service Co., Ltd. (‘Khorgos Farmmi’) in this section.

Proxy Agreement.   Suyuan Agriculture, Mr. Wang and Nongyuan Network entered into a proxy agreement in September 2016. Mr. Wang as the sole shareholder of Nongyuan Network irrevocably authorizes Suyuan Agriculture to exercise his rights as an equity holder of Nongyuan Network, including the right to attend shareholders meetings, to exercise voting rights and to transfer all or a part of his equity interests therein pursuant to the exclusive call option agreement. During the term of the proxy agreement, Nongyuan Network may not terminate the agreements except when this agreement or applicable PRC laws provide otherwise.

Power of Attorney.   Pursuant to the Proxy Agreement, Mr. Wang, as the sole shareholder of Nongyuan Network, entered into an irrevocable power of attorney appointing Suyuan Agriculture as the attorney-in-fact to act on his behalf on all matters pertaining to Nongyuan Network and to exercise all of his rights as the sole shareholder of Nongyuan Network, including the right to attend shareholders meetings, to exercise voting rights and to transfer all or a part of his equity interests therein pursuant to the exclusive call option agreement. The power of attorney with Mr. Wang expires when the proxy agreement terminates, Suyuan Agriculture appoints another person pursuant to the proxy agreement, or Mr. Wang, as appointee of Suyuan Agriculture, dies or loses his civil capacity.

As a result of the Proxy Agreement and Power of Attorney, we, through Suyuan Agriculture, are able to exercise management control over the activities that most significantly impact the operation results of Nongyuan Network.

Exclusive Call Option Agreement.   Suyuan Agriculture, Mr. Wang and Nongyuan Network entered into an exclusive call option agreement, pursuant to which Suyuan Agriculture has an exclusive option to purchase, or to designate other persons to purchase, to the extent permitted by applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations, all of the equity interest and assets in Nongyuan Network from its sole shareholder, Mr. Wang.

Without the prior written consent of Suyuan Agriculture, Nongyuan Network may not amend its articles of association, increase or decrease the registered capital, sell or otherwise dispose of its assets or beneficial interests, create or allow any encumbrance on its assets or other beneficial interests, provide any loans for any third parties, enter into any material contract with a value of more than RMB 300,000 (US$ 45,617) (except those contracts entered into in the ordinary course of business), merge with or acquire any other persons or make any investments, or distribute dividends to the shareholders. For potential risks, see “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — Our VIE may conduct actions which cause our loss.” Mr. Wang agrees that, without the prior written consent of Suyuan Agriculture, he will not dispose of his equity interests in Nongyuan Network or create or allow any encumbrance on his equity interests.

The purchase price for the equity interest is to be the minimum price permitted by applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations, or the amount that Mr. Wang actually pays to Nongyuan Network regarding the equity, whichever is higher. The purchase price for the assets is to be the minimum price permitted by applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations, or the net book value of the assets, whichever is higher. The exclusive call option agreement expires when all the equity interest or all the assets are transferred pursuant to the agreement.

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Equity Pledge Agreement.   Suyuan Agriculture, Mr. Wang and Nongyuan Network entered into an equity pledge agreement, under which Mr. Wang pledged all of his equity interests in Nongyuan Network to Suyuan Agriculture as collateral to secure performance of all of his obligations under the exclusive consulting and service agreement, the exclusive call option agreement and the proxy agreement. If any event of default as provided for therein occurs, Nongyuan Network, as the pledgee, will be entitled to dispose of the pledged equity interests according to applicable PRC laws. Mr. Wang agrees that, during the term of the equity pledge agreements, he will not dispose of the pledged equity interests or create or allow any encumbrance on the pledged equity interests, and he also agrees that Suyuan Agriculture's rights relating to the equity pledge should not be prejudiced by the legal actions of the shareholder, his successors or designates. During the term of the equity pledge, Suyuan Agriculture has the right to receive all of the dividends and profits distributed on the pledged equity. On February 7, 2017, Suyuan Agriculture, Mr. Wang and Nongyuan Network have completed the registration of the equity pledge with the relevant office of SAIC in accordance with the PRC Property Rights Law.

Through the current contractual arrangements, we established a contractual relationship with Mr. Zhengyu Wang, the sole shareholder and executive director (legal representative) of our VIE Nongyuan Network. Pursuant to these agreements, Mr. Wang irrevocably authorized Suyuan Agriculture to exercise voting rights and all other rights as the shareholder and pledged all of his equity interests in our VIE to Suyuan Agriculture as collateral to secure performance of all of his obligations under these agreements. We have relied and expect to continue to rely on contractual arrangements with Mr. Wang to operate our e-commerce business. However, Mr. Wang may have potential conflicts of interest with us and may breach, or cause our VIE to breach, or refuse to renew, the existing contractual arrangements we have with him and our VIE. Any failure by our VIE or Mr. Wang to perform his obligations under our contractual arrangements with him would have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition. See “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — The shareholders and director of our VIE may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our e-commerce business.”

We have been advised by our PRC legal counsel, Deheng Law Offices, that the ownership structure and the contractual arrangements among Suyuan Agriculture, Mr. Wang and Nongyuan Network, both currently and immediately after giving effect to this offering, will not result in any violation of PRC laws or regulations currently in effect. However, there are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, rules and regulations. In particular, in January 2015, the MOFCOM published a discussion draft of the proposed Foreign Investment Law for public review and comments. Among other things, the draft Foreign Investment Law expands the definition of foreign investment and introduces the principle of “actual control” in determining whether a company is considered a foreign-invested enterprise, or an FIE. Under the draft Foreign Investment Law, variable interest entities would also be deemed as FIEs, if they are ultimately “controlled” by foreign investors, and be subject to restrictions on foreign investments. However, the draft law has not taken a position on what actions will be taken with respect to the existing companies with the “variable interest entity” structure, whether or not these companies are controlled by Chinese parties. It is uncertain when the draft may be signed into law, if at all, and whether any final version would have substantial changes from the draft. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the PRC regulatory authorities will not take a view that is contrary to or otherwise different from the above opinion of our PRC legal counsel. Our PRC legal counsel has further advised that if the PRC government authority finds that our corporate structure, the contractual arrangements or the reorganization to establish our current corporate structure do not comply with any applicable PRC laws, rules or regulations, the contractual arrangements will become invalid or unenforceable, and we could be subject to severe penalties including being prohibited from continuing operations. See “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.”

Zhejiang FLS Mushroom Co., Ltd. (“FLS Mushroom”)

FLS Mushroom primarily engages in the business of wholesaling dried edible fungi. It was established on March 25, 2011 as Lishui FLS Mushroom Co., Ltd. under the laws of the PRC with initial registered capital of RMB 3 million. The operating period on FLS Mushroom’s business license is from March 25, 2011 to March 24, 2031, when the business license can be renewed. The business scope of FLS Mushroom covers the

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sales of mushroom and agricultural products; sales of forest products; as well as engagement in import and export business of commodities and technologies permitted under PRC law.

In April 2011, Lishui FLS Mushroom Co., Ltd. changed its name to Zhejiang FLS Mushroom Co., Ltd., and changed its address from No. 307 Tianning Industrial Area to 888 Tianning Street, Tianning Industrial Area, both in Lishui City.

Forest Food initially owned 100% equity interest of FLS Mushroom. In connection with the reorganization of our company in connection with this offering, Suyuan Agriculture became the sole shareholder of FLS Mushroom.

Zhejiang Forest Food Co., Ltd. (“Forest Food”)

Forest Food primarily engages in the business of packed dried edible fungi, mainly for exportation. The business scope of Forest Food covers wholesale and retail of prepackaged food and bulk food; processing and sales of agricultural by-products (excludes cotton, tobacco and silkworm cocoon) and mushroom; as well as engagement in import and export business of commodities and technologies that the state allows. Zhejiang Forest Food Co., Ltd was established by Lishui Forasen Green Industry Group (former name of Forasen Group) and five individuals on May 8, 2003 under the laws of the PRC with initial registered capital of RMB 5 million. Lishui Forasen Green Industry Group owned 40% of the Forest Food, one individual owned 20%, and each of the remaining four individuals owned 10% respectively. The operating period of the business license is from May 8, 2003 to May 7, 2023, when the business license can be renewed. On August 26, 2004, two individuals jointly transferred shares of Forest Food to Lishui Forasen Green Industry Group with value of RMB 1.5 million representing 30% of Forest Food. On November 18, 2011, three individuals separately transferred shares of Forest Food to Yefang Zhang with total value of RMB 1.5 million representing 30% of Forest Food. Since then, Forasen Group owned 70% and Ms. Yefang Zhang owned 30% of Forest Food. In January 2016, Forasen Group and Ms. Yefang Zhang decided to increase Forest Food’s registered capital from RMB 5,000,000 to RMB 17,600,000. The increased registered capital was entirely paid by Forasen Group. Upon the increase of registered capital and reorganization, Forasen Group owned 91.5% and Ms. Yefang Zhang owned 8.5% of Forest Food.

In March 2016, National Trust, a non-affiliated third party, invested RMB 5,999,784 to purchase 3.8472% of the equity of Forest Food. In connection with such investment, National Trust required Forasen Group and the controlling person of Forest Food to agree to repurchase National Trust’s investment with interest if Forest Food fails to meet certain net profit targets in calendar 2016 and 2017 or if National Trust notifies Forest Food of its intention to terminate the investment under the terms of the investment agreement. In April 2017, National Trust, Hangzhou Dawo Software Ltd. Co. (“Dawo”), also a non-affiliated third party, and Forest Food signed a term sheet by which National Trust agreed to transfer its interest in Forest Food to Dawo.

Forest Food established a branch company, Forest Food Qingyuan Branch, on August 2, 2017. The business scope of Forest Food Qingyuan Branch covers processing and sales of agricultural by-products (excludes cotton, tobacco and silkworm cocoon) and mushroom; as well as engagement in import and export business of commodities and technologies that the state allows. Forest Food set up this branch company in Qingyuan so it can use the Qianyuan Shiitake brand as a local company, in accordance with Qingyuan governmental requirement. It can also increase the procurement in Qingyuan and decrease the cost of storage and delivery, as Qingyuan is one of our procurement locations.

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Our Industry

Edible Fungi (Edible Mushroom)

Edible fungi, or edible mushroom, is our major product category. Edible fungi are edible fruit bodies of several species of macrofungi. Edible fungi has high nutritional value. It generally has a high protein content, usually around 30 to 45% by dry weight. Almost all edible fungi contain eight kinds of amino acids essential to human nutrition. Protein contained in 1 kg of dried mushrooms is equivalent to protein in 2 kg of lean meat, 3 kg of eggs or 12 kg of milk. Edible fungi also contain a variety of vitamins and trace elements, polysaccharides, and other physiologically active substances, to promote human metabolism and enhance physical fitness. Besides the nutritional value, edible fungi also has medicinal values including wound-healing, immunity-enhancement, and tumor-retarding effects.

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Mushroom Dish Models Presented at Qingyuan Mushroom Museum, Lishui City, Zhejiang Province, China

The production volume of the global mushroom market was 48,040,000 tons in 2016, and is expected to reach 50,600,000 tons in 2017.

Edible fungi were traditionally harvested wild and were difficult to domesticate and cultivate. Cultivation of edible mushroom species has grown rapidly in recent decades. Most mushrooms have been cultivated on various species of hardwood trees. The procedure was to cut down the natural logs in the fall (after leaf fall) and inoculate them with Shiitake spawn within 15 to 30 days after felling. One breakthrough for this cultivation was the utilization of synthetic logs instead of natural logs. Composed of sawdust and supplemented with millet and wheat bran, synthetic logs may produce three to four times as many mushrooms as natural logs in one-tenth of the time. Environmentally controlled houses allow for the manipulations of temperature, humidity, light, and the moisture content of the logs to produce the highest possible yields. The major advantages of producing mushroom on synthetic logs rather than natural ones are the consistent market supply through year-round production, increased yields, and decreased time required to complete a crop cycle. Most of the mushrooms we purchase are grown in this manner.

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China is the largest producer of edible fungi. In 2016, China produced 76.71% of the global edible fungi.

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Source: QYR Food & Beverages Research Center, July 2017

Most of the edible fungi produced by China is for domestic consumption. In 2015, the export portion of edible fungi was only 1.73% of the annual production in China. Edible fungi, especially Shitake mushroom and Mu Er have become important food source for the Chinese.

In general, the consumption volume of edible fungi in China is growing.

From 2006 to 2016, the edible fungi consumed by China market increased from 14,140,000 metric tons (approximately 31 billion pounds) to 36,860,000 metric tons (approximately 81 billion pounds). The 2017 number is expected to be 38,710,000 metric tons (approximately 85 billion pounds).

Figure 2006-2017E China Edible Fungus Market Consumption Volume and Growth Rate

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Source: China Edible Fungus Association, QYR Food & Beverages Research Center, July 2017

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The Belt and Road Initiative raised by Chinese President Jinping Xi in 2013 is expected to bring more opportunities to Chinese edible fungi industry. The Belt and Road Initiative is an initiative of jointly building the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21 st -Century Maritime Silk Road. Accelerating the building of the Belt and Road can help promote the economic prosperity of the countries along the Belt and Road and regional economic cooperation, strengthen exchanges and mutual learning between different civilizations, and promote world peace and development. It is a great undertaking that will benefit people around the world.

China Edible Fungi Association issued The Cooperation Proposal of Edible Fungi Industry along “The Belt and Road” Countries in April 2016. Countries along “the Belt and Road” all have a long tradition of consuming edible fungi. However, their planting technology has lagged behind and mainly focuses on Shuangbao mushroom and wild mushroom. With the Belt and Road Initiative, the edible fungi industry can be promoted, through strengthening communication, building new cooperation trend among the Belt and Road countries, and achieving the common development and prosperity.

E-commerce for Agricultural Products

E-commerce is the trading or facilitation of trading in products or services using computer networks, such as the Internet. There are different kinds of e-commerce business models: web portal model, online content provider, online retailer, online distributor, online market maker, online community provider and cloud application service provider. Our online stores are online retailers, which make profits by selling products made by the manufacturers on line.

Although our online sales only attributed to about 0.24% of our total sales in the fiscal year 2016, we plan to continue investing in, and developing our e-commerce system such as using two thirds of the proceeds from this offering to expand our online store Farmmi Liangpin Mall because of E-commerce’s big business potential. From June 2012 to June 2016, the number of Chinese netizens increased 32%, from 537,600,000 to 709,580,000. From December 2015 to June 2016, Chinese users of internet shopping increased 8.3%, from 413,250,000 to 447,720,000. From 2011 to 2015, Chinese e-commerce industry market scale increased 135%, from RMB 6.3 trillion to RMB 14.8 trillion.

Our e-commerce focuses on agricultural products. E-commerce of agricultural products is supported by Chinese policy. For example, on January 8, 2016, in the press conference of Guidance Opinion about Fusion Development of the Primary Industry, the Secondary Industry and the Service Industry by General Office of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China, National Development and Reform Commission of China said China will develop modern “Internet+” agriculture and e-commerce for agricultural products.

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Our Products

Currently we have two brands:

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We mainly process and/or sell four categories of agricultural products: Shiitake mushrooms, Mu Er mushrooms, other edible fungi, and other agricultural products.

Shiitake

The Shiitake (Xiang Gu in Chinese and Lentinula edodes in Latin) is a variety of mushroom that originated from Eastern Asia. Shiitake have many uses in the cuisines of East Asia. In Chinese cuisine, they are often sautéed in vegetarian dishes such as Buddha’s Delight. In Japan, they are served in miso soup, used as the basis for a kind of vegetarian soup called dashi, and as an ingredient in many steamed and simmered dishes. As a potent immune-boosting mushroom, it has antitumor and antiviral properties, and can potentially lower blood pressure and cholesterol if consumed regularly.

Divided by the growing season, there are four kinds of Shiitake: spring mushroom, summer mushroom, fall mushroom and winter mushroom. We focus on winter mushroom which has the best quality and taste. Depending on the species, our Shiitake products include different varieties such as floral mushroom and Jinqian (“money”) mushroom. Depending on the shape, our Shiitake products include fungi in whole, Shiitake slices and Mu Er strings.

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