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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on September 12, 2019
Registration No. 333-      ​
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
2836
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
94-3171940
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
400 Oyster Point Blvd., Suite 505
South San Francisco, California 94080
(650) 244-4990
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number,
including area code, of Registrant’s principal executive offices)
Sunil Bhonsle, Chief Executive Officer
Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
400 Oyster Point Blvd., Suite 505
South San Francisco, California 94080
(650) 244-4990
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
Fran Stoller
Loeb & Loeb LLP
345 Park Avenue
New York, New York 10154
Telephone: (212) 407-4000
Barry L. Grossman
Sarah E. Williams
Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP
1345 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10105
(212) 370-1300
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after the effective date of this registration statement.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of  “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act of 1934.
Large accelerated filer ☐ Accelerated filer ☐
Non-accelerated filer ☒ Smaller reporting company ☒
Emerging growth company ☐
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐

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CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered
Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering
Price(1)(2)
Amount of
Registration
Fee
Shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share
$ 6,000,000 $ 727.20
Warrants to purchase shares of common stock(3)
Shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the Warrants
$ 12,000,000 $ 1,454.40
Pre-Funded Warrants to purchase shares of common stock
$ 6,000,000(4) $ 727.20
Shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the Pre-Funded Warrants(3)
Total $ 24,000,000 2,908.80
(1)
Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the amount of the registration fee in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act.
(2)
Pursuant to Rule 416, the securities being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of additional securities as may be issuable to prevent dilution resulting from stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.
(3)
No fee is required pursuant to Rule 457(g) under the Securities Act.
(4)
The proposed maximum aggregate offering price of the common stock proposed to be sold in the offering will be reduced on a dollar-for-dollar basis based on the offering price of any Pre-Funded Warrants offered and sold in the offering, and, as such, the proposed maximum aggregate offering price of the common stock and Pre-Funded Warrants (including the common stock issuable upon exercise of the Pre-Funded Warrants), if any, is $6,000,000.
The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to Section 8(a), may determine.

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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUSSUBJECT TO COMPLETIONDATED SEPTEMBER 12, 2019
       Shares of Common Stock or Pre-Funded Warrants to Purchase up to        Shares of Common Stock
Warrants to Purchase         Shares of Common Stock
[MISSING IMAGE: LG_TITAN-PHARMA.JPG]
We are offering $12,000,000 of shares of our common stock and warrants to purchase shares of our common stock. Each share of our common stock is being sold together with a warrant to purchase one share of our common stock. Each warrant will have an exercise price per share of  $    (115% of the offering price), will be immediately exercisable and will expire on the fifth anniversary of the original issuance date. The shares of our common stock and warrants are immediately separable and will be issued separately, but will be purchased together in this offering.
We are also offering to those purchasers, if any, whose purchase of our common stock in this offering would otherwise result in such purchaser, together with its affiliates and certain related parties, beneficially owning more than 4.99% of our outstanding common stock immediately following the consummation of this offering, the opportunity, in lieu of purchasing common stock, to purchase pre-funded warrants to purchase shares of our common stock, or Pre-Funded Warrants. The purchase price of each Pre-Funded Warrant will equal the price per share at which shares of our common stock are being sold to the public in this offering, minus $0.001, and the exercise price of each Pre-Funded Warrant will equal $0.001 per share of common stock. For each Pre-Funded Warrant purchased in this offering in lieu of common stock, we will reduce the number of shares of common stock being sold in the offering by one. Pursuant to this prospectus, we are also offering the shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of the Pre-Funded Warrants.
Each Pre-Funded Warrant is exercisable for one share of our common stock (subject to adjustment as provided for therein) at any time at the option of the holder until such Pre-Funded Warrant is exercised in full, provided that the holder will be prohibited from exercising Pre-Funded Warrants for shares of our common stock if, as a result of such exercise, the holder, together with its affiliates, would own more than 4.99% of the total number of shares of our common stock then issued and outstanding. However, any holder may increase such percentage to any other percentage not in excess of 9.99%, provided that any increase in such percentage shall not be effective until 61 days after such notice to us.
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “TTNP”. On September   , 2019, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market was $     per share. There is no established trading market for the warrants or Pre-Funded Warrants and we do not expect a market to develop. In addition, we do not intend to apply for the listing of the warrants or Pre-Funded Warrants on any national securities exchange or other trading market. Without an active trading market, the liquidity of the warrants and the Pre-Funded Warrants will be limited.
You should read this prospectus, together with additional information described under the headings “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” and “Where You Can Find Additional Information,” carefully before you invest in any of our securities.
Our business and an investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 7 of this prospectus for a discussion of information that should be considered in connection with an investment in our securities.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Per Share
Per Pre-funded
Warrant
Per
Warrant
Total (No
Exercise)
Total (Full
Exercise)
Public offering
$              $              $              $              $             
Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)
$              $              $ $              $
Proceeds to us, before expenses
$              $              $ $              $
(1)
The underwriters will receive compensation in addition to the underwriting discount and commissions. See “Underwriting” beginning on page 31 of this prospectus for a description of compensation payable to the underwriters.
We have granted the underwriters an option for a period of 45 days from the date of this prospectus to purchase up to an additional       shares of common stock and/or warrants to purchase       shares of common stock at the public offering price, less the underwriting discount.
We anticipate that delivery of the shares, Pre-Funded Warrants and warrants against payment will be made on or about            , 2019.
Book-Running Manager
MAXIM GROUP LLC
The date of this prospectus is            , 2019

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We have not, and the underwriters have not, authorized anyone to provide you with information that is different from that contained in this prospectus we may authorize to be delivered or made available to you. When you make a decision about whether to invest in our securities, you should not rely upon any information other than the information in this prospectus that we may authorize to be delivered or made available to you. Neither the delivery of this prospectus nor the sale of our securities means that the information contained in this prospectus is correct after the date of this prospectus. This prospectus is not an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy our securities in any circumstances under which the offer or solicitation is unlawful.
For investors outside the United States: We have not, and the underwriters have not, taken any action that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the securities covered hereby and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States.
Unless otherwise indicated, information contained in this prospectus concerning our industry and the markets in which we operate, including our general expectations and market position, market opportunity and market share, is based on information from our own management estimates and research, as well as from industry and general publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. Management estimates are derived from publicly available information, our knowledge of our industry and assumptions based on such information and knowledge, which we believe to be reasonable. Our management estimates have not been verified by any independent source, and we have not independently verified any third-party information. In addition, assumptions and estimates of our and our industry’s future performance are necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in “Risk Factors.” These and other factors could cause our future performance to differ materially from our assumptions and estimates. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties thereto, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.
ProNeura™ is a trademark and Probuphine® is a registered trademark of Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Sixmo-buprenorphine is a registered trademark of L. Molteni & C. dei F.lli Alitti Società di Esercizio S.p.A. (“Molteni”). This prospectus also includes trademarks, tradenames and service marks that are the property of other organizations. Solely for convenience, trademarks and tradenames referred to in this prospectus appear (after the first usage) without the ® and ™ symbols, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or that the applicable owner will not assert its rights, to these trademarks and tradenames.
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SUMMARY
This summary provides an overview of selected information contained elsewhere or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our securities. You should carefully read this prospectus and the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part in their entirety before investing in our securities, including the information discussed under “Risk Factors” and our financial statements and notes thereto that are incorporated by reference in this prospectus. Unless otherwise indicated herein, the terms “Titan,” “we,” “our,” “us,” or “the Company” refer to Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Company Overview
We are a pharmaceutical company developing therapeutics utilizing our proprietary long-term drug delivery platform, ProNeura, for the treatment of select chronic diseases for which steady state delivery of a drug provides an efficacy and/or safety benefit. We have been transitioning to a commercial stage enterprise following the reacquisition of Probuphine® (buprenorphine) implant, or Probuphine, on May 25, 2018 from our former licensee. Probuphine is the first product based on our ProNeura technology approved in the U.S., Canada and the European Union, or EU, for the maintenance treatment of opioid use disorder, or OUD, in clinically stable patients on 8 mg or less a day of oral buprenorphine. ProNeura consists of a small, solid rod made from a mixture of ethylene-vinyl acetate, or EVA, and a drug substance. The resulting product is a solid matrix that is placed subdermally, normally in the inside part of the upper arm, in a short physician office-based outpatient procedure and is removed in a similar manner at the end of the treatment period. Once implanted, the drug substance is released continuously through the process of diffusion-controlled dissolution, maintaining a stable blood level of the selected drug, thereby avoiding the fluctuating peak and trough levels of oral dosing that often pose problems in certain disease settings, including OUD.
Since the reacquisition, we have been implementing a strategic plan aimed at building the foundation to support an effective U.S. product relaunch, including the establishment of a small experienced commercial team to target select OUD market segments best suited for Probuphine, as well as the engagement of new strategic partners in the product order and distribution process. Despite limited resources, we have made significant progress in identifying and addressing the challenges associated with the initial product launch by our former licensee, including expanding access to treatment and educating and supporting the provider and patient communities. The product order and distribution process has been streamlined through establishment of new relationships with specialty pharmacies and the establishment of a new central patient services hub. Product awareness is being expanded through the introduction of our Step Into Stability marketing campaign that highlights the unique long-term treatment features of Probuphine. We believe that with sufficient capital resources, Probuphine has the potential to be an important weapon in the battle against OUD and we intend to use a substantial portion of the proceeds of this offering to expand our commercial capabilities, either internally, through relationships with third parties or a combination of both, to accomplish this goal. In furtherance of our efforts, we have recently restructured our outstanding loan agreement as described below and informed the FDA of our need to delay commencement of certain required post-approval clinical trials.
Our Market Opportunity
Opioid Use Disorder is a severe, chronic, relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite the harmful consequences. Sufferers experience cravings for opioids, which is frequently accompanied by lack of impulse control. OUD is a progressive disease that is characterized by cycles of relapse and remission and often results in disability or death if left untreated. It is estimated that during 2018, there were over two million people with OUD. According to government publications, the U.S. societal costs of opioid abuse total over $78 billion annually in health care, criminal justice and lost productivity costs. Approximately 130 people die each day as a direct result of their addiction, with approximately 35% of such deaths being attributable to prescription opioids. The U.S. government considers OUD an epidemic and has made available substantial funds through federal and state agencies to control the spread of the epidemic and support evidence-based treatments.
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Current treatment approaches to OUD include abstinence-based programs, a rarely successful therapeutic approach when used in isolation, drug counseling and medication assisted therapies, or MAT. The current MAT gold standard is buprenorphine, a medication that has the ability to control the withdrawal symptoms and cravings without inducing opioid euphoria in patients. U.S. sales of formulations that deliver buprenorphine to treat OUD now exceed $2 billion annually.
However, notwithstanding the opioid crisis our nation is facing, less than 50% of the patient population with OUD is being medically treated. Only 5% of U.S. physicians are currently certified to prescribe buprenorphine and only a fraction of those physicians are responsible for writing approximately 90% of all buprenorphine prescriptions. More than one-half of U.S. counties do not have a single buprenorphine prescriber.
To date, the vast majority of buprenorphine prescriptions have been for daily-dosed sublingual formulations. There are important clinical challenges associated with daily dosed formulations, including:

the potential for lack of compliance;

the potential for reinforcement of drug-taking behavior; and

the delivery of fluctuating levels of medication in the blood.
While the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, has recently approved a monthly depot formulation of buprenorphine that is now being marketed, Probuphine is the only product on the market to provide six-month, continuous, non-fluctuating blood levels of buprenorphine for maintenance treatment of OUD, thereby potentially addressing the challenges that can be seen with daily dosed formulations. In addition, as an implant, it may lower the potential for diversion and non-adherence associated with sublingual formulations. We believe that Probuphine can play an important role in combatting the opioid epidemic and will benefit from the changing emphasis in clinical practice to move towards longer-term treatment options.
Our Commercial Strategy
Since reacquiring the rights to Probuphine in mid-2018, we have been working to maximize the impact of the limited resources at our disposal by putting in place a small, focused team of people with key and deep expertise in the field of addiction, while establishing the many relationships and programs that are required to build our infrastructure and grow our commercial capabilities. We believe we have made important progress in laying the groundwork and establishing the foundation to successfully transition into a company with full commercial potential. Some of our key accomplishments have included:

Refining and validating our market segmentation strategy;

Expanding our specialty pharmacy network by adding key pharmacies with national coverage and robust coordination of care capabilities among patients, third party payors and the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies, or REMS, certified healthcare providers;

Streamlining the distribution process with the achievement of significantly shortening the time from prescription to product delivery;

Expanding the number of public and private insurance plans and other third party payors that cover Probuphine under the medical and pharmacy benefits;

Implementing a comprehensive regulatory and compliance program;

Rolling out new healthcare provider, caregiver and patient education programs; and

Growing the number of certified healthcare providers of Probuphine.
Market Segmentation Strategy.   Our overall market strategy for Probuphine is focused on the following market segments that provide long-term maintenance therapy for OUD patients: (i) high prescribing physicians with long-term, recovery-oriented treatment programs; (ii) residential treatment facilities and public and private substance abuse programs; (iii) academic institutions with addiction treatment and training programs; and (iv) the criminal justice system.
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Specialty Pharmacy Network.   We believe one of the key aspects of a successful commercial strategy for a specialty product such as Probuphine is the development of a primary distribution model based on strong relationships with specialty pharmacies, or SPs, that have the ability to provide coordination of care among the healthcare providers, patients’ insurance, billing and payment processes and the safe and prompt shipping and delivery of product to the prescribing healthcare providers. To date, we established arrangements with top tier SPs, including AllianceRx Walgreens, CVS Caremark, Accredo Specialty Pharmacy, Avella, Acaria Health, and Southside Specialty Pharmacy, which we believe collectively have the ability to cover substantially all geographic regions in the U.S. We will selectively expand our network of SPs with the goal of achieving broad product access for healthcare providers and patients.
Streamlined Distribution Process.   Prior to 2019, the process from prescription to product delivery was lengthy (up to three months), complicated and resulted in a high level of coverage denials. We are implementing Probuphine ProNet, an online REMS certified healthcare providers’ portal and have retained AppianRx as our new patient services ‘hub’ to coordinate with the healthcare providers, insurance companies and pharmacies to improve prescription processing times (currently as few as 1–2 weeks in most cases) and substantially reduce the number of denials due to errors and omissions.
Third Party Payors.   Market acceptance of Probuphine as a preferred treatment option for OUD depends, in large part, on the availability of insurance coverage from a broad range of third party payors. We have established a Medicaid Drug Rebate program, a 340B Price, and Medicare Part B coverage and have executed an interim Federal Supply Schedule Agreement with the Department of Veteran Affairs. We recently entered into a purchase agreement with one of the largest managed care organization in the U.S. We believe that approximately 94% of insurance plans now offer some degree of coverage for Probuphine under the medical benefit.
Educational Programs and Branding Initiatives.   We believe that one of the hurdles we have faced in our product relaunch was the lack of product awareness among healthcare providers and OUD patients and their families and caregivers. Accordingly, we have been working to develop and implement an effective communications campaign and educational programs aimed at increasing market awareness. We recently initiated our Step Into Stability campaign and have maintained a strong presence at key conferences, including the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM), with the goal of substantially increasing awareness of what we believe are the unique benefits of Probuphine as a treatment option for the eligible patient population.
Regulatory Compliance Program.   We have implemented a legal, regulatory and compliance program that governs all aspects of Probuphine commercialization from promotion to distribution with the goal of ensuring that we and our employees manage our business and conduct in accordance with the letter and spirit of the law.
Healthcare Providers.   As soon as we reacquired the rights to Probuphine, we undertook an in-depth analysis of the large group of healthcare providers that had been trained in the use of and/or certified to prescribe Probuphine, as well as the smaller subgroup of providers that had prescribed the product for their patients. Our strategy has been and will continue to be to identify those healthcare providers that have the appropriate patient populations in maintenance therapy and where practice economics, including the potential for fewer office visits per patient, are not of paramount concern when prescribing an OUD medication. Our goal is to continue to expand the number of current active providers, including by providing training to qualified nurse practitioners and physician assistants who are now eligible to prescribe buprenorphine.
Product Pipeline
Our ProNeura continuous drug delivery platform was developed to address the need for a simple, practical method to achieve continuous long-term drug delivery while maintaining a stable blood level, and, depending on the characteristics of the compound to be delivered, can potentially provide treatment on an outpatient basis over extended periods of up to 12 months. We believe that the benefits of this technology have been demonstrated by the clinical results seen to date with Probuphine. We have demonstrated the feasibility of the ProNeura platform with small molecules, hormones, and bio-active peptides. The delivery system works with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules. We have also shown the flexibility of the
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platform by experimenting with the release characteristics of the EVA implants, layering the implants with varying concentrations of drug, and generating implants of different sizes and porosity to achieve a desired delivery profile. Formulation development is conducted at a dedicated pilot plant established by Titan at the South West Research Institute, or SWRI, in San Antonio, Texas that includes cGMP manufacturing and testing capabilities and provides us access to support services from the vast array of SWRI groups with expertise in manufacturing and material sciences.
To date, we have conducted limited research and development on the use of ProNeura to administer ropinirole, a drug used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and we are currently conducting non-clinical studies with a nalmefene implant for the potential treatment of OUD under a $6.7 million grant from the National Institutes of Health. We have also conducted feasibility assessments and implant formulation activities with drugs used in the areas of malaria prophylaxis, chronic pain, type 2 diabetes and hypothyroidism, some of which work has been done in collaboration with third parties. Our primary focus at this time, however, is on the commercialization of Probuphine, and further research and development efforts on a product pipeline based on this platform technology will depend on the availability of funding, either through corporate collaborations, grants or other sources.
Recent Developments
On September 10, 2019, we entered into an amendment to our existing loan agreement, or Loan Agreement, with Molteni and Horizon Technology Finance Corporation, or Horizon, with the goal of reducing our cash burn rate to enable us to focus on commercialization activities. Under the amendment to the Loan Agreement, the interest-only payment and forbearance periods were extended by one year to December 31, 2020 and the maturity date was extended by one year to June 1, 2022. In connection with the amendment to the Loan Agreement, the final payments to the lenders were increased by an aggregate of $312,500 (exclusive of a restructuring fee payable to Horizon) and the conversion provisions related to Molteni’s portion of the loan amount were revised to eliminate the mandatory conversion feature, to reduce the conversion price to the lower of  (i) $0.74 or (ii) the public offering price of the shares offered hereby, and (iii) to cap the number of shares issuable upon conversion to 3,422,777.
On September 10, 2019, we also entered into an amendment to the agreement, or the Purchase Agreement, pursuant to which Molteni acquired the European intellectual property related to Probuphine and the exclusive right to commercialize the Titan-supplied product in the Molteni territory. The amendment reduced the percentage earn-out payments on net sales from the original range of low-teens to mid-twenties to low-teens to mid-teens. We also agreed to delay payments of any earn-outs until the later of (i) January 1, 2021 or (ii) the one year anniversary of completion of compliance by our manufacturer with EU requirements (currently anticipated to occur by the end of this year). The milestone payments under the Purchase Agreement remain unchanged.
Corporate Information
We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on February 7, 1992. Our principal executive offices are located 400 Oyster Point Boulevard, Suite 505, South San Francisco, CA 94080. Our telephone number is (650) 244-4990. Our website address is www.titanpharm.com. We make our periodic and current reports that are filed with the SEC available, free of charge, on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The information contained in, and that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated into and is not a part of this prospectus.
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THE OFFERING
Common stock offered by us
     (assuming a combined public offering price of  $    per share and related warrant, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market on            , 2019).
Pre-Funded Warrants offered by us
We are also offering to those purchasers, if any, whose purchase of common stock in this offering would otherwise result in such purchaser, together with its affiliates and certain related parties, beneficially owning more than 4.99% of our outstanding common stock immediately following the consummation of this offering, the opportunity, in lieu of purchasing common stock, to purchase Pre-Funded Warrants to purchase up to      shares of our common stock. The purchase price of each Pre-Funded Warrant will equal the price per share at which the shares of common stock are being sold to the public in this offering, minus $0.001, and the exercise price of each Pre-Funded Warrant will be $0.001 per share of common stock. Each Pre-Funded Warrant will be exercisable immediately upon issuance and will not expire. This prospectus also relates to the offering of the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of such Pre-Funded Warrants. See “Description of the Securities We are Offering — Pre-Funded Warrants” for a discussion on the terms of the Pre-Funded Warrants.
Each Pre-Funded Warrant is exercisable for one share of our common stock (subject to adjustment as provided therein) at any time at the option of the holder, provided that the holder will be prohibited from exercising its Pre-Funded Warrant for shares of our common stock if, as a result of such exercise, the holder, together with its affiliates, would own more than 4.99% of the total number of shares of our common stock then issued and outstanding. However, any holder may increase such percentage to any other percentage not in excess of 9.99%, provided that any increase in such percentage shall not be effective until 61 days after such notice to us.
Warrants offered by us
Warrants to purchase up to      shares of our common stock (assuming a combined public offering price of  $     per share and related warrant, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market on            , 2019). Each share of our common stock is being sold together with a warrant to purchase one share of our common stock. Each warrant will have an exercise price per share $     (115% of the offering pricing), will be immediately exercisable and will expire on the fifth anniversary of the original issuance date. This prospectus also relates to the offering of the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of such warrants.
Common stock outstanding after this offering
      shares (assuming a combined public offering price of $     per share and related warrant, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market on            , 2019) (or       shares if the warrants sold in
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this offering are exercised in full). The foregoing assumes only shares of common stock are sold in this offering. For each Pre-Funded Warrant purchased in this offering in lieu of common stock, we will reduce the number of shares of common stock being sold in the offering by one.
Use of proceeds
Based on an assumed combined public offering price of  $     per share and related warrant (the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market on            , 2019), we estimate that the net proceeds from our sale of shares of our common stock and warrants in this offering will be approximately $     million, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We currently expect to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes and to fund ongoing operations and expansion of our commercial operations.
For additional information please refer to the section entitled “Use of Proceeds” on page 25 of this prospectus.
Risk Factors
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully review and consider the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus for a discussion of factors to consider before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock.
Market Symbol and trading
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “TTNP.” There is no established trading market for the warrants or Pre-Funded Warrants and we do not expect a market to develop. In addition, we do not intend to apply for the listing of the warrants or Pre-Funded Warrants on any national securities exchange or other trading market. Without an active trading market, the liquidity of the warrants and Pre-Funded Warrants will be limited.
Unless otherwise stated, all information contained in this prospectus assumes no investor purchased Pre-Funded Warrants in lieu of common stock sold in this offering.
The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 17,113,885 shares of our common stock outstanding as of September 6, 2019 and excludes as of such date:

1,301,299 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding options with a weighted average exercise price of  $5.83 per share;

8,341,764 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants with a weighted average exercise price of  $     per share (assuming an adjustment to the exercise price of our 2018 public offering warrants as a result of this offering to $0.    );

3,422,777 shares of our common stock issuable upon the conversion of outstanding debt; and

468,303 additional shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2015 equity incentive plan.
Except as otherwise indicated herein, all information in this prospectus, including the number of shares that will be outstanding after this offering, assumes no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional securities.
In addition, all information in this prospectus reflects a one-for-six reverse stock split of our issued and outstanding shares of common stock, options and warrants effected on January 24, 2019 and the corresponding adjustment of all common stock prices per share and stock option and warrant exercise prices per share and conversion ratios.
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RISK FACTORS
Any investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Investors should carefully consider the risks described below and all of the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus before deciding whether to purchase our common stock. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by these risks if any of them actually occur. This prospectus also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks we face as described below and elsewhere in this prospectus.
Risks Related to Our Business
We may not be successful in completing the transition from a research and development company to a commercial enterprise.
Since we regained the U.S. commercial rights to Probuphine in May 2018 and began our transition to a commercial enterprise, we have been building the infrastructure necessary to successfully relaunch Probuphine. While we have been able to make significant progress in identifying and addressing the various hurdles to Probuphine uptake, our commercialization efforts to date have been hampered by resource constraints and product sales have been limited. While we intend to use the proceeds of this offering to expand our commercial capabilities, there can be no assurance that our sales and marketing efforts focused on our market segmentation strategy will be effective or that we will successfully complete the transition to a fully-functioning commercial stage company.
If Probuphine does not achieve broad market acceptance by physicians, patients or others in the medical community or coverage by third-party payors, our business will not succeed.
The commercial success of Probuphine will depend upon its acceptance by physicians, patients, healthcare payors and the medical community. Coverage and reimbursement of Probuphine by third party payors is also necessary for commercial success. Probuphine’s adoption by physicians has been hindered both by the REMS requirements mandated by the product label, which are more expansive than those required for other buprenorphine products, as well as the current payment and reimbursement model, which differs from some of the existing treatment options for opioid addiction. For example, the current standard of care for outpatient treatment of opioid addiction is oral daily buprenorphine, which typically requires frequent patient visits and a per visit fee, which the patient may pay directly to the healthcare provider in cash. Reimbursement for an implantable drug product that requires administration by a healthcare provider requires drug codes as well as a separate procedure code for the insertion and removal procedures and less frequent office visits. Physicians may prefer more frequent patient visits and the accompanying reimbursement and payment model, which oftentimes includes cash payments. The commercial success of Probuphine depends on several factors, including:

our ability to train and certify healthcare providers to insert and remove implants of Probuphine in accordance with the REMS;

the perceived and actual advantages of Probuphine over current and emerging treatment options;

the willingness of healthcare providers to prescribe, and the target patient population to try novel products;

our ability to identify healthcare providers that have the right patient populations and where practice economics are not the primary driver when prescribing an OUD medication;

the competitiveness of our pricing;

the willingness of healthcare providers to accept alternative reimbursement models, such as the “buy-and-bill” system, where prescribers are required to buy Probuphine inventory themselves and then bill patients or payors following the procedure, or the specialty pharmacy distribution model, where a specialty pharmacy carries inventory and ships it to healthcare providers as requested and prescribed, and directly handles the subsequent billing and payment process with payors;
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our ability to provide adequate support to physicians and other healthcare providers to lessen the burden of current reimbursement models;

our ability to establish and maintain adequate levels of coverage for Probuphine from commercial health plans and government health programs, which we refer to collectively as third-party payors, particularly in light of the availability of other branded and generic competitive products;

the willingness for patients to pay out-of-pocket in the absence of third-party coverage and the success of patient assistance programs;

our ability to promote products through marketing and sales activities and any other arrangements; and

our ability to successfully educate prescribers and patients on the applicable product’s efficacy and safety.
In light of the difficulties encountered to date, we cannot predict either the timing or the degree to which Probuphine will be accepted by the medical community. If we are unable to generate ample revenue from Probuphine, we will be unable to fund the required post-approval clinical studies or our research and development programs without additional financing, which may not be available on acceptable terms, and our business will be materially harmed.
We must comply with extensive government regulations.
The research, development, manufacture, labeling, storage, record-keeping, advertising, promotion, import, export, marketing and distribution of pharmaceutical products are subject to an extensive regulatory approval process by the FDA in the U.S. and comparable health authorities in foreign markets. The process of obtaining required regulatory approvals for drugs is lengthy, expensive and uncertain. Approval policies or regulations may change, and the FDA and foreign authorities have substantial discretion in the pharmaceutical approval process, including the ability to delay, limit or deny approval of a product candidate for many reasons. Despite the time and expense invested in clinical development of product candidates, regulatory approval is never guaranteed. Regulatory approval may entail limitations on the indicated usage of a drug, which may reduce the drug’s market potential. Even if regulatory clearance is obtained, post-market evaluation of the products, if required, could result in restrictions on a product’s marketing or withdrawal of the product from the market, as well as possible civil and criminal sanctions. Of the large number of drugs in development, only a small percentage successfully complete the regulatory approval process and are commercialized.
The New Drug Application, or NDA, for Probuphine mandated the post-approval completion of several Phase IV clinical trials. One of the required studies is being conducted collectively by a consortium led by another company. We are solely responsible for the conduct of the other studies; however, in light of the small number of patients using the product and our limited resources, we have informed the FDA of our need to delay the commencement of certain of these trials. There can be no assurance that we will ultimately have the necessary resources we need to initiate and complete the necessary clinical trials, or that the FDA will provide us with the time to do so. In such event, we may be subject to FDA notification of failure to comply with post-marketing requirements, possible sanctions, including monetary penalties and/or suspension of Probuphine commercial activities.
The Probuphine REMS program has negatively impacted sales and may continue to do so, which could materially adversely impact our business prospects.
The REMS program required by the FDA is designed to mitigate the risk of complications of migration, protrusion, expulsion and nerve damage associated with the insertion and removal of Probuphine and the risks of accidental overdose, misuse and abuse. The REMS program requires training and certification of healthcare providers who prescribe and implant Probuphine and provide patient counseling. Probuphine distribution is restricted to healthcare providers who have completed training and received certification under the REMS program. We believe the REMS program has been an obstacle to acceptance of Probuphine to date by the medical community. Healthcare providers may be unwilling to undergo training and certification in order to be able to prescribe or implant Probuphine due to time
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constraints or concerns with the product. If we are unable to adequately address this issue, our ability (or the ability of potential future commercial partners) to generate revenue from sales of Probuphine could be materially compromised, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. In addition, if a patient suffers an injury during the insertion and removal of Probuphine, we may become liable to patients, clinicians or others or it may result in a determination that we are non-compliant with the REMS program. Non-compliance with the REMS program would bring serious consequences to us, including warning letters from the FDA, fines, criminal charges and/or other prohibitions and exclusions as well as reputational damage.
The FDA-approved product labeling for Probuphine allows prescribing for a limited patient population.
Probuphine was approved with an indicated use limited to the long-term maintenance treatment of opioid dependence in clinically stable patients on 8 mg or less a day of oral buprenorphine. The approved labeling also contains other limitations on use and a black box warning regarding certain risks/hazards associated with the product. If potential purchasers or those influencing purchasing decisions, such as physicians and pharmacists or third party payers, react negatively to Probuphine because of their perception of the limitations or safety risks in the approved product labeling, it may result in lower product acceptance and lower product revenues. In addition, our promotion of Probuphine must reflect only the specific approved indication as well as other limitations on use, and disclose the safety risks associated with the use of Probuphine as set out in the approved product labeling. We must submit all promotional materials to the FDA at the time of their first use. If the FDA raises concerns regarding our promotional materials or messages, we may be required to modify or discontinue using them and provide corrective information to healthcare practitioners, and we may face other adverse enforcement action.
Probuphine is a controlled substance subject to Drug Enforcement Agency regulations and failure to comply with these regulations, or the cost of compliance with these regulations, may adversely affect our business.
Probuphine contains buprenorphine, a regulated Schedule III “controlled substance” under the Controlled Substances Act, which establishes, among other things, certain registration, production quotas, security, recordkeeping, reporting, import, export and other requirements administered by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency, or DEA. The DEA regulates controlled substances as Schedule I, II, III, IV or V substances. Schedule I substances by definition have no established medicinal use and may not be marketed or sold in the United States. A pharmaceutical product may be listed as Schedule II, III, IV or V, with Schedule II substances considered to present the highest risk of abuse and Schedule V substances the lowest relative risk of abuse among such substances. Our failure to comply with DEA requirements could result in the loss of our ability to supply Probuphine, significant restrictions on Probuphine, civil penalties or criminal prosecution.
The DEA, and some states, also conduct periodic inspections of registered establishments that handle controlled substances. Facilities that conduct research, manufacture, store, distribute, import or export controlled substances must be registered to perform these activities and have the security, control and inventory mechanisms required by the DEA to prevent drug loss and diversion. Failure to maintain compliance, particularly non-compliance resulting in loss or diversion, can result in regulatory action that could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. The DEA may seek civil penalties, refuse to renew necessary registrations or initiate proceedings to revoke those registrations. In certain circumstances, violations could lead to criminal proceedings.
Individual states also have controlled substances laws. Though state controlled substances laws often mirror federal law, because the states are separate jurisdictions, they may separately schedule drugs, as well. While some states automatically schedule a drug when the DEA does so, in other states there has to be rulemaking or a legislative action. State scheduling may delay commercial sale of any controlled substance drug product for which we obtain federal regulatory approval and adverse scheduling could have a material adverse effect on the commercial attractiveness of such product. We or our partners must also obtain separate state registrations in order to be able to obtain, handle, and distribute controlled substances for clinical trials or commercial sale, and failure to meet applicable regulatory requirements could lead to enforcement and sanctions from the states in addition to those from the DEA or otherwise arising under federal law.
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We may be subject to enforcement action if we engage in improper marketing or promotion of Probuphine.
Our promotional materials and training methods must comply with the U.S. Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA, and FDA regulations and other applicable laws and regulations, including the prohibition of the promotion of unapproved, or “off-label”, use. Companies may not promote drugs for off-label use, which include uses that are not described in the product’s labeling and that differ from those approved by the FDA. Physicians may prescribe drug products for off-label uses and such off-label uses are common across some medical specialties. Although the FDA and other regulatory agencies do not regulate a physician’s choice of treatments, the FDCA and FDA regulations restrict communications on the subject of off-label uses of drug products by pharmaceutical companies. The Office of Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services, or OIG, the FDA, and the Department of Justice, or DOJ, all actively enforce laws and regulations prohibiting promotion of off-label use and the promotion of products for which marketing approval has not been obtained. Other federal, state and foreign regulatory agencies, including the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, have issued guidelines and regulations that govern how we promote our products, including how we use endorsements and testimonials.
If we are found to be out of compliance with the requirements and restrictions described above, and we are investigated for or found to have improperly promoted off-label use, we may be subject to significant liability, including civil and administrative remedies as well as criminal sanctions, and the off-label use of our products may increase the risk of product liability claims. In addition, management’s attention could be diverted from our business operations and our reputation could be damaged.
In addition to FDA and related regulatory requirements, we are subject to health care “fraud and abuse” laws, such as the federal False Claims Act, the anti-kickback provisions of the federal Social Security Act, and other state and federal laws and regulations. Federal and state anti-kickback laws prohibit, among other things, payments or other remuneration to induce or reward someone to purchase, prescribe, endorse, or recommend a product that is reimbursed under federal or state healthcare programs. If we provide payments or other remuneration to a healthcare professional to induce the prescribing of our products, we could face liability under state and federal anti-kickback laws.
Federal false claims laws prohibit any person from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false claim for payment to the federal government, or knowingly making, or causing to be made, a false statement to get a false claim paid. Pharmaceutical companies have been prosecuted under these laws for a variety of alleged promotional and marketing activities, such as allegedly providing free product to customers with the expectation that the customers would bill federal programs for the product or submitting inflated best price information to the Medicaid Rebate program. The majority of states also have statutes or regulations similar to the federal anti-kickback law and false claims laws, which apply to items and services reimbursed under Medicaid and other state programs, or, in several states, apply regardless of the payer. Sanctions under these federal and state laws may include civil monetary penalties, exclusion of a manufacturer’s products from reimbursement under government programs, criminal fines, and imprisonment. Even if it is determined that we have not violated these laws, government investigations into these issues typically require the expenditure of significant resources and generate negative publicity, which would harm our business, prospects, operating results, and financial condition. Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the safe harbors, it is possible that some of our business activities could be challenged under one or more of such laws.
Additionally, requirements under the federal Open Payments program, created under Section 6002 of the Affordable Care Act and its implementing regulations, require that manufacturers of drugs for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program (with certain exceptions) report annually to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS, information related to “payments or other transfers of value” provided to U.S. physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors) and teaching hospitals. The Open Payments program also requires that manufacturers and applicable group purchasing organizations report annually to HHS ownership and investment interests held in them by physicians (as defined above) and their immediate family members. Manufacturers’ reports are filed annually with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, by each March 31, covering the previous calendar year. CMS posts disclosed information on a publicly available website. There are also an increasing number of state laws that restrict or prohibit pharmaceutical manufacturers’ interactions with health care providers licensed in the respective states, and
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that require pharmaceutical manufacturers to, among other things, establish comprehensive compliance programs, adopt marketing codes of conduct, file periodic reports with state authorities regarding sales, marketing, pricing, and other activities, and register/license their sales representatives. A number of state laws require manufacturers to file reports regarding payments and items of value provided to health care providers (similar to the federal Open Payments program). Many of these laws contain ambiguities as to what is required to comply with the laws. These laws may affect our sales, marketing and other promotional activities by imposing administrative and compliance burdens on us. In addition, given the lack of clarity with respect to these laws and their implementation, our reporting actions could be subject to the penalty provisions of the pertinent state and federal authorities.
Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of available statutory and regulatory exemptions, it is possible that some of our business activities could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the federal and state laws described above or any other governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to penalties, including criminal and significant civil monetary penalties, damages, fines, imprisonment, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs, injunctions, recall or seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production, denial or withdrawal of pre-marketing product approvals, private qui tam actions brought by individual whistleblowers in the name of the government or refusal to allow us to enter into supply contracts, including government contracts and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations. With respect to any of our products sold in a foreign country, we may be subject to similar foreign laws and regulations, which may include, for instance, applicable privacy laws and post-marketing requirements, including safety surveillance, anti-fraud and abuse laws, and implementation of corporate compliance programs and reporting of payments or transfers of value to healthcare professionals.
We obtain some of our raw materials, components and finished goods from a single source or a limited group of suppliers. The partial or complete loss of one of these suppliers could cause significant production delays, an inability to meet customer demand and a substantial loss in revenue.
We use a number of single-source suppliers for certain of our raw materials, components and finished goods, including:

the supplier of the active ingredient for Probuphine;

the manufacturer of the finished Probuphine implants;

the supplier of finished product sterilization services; and

the manufacturer of the Probuphine applicator.
Our use of these and other single-source suppliers of raw materials, components and finished goods exposes us to several risks, including disruptions in supply, price increases, late deliveries and an inability to meet customer demand. This could lead to customer dissatisfaction, damage to our reputation or customers switching to competitive products. Any interruption in supply could be particularly damaging to our ability to develop and commercialize Probuphine.
Finding alternative sources for these raw materials, components and finished goods would be difficult and in many cases entail a significant amount of time, disruption and cost. Any disruption in supply from any single-source supplier or manufacturing location could lead to supply delays or interruptions which would damage our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We rely on third parties to provide services in connection with the manufacture and distribution of Probuphine, and these third parties may not perform satisfactorily.
We do not own or operate, and currently do not plan to own or operate, facilities for production and packaging of Probuphine or our other product candidates. We are dependent on third parties for the timely supply of specified raw materials, maintaining our manufacturing equipment, trained personnel at the contract manufacturing vendor, formulation or packaging services, product distribution services, customer service activities and product returns processing. We are similarly dependent on third parties for the manufacture and sterilization of Probuphine applicators and the assembly and distribution of packaged kits.
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Our reliance on third parties for the activities described above will reduce our control over these activities but will not relieve us of our responsibility to ensure compliance with all required regulations. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties, meet expected deadlines or manufacture our product in accordance with regulatory requirements, or proprietary specifications, or adhere to product processing best practices, or if there are disagreements between us and these third parties, our business could be materially adversely impacted.
If we or our collaborators are unable to achieve and maintain adequate levels of coverage and reimbursement for Probuphine on reasonable pricing terms, or we or our collaborators fail to do so for any of our other product candidates for which we may receive regulatory approval, their commercial success may be severely limited.
The commercial success of Probuphine will depend on the availability of adequate coverage and reimbursement from third-party payors, as well as the ease of use and transparency of such processes and systems once in place. Patients who are prescribed medicine for the treatment of their conditions generally rely on third-party payors to reimburse all or part of the costs associated with their prescription drugs. Adequate coverage and reimbursement from governmental healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, and commercial payors are critical to new product acceptance. Third-party payors, whether governmental or commercial, are developing increasingly sophisticated methods of controlling healthcare costs. In addition, in the United States, no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement for drug products exists among third-party payors. Therefore, coverage and reimbursement for drug products can differ significantly from payor to payor. Coverage decisions may depend upon clinical and economic standards that disfavor new drug products such as ours when more established or lower cost therapeutic alternatives are already available or subsequently become available. Decisions regarding the extent of coverage and amount of reimbursement to be provided for products and product candidates that we develop will be made on a plan-by-plan basis. As a result, the coverage determination process is often a time-consuming and costly process that may require us or our partners to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of our products to each payor separately, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be applied consistently or obtained.
While we have made progress in obtaining insurance coverage for Probuphine from a significant number of providers, we believe retention and further expansion of third-party coverage is necessary for greater uptake of the product. Even if coverage is approved, the resulting reimbursement payment rates might not be adequate or may require co-payments that patients find unacceptably high. Patients are unlikely to use Probuphine unless coverage is provided and reimbursement is adequate to cover a significant portion of the cost of our products.
In addition, the market for our products may depend on access to third-party payors’ drug formularies, or lists of medications for which third-party payors provide coverage and reimbursement. The industry competition to be included in such formularies often leads to downward pricing pressures on pharmaceutical companies. Also, third-party payors may refuse to include a particular branded drug in their formularies or otherwise restrict patient access to a branded drug when a less costly generic equivalent or other alternative is available. Also, regional healthcare authorities and individual hospitals are increasingly using competitive bidding procedures to determine what pharmaceutical products and which suppliers will be included in their prescription drug and other healthcare programs. This can reduce demand for our products or put pressure on our product pricing, which could negatively affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
Further, we believe that future coverage and reimbursement will likely be subject to increased restrictions both in the United States and in international markets. Third-party coverage and reimbursement for Probuphine or any of our product candidates for which we may receive regulatory approval may not be available or adequate in either the United States or international markets, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
We depend on a small number of employees and consultants.
As a company with a limited number of personnel, we are highly dependent on the services of our executive management and the loss of one or more of such individuals could substantially impair our ongoing commercialization efforts. Moreover, our commercial success will be dependent upon our ability to
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attract and maintain an effective sales and marketing team. We have faced and will continue to face intense competition for sales and marketing personnel with the necessary experience in addiction, reimbursement, specialty pharmacies and our targeted markets. We also intend to explore the opportunity to retain a senior executive with the depth and breadth of commercialization experience to complete our transition from a research and development company to a fully-functioning commercial enterprise. We compete in our hiring efforts with other pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and it may be difficult and could take an extended period of time because of the limited number of individuals in our industry with the range of skills and experience required and because of our limited resources.
In addition, we retain scientific and clinical advisors and consultants to assist us in all aspects of our business. Competition to hire and retain consultants from a limited pool is intense. Further, because these advisors are not our employees, they may have commitments to, or consulting or advisory contracts with, other entities that may limit their availability to us, and typically they will not enter into non-compete agreements with us. If a conflict of interest arises between their work for us and their work for another entity, we may lose their services. In addition, our advisors may have arrangements with other companies to assist those companies in developing products or technologies that may compete with ours.
We face intense competition.
Competition in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries is intense. We face, and will continue to face, competition from numerous companies that currently market, or are developing, products for the treatment of the diseases and disorders we have targeted. Many of these entities have significantly greater research and development capabilities, experience in obtaining regulatory approvals and manufacturing, marketing, financial and managerial resources than we have. We also compete with universities and other research institutions in the development of products, technologies and processes, as well as the recruitment of highly qualified personnel. Our competitors may succeed in developing technologies or products that are more effective than the ones we have under development or that render our proposed products or technologies noncompetitive or obsolete. In addition, our competitors may achieve product commercialization or patent protection earlier than we will.
The commercial opportunity for Probuphine could be significantly harmed if competitors are able to develop alternative formulations and/or drug delivery technologies outside the scope of our capabilities. Our principal competition in the opioid addiction treatment market comes from manufacturers of oral buprenorphine products, including Indivior PLC, which markets the Suboxone™ and Subutex™ brands, as well from manufacturers of weekly or monthly injectable treatments, including Sublocade™ which was recently launched by Indivior PLC. Lower priced generic forms of the oral product have also recently come to market. Our competitors may also develop, acquire or license products that are more effective, more useful, better tolerated, subject to fewer or less severe side effects, more widely prescribed or accepted or less costly than ours and may also be more successful than we are in manufacturing and marketing their products. In addition, state pharmacy laws may permit pharmacists to substitute generic products for branded products if the products are therapeutic equivalents, or may permit pharmacists and pharmacy benefit managers to seek prescriber authorization to substitute generics in place of our products, which could significantly diminish demand for Probuphine. If we are unable to compete effectively with the marketed therapeutics of our competitors or if such competitors are successful in developing products that compete with Probuphine, our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects may be materially adversely affected.
We are solely reliant on the efforts of third parties to commercialize Probuphine outside of the United States.
Our ability to generate revenues from the sale of Probuphine in the European Union and the rest of the Molteni Territory will be wholly dependent on Molteni’s ability to successfully launch and commercialize the product in the Molteni Territory. We are similarly dependent on the efforts of Knight Therapeutics Inc., or Knight, with respect to product commercialization in Canada. We do not have control over the amount and timing of resources that Molteni or Knight will dedicate to these efforts. We will be similarly dependent on the development, regulatory and marketing efforts of third parties with respect to revenues, if any, from sales of Probuphine in additional territories.
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Our dependence on third party collaborators and license agreements subjects us to a number of risks, including:

our collaborators may not comply with applicable regulatory guidelines with respect to developing or commercializing our products, which could adversely impact sales or future development of our products;

we and our collaborators could disagree as to future development plans and our collaborators may delay, fail to commence or stop future clinical trials or other development; and

there may be disputes between us and our collaborators, including disagreements regarding the license agreements, that may result in the delay of or failure to achieve developmental, regulatory and commercial objectives that would result in milestone or royalty payments and/or the delay or termination of any future development or commercialization of our products.
In addition, collaborators may, to the extent permitted by our agreements, develop products that divert resources from our products, preclude us from entering into collaborations with their competitors or terminate their agreements with us prematurely. Moreover, disagreements could arise with our collaborators or strategic partners over rights to our intellectual property and our rights to share in any of the future revenues from products or technologies resulting from use of our technologies, or our activities in separate fields may conflict with other business plans of our collaborators.
Our ProNeura development programs are at very early stages and will require substantial additional resources that may not be available to us.
To date, we have conducted limited research and development activities based on our ProNeura delivery system beyond Probuphine. We will require substantial additional funds to support our research and development activities, and the anticipated costs of preclinical studies and clinical trials, regulatory approvals and eventual commercialization of ProNeura for Parkinson’s disease or any therapeutic based on our ProNeura platform technology. If we are unable to obtain substantial government grants, enter into third party collaborations or generate sufficient revenues from the sale of Probuphine to fund our ProNeura programs, we will need to seek additional sources of financing, which may not be available on favorable terms, if at all. If we do not succeed in obtaining the requisite funding for our ProNeura programs, we will be unable to initiate clinical trials or obtain approval of any product candidates from the FDA and other regulatory authorities. In addition, we could be forced to discontinue product development, forego sales and marketing efforts and forego attractive business opportunities.
We will also seek to obtain funds through arrangements with collaborative partners or others that may require us to relinquish rights to technologies, product candidates or products that we would otherwise seek to develop or commercialize ourselves or license rights to technologies, product candidates or products on terms that are less favorable to us than might otherwise be available.
Our ability to successfully develop any future product candidates based on our ProNeura drug delivery technology is subject to the risks of failure and delay inherent in the development of new pharmaceutical products, including: delays in product development, clinical testing, or manufacturing; unplanned expenditures in product development, clinical testing, or manufacturing; failure to receive regulatory approvals; emergence of superior or equivalent products; inability to manufacture on our own, or through any others, product candidates on a commercial scale; and failure to achieve market acceptance. Because of these risks, our research and development efforts may not result in any commercially viable products. If a significant portion of these development efforts are not successfully completed, required regulatory approvals are not obtained or any approved products are not commercially successfully, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be materially harmed.
Our development and commercialization strategy for ProNeura depends, in part, upon the FDA’s prior findings regarding the safety and efficacy of the active drug incorporated into the implant based on data not developed by us, but upon which the FDA may rely in reviewing our NDA submissions. The current strategy for our ProNeura development programs is based, in part, on the expectation that the products we develop will be eligible for approval through the regulatory pathway under Section 505(b)(2) of the FDCA. Section 505(b)(2) of the FDCA allows an NDA to rely in part on data in the public domain or the FDA’s
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prior conclusions regarding the safety and effectiveness of an approved drug product, which could expedite our development programs by potentially decreasing the amount of clinical data that would need to be generated in order to obtain FDA approval. If the FDA does not allow us to pursue the Section 505(b)(2) regulatory pathway as anticipated, we may need to conduct additional clinical trials, provide additional data and information, and meet additional standards for product approval. If this were to occur, the time and financial resources required to obtain FDA approval for any additional ProNeura products, and complications and risks associated with regulatory approval, would likely substantially increase. Moreover, inability to pursue the Section 505(b)(2) regulatory pathway may result in new competitive products reaching the market more quickly than those we have under development, which would adversely impact our competitive position and prospects. Even if we are able to utilize the Section 505(b)(2) regulatory pathway, there is no guarantee that this regulatory pathway will ultimately lead to accelerated product development or earlier approval. Moreover, notwithstanding the approval of many products by the FDA pursuant to Section 505(b)(2), over the last few years, some pharmaceutical companies and others have objected to the FDA’s interpretation of Section 505(b)(2). If the FDA changes its interpretation of Section 505(b)(2), or if the FDA’s interpretation is successfully challenged in court, this result could delay or even prevent the FDA from approving any Section 505(b)(2) NDAs that we submit. Such a result could require us to conduct additional testing and costly clinical trials, which could substantially delay or prevent the approval and launch of any new ProNeura products.
Clinical trials required for new product candidates are expensive and time-consuming, and their outcome is uncertain.
In order to obtain FDA approval to market a new drug product based on our ProNeura drug delivery technology, we must demonstrate proof of safety and effectiveness in humans. To meet these requirements, we must conduct “adequate and well controlled” clinical trials. Conducting clinical trials is a lengthy, time-consuming, and expensive process. The length of time may vary substantially according to the type, complexity, novelty, and intended use of the product candidate, and often can be several years or more per trial. Delays associated with products for which we are directly conducting clinical trials may cause us to incur additional operating expenses. The commencement and rate of completion of clinical trials may be delayed by many factors, including, for example:

inability to manufacture sufficient quantities of qualified materials under cGMP, for use in clinical trials;

slower than expected rates of patient recruitment;

failure to recruit a sufficient number of patients; modification of clinical trial protocols;

changes in regulatory requirements for clinical trials;

the lack of effectiveness during clinical trials;

the emergence of unforeseen safety issues;

delays, suspension, or termination of the clinical trials due to the institutional review board responsible for overseeing the study at a particular study site; and

government or regulatory delays or “clinical holds” requiring suspension or termination of the trials.
The results from early clinical trials are not necessarily predictive of results obtained in later clinical trials. Accordingly, even if we obtain positive results from early clinical trials, we may not achieve the same success in future clinical trials. Clinical trials may not demonstrate statistically significant safety and effectiveness to obtain the requisite regulatory approvals for product candidates. The failure of clinical trials to demonstrate safety and effectiveness for the desired indications could harm the development of that product candidate and other product candidates. This failure could cause us to abandon a product candidate and could delay development of other product candidates. Any delay in, or termination of, our clinical trials would delay the filing of our NDAs with the FDA and, ultimately, our ability to commercialize our product candidates and generate product revenues. Any change in, or termination of, our clinical trials could materially harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
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We face risks associated with third parties conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials of our products.
We depend on third-party laboratories and medical institutions to conduct preclinical studies and clinical trials for our products and other third-party organizations to perform data collection and analysis, all of which must maintain both good laboratory and good clinical practices. We also depend upon third party manufacturers for the production of any products we may successfully develop to comply with cGMP of the FDA, which are similarly outside our direct control. If third party laboratories and medical institutions conducting studies of our products fail to maintain both good laboratory and clinical practices, the studies could be delayed or have to be repeated.
We face risks associated with product liability lawsuits that could be brought against us.
The testing, manufacturing, marketing and sale of human therapeutic products entail an inherent risk of product liability claims. We currently have a limited amount of product liability insurance, which may not be sufficient to cover claims that may be made against us in the event that the use or misuse of our product candidates causes, or merely appears to have caused, personal injury or death. In the event we are forced to expend significant funds on defending product liability actions, and in the event those funds come from operating capital, we will be required to reduce our business activities, which could lead to significant losses. Adequate insurance coverage may not be available in the future on acceptable terms, if at all. If available, we may not be able to maintain any such insurance at sufficient levels of coverage and any such insurance may not provide adequate protection against potential liabilities. Whether or not a product liability insurance policy is obtained or maintained in the future, any claims against us, regardless of their merit, could severely harm our financial condition, strain our management and other resources or destroy the prospects for commercialization of the product which is the subject of any such claim.
We may be unable to protect our patents and proprietary rights.
Our future success will depend to a significant extent on our ability to:

obtain and keep patent protection for our products, methods and technologies on a domestic and international basis;

enforce our patents to prevent others from using our inventions;

maintain and prevent others from using our trade secrets; and

operate and commercialize products without infringing on the patents or proprietary rights of others.
We cannot assure you that our patent rights will afford any competitive advantages, and these rights may be challenged or circumvented by third parties. Further, patents may not be issued on any of our pending patent applications in the U.S. or abroad. Because of the extensive time required for development, testing and regulatory review of a potential product, it is possible that before a potential product can be commercialized, any related patent may expire or remain in existence for only a short period following commercialization, reducing or eliminating any advantage of the patent. If we sue others for infringing our patents, a court may determine that such patents are invalid or unenforceable. Even if the validity of our patent rights is upheld by a court, a court may not prevent the alleged infringement of our patent rights on the grounds that such activity is not covered by our patent claims.
In addition, third parties may sue us for infringing their patents. In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us, we may be required to:

pay substantial damages;

stop using our technologies and methods;

stop certain research and development efforts;

develop non-infringing products or methods; and

obtain one or more licenses from third parties.
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If required, we cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain such licenses on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are sued for infringement, we could encounter substantial delays in development, manufacture and commercialization of our product candidates. Any litigation, whether to enforce our patent rights or to defend against allegations that we infringe third party rights, will be costly, time consuming, and may distract management from other important tasks.
We also rely in our business on trade secrets, know-how and other proprietary information. We seek to protect this information, in part, through the use of confidentiality agreements with employees, consultants, advisors and others. Nonetheless, we cannot assure you that those agreements will provide adequate protection for our trade secrets, know-how or other proprietary information and prevent their unauthorized use or disclosure. To the extent that consultants, key employees or other third parties apply technological information independently developed by them or by others to our proposed products, disputes may arise as to the proprietary rights to such information, which may not be resolved in our favor.
Health care reform measures and changes in policies, funding, staffing and leadership at the FDA and other agencies could hinder or prevent the commercial success of our products.
In the United States, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory changes to the healthcare system in ways that could affect our future results of operations and the future results of operations of our potential customers. For example, the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 established a new Part D prescription drug benefit, which became effective January 1, 2006. Under the prescription drug benefit, Medicare beneficiaries can obtain prescription drug coverage from private sector plans that are permitted to limit the number of prescription drugs that are covered in each therapeutic category and class on their formularies. If our products are not widely included on the formularies of these plans, our ability to market our products may be adversely affected. Furthermore, there have been and continue to be a number of initiatives at the federal and state levels that seek to reduce healthcare costs. In March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Health Care Act of 2010, as amended by the Health Care and Education Affordability Reconciliation Act of 2010, or collectively “ACA”, was signed into law, which includes measures to significantly change the way health care is financed by both governmental and private insurers.
In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the ACA was enacted. On August 2, 2011, the Budget Control Act of 2011, among other things, created measures for spending reductions by Congress. A Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction, tasked with recommending a targeted deficit reduction of at least $1.2 trillion for the years 2013 through 2021, was unable to reach required goals, thereby triggering the legislation’s automatic reduction to several government programs. This includes aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of up to 2% per fiscal year. On January 2, 2013, President Obama signed into law the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, which, among other things, reduced Medicare payments to several providers, including hospitals, imaging centers and cancer treatment centers, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years. These laws may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other health care funding, which could have a material adverse effect on our customers and accordingly, our financial operations.
Additionally, individual states have become increasingly aggressive in passing legislation and implementing regulations designed to control pharmaceutical product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access, and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. Legally-mandated price controls on payment amounts by third-party payors or other restrictions could harm our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. In addition, regional healthcare authorities and individual hospitals are increasingly using bidding procedures to determine what pharmaceutical products and which suppliers will be included in their prescription drug and other healthcare programs. This can reduce demand for our products or put pressure on our product pricing, which could negatively affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
Additionally, given recent federal and state government initiatives directed at lowering the total cost of healthcare, Congress and state legislatures will likely continue to focus on healthcare reform, the cost of prescription drugs and the reform of the Medicare and Medicaid programs. While we cannot predict the
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full outcome of any such legislation, it may result in decreased reimbursement for prescription drugs, which may further exacerbate industry-wide pressure to reduce prescription drug prices. This could harm our ability to market our products and generate revenues. In addition, legislation has been introduced in Congress that, if enacted, would permit more widespread importation or re-importation of pharmaceutical products from foreign countries into the United States, including from countries where the products are sold at lower prices than in the United States. Such legislation, or similar regulatory changes, could lead to a decision to decrease our prices to better compete, which, in turn, could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. It is also possible that other legislative proposals having similar effects will be adopted.
Furthermore, regulatory authorities’ assessment of the data and results required to demonstrate safety and efficacy can change over time and can be affected by many factors, such as the emergence of new information, including on other products, changing policies and agency funding, staffing and leadership. We cannot be sure whether future changes to the regulatory environment will be favorable or unfavorable to our business prospects.
We face potential liability related to the privacy of health information we obtain from clinical trials sponsored by us or our collaborators, from research institutions and our collaborators, and directly from individuals.
Numerous federal and state laws, including state security breach notification laws, state health information privacy laws, and federal and state consumer protection laws, govern the collection, use, and disclosure of personal information. In addition, most health care providers, including research institutions from which we or our collaborators obtain patient health information, are subject to privacy and security regulations promulgated under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act. Although we are not directly subject to HIPAA, we could potentially be subject to criminal penalties if we, our affiliates, or our agents knowingly obtain or disclose individually identifiable health information maintained by a HIPAA-covered entity in a manner that is not authorized or permitted by HIPAA.
Risks Related to Our Financial Condition and Need for Additional Capital
We have incurred net losses in almost every year since our inception and we may never achieve or sustain profitability.
We have incurred net losses in almost every year since our inception. Our financial statements have been prepared assuming that we will continue as a going concern. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 and the six months ended June 30, 2019, we had net losses of approximately $9.3 million, $14.3 million and $9.7 million, respectively, and had net cash used in operating activities of approximately $8.4 million, $12.7 million and $8.5 million, respectively. These net losses and negative cash flows have had, and will continue to have, an adverse effect on our stockholders’ equity and working capital. We expect to continue to incur net losses and negative operating cash flow for the foreseeable future, and we expect these losses to increase as we build out our sales, marketing and support capabilities in connection with our commercial activities. The amount of future net losses will depend, in part, on the rate of future growth of our expenses and our ability to generate significant revenues. There can be no assurance that we will ever achieve profitability.
We will require additional proceeds to fund our operations and to continue as a going concern.
We currently estimate that our available cash and cash equivalents at June 30, 2019, together with the approximately $1.8 million received from our August 2019 financing, will be sufficient to fund our operations through October 2019. We believe that the proceeds of this offering will be sufficient to fund our working capital needs and our Probuphine commercial efforts through 2020. We will be required to demonstrate sufficient progress in commercializing Probuphine in this relatively short period of time in order to be able to raise additional funds to undertake the Phase IV clinical trials required by the FDA and potentially finance further expansion of our commercial operations. We will also require additional funds to advance our ProNeura development programs and to complete the regulatory approval process necessary to commercialize any products we might develop. While we are currently evaluating the alternatives available to
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us, including government grants and third-party collaborations for one or more of our ProNeura programs, our efforts to address our liquidity requirements may not be successful. There can be no assurance that any source of capital will be available to us on acceptable terms. In addition, if one or more of the risks discussed in these risk factors occur or our expenses exceed our expectations, we may be required to raise further additional funds sooner than anticipated.
Our need for future financing may result in the issuance of additional securities which will cause investors to experience dilution.
Our cash requirements may vary from those now planned and may be affected by numerous factors, including the results of our commercialization efforts and future research and development activities. We expect our expenses to increase in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we expand our infrastructure and, assuming funding is available, undertake the required Phase IV clinical trials and continue the research and development and initiate and conduct clinical trials of our product candidates. Accordingly, we will need to obtain substantial additional funding in connection with our continuing operations. We expect to seek additional funding through a combination of equity offerings or debt financings. Our securities may be offered to other investors at a price lower than the price per share offered to current stockholders, or upon terms which may be deemed more favorable than those offered to current stockholders. In addition, the issuance of securities in any future financing may dilute an investor’s equity ownership and have the effect of depressing the market price for our securities. Moreover, we may issue derivative securities, including options and/or warrants, from time to time, to procure qualified personnel or for other business reasons. The issuance of any such derivative securities, which is at the discretion of our board of directors, may further dilute the equity ownership of our stockholders. No assurance can be given as to our ability to procure additional financing on terms deemed favorable to us. To the extent additional capital is required and cannot be raised successfully, we may then have to limit our then current operations and/or may have to curtail certain, if not all, of our business objectives and plans.
Our net operating losses and research and development tax credits may not be available to reduce future federal and state income tax payments.
At December 31, 2018, we had federal net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards of  $263.6 million and $8.8 million, respectively, and state net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards of  $107.8 million and $9.0 million, respectively, available to offset future taxable income, if any. Current federal and state tax laws include substantial restrictions on the utilization of net operating loss and tax credits in the event of an ownership change and we cannot assure you that our net operating loss and tax carryforwards will continue to be available.
Our loan agreement contains restrictions on our operations and could result in certain adverse results.
Our Loan Agreement contains a variety of affirmative covenants, including, without limitation, payment obligations, information delivery requirements and certain notice requirements. Additionally, we are bound by certain negative covenants setting forth actions that are not permitted to be taken during the term of the Restated Loan Agreement without consent of Molteni, as the majority lender, including, without limitation, incurring certain additional indebtedness, making certain asset dispositions, entering into certain mergers, acquisitions or other business combination transactions or incurring any nonpermitted lien or other encumbrance on our assets. Subject to certain forbearance provisions in effect through December 31, 2020, upon the occurrence of an event of default under the Restated Loan Agreement (subject to any applicable cure periods), all amounts owed thereunder would begin to bear interest at a rate that is 5.0% higher than the rate that would otherwise be applicable and the outstanding loan may be declared immediately due and payable. Furthermore, the loan is secured by a perfected security interest in all of our assets, including our Probuphine and ProNeura intellectual property, which could be foreclosed.
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Risks Related to this Offering and our Common Stock
If you purchase our securities in this offering, you may incur immediate and substantial dilution in the book value of your shares.
The combined public offering price per share of our common stock and related warrant may be substantially higher than the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately prior to the offering. After giving effect to the assumed sale of        shares of our common stock and related warrants in this offering, at an assumed combined public offering price of  $     per share and related warrant (the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market on            , 2019), and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us and attributing no value to the warrants sold in this offering, purchasers of our common stock in this offering will incur immediate dilution of  $(     ) per share in the net tangible book value of the common stock they acquire. In the event that you exercise your warrants, you may experience additional dilution to the extent that the exercise price of the warrants is higher than the tangible book value per share of our common stock. For a further description of the dilution that investors in this offering may experience, see “Dilution.”
In addition, to the extent that outstanding stock options or warrants have been or may be exercised or other shares issued, you may experience further dilution.
We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds we receive from this offering and may not use them effectively.
Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds we receive in this offering, including for any of the purposes described in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds,” and you will not have the opportunity as part of your investment decision to assess whether our management is using the net proceeds appropriately. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of our net proceeds from this offering, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could result in financial losses that could have a material adverse effect on our business and cause the price of our common stock to decline. Pending their use, we may invest our net proceeds from this offering in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders.
Future sales of substantial amounts of our common stock could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
We may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. If additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, or perceptions that those sales could occur, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to investors purchasing our common stock in this offering or result in downward pressure on the price of our common stock, and our ability to raise capital in the future.
Holders of our warrants and Pre-Funded Warrants will have no rights as a common stockholder until they acquire our common stock.
Until you acquire shares of our common stock upon exercise of your warrants or Pre-Funded Warrants, you will have no rights with respect to shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of your warrants or Pre-Funded Warrants. Upon exercise of your warrants or Pre-Funded Warrants, you will be entitled to exercise the rights of a common stockholder only as to matters for which the record date occurs after the exercise date.
The warrants may not have any value.
Each warrant will have an exercise price of  $     (115% of the offering price) and will expire on the fifth anniversary of the date they first become exercisable. In the event our common stock price does not exceed the exercise price of the warrants during the period when the warrants are exercisable, the warrants may not have any value.
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There is no public market for the warrants to purchase shares of our common stock or Pre-Funded Warrants being offered in this offering.
There is no established public trading market for the warrants or Pre-Funded Warrants being offered in this offering, and we do not expect a market to develop. In addition, we do not intend to apply to list the warrants or Pre-Funded Warrants on any national securities exchange or other nationally recognized trading system, including The Nasdaq Capital Market. Without an active trading market, the liquidity of the warrants and Pre-Funded Warrants will be limited.
Our failure to meet the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq could result in a de-listing of our common stock.
On August 20, 2019, we received a notice from the Nasdaq Capital Market, or Nasdaq, that because our stockholders’ equity is less than $2,500,000, we are no longer in compliance with the minimum stockholders’ equity requirement for continued listing pursuant to Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(b)(1). At June 30, 2019, we had a stockholders’ deficit of approximately $571,000. The proceeds of this offering, together with the proceeds from the August 2019 financing will enable us to achieve the minimum stockholders’ equity requirement. In addition, the market price of our common stock has been below the $1.00 minimum bid price requirement for continued listing since August 7, 2019 and if the price stays below $1.00, we expect to receive a non-compliance letter from Nasdaq in the near future requiring us to provide a plan to regain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement within a specified time frame. If we fail to satisfy the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq, such stockholders’ equity requirement or the minimum closing bid price requirement, Nasdaq may take steps to de-list our common stock. Such a de-listing would likely have a negative effect on the price of our common stock and would impair your ability to sell or purchase our common stock when you wish to do so. In the event of a de-listing, we would take actions to restore our compliance with Nasdaq’s listing requirements, but we can provide no assurance that any such action taken by us would allow our common stock to become listed again, stabilize the market price or improve the liquidity of our common stock, prevent our common stock from dropping below the Nasdaq minimum bid price requirement or prevent future non-compliance with Nasdaq’s listing requirements.
Our share price may be volatile, which could prevent you from being able to sell your shares at or above your purchase price.
The market price of shares of our common stock has been and may continue to be subject to wide fluctuations in response to many risk factors listed in this section, and others beyond our control, including:

results of our Probuphine commercial efforts;

regulatory actions with respect to our products or our competitors’ products;

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our financial condition and operating results;

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our competitors’ operating results or growth rate;

competition from existing products or new products that may emerge;

announcements by us, our potential future collaborators or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic collaborations, joint ventures, or capital commitments;

issuance of new or updated research or reports by securities analysts;

fluctuations in the valuation of companies perceived by investors to be comparable to us;

inconsistent trading volume levels of our shares;

additions or departures of key personnel;

disputes or other developments related to proprietary rights, including patents, litigation matters and our ability to obtain patent protection for our technologies;

announcement or expectation of additional financing efforts;
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sales of our common stock by us, our insiders or our other stockholders;

market conditions for biopharmaceutical stocks in general; and

general economic and market conditions.
The stock markets have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies. These fluctuations often have been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations, as well as general economic, political and market conditions such as recessions, interest rate changes or international currency fluctuations, may negatively impact the market price of shares of our common stock and could subject us to securities class action litigation.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our share price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will depend on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. There can be no assurance that analysts will cover us or provide favorable coverage. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our stock or change their opinion of our stock, our share price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause our share price or trading volume to decline.
Provisions in our corporate charter documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of our company, which may be beneficial to our stockholders, more difficult and may prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management.
Provisions in our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws may discourage, delay or prevent a merger, acquisition or other change in control of our company that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which you might otherwise receive a premium for your shares. These provisions could also limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock, thereby depressing the market price of our common stock. In addition, because our board of directors is responsible for appointing the members of our management team, these provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors. Among other things, these provisions provide that:

the authorized number of directors can be changed only by resolution of our board of directors;

our bylaws may be amended or repealed by our board of directors or our stockholders;

stockholders may not call special meetings of the stockholders or fill vacancies on the board of directors;

our board of directors is authorized to issue, without stockholder approval, preferred stock, the rights of which will be determined at the discretion of the board of directors and that, if issued, could operate as a “poison pill” to dilute the stock ownership of a potential hostile acquirer to prevent an acquisition that our board of directors does not approve;

our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights, and therefore our stockholders holding a majority of the shares of common stock outstanding will be able to elect all of our directors; and

our stockholders must comply with advance notice provisions to bring business before or nominate directors for election at a stockholder meeting.
Moreover, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL, which prohibits a person who owns in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock from merging or combining with us for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person acquired in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock, unless the merger or combination is approved in a prescribed manner.
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We have never paid any cash dividends and have no plans to pay any cash dividends in the future.
Holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to receive such dividends as may be declared by our board of directors. To date, we have paid no cash dividends on our shares of our preferred or common stock and we do not expect to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. In addition, the declaration and payment of cash dividends is restricted under the terms of our existing Loan Agreement. We intend to retain future earnings, if any, to provide funds for operations of our business. Therefore, any return investors in our preferred or common stock may have will be in the form of appreciation, if any, in the market value of their shares of common stock.
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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains “forward-looking statements” that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, strategy and plans, and our expectations for future operations, are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. We have attempted to identify forward-looking statements by terminology including “anticipates,” “believes,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “should,” or “will” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. Although we do not make forward looking statements unless we believe we have a reasonable basis for doing so, we cannot guarantee their accuracy. Forward-looking statements included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, include, but are not necessarily limited to, those relating to uncertainties relating to:

the commercialization of Probuphine;

financing and strategic agreements and relationships;

difficulties or delays in the regulatory approval process;

uncertainties relating to manufacturing, sales, marketing and distribution of our drug candidates that may be successfully developed and approved for commercialization;

adverse side effects or inadequate therapeutic efficacy of our drug candidates that could slow or prevent product development or commercialization;

dependence on third party suppliers;

the uncertainty of protection for our patents and other intellectual property or trade secrets; and

competition.
These statements are only predictions and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including the risks outlined under “Risk Factors” or elsewhere in this prospectus, which may cause our or our industry’s actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.
Forward-looking statements should not be read as a guarantee of future performance or results, and will not necessarily be accurate indications of the times at, or by which, that performance or those results will be achieved. Forward-looking statements are based on information available at the time they are made and/or management’s good faith belief as of that time with respect to future events, and are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual performance or results to differ materially from what is expressed in or suggested by the forward-looking statements.
Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made. You should not put undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. We assume no obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect actual results, changes in assumptions or changes in other factors affecting forward-looking information, except to the extent required by applicable securities laws. If we do update one or more forward-looking statements, no inference should be drawn that we will make additional updates with respect to those or other forward-looking statements.. We caution you not to give undue weight to such projections, assumptions and estimates.
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We estimate that the net proceeds of this offering will be approximately $     million assuming the sale of       shares of our common stock (or Pre-Funded Warrants in lieu thereof) and warrants to purchase up to      shares of our common stock at an assumed combined public offering price of  $     per share and related warrant (the last reported sale price of our common stock on Nasdaq on            , 2019), after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, and excluding the proceeds, if any, from the exercise of the warrants. Each $0.10 increase (decrease) in the assumed combined public offering price of  $     per share would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $     million, assuming the number of shares and warrants offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We may also increase or decrease the number of shares of our common stock and warrants we are offering. An increase (decrease) of one million in the number of shares sold in this offering would increase (decrease) the expected net proceeds of the offering to us by approximately $     million, assuming that the assumed combined public offering price per share and the related warrant coverage remains the same.
We currently intend to use the net proceeds of the offering to fund ongoing operations and the growth of our business, including expansion of our sales and marketing capabilities, either internally, through relationships with third parties or a combination of both.
Pending our use of the net proceeds from this offering, we intend to invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation investments, including short-term, investment grade, interest bearing instruments and U.S. government securities.
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DILUTION
Purchasers of shares of our common stock in this offering will experience an immediate dilution of the net tangible book value per share of our common stock. Our net tangible book value as of June 30, 2019 was approximately $(571,000), or $(0.04) per share of our common stock. Net tangible book value per share is equal to our total tangible assets less our total liabilities, divided by the number of shares of our outstanding common stock.
Dilution per share of common stock equals the difference between the amount paid by purchasers of common stock in this offering (ascribing no value to the warrants) and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.
After giving effect to the assumed sale by us of       shares of our common stock (assuming no Pre-Funded Warrants in lieu of common stock issued) and warrants to purchase up to      shares of our common stock in this offering at an assumed combined public offering price of  $     per share and related warrant (the last reported sale price of our common stock on Nasdaq on            , 2019), after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2019 would have been approximately $     million, or approximately $     per share. This represents an immediate decrease in net tangible book value of  $     per share to existing stockholders and an immediate increase in net tangible book value of  $     per share to new investors purchasing shares of our common stock and related warrants in this offering, attributing none of the assumed combined public offering price to the warrants offered hereby. The following table illustrates this per share dilution:
Assumed combined public offering price per share and related
warrant
$
Net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2019
$ (0.04)
Decrease in net tangible book value per share after this offering
(   )
As adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering
Dilution per share to new investors
$ (   )
A $0.10 increase in the assumed combined public offering price of  $     per share and related warrant would result in an increase (decrease) in our as adjusted net tangible book value of approximately $     million, or approximately $(    ) per share, and would result in an increase in net tangible book value to new investors of approximately $     per share, assuming that the number of shares of our common stock and related warrants sold by us remains the same, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of  $0.10 in the assumed combined public offering price of  $     per share and related warrant would result in an increase (decrease) in our as adjusted net tangible book value of approximately $     million, or approximately $(    ) per share, and would result in an increase in net tangible book value to new investors of approximately $     per share, assuming that the number of shares of our common stock and related warrants sold by us remains the same, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
We may also increase or decrease the number of shares of common stock and related warrants we are offering from the assumed number of shares of common stock and related warrants set forth above. An increase of one million in the assumed number of shares of common stock and related warrants sold by us in this offering would result in an increase (decrease) in our as adjusted net tangible book value of approximately $     million, or approximately $(    ) per share, and would result in an increase in net tangible book value to new investors of approximately $     per share, assuming that the assumed combined public offering price remains the same, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of one million in the assumed number of shares of common stock and related warrants sold by us in this offering would result in an increase (decrease) in our as adjusted net tangible book value of approximately $     million, or approximately $(    ) per share, and would result in an increase in the net tangible book value to new investors of approximately $     per share, assuming that the assumed combined public offering price remains the same, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated
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offering expenses payable by us. The information discussed above is illustrative only and will adjust based on the actual public offering price, the actual number of shares and related warrants sold in this offering and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.
The information above is as of June 30, 2019 and excludes as of such date:

1,302,057 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding options with a weighted average exercise price of  $5.82 per share;

5,489,450 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants with a weighted average exercise price of  $     per share (assuming an adjustment to the exercise price of our 2018 public offering warrants as a result of this offering to $0.    );

3,422,777 shares of our common stock issuable upon the conversion of outstanding debt; and

468,303 additional shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2015 equity incentive plan.
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DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES WE ARE OFFERING
As of the date of this prospectus, our certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue 125,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share.
We are offering      shares of our common stock (or Pre-Funded Warrants in lieu thereof) together with warrants to purchase up to an aggregate of       shares of our common stock (based on an assumed combined offering price of  $    , the last reported sale price of our common stock on Nasdaq on            , 2019). Each share of our common stock is being sold together with a warrant to purchase one share of common stock. The shares of our common stock and related warrants will be issued separately. We are also registering the shares of our common stock issuable from time to time upon exercise of the warrants offered hereby.
The following description of our capital stock is not complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by our certificate of incorporation, as amended, and bylaws, which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and by the relevant provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law.
Common Stock
Each holder of common stock is entitled to one vote for each share of common stock held on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, including the election of directors. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws do not provide for cumulative voting rights. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding preferred stock, the holders of our outstanding shares of common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of legally available funds. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities, subject to the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any outstanding shares of preferred stock. Holders of our common stock have no preemptive, conversion or subscription rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that are outstanding or that we may designate and issue in the future. All of our outstanding shares of common stock are fully paid and nonassessable.
Our common stock is currently listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the trading symbol “TTNP.”
Pre-Funded Warrants
The following summary of certain terms and provisions of the Pre-Funded Warrants that are being offered hereby is not complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by the provisions of, the Pre-Funded Warrant. Prospective investors should carefully review the terms and provisions of the form of Pre-Funded Warrant for a complete description of the terms and conditions of the Pre-Funded Warrants.
The term “pre-funded” refers to the fact that the purchase price of our common stock in this offering includes almost the entire exercise price that will be paid under the Pre-Funded Warrants, except for a nominal remaining exercise price of  $0.001. The purpose of the Pre-Funded Warrants is to enable investors that may have restrictions on their ability to beneficially own more than 4.99% (or, upon election of the holder, 9.99%) of our outstanding common stock following the consummation of this offering the opportunity to invest capital into the Company without triggering their ownership restrictions, by receiving Pre-Funded Warrants in lieu of our common stock which would result in such ownership of more than 4.99% (or 9.99%), and receive the ability to exercise their option to purchase the shares underlying the Pre-Funded Warrants at such nominal price at a later date.
Duration.   The Pre-Funded Warrants offered hereby will entitle the holders thereof to purchase shares of our common stock at a nominal exercise price of  $0.001 per share, commencing immediately on the date of issuance.
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Exercise Limitation.   A holder will not have the right to exercise any portion of the Pre-Funded Warrant if the holder (together with its affiliates) would beneficially own in excess of 4.99% (or, upon election of the holder, 9.99%) of the number of shares of our common stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the exercise, as such percentage ownership is determined in accordance with the terms of the Pre-Funded Warrants. However, any holder may increase or decrease such percentage, provided that any increase will not be effective until the 61st day after such election.
Exercise Price.   The Pre-Funded Warrants will have an exercise price of  $0.001 per share. The exercise price is subject to appropriate adjustment in the event of certain stock dividends and distributions, stock splits, stock combinations, reclassifications or similar events affecting our common stock and also upon any distributions of assets, including cash, stock or other property to our stockholders.
Transferability.   Subject to applicable laws, the Pre-Funded Warrants may be offered for sale, sold, transferred or assigned without our consent.
Exchange Listing.   There is no established trading market for the Pre-Funded Warrants and we do not expect a market to develop. In addition, we do not intend to apply for the listing of the Pre-Funded Warrants on any national securities exchange or other trading market. Without an active trading market, the liquidity of the Pre-Funded Warrants will be limited.
Fundamental Transactions.   If a fundamental transaction occurs, then the successor entity will succeed to, and be substituted for us, and may exercise every right and power that we may exercise and will assume all of our obligations under the Pre-Funded Warrants with the same effect as if such successor entity had been named in the Pre-Funded Warrant itself. If holders of our common stock are given a choice as to the securities, cash or property to be received in a fundamental transaction, then the holder shall be given the same choice as to the consideration it receives upon any exercise of the Pre-Funded Warrant following such fundamental transaction.
Rights as a Stockholder.   Except as otherwise provided in the Pre-Funded Warrants or by virtue of such holder’s ownership of shares of our common stock, the holder of a Pre-Funded Warrant does not have the rights or privileges of a holder of our common stock, including any voting rights, until the holder exercises the Pre-Funded Warrant.
Warrants
The following summary of certain terms and provisions of the warrants offered hereby is not complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by, the provisions of the warrant, the form of which has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Prospective investors should carefully review the terms and provisions of the form of warrant for a complete description of the terms and conditions of the warrants.
Form.   The warrants will be issued as individual warrant agreements to the investors.
Exercisability.   The warrants are exercisable at any time after their original issuance, expected to be            , 2019, and at any time up to the date that is five years after their original issuance. The warrants will be exercisable, at the option of each holder, in whole or in part by delivering to us a duly executed exercise notice and, at any time a registration statement registering the issuance of the shares of common stock underlying the warrants under the Securities Act is effective and available for the issuance of such shares, or an exemption from registration under the Securities Act is available for the issuance of such shares, by payment in full in immediately available funds for the number of shares of common stock purchased upon such exercise. If a registration statement registering the issuance of the shares of common stock underlying the warrants under the Securities Act is not effective or available and an exemption from registration under the Securities Act is not available for the issuance of such shares, the holder may, in its sole discretion, elect to exercise the warrant through a cashless exercise, in which case the holder would receive upon such exercise the net number of shares of common stock determined according to the formula set forth in the warrant. No fractional shares of common stock will be issued in connection with the exercise of a warrant. In lieu of fractional shares, we will pay the holder an amount in cash equal to the fractional amount multiplied by the exercise price.
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Exercise Limitation.   A holder will not have the right to exercise any portion of the warrant if the holder (together with its affiliates) would beneficially own in excess of 4.99% (or, upon election of the holder, 9.99%) of the number of shares of our common stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the exercise, as such percentage ownership is determined in accordance with the terms of the warrants. However, any holder may increase or decrease such percentage, provided that any increase will not be effective until the 61st day after such election.
Exercise Price.   The warrants will have an exercise price of  $    per share (115% of the offering price). The exercise price is subject to appropriate adjustment in the event of certain stock dividends and distributions, stock splits, stock combinations, reclassifications or similar events affecting our common stock and also upon any distributions of assets, including cash, stock or other property to our stockholders.
Transferability.   Subject to applicable laws, the warrants may be offered for sale, sold, transferred or assigned without our consent.
Exchange Listing.   There is no established trading market for the warrants and we do not expect a market to develop. In addition, we do not intend to apply for the listing of the warrants on any national securities exchange or other trading market. Without an active trading market, the liquidity of the warrants will be limited.
Fundamental Transactions.   If a fundamental transaction occurs, then the successor entity will succeed to, and be substituted for us, and may exercise every right and power that we may exercise and will assume all of our obligations under the warrants with the same effect as if such successor entity had been named in the warrant itself. If holders of our common stock are given a choice as to the securities, cash or property to be received in a fundamental transaction, then the holder shall be given the same choice as to the consideration it receives upon any exercise of the warrant following such fundamental transaction.
Rights as a Stockholder.   Except as otherwise provided in the warrants or by virtue of such holder’s ownership of shares of our common stock, the holder of a warrant does not have the rights or privileges of a holder of our common stock, including any voting rights, until the holder exercises the warrant.
Transfer Agent
The transfer agent of our common stock being offered hereby is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company.
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UNDERWRITING
We have entered into an underwriting agreement with the underwriters named below with respect to the shares of our common stock and related warrants and Pre-Funded Warrants and related warrants subject to this offering. Subject to certain conditions, we have agreed to sell to the underwriters, and the underwriters have agreed to purchase, the number of shares of our common stock, pre-funded warrants and corresponding warrants provided below opposite each underwriter’s name. Maxim Group LLC is acting as the representatives of the underwriters.
Underwriter
Number of Shares
Number of Pre-Funded
Warrants
Number of Warrants
Maxim Group LLC
                             
Total
                             
The underwriters are offering the shares of our common stock and related warrants and Pre-Funded Warrants and related warrants subject to their acceptance of our common stock, the Pre-Funded Warrants and the warrants from us and subject to prior sale. The underwriting agreement provides that the obligations of the underwriters to pay for and accept delivery of the shares of our common stock and related warrants and Pre-Funded Warrants and related warrants offered by this prospectus are subject to the approval of certain legal matters by their counsel and to certain other conditions. The underwriters are obligated to take and pay for all of the shares of our common stock and related warrants and Pre-Funded Warrants and related warrants if any such shares of our common stock and related warrants or Pre-Funded Warrants and related warrants are taken.
We have granted the underwriters an option for a period of 45 days from the date of this prospectus to purchase up to an additional        shares of common stock and/or warrants to purchase        shares of common stock at the public offering price, less the underwriting discount.
Underwriter Compensation
We have agreed to pay the underwriters an aggregate fee equal to 7.0% of the gross proceeds of this offering and expect the net proceeds from this offering to be approximately $      after deducting $       in underwriting commissions and $       in our other estimated offering expenses. We have also agreed to pay the underwriters an accountable expense allowance for certain of the underwriters’ expenses relating to the offering up to a maximum aggregate amount of  $75,000, including the underwriters’ legal fees incurred in this offering.
Discounts and Expenses
The underwriters have advised us that they propose to offer the shares of our common stock, Pre-Funded Warrants and related warrants to the public at the respective public offering price set forth on the cover page of this prospectus and to certain dealers at that price less a concession not in excess of $       per share of our common stock and related warrant or $      per Pre-Funded Warrants and related warrants. After this offering, the public offering price and concession to dealers may be changed by the representative. No such change shall change the amount of proceeds to be received by us as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus. The shares of our common stock, Pre-Funded Warrants and related warrants are offered by the underwriters as stated herein, subject to receipt and acceptance by them and subject to their right to reject any order in whole or in part. The underwriters have informed us that they do not intend to confirm sales to any accounts over which they exercise discretionary authority.
The following table shows the public offering price, underwriting discount payable to the underwriters by us and proceeds before expenses to us, assuming both no exercise and full exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of common stock and/or warrants. The underwriting commissions are equal to the combined public offering price per share, Pre-Funded Warrants and related warrants, less the amount per share the underwriters pay us for the shares of common stock, Pre-Funded Warrants and warrants:
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Per Share
Per
Pre-Funded
Warrant
Per
Warrant
Total
(No Exercise)
Total
(Full Exercise)
Public offering price
$        $        $        $        $       
Underwriting discounts and commissions
$ $ $ $ $
Proceeds, before expenses, to us
$ $ $ $ $
In addition, we have agreed to reimburse the underwriters for reasonable out-of-pocket expenses not to exceed $75,000 in the aggregate. We estimate that total expenses payable by us in connection with this offering, other than the underwriting discount referred to above, will be approximately $      .
Indemnification
We have agreed to indemnify the underwriters against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.
Lock-up Agreements
We have agreed, subject to limited exceptions, for a period of six months after the closing of this offering, and our officers and directors have agreed, subject to limited exceptions, for a period of six months after the closing of this offering, not to offer, sell, contract to sell, pledge, grant any option to purchase, make any short sale or otherwise dispose of, directly or indirectly any shares of common stock or any securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock either owned as of the date of the underwriting agreement or thereafter acquired without the prior written consent of Maxim Group LLC. Maxim Group LLC may, in its sole discretion and at any time or from time to time before the termination of the lock-up period, without notice, release all or any portion of the securities subject to lock-up agreements.
Price Stabilization, Short Positions and Penalty Bids
In connection with the offering the underwriters may engage in stabilizing transactions, over-allotment transactions, syndicate covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act:

Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum.

Over-allotment involves sales by the underwriters of shares in excess of the number of shares the underwriters are obligated to purchase, which creates a syndicate short position. The short position may be either a covered short position or a naked short position. In a covered short position, the number of shares over-allotted by the underwriters is not greater than the number of shares that they may purchase in the over-allotment option. In a naked short position, the number of shares involved is greater than the number of shares in the over-allotment option. The underwriters may close out any covered short position by either exercising their over-allotment option and/or purchasing shares in the open market.

Syndicate covering transactions involve purchases of the common stock in the open market after the distribution has been completed in order to cover syndicate short positions. In determining the source of shares to close out the short position, the underwriters will consider, among other things, the price of shares available for purchase in the open market as compared to the price at which they may purchase shares through the over-allotment option. A naked short position occurs if the underwriters sell more shares than could be covered by the over-allotment option. This position can only be closed out by buying shares in the open market. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriters are concerned that there could be downward pressure on the price of the shares in the open market after pricing that could adversely affect investors who purchase in the offering.

Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a syndicate member when the common stock originally sold by the syndicate member is purchased in a stabilizing or syndicate covering transaction to cover syndicate short positions.
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These stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions and penalty bids may have the effect of raising or maintaining the market price of our common stock or preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the common stock. As a result, the price of our common stock may be higher than the price that might otherwise exist in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.
Neither we nor the underwriters make any representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above may have on the price of our shares of common stock. In addition, neither we nor the underwriters make any representation that the underwriters will engage in these transactions or that any transaction, if commenced, will not be discontinued without notice.
Electronic Distribution
This prospectus in electronic format may be made available on websites or through other online services maintained by the underwriters, or by their affiliates. Other than this prospectus in electronic format, the information on the underwriters’ websites and any information contained in any other websites maintained by the underwriters is not part of this prospectus or the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, has not been approved and/or endorsed by us or the underwriters in their capacity as underwriters, and should not be relied upon by investors.
Other
From time to time, the underwriters and/or their affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking and other financial services for us for which services it has received and, may in the future receive, customary fees.
Except for the services provided in connection with this offering and other than as described below, the underwriters have not provided any investment banking or other financial services during the 180-day period preceding the date of this prospectus.
On August 10, 2019, we completed an offering of 1,480,000 shares of our common stock and pre-funded warrants to purchase up to an aggregate of 1,372,314 shares of our common stock. The shares were sold at a purchase price of  $0.75 per share and the pre-funded warrants were sold at a purchase price of  $0.74 per pre-funded warrant which represents the per share purchase price for the shares less the $0.01 per share exercise price for each such pre-funded warrant. In addition, in a concurrent private placement, we issued to the purchaser warrants to purchase 2,852,314 shares of our common stock at an exercise price of  $1.07 per share, which are exercisable for a period of five years commencing February 9, 2020. Maxim Group LLC acted as placement agent in connection with such transaction.
Offers Outside the United States
Other than in the United States, no action has been taken by us or the underwriters that would permit a public offering of the securities offered by this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required. The securities offered by this prospectus may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, nor may this prospectus or any other offering material or advertisements in connection with the offer and sale of any such securities be distributed or published in any jurisdiction, except under circumstances that will result in compliance with the applicable rules and regulations of that jurisdiction. Persons into whose possession this prospectus comes are advised to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to the offering and the distribution of this prospectus. This prospectus does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities offered by this prospectus in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or a solicitation is unlawful.
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LEGAL MATTERS
The validity of the securities offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Loeb & Loeb LLP, New York, New York. The underwriters are being represented by Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP, New York, New York.
EXPERTS
The financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 incorporated by reference in this prospectus constituting a part of the registration statement on Form S-1 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of OUM & Co. LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated herein by reference, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
We have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission a registration statement on Form S-1 under the Securities Act with respect to the securities offered by this prospectus. This prospectus, which is part of the registration statement, omits certain information, exhibits, schedules and undertakings set forth in the registration statement. For further information pertaining to us and the securities offered hereby, reference is made to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules to the registration statement. Statements contained in this prospectus as to the contents or provisions of any documents referred to in this prospectus are not necessarily complete, and in each instance where a copy of the document has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, reference is made to the exhibit for a more complete description of the matters involved.
You may read and copy all or any portion of the registration statement without charge at the public reference room of the Securities and Exchange Commission at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Copies of the registration statement may be obtained from the Securities and Exchange Commission at prescribed rates from the public reference room of the Securities and Exchange Commission at such address. You may obtain information regarding the operation of the public reference room by calling 1-800-SEC-0330. In addition, registration statements and certain other filings made with the Securities and Exchange Commission electronically are publicly available through the Securities and Exchange Commission’s website at www.sec.gov. The registration statement, including all exhibits and amendments to the registration statement, has been filed electronically with the Securities and Exchange Commission. You may also read all or any portion of the registration statement and certain other filings made with the Securities and Exchange Commission on our website at www.heatbio.com. The information contained in, and that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated into and is not part of this prospectus.
We are subject to the information and periodic reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and, accordingly, are required to file annual reports containing financial statements audited by an independent public accounting firm, quarterly reports containing unaudited financial data, current reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission. You will be able to inspect and copy such periodic reports, proxy statements and other information at the Securities and Exchange Commission’s public reference room, the website of the Securities and Exchange Commission referred to above, and our website at www.titanpharm.com. Except for the specific incorporated reports and documents listed above, no information available on or through our website shall be deemed to be incorporated in this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part.
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” into this prospectus the information we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information we incorporate by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede some of this information. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings we make with the SEC under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, including filings made after the date of the initial registration statement, until we sell all of the shares covered by this prospectus or the sale of shares by us pursuant to
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this prospectus is terminated. In no event, however, will any of the information that we furnish to, pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of any Current Report on Form 8-K (including exhibits related thereto) or other applicable SEC rules, rather than file with, the SEC be incorporated by reference or otherwise be included herein, unless such information is expressly incorporated herein by a reference in such furnished Current Report on Form 8-K or other furnished document. The documents we incorporate by reference are:

our Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on April 2, 2019;

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended March 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on May 15, 2019;

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended June 30, 2019, filed with the SEC on August 14, 2019;

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 25, 2019, February 14, 2019, February 25, 2019, April 3, 2019, April 26, 2019, June 27, 2019, August 7, 2019 and August 23, 2019; and

the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A (File No. 001-13341) filed under the Exchange Act on October 8, 2015, including any amendment or reports filed for the purpose of updating such descriptions.
Any statement contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.
We will provide each person to whom a prospectus is delivered a copy of all of the information that has been incorporated by reference in this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus. You may obtain copies of these filings, at no cost, through the “Investor Relations” section of our website (www.titanpharm.com) and you may request a copy of these filings (other than an exhibit to any filing unless we have specifically incorporated that exhibit by reference into the filing), at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address:
400 Oyster Point Boulevard, Suite 505
South San Francisco, CA 94080
(650) 244-4990
Information on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated into this prospectus or other securities filings and is not a part of these filings.
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PROSPECTUS
MAXIM GROUP LLC
           , 2019
Through and including            , 2019 (25 days after commencement of this offering), all dealers that effect transactions in these securities, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This is in addition to the dealer’s obligation to deliver a prospectus when acting as an underwriter and with respect to their unsold allotments or subscriptions.

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PART II — INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS
Item 13.   Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution
We estimate that expenses in connection with the distribution described in this registration statement (other than fees and commissions charged by the underwriters) will be as set forth below. We will pay all of the expenses with respect to the distribution, and such amounts, with the exception of the SEC registration fee and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., or FINRA, filing fee, are estimates.
SEC registration fee
$ 2,908.80
FINRA filing fee
Legal fees and expenses
Accounting fees and expenses
Underwriters’ out-of-pocket expenses
Printing expenses
Other (including transfer agent and registrar fees)
Total
$
Item 14.   Indemnification of Directors and Officers
Subsection (a) of Section 145 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, or DGCL, empowers a corporation to indemnify any person who was or is a party or who is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of the corporation) by reason of the fact that the person is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if the person acted in good faith and in a manner the person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe the person’s conduct was unlawful.
Subsection (b) of Section 145 empowers a corporation to indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that the person acted in any of the capacities set forth above, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if the person acted in good faith and in a manner the person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, except that no indemnification shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.
Section 145 further provides that to the extent a director or officer of a corporation has been successful on the merits or otherwise in the defense of any action, suit or proceeding referred to in subsections (a) and (b) of Section 145, or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, such person shall be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection therewith; that indemnification provided for by Section 145 shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which the indemnified party may be entitled; and the indemnification provided for by Section 145 shall, unless otherwise provided when authorized or ratified, continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director, officer, employee or agent and shall inure to the benefit of such person’s heirs, executors and administrators. Section 145 also empowers the corporation to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at
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the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any liability asserted against such person and incurred by such person in any such capacity, or arising out of his status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such liabilities under Section 145.
Section 102(b)(7) of the DGCL provides that a corporation’s certificate of incorporation may contain a provision eliminating or limiting the personal liability of a director to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, provided that such provision shall not eliminate or limit the liability of a director (i) for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) under Section 174 of the DGCL, or (iv) for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.
Our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws provide that we will indemnify our directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, which prohibits our certificate of incorporation from limiting the liability of our directors for the following:

any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;

acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

unlawful payment of dividends or unlawful stock repurchases or redemptions; or

any transaction from which the director derived an improper benefit.
Our certificate of incorporation provides for indemnification of our directors and executive officers to the maximum extent permitted by the DGCL, and our bylaws provide for indemnification of our directors and executive officers to the maximum extent permitted by the DGCL.
We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our current directors. These agreements will require us to indemnify these individuals to the fullest extent permitted under Delaware law against liabilities that may arise by reason of their service to us and to advance expenses incurred as a result of any proceeding against them as to which they could be indemnified. We also intend to enter into indemnification agreements with our future directors and executive officers.
In any underwriting agreement we enter into in connection with the sale of common stock and pre-funded warrants being registered hereby, the underwriters will agree to indemnify, under certain conditions, us, our directors, our officers and persons who control us, within the meaning of the Securities Act, against certain liabilities.
Item 15.   Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
The following information sets forth certain information with respect to all unregistered securities which we have sold during the last three years:
In June 2019, we issued 448,287 shares of our common stock to L. Molteni & C. Dei Frattelli Alitti Società Di Esercizio S.P.A. upon the conversion of a convertible loan at conversion price of  $1.50 per share.
In August 2019, in connection with a concurrent registered direct offering to a single institutional investor, we issued warrants to purchase 2,852,314 shares of common stock at an exercise price of  $1.07 per share, which warrants are exercisable for a period of five years commencing February 9, 2020. Maxim Group LLC acted as the placement agent in connection with the offering and received a cash fee of 7.0% of the gross proceeds paid to us and reimbursement of certain out-of-pocket expenses.
The offers, sales and issuances of the securities described above were exempt from registration under the Securities Act by virtue of Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act.
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Item 16.   Exhibits
Exhibit No.
1.1 Form of Underwriting Agreement between Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Maxim Group LLC
3.1.1 Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant, as amended(5)
3.1.2
3.1.3 Certificate of Amendment to the Restated Certificate of Incorporation dated January 23, 2019(23)
3.2
3.3 Certificate of Designation of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock(22)
Form of 2014 Class A Warrant(11)
Form of 2014 Underwriter Warrant(11)
Form of Lender Warrant(15)
Form of Rights Agreement Warrant(17)
4.6
2018 Representative’s Purchase Warrant(22)
Form of August 2019 Offering Pre-Funded Warrant(27)
Form of August 2019 Placement Warrant(27)
4.10 Form of Pre-Funded Warrant
4.11 Form of 2019 Warrant Agency Agreement between Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company and Form of Offering Warrant
5.1* Opinion of Loeb & Loeb LLP
10.1 2001 Non-Qualified Employee Stock Option Plan(2)
10.2 2002 Stock Option Plan(3)
10.3 Lease for the Registrant’s facilities, amended as of October 1, 2004(4)
10.4 Amendments to lease for Registrant’s facilities dated May 21, 2007 and March 12, 2009(5)
10.5 Amendment to lease for Registrant’s facilities dated June 15, 2010(6)
10.6±
10.7 Amendment dated May 28, 2013 to License Agreement by and between Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Braeburn Pharmaceuticals Sprl(8)
10.8
10.9
10.10 Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 2014 Incentive Plan(12)
10.11
10.12
10.13
10.14
10.15
10.16 Amended and Restated Venture Loan and Security Agreement, dated March 21, 2018, by and between Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Horizon Technology Finance Corporation and L. Molteni & C. Dei Frattelli Alitti Società Di Esercizio S.P.A.(17)
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Exhibit No.
10.17±
10.18
10.19±
10.20± Amendment dated August 3, 2018 to Asset Purchase, Supply and Support Agreement by and between Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and L. Molteni & C. Dei Frattelli Alitti Società Di Esercizio S.P.A(19)
10.21±
10.22
10.23
10.24
10.25
10.26
10.27
10.28
10.29
10.30
10.31
10.32
10.33 Amendment dated September 10, 2019 to Amended and Restated Venture Loan and Security Agreement, dated March 21, 2018, by and between Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Horizon Technology Finance Corporation and L. Molteni & C. Dei Frattelli Alitti Società Di Esercizio S.P.A.
10.34±± Amendment No. 2 dated September 10, 2019 to Asset Purchase, Supply and Support Agreement by and between Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and L. Molteni & C. Dei Frattelli Alitti Società Di Esercizio S.P.A
14.1
23.1 Consent of OUM & Co., LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
23.2 Consent of Loeb & Loeb LLP (contained in Exhibit 5.1)*
24.1 Power of Attorney (included on the signature page of this Registration Statement)
*
To be filed by amendment.
±
Confidential treatment has been granted as to certain portions of this exhibit.
±±
Confidential treatment has been requested as to certain portions of this exhibit.
(1)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-21126).
(2)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2001.
(3)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2002.
(4)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2005.
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(5)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form 10 filed on January 14, 2010.
(6)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended June 30, 2010.
(7)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K/A filed on February 28, 2013.
(8)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on May 29, 2013.
(9)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 5, 2013.
(10)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2013.
(11)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A dated September 30, 2014.
(12)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on September 28, 2015.
(13)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on November 13, 2013.
(14)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on September 30, 2016.
(15)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 27, 2017.
(16)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on February 7, 2018.
(17)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on March 26, 2018.
(18)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on May 30, 2018.
(19)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on August 3, 2018.
(20)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended June 30, 2018.
(21)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated September 20, 2018.
(22)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated September 25, 2018.
(23)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated January 25, 2019.
(24)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018.
(25)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated April 3, 2019.
(26)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated April 25, 2019.
(27)
Incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated August 7, 2019.
ITEM 17.   UNDERTAKINGS
(a) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:
(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
(i) To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”);
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(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement.
(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;
Provided, however, that Paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (ii), and (iii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement.
(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser: If the registrant is subject to Rule 430C (§230.430C of this chapter), each prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) as part of a registration statement relating to an offering, other than registration statements relying on Rule 430B or other than prospectuses filed in reliance on Rule 430A (§230.430A of this chapter), shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the date it is first used after effectiveness. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such first use, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such date of first use.
(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:
(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424 (§230.424 of this chapter);
(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;
(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and
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(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.
(b) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(c) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to supplement the prospectus, after the expiration of the subscription period, to set forth the results of the subscription offer, the transactions by the underwriters during the subscription period, the amount of unsubscribed securities to be purchased by the underwriters, and the terms of any subsequent reoffering thereof. If any public offering by the underwriters is to be made on terms differing from those set forth on the cover page of the prospectus, a post-effective amendment will be filed to set forth the terms of such offering.
(d) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the Company pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
(e) For the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, the registrant will treat the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form of prospectus filed by the registrant under Rule 424(b)(1), or (4), or 497(h) under the Securities Act as part of this registration statement as of the time the Commission declared it effective.
(f) For the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant has duly caused this Registration Statement on Form S-1 or amendment thereto to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of South San Francisco, State of California, this September 12, 2019.
TITAN PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
By:
/s/ Sunil Bhonsle
Name:
Sunil Bhonsle
Title:
Chief Executive Officer and President
POWER OF ATTORNEY
We the undersigned officers and directors of Titan Pharmaceutics, Inc., hereby severally constitute and appoint Sunil Bhonsle and Marc Rubin, and each of them singly, our true and lawful attorneys with full power to any of them, and to each of them singly, to sign for us and in our names in the capacities indicated below the registration statement on Form S-1 filed herewith and any and all pre-effective and post-effective amendments to said registration statement and any subsequent registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and to file the same with all exhibits thereto, and the other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and generally to do all such things in our name and behalf in our capacities as officers and directors to enable Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. to comply with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and all requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission, hereby ratifying and confirming our signatures as they may be signed by our said attorneys, or any of them, to said registration statement and any and all amendments thereto.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act 1933, as amended, this report has been signed by the following persons on behalf of the Registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
Signature
Title
Date
/s/ Marc Rubin, M.D.
Marc Rubin, M.D.
Executive Chairman
September 12, 2019
/s/ Sunil Bhonsle
Sunil Bhonsle
President, Chief Executive Officer and Director
(principal executive officer and principal financial officer)
September 12, 2019
/s/ Joseph A. Akers
Joseph A. Akers
Director
September 12, 2019
/s/ Rajinder Kumar, Ph.D.
Rajinder Kumar, Ph.D.
Director
September 12, 2019
/s/ M. David MacFarlane, Ph.D.
M. David MacFarlane, Ph.D.
Director
September 12, 2019
/s/ James R. McNab, Jr.
James R. McNab, Jr.
Director
September 12, 2019
/s/ Scott A. Smith
Scott A. Smith
Director
September 12, 2019
/s/ Brian E. Crowley
Brian E. Crowley
Vice President, Finance
(principal accounting officer)
September 12, 2019
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Exhibit 1.1

 

[   ] SHARES of Common Stock,

 

[   ] pre-funded warrants (exercisable for [   ] shares) and

 

[   ] Warrants (exercisable for [   ] shares) of

 

TITAN PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

 

UNDERWRITING AGREEMENT


[   ], 2019

 

Maxim Group LLC

As the Representative of the

Several underwriters, if any, named in Schedule I hereto

c/o Maxim Group LLC

405 Lexington Avenue, 2nd Fl.

New York, NY 10174

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

The undersigned, Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a company incorporated under the laws of Delaware (the “Company”), hereby confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with the several underwriters (such underwriters, including the Representative (as defined below), the “Underwriters” and each an “Underwriter”) named in Schedule I hereto for which Maxim Group LLC is acting as representative to the several Underwriters (the “Representative” and if there are no Underwriters other than the Representative, references to multiple Underwriters shall be disregarded and the term Representative as used herein shall have the same meaning as Underwriter) on the terms and conditions set forth herein.

 

It is understood that the several Underwriters are to make a public offering of the Public Securities as soon as the Representative deems it advisable to do so. The Public Securities are to be initially offered to the public at the public offering price set forth in the Prospectus. The Representative may from time to time thereafter change the public offering price and other selling terms.

 

It is further understood that you will act as the Representative for the Underwriters in the offering and sale of the Closing Securities and, if any, the Option Securities in accordance with this Agreement.

 

ARTICLE I.

DEFINITIONS

 

1.1           Definitions. In addition to the terms defined elsewhere in this Agreement, for all purposes of this Agreement, the following terms have the meanings set forth in this Section 1.1:

 

 

 

 

Affiliate” means with respect to any Person, any other Person that, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is controlled by or is under common control with such Person as such terms are used in and construed under Rule 405 under the Securities Act.

 

Board of Directors” means the board of directors of the Company.

 

Business Day” means any day except any Saturday, any Sunday, any day which is a federal legal holiday in the United States or any day on which banking institutions in the State of New York are authorized or required by law or other governmental action to close.

 

Closing” means the closing of the purchase and sale of the Closing Securities pursuant to Section 2.1.

 

Closing Date” means the hour and the date on the Trading Day on which all conditions precedent to (i) the Underwriters’ obligations to pay the Closing Purchase Price and (ii) the Company’s obligations to deliver the Closing Securities, in each case, have been satisfied or waived, but in no event later than 10:00 a.m. (New York City time) on the second (2nd) Trading Day following the date hereof or at such earlier time as shall be agreed upon by the Representative and the Company.

 

Closing Purchase Price” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(b), which aggregate purchase price shall be net of the underwriting discounts and commissions.

 

Commission” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Common Stock” means the common stock of the Company, par value $0.001 per share, and any other class of securities into which such securities may hereafter be reclassified or changed.

 

Common Stock Equivalents” means any securities of the Company or the Subsidiaries which would entitle the holder thereof to acquire at any time Common Stock, including, without limitation, any debt, preferred stock, right, option, warrant or other instrument that is at any time convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or otherwise entitles the holder thereof to receive, Common Stock.

 

Company Auditor” means OUM & Co. LLP, with offices located at 601 California St Suite 1800, San Francisco, CA 94108.

 

Company Counsel” means Loeb & Loeb LLP, with offices located at 345 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10018.

 

Disclosure Schedules” means the Disclosure Schedules of the Company delivered concurrently herewith.

 

  2  

 

 

Effective Date” means the date and time as of which the Registration Statement, or the most recent post-effective amendment thereto, became effective, or is deemed to have become effective by the Commission, in accordance with the rules and regulations under the Securities Act.

 

EGS” means Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP, with offices located at 1345 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10105.

 

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

Execution Date” shall mean the date on which the parties execute and enter into this Agreement.

 

Exempt Issuance” means the issuance of (a) shares of Common Stock or options to employees, officers, directors consultants and advisors of the Company pursuant to any stock or option plan duly adopted for such purpose by a majority of the non-employee members of the Board of Directors or a majority of the members of a committee of non-employee directors established for such purpose for services rendered to the Company, (b) securities upon the exercise or exchange of or conversion of any Securities issued hereunder and/or other securities exercisable or exchangeable for or convertible into shares of Common Stock issued and outstanding on the date of this Agreement, provided that such securities have not been amended since the date of this Agreement to increase the number of such securities or to decrease the exercise price, exchange price or conversion price of such securities (other than in connection with stock splits or combinations or existing anti-dilution provisions of such securities) or to extend the term of such securities, and (c) securities issued pursuant to acquisitions or strategic transactions approved by a majority of the disinterested directors of the Company, provided that such securities are issued as “restricted securities” (as defined in Rule 144) and carry no registration rights that require or permit the filing of any registration statement in connection therewith prior to the date which is six (6) months after the Closing Date, and provided that any such issuance shall only be to a Person (or to the equity holders of a Person) which is, itself or through its subsidiaries, an operating company or an owner of an asset in a business synergistic with the business of the Company and shall provide to the Company additional benefits in addition to the investment of funds, but shall not include a transaction in which the Company is issuing securities primarily for the purpose of raising capital or to an entity whose primary business is investing in securities.

 

FCPA” means the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended.

 

FINRA” means the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority.

 

  3  

 

 

Indebtedness” means (a) any liabilities for borrowed money or amounts owed in excess of $50,000 (other than trade accounts payable incurred in the ordinary course of business), (b) all guaranties, endorsements and other contingent obligations in respect of indebtedness of others, whether or not the same are or should be reflected in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet (or the notes thereto), except guaranties by endorsement of negotiable instruments for deposit or collection or similar transactions in the ordinary course of business; and (c) the present value of any lease payments in excess of $50,000 due under leases required to be capitalized in accordance with GAAP.

 

Liens” means a lien, charge, pledge, security interest, encumbrance, right of first refusal, preemptive right or other restriction.

 

Lock-Up Agreements” means the lock-up agreements that are delivered on the date hereof by each of the Company’s officers and directors and each holder of Common Stock and Common Stock Equivalents holding, on a fully diluted basis, more than 3% of the Company’s issued and outstanding Common Stock, in the form of Exhibit F attached hereto.1

 

Material Adverse Effect” means (i) a material adverse effect on the legality, validity or enforceability of any Transaction Document, (ii) a material adverse effect on the results of operations, assets, business, prospects or condition (financial or otherwise) of the Company and the Subsidiaries, taken as a whole or (iii) a material adverse effect on the Company’s ability to perform in any material respect on a timely basis its obligations under any Transaction Document.

 

Option Closing Purchase Price” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2(b), which aggregate purchase price shall be net of the underwriting discounts and commissions.

 

Person” means an individual or corporation, partnership, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, limited liability company, joint stock company, government (or an agency or subdivision thereof) or other entity of any kind.

 

Pre-Funded Warrants” means, collectively, the Pre-Funded Common Stock purchase warrants delivered to the Underwriters in accordance with Section 2.1(a)(ii) in the form attached hereto as Exhibit E-2.

 

Proceeding” means an action, claim, suit, investigation or proceeding (including, without limitation, an informal investigation or partial proceeding, such as a deposition), whether commenced or threatened.

 

Prospectus Supplement” means, if any, any supplement to the Prospectus complying with Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act that is filed with the Commission.

 

Public Securities” means, collectively, the Closing Securities and, if any, the Option Securities.

 

Rule 424” means Rule 424 promulgated by the Commission pursuant to the Securities Act, as such Rule may be amended or interpreted from time to time, or any similar rule or regulation hereafter adopted by the Commission having substantially the same purpose and effect as such Rule.

 

 

1 Lock-up agreement to provide for 6 month lock-up period.

 

  4  

 

 

Securities” means the Closing Securities, the Option Securities and the Warrant Shares.

 

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

Shares” means, collectively, the shares of Common Stock delivered to the Underwriters in accordance with Section 2.1(a)(i) and Section 2.2(a).

 

Subsidiary” means any subsidiary of the Company and shall, where applicable, also include any direct or indirect subsidiary of the Company formed or acquired after the date hereof.

 

Trading Day” means a day on which the principal Trading Market is open for trading.

 

Trading Market” means any of the following markets or exchanges on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted for trading on the date in question: the NYSE American, the Nasdaq Capital Market, the Nasdaq Global Market, the Nasdaq Global Select Market, the New York Stock Exchange (or any successors to any of the foregoing).

 

Traditional Warrants” means, collectively, the Common Stock purchase warrants delivered to the Underwriters in accordance with Section 2.1(a)(iii) and Section 2.2, which Traditional Warrants shall be exercisable immediately and have a term of exercise equal to five (5) years, in the form of Exhibit E-1 attached hereto.

 

Transaction Documents” means this Agreement and all exhibits and schedules hereto, the Warrants, the Warrant Agency Agreement, the Lock-Up Agreements, and any other documents or agreements executed in connection with the transactions contemplated hereunder.

 

Transfer Agent” means Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, the current transfer agent of the Company with a mailing address of 1 State Street, 30th Floor, New York, NY 10004, and any successor transfer agent of the Company.

 

Warrant Agency Agreement” means the warrant agency agreement dated on or about the date hereof, among the Company and the Transfer Agent in the form of Exhibit E attached hereto.

 

Warrant Shares” means the shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the Warrants.

 

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Warrants” means, collectively, the Pre-Funded Warrants and the Traditional Warrants.

 

ARTICLE II.

PURCHASE AND SALE

 

2.1          Closing.

 

(a)          Upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, the Company agrees to sell in the aggregate (i) [________ shares of Common Stock, (ii) Pre-Funded Warrants exercisable for an aggregate of [_______ shares of Common Stock and (iii) Traditional Warrants exercisable for an aggregate of [_____ shares of Common Stock, and each Underwriter agrees to purchase, severally and not jointly, at the Closing, the following securities of the Company:

 

(i)          the number of shares of Common Stock (the “Closing Shares”) set forth opposite the name of such Underwriter on Schedule I hereof;

 

(ii)         Pre-Funded Warrants to purchase up to the number of shares of Common Stock set forth opposite the name of such Underwriter on Schedule I hereof, which shall have an exercise price equal to $0.001 (subject to adjustment therein) (collectively, with the Traditional Warrants delivered at Closing, the “Closing Warrants” and, collectively with the Closing Shares, the “Closing Securities”); and

 

(iii)        Traditional Warrants to purchase up to the number of shares of Common Stock and shares underlying the Pre-Funded Warrants set forth opposite the name of such Underwriter on Schedule I hereof, which Warrants shall have an exercise price of $[____, subject to adjustment as provided therein.

 

(b)          The aggregate purchase price for the Closing Securities shall equal the amount set forth opposite the name of such Underwriter on Schedule I hereto (the “Closing Purchase Price”). The combined purchase price for one Closing Share and a Traditional Warrant to purchase [___ Warrant Share shall be $[_____2 which shall be allocated as $[_____ per Closing Share (the “Share Purchase Price”) and $[____ per Traditional Warrant (the “Warrant Purchase Price”). The combined purchase price for one Pre-Funded Warrant and a Traditional Warrant to purchase [___ Warrant Share shall be $[___, which shall be allocated as $[___ per Pre-Funded Warrant and $____ per Traditional Warrant.

 

(c)           On the Closing Date, each Underwriter shall deliver or cause to be delivered to the Company, via wire transfer, immediately available funds equal to such Underwriter’s Closing Purchase Price and the Company shall deliver to, or as directed by, such Underwriter its respective Closing Securities and the Company shall deliver the other items required pursuant to Section 2.3 deliverable at the Closing. Upon satisfaction of the covenants and conditions set forth in Sections 2.3 and 2.4, the Closing shall occur at the offices of EGS or such other location as the Company and Representative shall mutually agree. The Public Securities are to be offered initially to the public at the offering price set forth on the cover page of the Prospectus (the “Offering”).

 

 

2 7% discount to pricing.

 

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(d)          The Company acknowledges and agrees that, with respect to any Notice(s) of Exercise (as defined in the Pre-Funded Warrants) delivered by a Holder (as defined in the Pre-Funded Warrants) on or prior to 12:00 p.m. (New York City time) on the Closing Date, which Notice(s) of Exercise may be delivered at any time after the time of execution of this Agreement, the Company shall deliver the Warrant Shares (as defined in the Pre-Funded Warrants) subject to such notice(s) to the Holder by 4:00 p.m. (New York City time) on the Closing Date and the Closing Date shall be the Warrant Share Delivery Date (as defined in the Pre-Funded Warrants). The Company acknowledges and agrees that the Holders are third-party beneficiaries of this covenant of the Company.

 

2.2          Over-Allotment Option.

 

(a)          For the purposes of covering any over-allotments in connection with the distribution and sale of the Closing Securities, the Representative is hereby granted an option (the “Over-Allotment Option”) to purchase, in the aggregate, up to [_____ shares of Common Stock (the “Option Shares”) and Traditional Warrants to purchase up to [____ shares of Common Stock (the “Option Warrants” and, collectively with the Option Shares, the “Option Securities”)3 which may be purchased in any combination of Option Shares and/or Option Warrants at the Share Purchase Price and/or Warrant Purchase Price, respectively.

 

(b)          In connection with an exercise of the Over-Allotment Option, (a) the purchase price to be paid for the Option Shares is equal to the product of the Share Purchase Price multiplied by the number of Option Shares to be purchased and (b) the purchase price to be paid for the Option Warrants is equal to the product of the Warrant Purchase Price multiplied by the number of Option Warrants (the aggregate purchase price to be paid on an Option Closing Date, the “Option Closing Purchase Price”).

 

(c)          The Over-Allotment Option granted pursuant to this Section 2.2 may be exercised by the Representative as to all (at any time) or any part (from time to time) of the Option Securities within 45 days after the Execution Date. An Underwriter will not be under any obligation to purchase any Option Securities prior to the exercise of the Over-Allotment Option by the Representative. The Over-Allotment Option granted hereby may be exercised by the giving of oral notice to the Company from the Representative, which must be confirmed in writing by overnight mail or facsimile or other electronic transmission setting forth the number of Option Shares and/or Option Warrants to be purchased and the date and time for delivery of and payment for the Option Securities (each, an “Option Closing Date”), which will not be later than two (2) full Business Days after the date of the notice or such other time as shall be agreed upon by the Company and the Representative, at the offices of EGS or at such other place (including remotely by facsimile or other electronic transmission) as shall be agreed upon by the Company and the Representative. If such delivery and payment for the Option Securities does not occur on the Closing Date, each Option Closing Date will be as set forth in the notice. Upon exercise of the Over-Allotment Option, the Company will become obligated to convey to the Underwriters, and, subject to the terms and conditions set forth herein, the Underwriters will become obligated to purchase, the number of Option Shares and/or Option Warrants specified in such notice. The Representative may cancel the Over-Allotment Option at any time prior to the expiration of the Over-Allotment Option by written notice to the Company.

 

 

3 15% of the Closing Shares and the Closing Warrants.

 

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2.3          Deliveries. The Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to each Underwriter (if applicable) the following:

 

(i)          At the Closing Date, the Closing Shares and, as to each Option Closing Date, if any, the applicable Option Shares, which shares shall be delivered via The Depository Trust Company Deposit or Withdrawal at Custodian system for the accounts of the several Underwriters;

 

(ii)         At the Closing Date, the Closing Warrants and, as to each Option Closing Date, if any, the applicable Option Warrants via The Depository Trust Company Deposit or Withdrawal at Custodian system for the accounts of the several Underwriters;4

 

(iii)       At the Closing Date, the Warrant Agency Agreement duly executed by the parties thereto;

 

(iv)       At the Closing Date, a legal opinion of Company Counsel addressed to the Underwriters, including, without limitation, a negative assurance letter, in the form and substance satisfactory in all respects to the Representative and as to the Closing Date and as to each Option Closing Date, if any, a bring-down opinion from Company Counsel in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Representative and the favorable opinion of intellectual property legal counsel to the Company, including, without limitation, a negative assurance letter, addressed to the Underwriters and in form and substance satisfactory to the Representative;

 

(v)        Contemporaneously herewith, a cold comfort letter, addressed to the Underwriters and in form and substance satisfactory in all respects to the Representative from the Company Auditor dated, respectively, as of the date of this Agreement and a bring-down letter dated as of the Closing Date and each Option Closing Date, if any;

 

(vi)       On the Closing Date and on each Option Closing Date, the duly executed and delivered Officer’s Certificate, in form and substance satisfactory to the Representative;

 

 

4 NTD: To confirm that warrants will be book entry through DTC.

 

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(vii)      On the Closing Date and on each Option Closing Date, the duly executed and delivered Secretary’s Certificate, in form and substance satisfactory to the Representative;

 

(viii)     On the Closing Date and on each Option Closing Date, the duly executed and delivered Intellectual Property Certificate, in form and substance satisfactory to the Representative;

 

(ix)        Contemporaneously herewith, the duly executed and delivered Lock-Up Agreements; and

 

(x)         Such other certificates, opinions or documents as the Underwriters and Underwriters’ Counsel may have reasonably requested.

 

2.4          Closing Conditions. The respective obligations of each Underwriter hereunder in connection with the Closing and each Option Closing Date are subject to the following conditions being met:

 

(i)         the accuracy in all material respects when made and on the date in question (other than representations and warranties of the Company already qualified by materiality, which shall be true and correct in all respects) of the representations and warranties of the Company contained herein (unless as of a specific date therein);

 

(ii)        all obligations, covenants and agreements of the Company required to be performed at or prior to the date in question shall have been performed;

 

(iii)       the delivery by the Company of the items set forth in Section 2.3 of this Agreement;

 

(iv)        the Registration Statement shall be effective on the date of this Agreement and at each of the Closing Date and each Option Closing Date, if any, no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement shall have been issued and no proceedings for that purpose shall have been instituted or shall be pending or contemplated by the Commission and any request on the part of the Commission for additional information shall have been complied with to the reasonable satisfaction of the Representative;

 

(v)        by the Execution Date, if required by FINRA, the Underwriters shall have received a notice of no objections from FINRA as to the amount of compensation allowable or payable to and the terms and arrangements for acting as the Underwriters as described in the Registration Statement;

 

(vi)       the Closing Shares, the Option Shares and the Warrant Shares have been approved for listing on the Trading Market; and

 

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(vii)       prior to and on each of the Closing Date and each Option Closing Date, if any: (i) there shall have been no material adverse change or development involving a prospective material adverse change in the condition or prospects or the business activities, financial or otherwise, of the Company from the latest dates as of which such condition is set forth in the Registration Statement and Prospectus; (ii) no action suit or proceeding, at law or in equity, shall have been pending or threatened against the Company or any Affiliate of the Company before or by any court or federal or state commission, board or other administrative agency wherein an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding may materially adversely affect the business, operations, prospects or financial condition or income of the Company, except as set forth in the Registration Statement and Prospectus; (iii) no stop order shall have been issued under the Securities Act and no proceedings therefor shall have been initiated or threatened by the Commission; (iv) the Company has not incurred any material liabilities or obligations, direct or contingent, nor has it entered into any material transactions not in the ordinary course of business, other than pursuant to this Agreement and the transactions referred to herein; (v) the Company has not paid or declared any dividends or other distributions of any kind on any class of its capital stock; (vi) the Company has not altered its method of accounting and (vii) the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto shall contain all material statements which are required to be stated therein in accordance with the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder and shall conform in all material respects to the requirements of the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, and neither the Registration Statement nor the Prospectus nor any amendment or supplement thereto shall contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

If any of the conditions specified in this Section 2.4 shall not have been fulfilled when and as required by this Agreement, or if any of the certificates, opinions, written statements or letters furnished to the Representatives or to Representative’s counsel pursuant to this Section 2.4 shall not be reasonably satisfactory in form and substance to the Representative and to Representative’s counsel, all obligations of the Underwriters hereunder may be cancelled by the Representative at, or at any time prior to, the consummation of the Closing. Notice of such cancellation shall be given to the Company in writing or orally. Any such oral notice shall be confirmed promptly thereafter in writing.

 

ARTICLE III.

REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES

 

3.1          Representations and Warranties of the Company. Except as set forth in the Disclosure Schedules, which Disclosure Schedules shall be deemed a part hereof and shall qualify any representation or otherwise made herein to the extent of the disclosure contained in the corresponding section of the Disclosure Schedules, the Company represents and warrants to the Underwriters as of the Execution Date, as of the Closing Date and as of each Option Closing Date, if any, as follows:

 

(a)          Subsidiaries. The Company has no direct or indirect subsidiaries.

 

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(b)          Organization and Qualification. The Company is an entity duly incorporated or otherwise organized, validly existing and in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its incorporation or organization, with the requisite power and authority to own and use its properties and assets and to carry on its business as currently conducted. The Company is not in violation nor default of any of the provisions of its certificate of incorporation or bylaws. The Company is duly qualified to conduct business and is in good standing as a foreign corporation in each jurisdiction in which the nature of its business or property it owns makes such qualification necessary, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing, as the case may be, could not have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect and no Proceeding has been instituted in any such jurisdiction revoking, limiting or curtailing or seeking to revoke, limit or curtail such power and authority or qualification.

 

(c)          Authorization; Enforcement. The Company has the requisite corporate power and authority to enter into and to consummate the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and each of the other Transaction Documents and otherwise to carry out its obligations hereunder and thereunder. The execution and delivery of this Agreement and each of the other Transaction Documents by the Company and the consummation by it of the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby have been duly authorized by all necessary action on the part of the Company and no further action is required by the Company, the Board of Directors or the Company’s stockholders in connection herewith or therewith other than in connection with the Required Approvals. This Agreement and each other Transaction Document to which the Company is a party has been (or upon delivery will have been) duly executed by the Company and, when delivered in accordance with the terms hereof and thereof, will constitute the valid and binding obligation of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms, except (i) as limited by general equitable principles and applicable bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium and other laws of general application affecting enforcement of creditors’ rights generally, (ii) as limited by laws relating to the availability of specific performance, injunctive relief or other equitable remedies and (iii) insofar as indemnification and contribution provisions may be limited by applicable law.

 

(d)          No Conflicts. The execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement and the other Transaction Documents to which it is a party, the issuance and sale of the Securities and the consummation by it of the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby do not and will not (i) conflict with or violate any provision of the Company’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, or (ii) conflict with, or constitute a default (or an event that with notice or lapse of time or both would become a default) under, result in the creation of any Lien upon any of the properties or assets of the Company, or give to others any rights of termination, amendment, anti-dilution or similar adjustments, acceleration or cancellation (with or without notice, lapse of time or both) of, any agreement, credit facility, debt or other instrument (evidencing a Company debt or otherwise) or other understanding to which the Company is a party or by which any property or asset of the Company is bound or affected, or (iii) subject to the Required Approvals, conflict with or result in a violation of any law, rule, regulation, order, judgment, injunction, decree or other restriction of any court or governmental authority to which the Company is subject (including federal and state securities laws and regulations), or by which any property or asset of the Company is bound or affected; except in the case of clause (ii), such as could not have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(e)          Filings, Consents and Approvals. The Company is not required to obtain any consent, waiver, authorization or order of, give any notice to, or make any filing or registration with, any court or other federal, state, local or other governmental authority or other Person in connection with the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of the Transaction Documents, other than: (i) the filings required pursuant to Section 4.16 of this Agreement, (ii) the filing with the Commission of the Prospectus, (iii) application(s) to each applicable Trading Market for the listing of the Shares and Warrant Shares for trading thereon in the time and manner required thereby and (iv) such filings as are required to be made under applicable state securities laws (collectively, the “Required Approvals”).

 

(f)          Registration Statement. The Company has filed with the Commission the Registration Statement, including any related Preliminary Prospectus, Prospectus or Prospectuses, for the registration of the Securities under the Securities Act, which Registration Statement has been prepared by the Company in all material respects in conformity with the requirements of the Securities Act and the rules and regulations of the Commission under the Securities Act. The registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act has been declared effective by the Commission on the date hereof. Copies of the Registration Statement and of each amendment thereto, if any, including the related Preliminary Prospectuses, heretofore filed by the Company with the Commission have been delivered to the Underwriters. The term “Registration Statement” means such registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-[_____), as amended, as of the relevant Effective Date, including financial statements, all exhibits and any information deemed to be included or incorporated by reference therein, including any information deemed to be included pursuant to Rule 430A or Rule 430B of the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, as applicable. If the Company files a registration statement to register a portion of the Securities and relies on Rule 462(b) of the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder for such registration statement to become effective upon filing with the Commission (the “Rule 462 Registration Statement”), then any reference to the “Registration Statement” shall be deemed to include the Rule 462 Registration Statement, as amended from time to time. The term “Preliminary Prospectus” as used herein means a preliminary prospectus as contemplated by Rule 430 or Rule 430A of the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder as included at any time as part of, or deemed to be part of or included in, the Registration Statement. The term “Prospectus” means the final prospectus in connection with this Offering as first filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder or, if no such filing is required, the form of final prospectus included in the Registration Statement at the Effective Date, except that if any revised prospectus or prospectus supplement shall be provided to the Representative by the Company for use in connection with the Securities which differs from the Prospectus (whether or not such revised prospectus or prospectus supplement is required to be filed by the Company pursuant to Rule 424(b)), the term “Prospectus” shall also refer to such revised prospectus or prospectus supplement, as the case may be, from and after the time it is first provided to the Representative for such use. Any reference herein to the terms “amend”, “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement, any Preliminary Prospectus or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include: (i) the filing of any document under the Exchange Act after the Effective Date, the date of such Preliminary Prospectus or the date of the Prospectus, as the case may be, which is incorporated therein by reference, and (ii) any such document so filed. All references in this Agreement to the Registration Statement, a Preliminary Prospectus and the Prospectus, or any amendments or supplements to any of the foregoing shall be deemed to include any copy thereof filed with the Commission pursuant to its Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval System (“EDGAR”). The term “General Disclosure Package” means, collectively, the Permitted Free Writing Prospectus(es) (as defined below) issued at or prior to the date hereof, the most recent preliminary prospectus related to this offering, and the information included on Schedule I hereto.

 

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(g)          Issuance of Securities. The Securities are duly authorized and, when issued and paid for in accordance with the applicable Transaction Documents, will be duly and validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of all Liens imposed by the Company. The Warrant Shares, when issued in accordance with the terms of the Warrants, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of all Liens imposed by the Company. The Company has reserved from its duly authorized capital stock the maximum number of shares of Common Stock issuable pursuant to this Agreement and the Warrants. The holder of the Securities will not be subject to personal liability by reason of being such holders. The Securities are not and will not be subject to the preemptive rights of any holders of any security of the Company or similar contractual rights granted by the Company. All corporate action required to be taken for the authorization, issuance and sale of the Securities has been duly and validly taken. The Securities conform in all material respects to all statements with respect thereto contained in the Registration Statement.

 

(h)          Capitalization. The capitalization of the Company as of the date hereof is as set forth on Schedule 3.1(h), which Schedule 3.1(h) shall also include the number of shares of Common Stock owned beneficially, and of record, by Affiliates of the Company as of the date hereof. Except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(h), the Company has not issued any capital stock since its most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act, other than pursuant to the exercise of employee stock options under the Company’s stock option plans, the issuance of shares of Common Stock to employees pursuant to the Company’s employee stock purchase plans and pursuant to the conversion and/or exercise of Common Stock Equivalents outstanding as of the date of the most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act. No Person has any right of first refusal, preemptive right, right of participation, or any similar right to participate in the transactions contemplated by the Transaction Documents. Except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(h) and as a result of the purchase and sale of the Securities, there are no outstanding options, warrants, scrip rights to subscribe to, calls or commitments of any character whatsoever relating to, or securities, rights or obligations convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or giving any Person any right to subscribe for or acquire, any shares of Common Stock, or contracts, commitments, understandings or arrangements by which the Company is or may become bound to issue additional shares of Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents. Except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(h), the issuance and sale of the Securities will not obligate the Company to issue shares of Common Stock or other securities to any Person (other than the Underwriters) and will not result in a right of any holder of Company securities to adjust the exercise, conversion, exchange or reset price under any of such securities. Except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(h), there are no outstanding securities or instruments of the Company that contain any redemption or similar provisions, and there are no contracts, commitments, understandings or arrangements by which the Company is or may become bound to redeem a security of the Company. The Company does not have any stock appreciation rights or “phantom stock” plans or agreements or any similar plan or agreement. All of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company are duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, have been issued in compliance with all federal and state securities laws, and none of such outstanding shares was issued in violation of any preemptive rights or similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities. The authorized shares of the Company conform in all material respects to all statements relating thereto contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. The offers and sales of the Company’s securities were at all relevant times either registered under the Securities Act and the applicable state securities or Blue Sky laws or, based in part on the representations and warranties of the purchasers, exempt from such registration requirements. No further approval or authorization of any stockholder, the Board of Directors or others is required for the issuance and sale of the Securities. Except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(h), there are no stockholders agreements, voting agreements or other similar agreements with respect to the Company’s capital stock to which the Company is a party or, to the knowledge of the Company, between or among any of the Company’s stockholders.

 

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(i)          SEC Reports; Financial Statements. The Company has filed all reports, schedules, forms, statements and other documents required to be filed by the Company under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, including pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) thereof, for the two years preceding the date hereof (or such shorter period as the Company was required by law or regulation to file such material) (the foregoing materials, including the exhibits thereto and documents incorporated by reference therein, together with the Registration Statement, the Preliminary Prospectus and the Prospectus, being collectively referred to herein as the “SEC Reports”) on a timely basis or has received a valid extension of such time of filing and has filed any such SEC Reports prior to the expiration of any such extension. As of their respective dates, the SEC Reports complied in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable, and none of the SEC Reports, when filed, contained any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The financial statements of the Company included in the SEC Reports comply in all material respects with applicable accounting requirements and the rules and regulations of the Commission with respect thereto as in effect at the time of filing. Such financial statements have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles applied on a consistent basis during the periods involved (“GAAP”), except as may be otherwise specified in such financial statements or the notes thereto and except that unaudited financial statements may not contain all footnotes required by GAAP, and fairly present in all material respects the financial position of the Company as of and for the dates thereof and the results of operations and cash flows for the periods then ended, subject, in the case of unaudited statements, to normal, immaterial, year-end audit adjustments. The agreements and documents described in the Registration Statement, the Preliminary Prospectus, the General Disclosure Package, the Prospectus and the SEC Reports conform to the descriptions thereof contained therein and there are no agreements or other documents required by the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder to be described in the Registration Statement, the Preliminary Prospectus, the General Disclosure Package, the Prospectus or the SEC Reports or to be filed with the Commission as exhibits to the Registration Statement, that have not been so described or filed. Each agreement or other instrument (however characterized or described) to which the Company is a party or by which it is or may be bound or affected and (i) that is referred to in the Registration Statement, the General Disclosure Package, the Prospectus or the SEC Reports, or (ii) is material to the Company’s business, has been duly authorized and validly executed by the Company, is in full force and effect in all material respects and is enforceable against the Company and, to the Company’s knowledge, the other parties thereto, in accordance with its terms, except (x) as such enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally, (y) as enforceability of any indemnification or contribution provision may be limited under the federal and state securities laws, and (z) that the remedy of specific performance and injunctive and other forms of equitable relief may be subject to the equitable defenses and to the discretion of the court before which any proceeding therefore may be brought. None of such agreements or instruments has been assigned by the Company, and neither the Company nor, to the best of the Company’s knowledge, any other party is in default thereunder and, to the best of the Company’s knowledge, no event has occurred that, with the lapse of time or the giving of notice, or both, would constitute a default thereunder. To the best of the Company’s knowledge, performance by the Company of the material provisions of such agreements or instruments will not result in a violation of any existing applicable law, rule, regulation, judgment, order or decree of any governmental agency or court, domestic or foreign, having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its assets or businesses, including, without limitation, those relating to environmental laws and regulations.

 

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(j)          Material Changes; Undisclosed Events, Liabilities or Developments. Since the date of the latest audited financial statements included within the SEC Reports, except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(j), (i) there has been no event, occurrence or development, including changes generally affecting the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry, that has had or that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, (ii) the Company has not incurred any liabilities (contingent or otherwise) other than (A) trade payables and accrued expenses incurred in the ordinary course of business consistent with past practice and (B) liabilities not required to be reflected in the Company’s financial statements pursuant to GAAP or disclosed in filings made with the Commission, (iii) the Company has not altered its method of accounting, (iv) the Company has not declared or made any dividend or distribution of cash or other property to its stockholders or purchased, redeemed or made any agreements to purchase or redeem any shares of its capital stock, (v) the Company has not issued any equity securities to any officer, director or Affiliate, except pursuant to existing Company stock option plans and (vi) no officer or director of the Company has resigned from any position with the Company. The Company does not have pending before the Commission any request for confidential treatment of information. Except for the issuance of the Securities contemplated by this Agreement or as set forth on Schedule 3.1(j), no event, liability, fact, circumstance, occurrence or development has occurred or exists or is reasonably expected to occur or exist with respect to the Company or its business, prospects, properties, operations, assets or financial condition that would be required to be disclosed by the Company under applicable securities laws at the time this representation is made or deemed made that has not been publicly disclosed at least 1 Trading Day prior to the date that this representation is made. Unless otherwise disclosed in an SEC Report filed prior to the date hereof, the Company has not: (i) issued any securities or incurred any liability or obligation, direct or contingent, for borrowed money; or (ii) declared or paid any dividend or made any other distribution on or in respect to its capital stock.

 

(k)          Litigation. Except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(k), there is no action, suit, inquiry, notice of violation, proceeding or investigation pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened against or affecting the Company or its properties before or by any court, arbitrator, governmental or administrative agency or regulatory authority (federal, state, county, local or foreign) (collectively, an “Action”). No Action set forth on Schedule 3.1(k) (i) adversely affects or challenges the legality, validity or enforceability of any of the Transaction Documents or the Securities or (ii) could, if there were an unfavorable decision, have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company, nor any director or officer thereof, is or has been the subject of any Action involving a claim of violation of or liability under federal or state securities laws or a claim of breach of fiduciary duty. There has not been, and to the knowledge of the Company, there is not pending or contemplated, any investigation by the Commission involving the Company or any current or former director or officer of the Company. The Commission has not issued any stop order or other order suspending the effectiveness of any registration statement filed by the Company under the Exchange Act or the Securities Act.

 

(l)          Labor Relations. No labor dispute exists or, to the knowledge of the Company is imminent with respect to any of the employees of the Company that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. None of the Company’s employees is a member of a union that relates to such employee’s relationship with the Company, and the Company is not a party to a collective bargaining agreement, and the Company believes that its relationships with its employees are good. To the knowledge of the Company, no executive officer of the Company is, or is now expected to be, in violation of any material term of any employment contract, confidentiality, disclosure or proprietary information agreement or non-competition agreement, or any other contract or agreement or any restrictive covenant in favor of any third party, and the continued employment of each such executive officer does not subject the Company to any liability with respect to any of the foregoing matters. The Company is in compliance with all U.S. federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations relating to employment and employment practices, terms and conditions of employment and wages and hours, except where the failure to be in compliance could not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(m)         Compliance. Except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(m), the Company: (i) is not in default under or in violation of (and no event has occurred that has not been waived that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would result in a default by the Company under), nor has the Company received notice of a claim that it is in default under or that it is in violation of, any indenture, loan or credit agreement or any other agreement or instrument to which it is a party or by which it or any of its properties is bound (whether or not such default or violation has been waived), (ii) is in violation of any judgment, decree or order of any court, arbitrator or other governmental authority or (iii) is or has been in violation of any statute, rule, ordinance or regulation of any governmental authority, including without limitation all foreign, federal, state and local laws relating to taxes, environmental protection, occupational health and safety, product quality and safety and employment and labor matters, except in each case as could not have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(n)          Environmental Laws. The Company (i) is in compliance with all federal, state, local and foreign laws relating to pollution or protection of human health or the environment (including ambient air, surface water, groundwater, land surface or subsurface strata), including laws relating to emissions, discharges, releases or threatened releases of chemicals, pollutants, contaminants, or toxic or hazardous substances or wastes (collectively, “Hazardous Materials”) into the environment, or otherwise relating to the manufacture, processing, distribution, use, treatment, storage, disposal, transport or handling of Hazardous Materials, as well as all authorizations, codes, decrees, demands, or demand letters, injunctions, judgments, licenses, notices or notice letters, orders, permits, plans or regulations, issued, entered, promulgated or approved thereunder (“Environmental Laws”); (ii) has received all permits licenses or other approvals required of it under applicable Environmental Laws to conduct its business; and (iii) is in compliance with all terms and conditions of any such permit, license or approval where in each clause (i), (ii) and (iii), the failure to so comply could be reasonably expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(o)          Regulatory Permits. Except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(o), the Company possesses all certificates, authorizations and permits issued by the appropriate federal, state, local or foreign regulatory authorities, including, without limitation, those administered by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or by any foreign, federal, state or local governmental or regulatory authority performing functions similar to those performed by the FDA necessary to conduct its business as described in the SEC Reports, except where the failure to possess such permits could not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect (“Material Permits”), and the Company has not received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any Material Permit. The disclosures in the Registration Statement concerning the effects of Federal, State, local and all foreign regulation on the Company’s business as currently contemplated are correct in all material respects.

 

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(p)          Title to Assets. Except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(p), the Company, has good and marketable title in fee simple to all real property owned by it and good and marketable title in all personal property owned by it that is material to the business of the Company, in each case free and clear of all Liens, except for (i) Liens as do not materially affect the value of such property and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and (ii) Liens for the payment of federal, state or other taxes, for which appropriate reserves have been made therefor in accordance with GAAP and, the payment of which is neither delinquent nor subject to penalties. Any real property and facilities held under lease by the Company is held by it under valid, subsisting and enforceable leases with which the Company is in compliance.

 

(q)          Intellectual Property. The Company has, or has rights to use, all patents, patent applications, trademarks, trademark applications, service marks, trade names, trade secrets, inventions, copyrights, licenses and other intellectual property rights and similar rights necessary or required for use in connection with its business as described in the SEC Reports and which the failure to so have could have a Material Adverse Effect (collectively, the “Intellectual Property Rights”). The Company has not received a notice (written or otherwise) that any of, the Intellectual Property Rights has expired, terminated or been abandoned, or is expected to expire or terminate or be abandoned, within two (2) years from the date of this Agreement. The Company has not received, since the date of the latest audited financial statements included within the SEC Reports, a written notice of a claim or otherwise has any knowledge that the Intellectual Property Rights violate or infringe upon the rights of any Person, except as could not have or reasonably be expected to not have a Material Adverse Effect. To the knowledge of the Company, all such Intellectual Property Rights are enforceable and there is no existing infringement by another Person of any of the Intellectual Property Rights. The Company has taken reasonable security measures to protect the secrecy, confidentiality and value of all of their intellectual properties, except where failure to do so could not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(r)          Insurance. The Company is insured by insurers of recognized financial responsibility against such losses and risks and in such amounts as are prudent and customary in the business in which the Company is engaged, including, but not limited to, directors and officers insurance coverage at least equal to the aggregate purchase price for the Securities sold pursuant thereto. The Company has no reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business without a significant increase in cost.

 

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(s)          Transactions With Affiliates and Employees. Except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(s), none of the officers or directors of the Company, and, to the knowledge of the Company, none of the employees of the Company, is presently a party to any transaction with the Company (other than for services as employees, officers and directors), including any contract, agreement or other arrangement providing for the furnishing of services to or by, providing for rental of real or personal property to or from, providing for the borrowing of money from or lending of money to or otherwise requiring payments to or from any officer, director or such employee or, to the knowledge of the Company, any entity in which any officer, director, or any such employee has a substantial interest or is an officer, director, trustee, stockholder, member or partner, in each case in excess of $120,000 other than for (i) payment of salary or consulting fees for services rendered, (ii) reimbursement for expenses incurred on behalf of the Company and (iii) other employee benefits, including stock option agreements under any stock option plan of the Company.

 

(t)          Sarbanes-Oxley; Internal Accounting Controls. The Company is in compliance with any and all applicable requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 that are effective as of the date hereof, and any and all applicable rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission thereunder that are effective as of the date hereof and as of the Closing Date. Except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(t), the Company maintains a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that: (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations, (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain asset accountability, (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization, and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. Except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(t), the Company has established disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e)) for the Company, and designed such disclosure controls and procedures to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms. The Company’s certifying officers have evaluated the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures of the Company as of the end of the period covered by the most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act (such date, the “Evaluation Date”). The Company presented in its most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act the conclusions of the certifying officers about the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures based on their evaluations as of the Evaluation Date. Since the Evaluation Date, there have been no changes in the internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in the Exchange Act) of the Company that have materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the internal control over financial reporting of the Company.

 

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(u)          Certain Fees. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement and Prospectus, no brokerage or finder’s fees or commissions are or will be payable by the Company or any Affiliate of the Company to any broker, financial advisor or consultant, finder, placement agent, investment banker, bank or other Person with respect to the transactions contemplated by the Transaction Documents. To the Company’s knowledge, there are no other arrangements, agreements or understandings of the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, any of its stockholders that may affect the Underwriters’ compensation, as determined by FINRA. The Company has not made any direct or indirect payments (in cash, securities or otherwise) to: (i) any person, as a finder’s fee, consulting fee or otherwise, in consideration of such person raising capital for the Company or introducing to the Company persons who raised or provided capital to the Company; (ii)  any FINRA member; or (iii) any person or entity that has any direct or indirect affiliation or association with any FINRA member, within the twelve months prior to the Execution Date. None of the net proceeds of the Offering will be paid by the Company to any participating FINRA member or its affiliates, except as specifically authorized herein.

 

(v)         Investment Company. The Company is not, and is not an Affiliate of, and immediately after receipt of payment for the Securities will not be or be an Affiliate of, an “investment company” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended. The Company shall conduct its business in a manner so that it will not become an “investment company” subject to registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.

 

(w)         Registration Rights. Except as provided in this Agreement and as set forth on Schedule 3.1(w), no Person has any right to cause the Company to effect the registration under the Securities Act of any securities of the Company.

 

(x)          Listing and Maintenance Requirements. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or which to its knowledge is likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission is contemplating terminating such registration. Except as set forth on Schedule 3.1(x), the Company has not in the 12 months preceding the date hereof received notice from any Trading Market on which the Common Stock is or has been listed or quoted to the effect that the Company is not in compliance with the listing or maintenance requirements of such Trading Market. The Company is, and has no reason to believe that it will not in the foreseeable future continue to be, in compliance with all such listing and maintenance requirements. The Common Stock is currently eligible for electronic transfer through the Depository Trust Company or another established clearing corporation and the Company is current in payment of the fees to the Depository Trust Company (or such other established clearing corporation) in connection with such electronic transfer.

 

(y)          Application of Takeover Protections. The Company and the Board of Directors have taken all necessary action, if any, in order to render inapplicable any control share acquisition, business combination, poison pill (including any distribution under a rights agreement) or other similar anti-takeover provision under the Company’s certificate of incorporation (or similar charter documents) or the laws of its state of incorporation that is or could become applicable as a result of the Underwriters and the Company fulfilling their obligations or exercising their rights under the Transaction Documents.

 

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(z)          Disclosure; 10b-5. The Registration Statement (and any further documents to be filed with the Commission) contains all exhibits and schedules as required by the Securities Act. Each of the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, if any, at the time it became effective, complied in all material respects with the Securities Act and the Exchange Act and the applicable rules and regulations under the Securities Act and did not and, as amended or supplemented, if applicable, will not, contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The Prospectus and any Prospectus Supplement, each as of its respective date, comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and the Exchange Act and the applicable rules and regulations. Each of the Prospectus and any Prospectus Supplement, as amended or supplemented, did not and will not contain as of the date thereof any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. As of its date and the date hereof, the General Disclosure Package did not and does not include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit or state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The SEC Reports, when they were filed with the Commission, conformed in all material respects to the requirements of the Exchange Act and the applicable rules and regulations, and none of such documents, when they were filed with the Commission, contained any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein (with respect to the SEC Reports incorporated by reference in the Prospectus), in light of the circumstances under which they were made not misleading; and any further documents so filed and incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, when such documents are filed with the Commission, will conform in all material respects to the requirements of the Exchange Act and the applicable rules and regulations, as applicable, and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made not misleading. No post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement reflecting any facts or events arising after the date thereof which represent, individually or in the aggregate, a fundamental change in the information set forth therein is required to be filed with the Commission. There are no documents required to be filed with the Commission in connection with the transaction contemplated hereby that (x) have not been filed as required pursuant to the Securities Act or (y) will not be filed within the requisite time period. There are no contracts or other documents required to be described in the Preliminary Prospectus or Prospectus, or to be filed as exhibits or schedules to the Registration Statement, which have not been described or filed as required. The press releases disseminated by the Company during the twelve months preceding the date of this Agreement taken as a whole do not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made and when made, not misleading.

 

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(aa)        No Integrated Offering. Neither the Company, nor any of its Affiliates, nor any Person acting on its or their behalf has, directly or indirectly, made any offers or sales of any security or solicited any offers to buy any security, under circumstances that would cause this offering of the Securities to be integrated with prior offerings by the Company for purposes of any applicable shareholder approval provisions of any Trading Market on which any of the securities of the Company are listed or designated.

 

(bb)       Solvency. Based on the consolidated financial condition of the Company as of the Closing Date, after giving effect to the receipt by the Company of the proceeds from the sale of the Securities hereunder, (i) the fair saleable value of the Company’s assets exceeds the amount that will be required to be paid on or in respect of the Company’s existing debts and other liabilities (including known contingent liabilities) as they mature, (ii) the Company’s assets do not constitute unreasonably small capital to carry on its business as now conducted and as proposed to be conducted including its capital needs taking into account the particular capital requirements of the business conducted by the Company, consolidated and projected capital requirements and capital availability thereof, and (iii) the current cash flow of the Company, together with the proceeds the Company would receive, were it to liquidate all of its assets, after taking into account all anticipated uses of the cash, would be sufficient to pay all amounts on or in respect of its liabilities when such amounts are required to be paid. The Company does not intend to incur debts beyond its ability to pay such debts as they mature (taking into account the timing and amounts of cash to be payable on or in respect of its debt). The Company has no knowledge of any facts or circumstances which lead it to believe that it will file for reorganization or liquidation under the bankruptcy or reorganization laws of any jurisdiction within one year from the Closing Date. Schedule 3.1(bb) sets forth as of the date hereof all outstanding secured and unsecured Indebtedness of the Company or for which the Company has commitments. The Company is not in default with respect to any Indebtedness.

 

(cc)        Tax Status. Except for matters that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, the Company (i) has made or filed all United States federal, state and local income and all foreign income and franchise tax returns, reports and declarations required by any jurisdiction to which it is subject, (ii) has paid all taxes and other governmental assessments and charges that are material in amount, shown or determined to be due on such returns, reports and declarations and (iii) has set aside on its books provision reasonably adequate for the payment of all material taxes for periods subsequent to the periods to which such returns, reports or declarations apply. There are no unpaid taxes in any material amount claimed to be due by the taxing authority of any jurisdiction, and the officers of the Company know of no basis for any such claim. The provisions for taxes payable, if any, shown on the financial statements filed with or as part of the Registration Statement are sufficient for all accrued and unpaid taxes, whether or not disputed, and for all periods to and including the dates of such consolidated financial statements. The term “taxes” mean all federal, state, local, foreign, and other net income, gross income, gross receipts, sales, use, ad valorem, transfer, franchise, profits, license, lease, service, service use, withholding, payroll, employment, excise, severance, stamp, occupation, premium, property, windfall profits, customs, duties or other taxes, fees, assessments, or charges of any kind whatsoever, together with any interest and any penalties, additions to tax, or additional amounts with respect thereto. The term “returns” means all returns, declarations, reports, statements, and other documents required to be filed in respect to taxes.

 

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(dd)       Foreign Corrupt Practices. Neither the Company, nor to the knowledge of the Company, any agent or other person acting on behalf of the Company, has (i) directly or indirectly, used any funds for unlawful contributions, gifts, entertainment or other unlawful expenses related to foreign or domestic political activity, (ii) made any unlawful payment to foreign or domestic government officials or employees or to any foreign or domestic political parties or campaigns from corporate funds, (iii) failed to disclose fully any contribution made by the Company (or made by any person acting on its behalf of which the Company is aware) which is in violation of law, or (iv) violated in any material respect any provision of FCPA. The Company has taken reasonable steps to ensure that its accounting controls and procedures are sufficient to cause the Company to comply in all material respects with the FCPA.

 

(ee)        Accountants. The Company’s independent registered public accounting firm is OUM LLP. To the knowledge and belief of the Company, the Company Auditor (i) is an independent registered public accounting firm as required by the Exchange Act and (ii) shall express its opinion with respect to the financial statements to be included in the Company’s Annual Report for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2019. The Company Auditor has not, during the periods covered by the financial statements included in the Prospectus, provided to the Company any non-audit services, as such term is used in Section 10A(g) of the Exchange Act.

 

(ff)         Regulatory. All preclinical and clinical studies conducted by or on behalf of the Company, taken as a whole, are or have been adequately described in the SEC Reports in all material respects. The clinical and preclinical studies conducted by or on behalf of the Company that are described in the SEC Reports or the results of which are referred to in the SEC Reports were and, if still ongoing, are being conducted in material compliance with all laws and regulations applicable thereto in the jurisdictions in which they are being conducted. The descriptions in the SEC Reports of the results of such studies are accurate and complete in all material respects and fairly present the data derived from such studies, and the Company has no knowledge of, or reason to believe that, any clinical study the aggregate results of which are inconsistent with or otherwise call into question the results of any clinical study conducted by or on behalf of the Company and its Subsidiaries that are described in the SEC Reports or the results of which are referred to in the SEC Reports. Except as disclosed in the SEC Reports, the Company has not received any written notices or statements from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or any other governmental agency or authority requiring, requesting or suggesting termination, suspension or material modification for or of any clinical or preclinical studies that are described in the SEC Reports or the results of which are referred to in the SEC Reports. Except as disclosed in the SEC Reports, the Company has not received any written notices or statements from any governmental agency, and otherwise has no knowledge of, or reason to believe that any license, approval, permit or authorization to conduct any clinical trial of any potential product of the Company has been, will be or may be suspended, revoked, modified or limited.

 

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(gg)       Stock Option Plans. Each stock option granted by the Company under the Company’s stock option plan was granted (i) in accordance with the terms of the Company’s stock option plan and (ii) with an exercise price at least equal to the fair market value of the Common Stock on the date such stock option would be considered granted under GAAP and applicable law. No stock option granted under the Company’s stock option plan has been backdated. The Company has not knowingly granted, and there is no and has been no Company policy or practice to knowingly grant, stock options prior to, or otherwise knowingly coordinate the grant of stock options with, the release or other public announcement of material information regarding the Company or its financial results or prospects.

 

(hh)       Office of Foreign Assets Control. Neither the Company nor, to the Company's knowledge, any director, officer, agent, employee or affiliate of the Company is currently subject to any U.S. sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Treasury Department.

 

(ii)          U.S. Real Property Holding Corporation. The Company is not and has never been a U.S. real property holding corporation within the meaning of Section 897 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the Company shall so certify upon the Representative’s request.

 

(jj)          Bank Holding Company Act. Neither the Company nor any of its Affiliates is subject to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the “BHCA”) and to regulation by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”). Neither the Company nor any of its Affiliates owns or controls, directly or indirectly, five percent (5%) or more of the outstanding shares of any class of voting securities or twenty-five percent (25%) or more of the total equity of a bank or any entity that is subject to the BHCA and to regulation by the Federal Reserve. Neither the Company nor any of its Affiliates exercises a controlling influence over the management or policies of a bank or any entity that is subject to the BHCA and to regulation by the Federal Reserve.

 

(kk)        Money Laundering. The operations of the Company is and has been conducted at all times in compliance with applicable financial record-keeping and reporting requirements of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, applicable money laundering statutes and applicable rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”), and no Action or Proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.

 

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(ll)          D&O Questionnaires. To the Company’s knowledge, all information contained in the questionnaires completed by each of the Company’s directors and officers immediately prior to the Offering as well as in the Lock-Up Agreement provided to the Underwriters is true and correct in all respects and the Company has not become aware of any information which would cause the information disclosed in such questionnaires become inaccurate and incorrect.

 

(mm)      FINRA Affiliation. No officer, director or any beneficial owner of 5% or more of the Company’s unregistered securities has any direct or indirect affiliation or association with any FINRA member (as determined in accordance with the rules and regulations of FINRA) that is participating in the Offering. Except for securities purchased on the open market, no Company Affiliate is an owner of stock or other securities of any member of FINRA. No Company Affiliate has made a subordinated loan to any member of FINRA. No proceeds from the sale of the Securities (excluding underwriting compensation as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus) will be paid to any FINRA member, any persons associated with a FINRA member or an affiliate of a FINRA member. Except as disclosed in the Prospectus, the Company has not issued any warrants or other securities or granted any options, directly or indirectly, to the Representatives or any of the Underwriters named on Schedule I hereto within the 180-day period prior to the initial filing date of the Prospectus. Except for securities issued to the Representatives as disclosed in the Prospectus and securities sold by the Representatives on behalf of the Company, no person to whom securities of the Company have been privately issued within the 180-day period prior to the initial filing date of the Prospectus is a FINRA member, is a person associated with a FINRA member or is an affiliate of a FINRA member. No FINRA member participating in the Offering has a conflict of interest with the Company. For this purpose, a “conflict of interest” exists when a FINRA member, the parent or affiliate of a FINRA member or any person associated with a FINRA member in the aggregate beneficially own 5% or more of the Company’s outstanding subordinated debt or common equity, or 5% or more of the Company’s preferred equity. “FINRA member participating in the Offering” includes any associated person of a FINRA member that is participating in the Offering, any member of such associated person’s immediate family and any affiliate of a FINRA member that is participating in the Offering. “Any person associated with a FINRA member” means (1) a natural person who is registered or has applied for registration under the rules of FINRA and (2) a sole proprietor, partner, officer, director, or branch manager of a FINRA member, or other natural person occupying a similar status or performing similar functions, or a natural person engaged in the investment banking or securities business who is directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by a FINRA member. When used in this Section 3.1(mm) the term “affiliate of a FINRA member” or “affiliated with a FINRA member” means an entity that controls, is controlled by or is under common control with a FINRA member. The Company will advise the Representative and EGS if it learns that any officer, director or owner of 5% or more of the Company’s outstanding shares of Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents is or becomes an affiliate or associated person of a FINRA member firm.

 

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(nn)       Officers’ Certificate. Any certificate signed by any duly authorized officer of the Company and delivered to the Representative or EGS shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company to the Underwriters as to the matters covered thereby.

 

(oo)       Board of Directors. The Board of Directors is comprised of the persons set forth under the heading of the Prospectus captioned “Management.” The qualifications of the persons serving as board members and the overall composition of the Board of Directors comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules promulgated thereunder applicable to the Company and the rules of the Trading Market. At least one member of the Board of Directors qualifies as a “financial expert” as such term is defined under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules promulgated thereunder and the rules of the Trading Market. In addition, at least a majority of the persons serving on the Board of Directors qualify as “independent” as defined under the rules of the Trading Market.

 

ARTICLE IV.

OTHER AGREEMENTS OF THE PARTIES

 

4.1          Amendments to Registration Statement. The Company has delivered, or will as promptly as practicable deliver, to the Underwriters complete conformed copies of the Registration Statement and of each consent and certificate of experts, as applicable, filed as a part thereof, and conformed copies of the Registration Statement (without exhibits), the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, and the General Disclosure Package in such quantities and at such places as an Underwriter reasonably requests. Neither the Company nor any of its directors and officers has distributed and none of them will distribute, prior to the Closing Date, any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Securities other than the Prospectus, the General Disclosure Package, the Registration Statement, and copies of the documents incorporated by reference therein. The Company shall not file any such amendment or supplement to which the Representative shall reasonably object in writing.

 

4.2          Federal Securities Laws.

 

(a)          Compliance. During the time when a Prospectus is required to be delivered under the Securities Act, the Company will use its best efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder and the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the continuance of sales of or dealings in the Securities in accordance with the provisions hereof and the Prospectus. If at any time when a Prospectus relating to the Securities is required to be delivered under the Securities Act, any event shall have occurred as a result of which, in the opinion of counsel for the Company or counsel for the Underwriters, the Prospectus, as then amended or supplemented, includes an untrue statement of a material fact or omits to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, or if it is necessary at any time to amend the Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will notify the Underwriters promptly and prepare and file with the Commission, subject to Section 4.1 hereof, an appropriate amendment or supplement in accordance with Section 10 of the Securities Act.

 

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(b)          Filing of Final Prospectus Supplement. The Company will file the Prospectus Supplement (in form and substance satisfactory to the Representative) with the Commission pursuant to the requirements of Rule 424.

 

(c)          Exchange Act Registration. For a period of three years from the Execution Date, the Company will use its best efforts to maintain the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act. The Company will not deregister the Common Stock under the Exchange Act without the prior written consent of the Representative.

 

(d)          Free Writing Prospectuses. The Company represents and agrees that it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Securities that would constitute an issuer free writing prospectus, as defined in Rule 433 of the rules and regulations under the Securities Act, without the prior written consent of the Representative. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Representative is herein referred to as a Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company represents that it will treat each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an “issuer free writing prospectus” as defined in rule and regulations under the Securities Act, and has complied and will comply with the applicable requirements of Rule 433 of the Securities Act, including timely Commission filing where required, legending and record keeping.

 

4.3           Delivery to the Underwriters of Prospectuses. The Company will deliver to the Underwriters, without charge, from time to time during the period when the Prospectus is required to be delivered under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act such number of copies of each Prospectus as the Underwriters may reasonably request and, as soon as the Registration Statement or any amendment or supplement thereto becomes effective, deliver to you two original executed Registration Statements, including exhibits, and all post-effective amendments thereto and copies of all exhibits filed therewith or incorporated therein by reference and all original executed consents of certified experts.

 

4.4           Effectiveness and Events Requiring Notice to the Underwriters. The Company will use its best efforts to cause the Registration Statement to remain effective with a current prospectus until the later of nine (9) months from the Execution Date and the date on which the Warrants are no longer outstanding, and will notify the Underwriters and holders of the Warrants immediately and confirm the notice in writing: (i) of the effectiveness of the Registration Statement and any amendment thereto; (ii) of the issuance by the Commission of any stop order or of the initiation, or the threatening, of any proceeding for that purpose; (iii) of the issuance by any state securities commission of any proceedings for the suspension of the qualification of the Securities for offering or sale in any jurisdiction or of the initiation, or the threatening, of any proceeding for that purpose; (iv) of the mailing and delivery to the Commission for filing of any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus; (v) of the receipt of any comments or request for any additional information from the Commission; and (vi) of the happening of any event during the period described in this Section 4.4 that, in the judgment of the Company, makes any statement of a material fact made in the Registration Statement, the General Disclosure Package, or the Prospectus untrue or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, the General Disclosure Package, or the Prospectus in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. If the Commission or any state securities commission shall enter a stop order or suspend such qualification at any time, the Company will make every reasonable effort to obtain promptly the lifting of such order.

 

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4.5          Review of Financial Statements. For a period of three (3) years from the Execution Date, the Company, at its expense, shall cause its regularly engaged independent registered public accountants to review (but not audit) the Company’s financial statements for each of the first three fiscal quarters prior to the announcement of quarterly financial information.

 

4.6          Reports to the Underwriters; Expenses of the Offering.

 

(a)          Periodic Reports, etc. For a period of three years from the Execution Date, the Company will furnish to the Underwriters copies of such financial statements and other periodic and special reports as the Company from time to time furnishes generally to holders of any class of its securities and also promptly furnish to the Underwriters: (i) a copy of each periodic report the Company shall be required to file with the Commission; (ii) a copy of every press release and every news item and article with respect to the Company or its affairs which was released by the Company; (iii) a copy of each Form 8-K prepared and filed by the Company; (iv) a copy of each registration statement filed by the Company under the Securities Act; (v) such additional documents and information with respect to the Company and the affairs of any future Subsidiaries of the Company as the Representative may from time to time reasonably request; provided that the Underwriters shall each sign, if requested by the Company, a Regulation FD compliant confidentiality agreement which is reasonably acceptable to the Representative in connection with such Underwriter’s receipt of such information. Documents filed with the Commission pursuant to its EDGAR system shall be deemed to have been delivered to the Underwriters pursuant to this Section.

 

(b)          Transfer Sheets. For a period of three (3) years from the Execution Date, the Company shall retain the Transfer Agent or a transfer and registrar agent acceptable to the Representative and will furnish to the Underwriters at the Company’s sole cost and expense such transfer sheets of the Company’s securities as an Underwriter may reasonably request, including the daily and monthly consolidated transfer sheets of the Transfer Agent and the DTC.

 

(c)          Trading Reports. During such time as the Closing Shares, Option Shares and Warrant Shares are listed on the Trading Market, the Company shall provide to the Underwriters, at the Company’s expense, such reports published by the Trading Market relating to price and trading of such shares, as the Underwriters shall reasonably request.

 

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(d)          General Expenses Related to the Offering. The Company hereby agrees to pay on each of the Closing Date and each Option Closing Date, if any, to the extent not paid at the Closing Date, all expenses incident to the performance of the obligations of the Company under this Agreement, including, but not limited to: (a) all filing fees and communication expenses relating to the registration of the Securities to be sold in the Offering (including the Option Securities) with the Commission; (b) all FINRA Public Offering Filing System fees associated with the review of the Offering by FINRA; (c) all fees and expenses relating to the listing of such Closing Shares, Option Shares and Warrant Shares on the Trading Market and such other stock exchanges as the Company and the Representative together determine; (d) all fees, expenses and disbursements relating to background checks of the Company’s officers and directors; (e) all fees, expenses and disbursements relating to the registration or qualification of such Securities under the “blue sky” securities laws of such states and other jurisdictions as the Representative may reasonably designate (including, without limitation, all filing and registration fees, and the fees and expenses of Blue Sky counsel); (f) all fees and expenses associated with the i-Deal system and NetRoadshow; (g) all “road show” expenses, including, without limitation, travel and lodging expenses associated with such trips, (h) the costs of all mailing and printing of the underwriting documents (including, without limitation, the Underwriting Agreement, any Blue Sky Surveys and, if appropriate, any Agreement Among Underwriters, Selected Dealers’ Agreement, Underwriters’ Questionnaire and Power of Attorney), Registration Statements, Prospectuses and all amendments, supplements and exhibits thereto and as many preliminary and final Prospectuses as the Representative may reasonably deem necessary; (i) the costs and expenses of the Company’s public relations firm; (j) the costs of preparing, printing and delivering the Securities; (k) fees and expenses of the Transfer Agent for the Securities; (l) stock transfer and/or stamp taxes, if any, payable upon the transfer of securities from the Company to the Underwriters; (m) the fees and expenses of the Company’s accountants; and (n) the fees and expenses of the Company’s legal counsel and other agents and representatives. Upon the Representative’s request, the Company shall provide funds to pay all out-of-pocket fees, expenses and disbursements (including legal fees and expenses) of the Representative incurred as a result of providing services related to the Offering, with the aggregate maximum expense allowance to be capped at $75,000. The Underwriters may also deduct from the net proceeds of the Offering payable to the Company on the Closing Date, or each Option Closing Date, if any, the expenses set forth herein to be paid by the Company to the Underwriters.

 

4.7           Application of Net Proceeds. The Company will apply the net proceeds from the Offering received by it in a manner consistent with the application described under the caption “Use of Proceeds” in the Prospectus.

 

4.8           Delivery of Earnings Statements to Security Holders. The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but not later than the first day of the fifteenth full calendar month following the Execution Date, an earnings statement (which need not be certified by independent public or independent certified public accountants unless required by the Securities Act or the Rules and Regulations under the Securities Act, but which shall satisfy the provisions of Rule 158(a) under Section 11(a) of the Securities Act) covering a period of at least twelve consecutive months beginning after the Execution Date.

 

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4.9           Stabilization. Neither the Company, nor, to its knowledge, any of its employees, directors or shareholders (without the consent of the Representative) has taken or will take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that has constituted or that might reasonably be expected to cause or result in, under the Exchange Act, or otherwise, stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Securities.

 

4.10         Internal Controls. The Company will maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurances that: (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary in order to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP and to maintain accountability for assets; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences.

 

4.11         Accountants. The Company shall continue to retain a nationally recognized independent certified public accounting firm for a period of at least three years after the Execution Date. The Underwriters acknowledge that the Company Auditor is acceptable to the Underwriters.

 

4.12         FINRA. The Company shall advise the Underwriters (who shall make an appropriate filing with FINRA) if it is aware that any officer, director, 5% or greater shareholder of the Company or Person that received the Company’s unregistered equity securities in the past 180 days is or becomes an affiliate or associated person of a FINRA member firm prior to the earlier of the termination of this Agreement or the conclusion of the distribution of the Offering.

 

4.13         No Fiduciary Duties. The Company acknowledges and agrees that the Underwriters’ responsibility to the Company is solely contractual and commercial in nature, based on arms-length negotiations and that neither the Underwriters nor their affiliates or any selected dealer shall be deemed to be acting in a fiduciary capacity, or otherwise owes any fiduciary duty to the Company or any of its affiliates in connection with the Offering and the other transactions contemplated by this Agreement. Notwithstanding anything in this Agreement to the contrary, the Company acknowledges that the Underwriters may have financial interests in the success of the Offering that are not limited to the difference between the price to the public and the purchase price paid to the Company by the Underwriters for the shares and the Underwriters have no obligation to disclose, or account to the Company for, any of such additional financial interests. The Company hereby waives and releases, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims that the Company may have against the Underwriters with respect to any breach or alleged breach of fiduciary duty.

 

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4.14         Warrant Shares. If all or any portion of a Warrant is exercised at a time when there is an effective registration statement to cover the issuance of the Warrant Shares or if the Warrant is exercised via cashless exercise, the Warrant Shares issued pursuant to any such exercise shall be issued free of all restrictive legends. If at any time following the date hereof the Registration Statement (or any subsequent registration statement registering the sale or resale of the Warrant Shares) is not effective or is not otherwise available for the sale of the Warrant Shares, the Company shall immediately notify the holders of the Warrants in writing that such registration statement is not then effective and thereafter shall promptly notify such holders when the registration statement is effective again and available for the sale of the Warrant Shares (it being understood and agreed that the foregoing shall not limit the ability of the Company to issue, or any holder thereof to sell, any of the Warrant Shares in compliance with applicable federal and state securities laws).

 

4.15         Board Composition and Board Designations. The Company shall ensure that: (i) the qualifications of the persons serving as board members and the overall composition of the Board of Directors comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules promulgated thereunder and with the listing requirements of the Trading Market and (ii) if applicable, at least one member of the Board of Directors qualifies as a “financial expert” as such term is defined under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules promulgated thereunder.

 

4.16         Securities Laws Disclosure; Publicity. At the request of the Representative, by 9:00 a.m. (New York City time) on the date hereof, the Company shall issue a press release disclosing the material terms of the Offering. The Company and the Representative shall consult with each other in issuing any other press releases with respect to the Offering, and neither the Company nor any Underwriter shall issue any such press release nor otherwise make any such public statement without the prior consent of the Company, with respect to any press release of such Underwriter, or without the prior consent of such Underwriter, with respect to any press release of the Company, which consent shall not unreasonably be withheld or delayed, except if such disclosure is required by law, in which case the disclosing party shall promptly provide the other party with prior notice of such public statement or communication. The Company will not issue press releases or engage in any other publicity, without the Representative’s prior written consent, for a period ending at 5:00 p.m. (New York City time) on the first business day following the 45th day following the Closing Date, other than normal and customary releases issued in the ordinary course of the Company’s business.

 

4.17         Shareholder Rights Plan. No claim will be made or enforced by the Company or, with the consent of the Company, any other Person, that any Underwriter of the Securities is an “Acquiring Person” under any control share acquisition, business combination, poison pill (including any distribution under a rights agreement) or similar anti-takeover plan or arrangement in effect or hereafter adopted by the Company, or that any Underwriter of Securities could be deemed to trigger the provisions of any such plan or arrangement, by virtue of receiving Securities.

 

4.18         Reservation of Common Stock. As of the date hereof, the Company has reserved and the Company shall continue to reserve and keep available at all times, free of preemptive rights, a sufficient number of shares of Common Stock for the purpose of enabling the Company to issue Option Shares pursuant to the Over-Allotment Option and Warrant Shares pursuant to any exercise of the Warrants.

 

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4.19        Listing of Common Stock. The Company hereby agrees to use best efforts to maintain the listing or quotation of the Common Stock on the Trading Market on which it is currently listed for a period of at least three (3) years, and the Company shall have applied to list or quote all of the Closing Shares, Option Shares and Warrant Shares on such Trading Market and promptly secure the listing of all of the Closing Shares, Option Shares and Warrant Shares on such Trading Market. The Company further agrees, if the Company applies to have the Common Stock traded on any other Trading Market, it will then include in such application all of the Closing Shares, Option Shares and Warrant Shares, and will take such other action as is necessary to cause all of the Closing Shares, Option Shares and Warrant Shares to be listed or quoted on such other Trading Market as promptly as possible. The Company will then take all action reasonably necessary to continue the listing and trading of its Common Stock on a Trading Market and will comply in all respects with the Company’s reporting, filing and other obligations under the bylaws or rules of the Trading Market. The Company agrees to maintain the eligibility of the Common Stock for electronic transfer through the Depository Trust Company or another established clearing corporation, including, without limitation, by timely payment of fees to the Depository Trust Company or such other established clearing corporation in connection with such electronic transfer.

 

4.20        Subsequent Equity Sales.

 

(a)          From the date hereof through the date that is the six (6) month anniversary following the Closing Date, neither the Company nor any Subsidiary shall issue, enter into any agreement to issue or announce the issuance or proposed issuance of any shares of Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents.

 

(b)          From the date hereof through the date that is the six (6) month anniversary following the Closing Date, the Company shall be prohibited from effecting or entering into an agreement to effect any issuance by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries of Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents (or a combination of units thereof) involving a Variable Rate Transaction. “Variable Rate Transaction” means a transaction in which the Company (i) issues or sells any debt or equity securities that are convertible into, exchangeable or exercisable for, or include the right to receive, additional shares of Common Stock either (A) at a conversion price, exercise price or exchange rate or other price that is based upon, and/or varies with, the trading prices of or quotations for the shares of Common Stock at any time after the initial issuance of such debt or equity securities or (B) with a conversion, exercise or exchange price that is subject to being reset at some future date after the initial issuance of such debt or equity security or upon the occurrence of specified or contingent events directly or indirectly related to the business of the Company or the market for the Common Stock or (ii) enters into, or effects a transaction under, any agreement, including, but not limited to, an equity line of credit, whereby the Company may issue securities at a future determined price. Any Underwriter shall be entitled to obtain injunctive relief against the Company to preclude any such issuance, which remedy shall be in addition to any right to collect damages.

 

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(c)          Notwithstanding the foregoing, this Section 4.20 shall not apply in respect of an Exempt Issuance, except that no Variable Rate Transaction shall be an Exempt Issuance.

 

4.21        Capital Changes. Until the four (4) month anniversary of the date hereof, the Company shall not undertake a reverse or forward stock split or reclassification of the Common Stock without the prior written consent of the Representative. After the (4) month anniversary of the date hereof and until the one (1) year anniversary of the date hereof, the Company shall not undertake a reverse or forward stock split or reclassification of the Common Stock without the prior written consent of the Representative; provided; however, that during the period between the (4) month anniversary of the date hereof and the one (1) year anniversary of the date hereof the Company may if required, with stockholder approval, effect a reverse stock split for the purpose of continuing its listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market.

 

4.22        Financial Public Relations Firm. As of the Execution Date, the Company shall have retained a financial public relations firm reasonably acceptable to the Representative and the Company, which shall initially be Kilmer Lucas, which firm will be experienced in assisting issuers in public offerings of securities and in their relations with their security holders, and shall retain such firm or another firm reasonably acceptable to the Representative for a period of not less than two (2) years after the Execution Date.

 

4.23        Financial Printer. The Company shall have retained a financial printer acceptable to the Representative to handle the printing and related aspects of the Offering.

 

4.24        Research Independence. The Company acknowledges that each Underwriter’s research analysts and research departments, if any, are required to be independent from their respective investment banking divisions and are subject to certain regulations and internal policies, and that such Underwriter’s research analysts may hold and make statements or investment recommendations and/or publish research reports with respect to the Company and/or the offering that differ from the views of its investment bankers. The Company hereby waives and releases, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims that the Company may have against such Underwriter with respect to any conflict of interest that may arise from the fact that the views expressed by their independent research analysts and research departments may be different from or inconsistent with the views or advice communicated to the Company by such Underwriter’s investment banking divisions. The Company acknowledges that the Representative is a full service securities firm and as such from time to time, subject to applicable securities laws, may effect transactions for its own account or the account of its customers and hold long or short position in debt or equity securities of the Company.

 

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ARTICLE V.

DEFAULT BY UNDERWRITERS

 

If on the Closing Date or any Option Closing Date, if any, any Underwriter shall fail to purchase and pay for the portion of the Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, which such Underwriter has agreed to purchase and pay for on such date (otherwise than by reason of any default on the part of the Company), the Representative, or if the Representative is the defaulting Underwriter, the non-defaulting Underwriters, shall use their reasonable efforts to procure within 36 hours thereafter one or more of the other Underwriters, or any others, to purchase from the Company such amounts as may be agreed upon and upon the terms set forth herein, the Closing Securities or Option Securities , as the case may be, which the defaulting Underwriter or Underwriters failed to purchase. If during such 36 hours the Representative shall not have procured such other Underwriters, or any others, to purchase the Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, agreed to be purchased by the defaulting Underwriter or Underwriters, then (a) if the aggregate number of Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, with respect to which such default shall occur does not exceed 10% of the Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, covered hereby, the other Underwriters shall be obligated, severally, in proportion to the respective numbers of Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, which they are obligated to purchase hereunder, to purchase the Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, which such defaulting Underwriter or Underwriters failed to purchase, or (b) if the aggregate number of Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, with respect to which such default shall occur exceeds 10% of the Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, covered hereby, the Company or the Representative will have the right to terminate this Agreement without liability on the part of the non-defaulting Underwriters or of the Company except to the extent provided in Article VI hereof. In the event of a default by any Underwriter or Underwriters, as set forth in this Article V, the applicable Closing Date may be postponed for such period, not exceeding seven days, as the Representative, or if the Representative is the defaulting Underwriter, the non-defaulting Underwriters, may determine in order that the required changes in the Prospectus or in any other documents or arrangements may be effected. The term “Underwriter” includes any person substituted for a defaulting Underwriter. Any action taken under this Section shall not relieve any defaulting Underwriter from liability in respect of any default of such Underwriter under this Agreement.

 

ARTICLE VI.

INDEMNIFICATION

 

6.1           Indemnification of the Underwriters. Subject to the conditions set forth below, the Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Underwriters, and each dealer selected by each Underwriter that participates in the offer and sale of the Securities (each a “Selected Dealer”) and each of their respective directors, officers and employees and each Person, if any, who controls such Underwriter or any Selected Dealer (“Controlling Person”) within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever (including but not limited to any and all legal or other expenses reasonably incurred in investigating, preparing or defending against any litigation, commenced or threatened, or any claim whatsoever, whether arising out of any action between such Underwriter and the Company or between such Underwriter and any third party or otherwise) to which they or any of them may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or any other statute or at common law or otherwise or under the laws of foreign countries, arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in (i) any Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (as from time to time each may be amended and supplemented); (ii) any materials or information provided to investors by, or with the approval of, the Company in connection with the marketing of the offering of the Securities, including any “road show” or investor presentations made to investors by the Company (whether in person or electronically); or (iii) any application or other document or written communication (in this Article VI, collectively called “application”) executed by the Company or based upon written information furnished by the Company in any jurisdiction in order to qualify the Securities under the securities laws thereof or filed with the Commission, any state securities commission or agency, Trading Market or any securities exchange; or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, unless such statement or omission was made in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company with respect to the applicable Underwriter by or on behalf of such Underwriter expressly for use in any Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, or in any application, as the case may be. With respect to any untrue statement or omission or alleged untrue statement or omission made in the Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the indemnity agreement contained in this Section 6.1 shall not inure to the benefit of an Underwriter to the extent that any loss, liability, claim, damage or expense of such Underwriter results from the fact that a copy of the Prospectus was not given or sent to the Person asserting any such loss, liability, claim or damage at or prior to the written confirmation of sale of the Securities to such Person as required by the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, and if the untrue statement or omission has been corrected in the Prospectus, unless such failure to deliver the Prospectus was a result of non-compliance by the Company with its obligations under this Agreement. The Company agrees promptly to notify each Underwriter of the commencement of any litigation or proceedings against the Company or any of its officers, directors or Controlling Persons in connection with the issue and sale of the Public Securities or in connection with the Registration Statement or Prospectus.

 

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6.2           Procedure. If any action is brought against an Underwriter, a Selected Dealer or a Controlling Person in respect of which indemnity may be sought against the Company pursuant to Section 6.1, such Underwriter, such Selected Dealer or Controlling Person, as the case may be, shall promptly notify the Company in writing of the institution of such action and the Company shall assume the defense of such action, including the employment and fees of counsel (subject to the reasonable approval of such Underwriter or such Selected Dealer, as the case may be) and payment of actual expenses. Such Underwriter, such Selected Dealer or Controlling Person shall have the right to employ its or their own counsel in any such case, but the fees and expenses of such counsel shall be at the expense of such Underwriter, such Selected Dealer or Controlling Person unless (i) the employment of such counsel at the expense of the Company shall have been authorized in writing by the Company in connection with the defense of such action, or (ii) the Company shall not have employed counsel to have charge of the defense of such action, or (iii) such indemnified party or parties shall have reasonably concluded that there may be defenses available to it or them which are different from or additional to those available to the Company (in which case the Company shall not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party or parties), in any of which events the reasonable fees and expenses of not more than one additional firm of attorneys selected by such Underwriter (in addition to local counsel), Selected Dealer and/or Controlling Person shall be borne by the Company. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, if any Underwriter, Selected Dealer or Controlling Person shall assume the defense of such action as provided above, the Company shall have the right to approve the terms of any settlement of such action which approval shall not be unreasonably withheld.

 

6.3           Indemnification of the Company. Each Underwriter severally and not jointly agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company, its directors, officers and employees and agents who control the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the foregoing indemnity from the Company to such Underwriter, as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions made in any Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the Registration Statement or Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto or in any application, in reliance upon, and in strict conformity with, written information furnished to the Company with respect to such Underwriter by or on behalf of such Underwriter expressly for use in such Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the Registration Statement or Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto or in any such application. In case any action shall be brought against the Company or any other Person so indemnified based on any Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the Registration Statement or Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto or any application, and in respect of which indemnity may be sought against such Underwriter, such Underwriter shall have the rights and duties given to the Company, and the Company and each other Person so indemnified shall have the rights and duties given to such Underwriter by the provisions of this Article VI. Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 6.3, no Underwriter shall be required to indemnify the Company for any amount in excess of the underwriting discounts and commissions applicable to the Securities purchased by such Underwriter. The Underwriters' obligations in this Section 6.3 to indemnify the Company are several in proportion to their respective underwriting obligations and not joint.

 

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6.4          Contribution.

 

(a)          Contribution Rights. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution under the Securities Act in any case in which (i) any Person entitled to indemnification under this Article VI makes a claim for indemnification pursuant hereto but it is judicially determined (by the entry of a final judgment or decree by a court of competent jurisdiction and the expiration of time to appeal or the denial of the last right of appeal) that such indemnification may not be enforced in such case notwithstanding the fact that this Article VI provides for indemnification in such case, or (ii) contribution under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or otherwise may be required on the part of any such Person in circumstances for which indemnification is provided under this Article VI, then, and in each such case, the Company and each Underwriter, severally and not jointly, shall contribute to the aggregate losses, liabilities, claims, damages and expenses of the nature contemplated by said indemnity agreement incurred by the Company and such Underwriter, as incurred, in such proportions that such Underwriter is responsible for that portion represented by the percentage that the underwriting discount appearing on the cover page of the Prospectus bears to the initial offering price appearing thereon and the Company is responsible for the balance; provided, that, no Person guilty of a fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) shall be entitled to contribution from any Person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section, each director, officer and employee of such Underwriter or the Company, as applicable, and each Person, if any, who controls such Underwriter or the Company, as applicable, within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act shall have the same rights to contribution as such Underwriter or the Company, as applicable. Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 6.4, no Underwriter shall be required to contribute any amount in excess of the underwriting discounts and commissions applicable to the Securities purchased by such Underwriter. The Underwriters' obligations in this Section 6.4 to contribute are several in proportion to their respective underwriting obligations and not joint.

 

(b)          Contribution Procedure. Within fifteen days after receipt by any party to this Agreement (or its representative) of notice of the commencement of any action, suit or proceeding, such party will, if a claim for contribution in respect thereof is to be made against another party (“contributing party”), notify the contributing party of the commencement thereof, but the failure to so notify the contributing party will not relieve it from any liability which it may have to any other party other than for contribution hereunder. In case any such action, suit or proceeding is brought against any party, and such party notifies a contributing party or its representative of the commencement thereof within the aforesaid fifteen days, the contributing party will be entitled to participate therein with the notifying party and any other contributing party similarly notified. Any such contributing party shall not be liable to any party seeking contribution on account of any settlement of any claim, action or proceeding affected by such party seeking contribution without the written consent of such contributing party. The contribution provisions contained in this Section 6.4 are intended to supersede, to the extent permitted by law, any right to contribution under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or otherwise available.

 

ARTICLE VII.

MISCELLANEOUS

 

7.1          Termination.

 

(a)          Termination Right. The Representative shall have the right to terminate this Agreement at any time prior to any Closing Date, (i) if any domestic or international event or act or occurrence has materially disrupted, or in its opinion will in the immediate future materially disrupt, general securities markets in the United States; or (ii) if trading on any Trading Market shall have been suspended or materially limited, or minimum or maximum prices for trading shall have been fixed, or maximum ranges for prices for securities shall have been required by FINRA or by order of the Commission or any other government authority having jurisdiction, or (iii) if the United States shall have become involved in a new war or an increase in major hostilities, or (iv) if a banking moratorium has been declared by a New York State or federal authority, or (v) if a moratorium on foreign exchange trading has been declared which materially adversely impacts the United States securities markets, or (vi) if the Company shall have sustained a material loss by fire, flood, accident, hurricane, earthquake, theft, sabotage or other calamity or malicious act which, whether or not such loss shall have been insured, will, in the Representative’s opinion, make it inadvisable to proceed with the delivery of the Securities, or (vii) if the Company is in material breach of any of its representations, warranties or covenants hereunder, or (viii) if the Representative shall have become aware after the date hereof of such a material adverse change in the conditions or prospects of the Company, or such adverse material change in general market conditions as in the Representative’s judgment would make it impracticable to proceed with the offering, sale and/or delivery of the Securities or to enforce contracts made by the Underwriters for the sale of the Securities.

 

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(b)          Expenses. In the event this Agreement shall be terminated pursuant to Section 7.1(a), within the time specified herein or any extensions thereof pursuant to the terms herein, the Company shall be obligated to pay to the Representative its actual and accountable out of pocket expenses related to the transactions contemplated herein then due and payable (including the fees and disbursements of EGS up to $10,000); provided, however, that such expense cap in no way limits or impairs the indemnification and contribution provisions of this Agreement.

 

(c)          Indemnification. Notwithstanding any contrary provision contained in this Agreement, any election hereunder or any termination of this Agreement, and whether or not this Agreement is otherwise carried out, the provisions of Article VI shall not be in any way effected by such election or termination or failure to carry out the terms of this Agreement or any part hereof.

 

7.2          Entire Agreement. The Transaction Documents, together with the exhibits and schedules thereto, the Preliminary Prospectus and the Prospectus, contain the entire understanding of the parties with respect to the subject matter hereof and thereof and supersede all prior agreements and understandings, oral or written, with respect to such matters, which the parties acknowledge have been merged into such documents, exhibits and schedules. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, the Engagement Agreement, dated September 3, 2019 (“Engagement Agreement”), by and between the Company and the Representative, shall continue to be effective and the terms therein, shall continue to survive and be enforceable by the Representative in accordance with its terms, including, without limitation, Section 15 with respect to the results of a termination of the Engagement Agreement, provided that, in the event of a conflict between the terms of the Engagement Agreement and this Agreement, the terms of this Agreement shall prevail.

 

7.3          Notices. Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries required or permitted to be provided hereunder shall be in writing and shall be deemed given and effective on the earliest of: (a) the date of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number or e-mail attachment at the email address set forth on the signature pages attached hereto at or prior to 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on a Trading Day, (b) the next Trading Day after the date of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number or e-mail attachment at the e-mail address as set forth on the signature pages attached hereto on a day that is not a Trading Day or later than 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any Trading Day, (c) the second (2nd) Trading Day following the date of mailing, if sent by U.S. nationally recognized overnight courier service or (d) upon actual receipt by the party to whom such notice is required to be given. The address for such notices and communications shall be as set forth on the signature pages attached hereto.

 

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7.4           Amendments; Waivers. No provision of this Agreement may be waived, modified, supplemented or amended except in a written instrument signed, in the case of an amendment, by the Company and the Representative. No waiver of any default with respect to any provision, condition or requirement of this Agreement shall be deemed to be a continuing waiver in the future or a waiver of any subsequent default or a waiver of any other provision, condition or requirement hereof, nor shall any delay or omission of any party to exercise any right hereunder in any manner impair the exercise of any such right.

 

7.5           Headings. The headings herein are for convenience only, do not constitute a part of this Agreement and shall not be deemed to limit or affect any of the provisions hereof.

 

7.6           Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall be binding upon and inure to the benefit of the parties and their successors and permitted assigns.

 

7.7           Governing Law. All questions concerning the construction, validity, enforcement and interpretation of the Transaction Documents shall be governed by and construed and enforced in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, without regard to the principles of conflicts of law thereof. Each party agrees that all legal proceedings concerning the interpretations, enforcement and defense of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and any other Transaction Documents (whether brought against a party hereto or its respective affiliates, directors, officers, shareholders, partners, members, employees or agents) shall be commenced exclusively in the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, Borough of Manhattan for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection herewith or with any transaction contemplated hereby or discussed herein (including with respect to the enforcement of any of the Transaction Documents), and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any action, suit or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is improper or is an inconvenient venue for such proceeding. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof via registered or certified mail or overnight delivery (with evidence of delivery) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any other manner permitted by law. If either party shall commence an action or proceeding to enforce any provisions of the Transaction Documents, then, in addition to the obligations of the Company under Article VI, the prevailing party in such action, suit or proceeding shall be reimbursed by the other party for its reasonable attorneys’ fees and other costs and expenses incurred with the investigation, preparation and prosecution of such action or proceeding.

 

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7.8           Survival. The representations and warranties contained herein shall survive the Closing and the Option Closing, if any, and the delivery of the Securities.

 

7.9           Execution. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, all of which when taken together shall be considered one and the same agreement and shall become effective when counterparts have been signed by each party and delivered to each other party, it being understood that the parties need not sign the same counterpart. In the event that any signature is delivered by facsimile transmission or by e-mail delivery of a “.pdf” format data file, such signature shall create a valid and binding obligation of the party executing (or on whose behalf such signature is executed) with the same force and effect as if such facsimile or “.pdf” signature page were an original thereof.

 

7.10         Severability. If any term, provision, covenant or restriction of this Agreement is held by a court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid, illegal, void or unenforceable, the remainder of the terms, provisions, covenants and restrictions set forth herein shall remain in full force and effect and shall in no way be affected, impaired or invalidated, and the parties hereto shall use their commercially reasonable efforts to find and employ an alternative means to achieve the same or substantially the same result as that contemplated by such term, provision, covenant or restriction. It is hereby stipulated and declared to be the intention of the parties that they would have executed the remaining terms, provisions, covenants and restrictions without including any of such that may be hereafter declared invalid, illegal, void or unenforceable.

 

7.11         Remedies. In addition to being entitled to exercise all rights provided herein or granted by law, including recovery of damages, the Underwriters and the Company will be entitled to specific performance under the Transaction Documents. The parties agree that monetary damages may not be adequate compensation for any loss incurred by reason of any breach of obligations contained in the Transaction Documents and hereby agree to waive and not to assert in any action for specific performance of any such obligation the defense that a remedy at law would be adequate.

 

7.12         Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays, etc. If the last or appointed day for the taking of any action or the expiration of any right required or granted herein shall not be a Business Day, then such action may be taken or such right may be exercised on the next succeeding Business Day.

 

7.13         Construction. The parties agree that each of them and/or their respective counsel have reviewed and had an opportunity to revise the Transaction Documents and, therefore, the normal rule of construction to the effect that any ambiguities are to be resolved against the drafting party shall not be employed in the interpretation of the Transaction Documents or any amendments thereto. In addition, each and every reference to share prices and shares of Common Stock in any Transaction Document shall be subject to adjustment for reverse and forward stock splits, stock dividends, stock combinations and other similar transactions of the Common Stock that occur after the date of this Agreement.

 

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7.14         WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL. IN ANY ACTION, SUIT, OR PROCEEDING IN ANY JURISDICTION BROUGHT BY ANY PARTY AGAINST ANY OTHER PARTY ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY, THE PARTIES EACH KNOWINGLY AND INTENTIONALLY, TO THE GREATEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, HEREBY ABSOLUTELY, UNCONDITIONALLY, IRREVOCABLY AND EXPRESSLY WAIVE FOREVER ANY RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY.

 

(Signature Pages Follow)

 

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If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Underwriters and the Company, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement among the Company and the several Underwriters in accordance with its terms.

 

  Very truly yours,
    
  TITAN PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
   
  By:      
    Name:         
    Title:

 

Address for Notice:

 

Copy to:

 

Accepted on the date first above written.

MAXIM GROUP LLC

As the Representative of the several

Underwriters listed on Schedule I

By: Maxim Group LLC

 

By:    
  Name:  
  Title:  

 

Address for Notice:

 

Copy to:

 

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SCHEDULE I

 

Schedule of Underwriters

 

Underwriters   Closing Shares   Closing Warrants   Closing Purchase Price
             
             
             
             
Total            

 

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Exhibit 4.10

 

PRE-FUNDED COMMON STOCK PURCHASE WARRANT

 

Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

 

Warrant Shares: [_______ Initial Exercise Date: August [__, 2019

 

THIS PRE-FUNDED COMMON STOCK PURCHASE WARRANT (the “Warrant”) certifies that, for value received, _____________ or its assigns (the “Holder”) is entitled, upon the terms and subject to the limitations on exercise and the conditions hereinafter set forth, at any time on or after the date hereof (the “Initial Exercise Date”) and until this Warrant is exercised in full (the “Termination Date”) but not thereafter, to subscribe for and purchase from Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), up to ______ shares (as subject to adjustment hereunder, the “Warrant Shares”) of Common Stock. The purchase price of one share of Common Stock under this Warrant shall be equal to the Exercise Price, as defined in Section 2(b).

 

Section 1.          Definitions. In addition to the terms defined elsewhere in this Warrant, the following terms have the meanings indicated in this Section 1:

 

Affiliate” means any Person that, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is controlled by or is under common control with a Person, as such terms are used in and construed under Rule 405 under the Securities Act.

 

Bid Price” means, for any date, the price determined by the first of the following clauses that applies: (a) if the Common Stock is then listed or quoted on a Trading Market, the bid price of the Common Stock for the time in question (or the nearest preceding date) on the Trading Market on which the Common Stock is then listed or quoted as reported by Bloomberg L.P. (based on a Trading Day from 9:30 a.m. (New York City time) to 4:02 p.m. (New York City time)), (b)  if OTCQB or OTCQX is not a Trading Market, the volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on OTCQB or OTCQX as applicable, (c) if the Common Stock is not then listed or quoted for trading on OTCQB or OTCQX and if prices for the Common Stock are then reported in the “Pink Sheets” published by OTC Markets Group, Inc. (or a similar organization or agency succeeding to its functions of reporting prices), the most recent bid price per share of the Common Stock so reported, or (d) in all other cases, the fair market value of a share of Common Stock as determined by an independent appraiser selected in good faith by the Holders of a majority in interest of the Warrants then outstanding and reasonably acceptable to the Company, the fees and expenses of which shall be paid by the Company.

 

Business Day” means any day except any Saturday, any Sunday, any day which is a federal legal holiday in the United States or any day on which banking institutions in the State of New York are authorized or required by law or other governmental action to close.

 

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Commission” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Common Stock” means the common stock of the Company, par value $0.001 per share, and any other class of securities into which such securities may hereafter be reclassified or changed.

 

Common Stock Equivalents” means any securities of the Company or the Subsidiaries which would entitle the holder thereof to acquire at any time Common Stock, including, without limitation, any debt, preferred stock, right, option, warrant or other instrument that is at any time convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or otherwise entitles the holder thereof to receive, Common Stock.

 

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

Person” means an individual or corporation, partnership, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, limited liability company, joint stock company, government (or an agency or subdivision thereof) or other entity of any kind.

 

Registration Statement” means the Company’s registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-[ ]).

 

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

Subsidiary” means any subsidiary of the Company and shall, where applicable, also include any direct or indirect subsidiary of the Company formed or acquired after the date hereof.

 

Trading Day” means a day on which the Common Stock is traded on a Trading Market.

 

Trading Market” means any of the following markets or exchanges on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted for trading on the date in question: the NYSE American, the Nasdaq Capital Market, the Nasdaq Global Market, the Nasdaq Global Select Market, the New York Stock Exchange (or any successors to any of the foregoing).

 

Transfer Agent” means Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, the current transfer agent of the Company with a mailing address of 1 State Street, 30th Floor, New York, NY 10004, and any successor transfer agent of the Company.

 

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VWAP” means, for any date, the price determined by the first of the following clauses that applies: (a) if the Common Stock is then listed or quoted on a Trading Market, the daily volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on the Trading Market on which the Common Stock is then listed or quoted as reported by Bloomberg L.P. (based on a Trading Day from 9:30 a.m. (New York City time) to 4:02 p.m. (New York City time)), (b)  if OTCQB or OTCQX is not a Trading Market, the volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on OTCQB or OTCQX as applicable, (c) if the Common Stock is not then listed or quoted for trading on OTCQB or OTCQX and if prices for the Common Stock are then reported in the “Pink Sheets” published by OTC Markets Group, Inc. (or a similar organization or agency succeeding to its functions of reporting prices), the most recent bid price per share of the Common Stock so reported, or (d) in all other cases, the fair market value of a share of Common Stock as determined by an independent appraiser selected in good faith by the holders of a majority in interest of the Warrants then outstanding and reasonably acceptable to the Company, the fees and expenses of which shall be paid by the Company.

 

Warrants” means this Warrant and other Pre-Funded Common Stock purchase warrants issued by the Company pursuant to the Registration Statement.

 

Section 2.          Exercise.

 

a)         Exercise of Warrant. Exercise of the purchase rights represented by this Warrant may be made, in whole or in part, at any time or times on or after the Initial Exercise Date and on or before the Termination Date by delivery to the Company of a duly executed facsimile copy or PDF copy submitted by e-mail (or e-mail attachment) of the Notice of Exercise in the form annexed hereto (the “Notice of Exercise”). Within the earlier of (i) two (2) Trading Days and (ii) the number of Trading Days comprising the Standard Settlement Period (as defined in Section 2(d)(i) herein) following the date of exercise as aforesaid, the Holder shall deliver the aggregate Exercise Price for the shares specified in the applicable Notice of Exercise by wire transfer or cashier’s check drawn on a United States bank unless the cashless exercise procedure specified in Section 2(c) below is specified in the applicable Notice of Exercise. No ink-original Notice of Exercise shall be required, nor shall any medallion guarantee (or other type of guarantee or notarization) of any Notice of Exercise be required. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, the Holder shall not be required to physically surrender this Warrant to the Company until the Holder has purchased all of the Warrant Shares available hereunder and the Warrant has been exercised in full, in which case, the Holder shall surrender this Warrant to the Company for cancellation within three (3) Trading Days of the date on which the final Notice of Exercise is delivered to the Company. Partial exercises of this Warrant resulting in purchases of a portion of the total number of Warrant Shares available hereunder shall have the effect of lowering the outstanding number of Warrant Shares purchasable hereunder in an amount equal to the applicable number of Warrant Shares purchased. The Holder and the Company shall maintain records showing the number of Warrant Shares purchased and the date of such purchases. The Company shall deliver any objection to any Notice of Exercise within one (1) Business Day of receipt of such notice. The Holder and any assignee, by acceptance of this Warrant, acknowledge and agree that, by reason of the provisions of this paragraph, following the purchase of a portion of the Warrant Shares hereunder, the number of Warrant Shares available for purchase hereunder at any given time may be less than the amount stated on the face hereof.

 

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b)        Exercise Price. The aggregate exercise price of this Warrant, except for a nominal exercise price of $0.001 per Warrant Share, was pre-funded to the Company on or prior to the Initial Exercise Date and, consequently, no additional consideration (other than the nominal exercise price of $0.001 per Warrant Share) shall be required to be paid by the Holder to any Person to effect any exercise of this Warrant. The Holder shall not be entitled to the return or refund of all, or any portion, of such pre-paid aggregate exercise price under any circumstance or for any reason whatsoever, including in the event this Warrant shall not have been exercised prior to the Termination Date. The remaining unpaid exercise price per share of Common Stock under this Warrant shall be $0.001, subject to adjustment hereunder (the “Exercise Price”).

 

c)        Cashless Exercise. This Warrant may be exercised, in whole or in part, at such time by means of a “cashless exercise” in which the Holder shall be entitled to receive a number of Warrant Shares equal to the quotient obtained by dividing [(A-B) (X)] by (A), where:

 

(A) = as applicable: (i) the VWAP on the Trading Day immediately preceding the date of the applicable Notice of Exercise if such Notice of Exercise is (1) both executed and delivered pursuant to Section 2(a) hereof on a day that is not a Trading Day or (2) both executed and delivered pursuant to Section 2(a) hereof on a Trading Day prior to the opening of “regular trading hours” (as defined in Rule 600(b)(64) of Regulation NMS promulgated under the federal securities laws) on such Trading Day, (ii) at the option of the Holder, either (y) the VWAP on the Trading Day immediately preceding the date of the applicable Notice of Exercise or (z) the Bid Price of the Common Stock on the principal Trading Market as reported by Bloomberg L.P. as of the time of the Holder’s execution of the applicable Notice of Exercise if such Notice of Exercise is executed during “regular trading hours” on a Trading Day and is delivered within two (2) hours thereafter (including until two (2) hours after the close of “regular trading hours” on a Trading Day) pursuant to Section 2(a) hereof or (iii) the VWAP on the date of the applicable Notice of Exercise if the date of such Notice of Exercise is a Trading Day and such Notice of Exercise is both executed and delivered pursuant to Section 2(a) hereof after the close of “regular trading hours” on such Trading Day;

 

(B) = the Exercise Price of this Warrant, as adjusted hereunder; and

 

(X) = the number of Warrant Shares that would be issuable upon exercise of this Warrant in accordance with the terms of this Warrant if such exercise were by means of a cash exercise rather than a cashless exercise.

 

If Warrant Shares are issued in such a cashless exercise, the parties acknowledge and agree that in accordance with Section 3(a)(9) of the Securities Act, the Warrant Shares shall take on the registered characteristics of the Warrants being exercised. The Company agrees not to take any position contrary to this Section 2(c).

 

d)        Mechanics of Exercise.

 

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i.          Delivery of Warrant Shares Upon Exercise. The Company shall cause the Warrant Shares purchased hereunder to be transmitted by the Transfer Agent to the Holder by crediting the account of the Holder’s or its designee’s balance account with The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit or Withdrawal at Custodian system (“DWAC”) if the Company is then a participant in such system and either (A) there is an effective registration statement permitting the issuance of the Warrant Shares to or resale of the Warrant Shares by Holder or (B) this Warrant is being exercised via cashless exercise, and otherwise by physical delivery of a certificate, registered in the Company’s share register in the name of the Holder or its designee, for the number of Warrant Shares to which the Holder is entitled pursuant to such exercise to the address specified by the Holder in the Notice of Exercise by the date that is the earliest of (i) two (2) Trading Days after the delivery to the Company of the Notice of Exercise, (ii) one (1) Trading Day after delivery of the aggregate Exercise Price to the Company and (iii) the number of Trading Days comprising the Standard Settlement Period after the delivery to the Company of the Notice of Exercise (such date, the “Warrant Share Delivery Date”). Upon delivery of the Notice of Exercise, the Holder shall be deemed for all corporate purposes to have become the holder of record of the Warrant Shares with respect to which this Warrant has been exercised, irrespective of the date of delivery of the Warrant Shares, provided that payment of the aggregate Exercise Price (other than in the case of a cashless exercise) is received within the earlier of (i) two (2) Trading Days and (ii) the number of Trading Days comprising the Standard Settlement Period following delivery of the Notice of Exercise. If the Company fails for any reason to deliver to the Holder the Warrant Shares subject to a Notice of Exercise by the Warrant Share Delivery Date, the Company shall pay to the Holder, in cash, as liquidated damages and not as a penalty, for each $1,000 of Warrant Shares subject to such exercise (based on the VWAP of the Common Stock on the date of the applicable Notice of Exercise), $10 per Trading Day (increasing to $20 per Trading Day on the fifth Trading Day after such liquidated damages begin to accrue) for each Trading Day after such Warrant Share Delivery Date until such Warrant Shares are delivered or Holder rescinds such exercise. The Company agrees to maintain a transfer agent that is a participant in the FAST program so long as this Warrant remains outstanding and exercisable. As used herein, “Standard Settlement Period” means the standard settlement period, expressed in a number of Trading Days, on the Company’s primary Trading Market with respect to the Common Stock as in effect on the date of delivery of the Notice of Exercise. Notwithstanding the foregoing, with respect to any Notice(s) of Exercise delivered on or prior to 12:00 p.m. (New York City time) on the Initial Exercise Date, which may be delivered at any time after the time of execution of the Underwriting Agreement, dated [ ], 2019 between the Company and Maxim Group LLC, the Company agrees to deliver the Warrant Shares subject to such notice(s) by 4:00 p.m. (New York City time) on the Initial Exercise Date and the Initial Exercise Date shall be the Warrant Share Delivery Date for purposes hereunder.

 

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ii.         Delivery of New Warrants Upon Exercise. If this Warrant shall have been exercised in part, the Company shall, at the request of a Holder and upon surrender of this Warrant certificate, at the time of delivery of the Warrant Shares, deliver to the Holder a new Warrant evidencing the rights of the Holder to purchase the unpurchased Warrant Shares called for by this Warrant, which new Warrant shall in all other respects be identical with this Warrant.

 

iii.        Rescission Rights. If the Company fails to cause the Transfer Agent to transmit to the Holder the Warrant Shares pursuant to Section 2(d)(i) by the Warrant Share Delivery Date, then the Holder will have the right to rescind such exercise.

 

iv.        Compensation for Buy-In on Failure to Timely Deliver Warrant Shares Upon Exercise. In addition to any other rights available to the Holder, if the Company fails to cause the Transfer Agent to transmit to the Holder the Warrant Shares in accordance with the provisions of Section 2(d)(i) above pursuant to an exercise on or before the Warrant Share Delivery Date, and if after such date the Holder is required by its broker to purchase (in an open market transaction or otherwise) or the Holder’s brokerage firm otherwise purchases, shares of Common Stock to deliver in satisfaction of a sale by the Holder of the Warrant Shares which the Holder anticipated receiving upon such exercise (a “Buy-In”), then the Company shall (A) pay in cash to the Holder the amount, if any, by which (x) the Holder’s total purchase price (including brokerage commissions, if any) for the shares of Common Stock so purchased exceeds (y) the amount obtained by multiplying (1) the number of Warrant Shares that the Company was required to deliver to the Holder in connection with the exercise at issue times (2) the price at which the sell order giving rise to such purchase obligation was executed, and (B) at the option of the Holder, either reinstate the portion of the Warrant and equivalent number of Warrant Shares for which such exercise was not honored (in which case such exercise shall be deemed rescinded) or deliver to the Holder the number of shares of Common Stock that would have been issued had the Company timely complied with its exercise and delivery obligations hereunder. For example, if the Holder purchases Common Stock having a total purchase price of $11,000 to cover a Buy-In with respect to an attempted exercise of shares of Common Stock with an aggregate sale price giving rise to such purchase obligation of $10,000, under clause (A) of the immediately preceding sentence the Company shall be required to pay the Holder $1,000. The Holder shall provide the Company written notice indicating the amounts payable to the Holder in respect of the Buy-In and, upon request of the Company, evidence of the amount of such loss. Nothing herein shall limit a Holder’s right to pursue any other remedies available to it hereunder, at law or in equity including, without limitation, a decree of specific performance and/or injunctive relief with respect to the Company’s failure to timely deliver shares of Common Stock upon exercise of the Warrant as required pursuant to the terms hereof.

 

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v.         No Fractional Shares or Scrip. No fractional shares or scrip representing fractional shares shall be issued upon the exercise of this Warrant. As to any fraction of a share which the Holder would otherwise be entitled to purchase upon such exercise, the Company shall, at its election, either pay a cash adjustment in respect of such final fraction in an amount equal to such fraction multiplied by the Exercise Price or round up to the next whole share.

 

vi.        Charges, Taxes and Expenses. Issuance of Warrant Shares shall be made without charge to the Holder for any issue or transfer tax or other incidental expense in respect of the issuance of such Warrant Shares, all of which taxes and expenses shall be paid by the Company, and such Warrant Shares shall be issued in the name of the Holder or in such name or names as may be directed by the Holder; provided, however, that, in the event that Warrant Shares are to be issued in a name other than the name of the Holder, this Warrant when surrendered for exercise shall be accompanied by the Assignment Form attached hereto duly executed by the Holder and the Company may require, as a condition thereto, the payment of a sum sufficient to reimburse it for any transfer tax incidental thereto. The Company shall pay all Transfer Agent fees required for same-day processing of any Notice of Exercise and all fees to the Depository Trust Company (or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions) required for same-day electronic delivery of the Warrant Shares.

 

vii.       Closing of Books. The Company will not close its stockholder books or records in any manner which prevents the timely exercise of this Warrant, pursuant to the terms hereof.

 

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e)        Holder’s Exercise Limitations. The Company shall not effect any exercise of this Warrant, and a Holder shall not have the right to exercise any portion of this Warrant, pursuant to Section 2 or otherwise, to the extent that after giving effect to such issuance after exercise as set forth on the applicable Notice of Exercise, the Holder (together with the Holder’s Affiliates, and any other Persons acting as a group together with the Holder or any of the Holder’s Affiliates (such Persons, “Attribution Parties”)), would beneficially own in excess of the Beneficial Ownership Limitation (as defined below).  For purposes of the foregoing sentence, the number of shares of Common Stock beneficially owned by the Holder and its Affiliates and Attribution Parties shall include the number of shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of this Warrant with respect to which such determination is being made, but shall exclude the number of shares of Common Stock which would be issuable upon (i) exercise of the remaining, nonexercised portion of this Warrant beneficially owned by the Holder or any of its Affiliates or Attribution Parties and (ii) exercise or conversion of the unexercised or nonconverted portion of any other securities of the Company (including, without limitation, any other Common Stock Equivalents) subject to a limitation on conversion or exercise analogous to the limitation contained herein beneficially owned by the Holder or any of its Affiliates or Attribution Parties.  Except as set forth in the preceding sentence, for purposes of this Section 2(e), beneficial ownership shall be calculated in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, it being acknowledged by the Holder that the Company is not representing to the Holder that such calculation is in compliance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the Holder is solely responsible for any schedules required to be filed in accordance therewith. To the extent that the limitation contained in this Section 2(e) applies, the determination of whether this Warrant is exercisable (in relation to other securities owned by the Holder together with any Affiliates and Attribution Parties) and of which portion of this Warrant is exercisable shall be in the sole discretion of the Holder, and the submission of a Notice of Exercise shall be deemed to be the Holder’s determination of whether this Warrant is exercisable (in relation to other securities owned by the Holder together with any Affiliates and Attribution Parties) and of which portion of this Warrant is exercisable, in each case subject to the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, and the Company shall have no obligation to verify or confirm the accuracy of such determination. In addition, a determination as to any group status as contemplated above shall be determined in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. For purposes of this Section 2(e), in determining the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock, a Holder may rely on the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock as reflected in (A) the Company’s most recent periodic or annual report filed with the Commission, as the case may be, (B) a more recent public announcement by the Company or (C) a more recent written notice by the Company or the Transfer Agent setting forth the number of shares of Common Stock outstanding.  Upon the written or oral request of a Holder, the Company shall within one Trading Day confirm orally and in writing to the Holder the number of shares of Common Stock then outstanding.  In any case, the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock shall be determined after giving effect to the conversion or exercise of securities of the Company, including this Warrant, by the Holder or its Affiliates or Attribution Parties since the date as of which such number of outstanding shares of Common Stock was reported. The “Beneficial Ownership Limitation” shall be 4.99% (or, upon election by a Holder prior to the issuance of any Warrants, 9.99%) of the number of shares of the Common Stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the issuance of shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of this Warrant. The Holder, upon notice to the Company, may increase or decrease the Beneficial Ownership Limitation provisions of this Section 2(e), provided that the Beneficial Ownership Limitation in no event exceeds 9.99% of the number of shares of the Common Stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon exercise of this Warrant held by the Holder and the provisions of this Section 2(e) shall continue to apply. Any increase in the Beneficial Ownership Limitation will not be effective until the 61st day after such notice is delivered to the Company. The provisions of this paragraph shall be construed and implemented in a manner otherwise than in strict conformity with the terms of this Section 2(e) to correct this paragraph (or any portion hereof) which may be defective or inconsistent with the intended Beneficial Ownership Limitation herein contained or to make changes or supplements necessary or desirable to properly give effect to such limitation. The limitations contained in this paragraph shall apply to a successor holder of this Warrant.

 

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Section 3.          Certain Adjustments.

 

a)         Stock Dividends and Splits. If the Company, at any time while this Warrant is outstanding: (i) pays a stock dividend or otherwise makes a distribution or distributions on shares of its Common Stock or any other equity or equity equivalent securities payable in shares of Common Stock (which, for avoidance of doubt, shall not include any shares of Common Stock issued by the Company upon exercise of this Warrant), (ii) subdivides outstanding shares of Common Stock into a larger number of shares, (iii) combines (including by way of reverse stock split) outstanding shares of Common Stock into a smaller number of shares, or (iv) issues by reclassification of shares of the Common Stock any shares of capital stock of the Company, then in each case the Exercise Price shall be multiplied by a fraction of which the numerator shall be the number of shares of Common Stock (excluding treasury shares, if any) outstanding immediately before such event and of which the denominator shall be the number of shares of Common Stock outstanding immediately after such event, and the number of shares issuable upon exercise of this Warrant shall be proportionately adjusted such that the aggregate Exercise Price of this Warrant shall remain unchanged. Any adjustment made pursuant to this Section 3(a) shall become effective immediately after the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to receive such dividend or distribution and shall become effective immediately after the effective date in the case of a subdivision, combination or re-classification.

 

b)         Intentionally omitted.

 

c)         Subsequent Rights Offerings. In addition to any adjustments pursuant to Section 3(a) above, if at any time the Company grants, issues or sells any Common Stock Equivalents or rights to purchase stock, warrants, securities or other property pro rata to the record holders of any class of shares of Common Stock (the “Purchase Rights”), then the Holder will be entitled to acquire, upon the terms applicable to such Purchase Rights, the aggregate Purchase Rights which the Holder could have acquired if the Holder had held the number of shares of Common Stock acquirable upon complete exercise of this Warrant (without regard to any limitations on exercise hereof, including without limitation, the Beneficial Ownership Limitation) immediately before the date on which a record is taken for the grant, issuance or sale of such Purchase Rights, or, if no such record is taken, the date as of which the record holders of shares of Common Stock are to be determined for the grant, issue or sale of such Purchase Rights (provided, however, that, to the extent that the Holder’s right to participate in any such Purchase Right would result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, then the Holder shall not be entitled to participate in such Purchase Right to such extent (or beneficial ownership of such shares of Common Stock as a result of such Purchase Right to such extent) and such Purchase Right to such extent shall be held in abeyance for the Holder until such time, if ever, as its right thereto would not result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation).

 

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d)         Pro Rata Distributions. During such time as this Warrant is outstanding, if the Company shall declare or make any dividend or other distribution of its assets (or rights to acquire its assets) to holders of shares of Common Stock, by way of return of capital or otherwise (including, without limitation, any distribution of cash, stock or other securities, property or options by way of a dividend, spin off, reclassification, corporate rearrangement, scheme of arrangement or other similar transaction) (a “Distribution”), at any time after the issuance of this Warrant, then, in each such case, the Holder shall be entitled to participate in such Distribution to the same extent that the Holder would have participated therein if the Holder had held the number of shares of Common Stock acquirable upon complete exercise of this Warrant (without regard to any limitations on exercise hereof, including without limitation, the Beneficial Ownership Limitation) immediately before the date of which a record is taken for such Distribution, or, if no such record is taken, the date as of which the record holders of shares of Common Stock are to be determined for the participation in such Distribution (provided, however, that, to the extent that the Holder's right to participate in any such Distribution would result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, then the Holder shall not be entitled to participate in such Distribution to such extent (or in the beneficial ownership of any shares of Common Stock as a result of such Distribution to such extent) and the portion of such Distribution shall be held in abeyance for the benefit of the Holder until such time, if ever, as its right thereto would not result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation). To the extent that this Warrant has not been partially or completely exercised at the time of such Distribution, such portion of the Distribution shall be held in abeyance for the benefit of the Holder until the Holder has exercised this Warrant.

 

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e)         Fundamental Transaction. If, at any time while this Warrant is outstanding, (i) the Company, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions effects any merger or consolidation of the Company with or into another Person, (ii) the Company, directly or indirectly, effects any sale, lease, license, assignment, transfer, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of its assets in one or a series of related transactions, (iii) any, direct or indirect, purchase offer, tender offer or exchange offer (whether by the Company or another Person) is completed pursuant to which holders of Common Stock are permitted to sell, tender or exchange their shares for other securities, cash or property and has been accepted by the holders of 50% or more of the outstanding Common Stock, (iv) the Company, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions effects any reclassification, reorganization or recapitalization of the Common Stock or any compulsory share exchange pursuant to which the Common Stock is effectively converted into or exchanged for other securities, cash or property, or (v) the Company, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions consummates a stock or share purchase agreement or other business combination (including, without limitation, a reorganization, recapitalization, spin-off, merger or scheme of arrangement) with another Person or group of Persons whereby such other Person or group acquires more than 50% of the outstanding shares of Common Stock (not including any shares of Common Stock held by the other Person or other Persons making or party to, or associated or affiliated with the other Persons making or party to, such stock or share purchase agreement or other business combination) (each a “Fundamental Transaction”), then, upon any subsequent exercise of this Warrant, the Holder shall have the right to receive, for each Warrant Share that would have been issuable upon such exercise immediately prior to the occurrence of such Fundamental Transaction, at the option of the Holder (without regard to any limitation in Section 2(e) on the exercise of this Warrant), the number of shares of Common Stock of the successor or acquiring corporation or of the Company, if it is the surviving corporation, and any additional consideration (the “Alternate Consideration”) receivable as a result of such Fundamental Transaction by a holder of the number of shares of Common Stock for which this Warrant is exercisable immediately prior to such Fundamental Transaction (without regard to any limitation in Section 2(e) on the exercise of this Warrant). For purposes of any such exercise, the determination of the Exercise Price shall be appropriately adjusted to apply to such Alternate Consideration based on the amount of Alternate Consideration issuable in respect of one share of Common Stock in such Fundamental Transaction, and the Company shall apportion the Exercise Price among the Alternate Consideration in a reasonable manner reflecting the relative value of any different components of the Alternate Consideration. If holders of Common Stock are given any choice as to the securities, cash or property to be received in a Fundamental Transaction, then the Holder shall be given the same choice as to the Alternate Consideration it receives upon any exercise of this Warrant following such Fundamental Transaction. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary, in the event of a Fundamental Transaction, the Company or any Successor Entity (as defined below) shall, at the Holder’s option, exercisable at any time concurrently with, or within 30 days after, the consummation of the Fundamental Transaction (or, if later, the date of the public announcement of the applicable Fundamental Transaction), purchase this Warrant from the Holder by paying to the Holder an amount of cash equal to the Black Scholes Value (as defined below) of the remaining unexercised portion of this Warrant on the date of the consummation of such Fundamental Transaction. “Black Scholes Value” means the value of this Warrant based on the Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model obtained from the “OV” function on Bloomberg, L.P. (“Bloomberg”) determined as of the day of consummation of the applicable Fundamental Transaction for pricing purposes and reflecting (A) a risk-free interest rate corresponding to the U.S. Treasury rate for a period equal to the time between the date of the public announcement of the applicable Fundamental Transaction and the Termination Date, (B) an expected volatility equal to the greater of 100% and the 100 day volatility obtained from the HVT function on Bloomberg as of the Trading Day immediately following the public announcement of the applicable Fundamental Transaction, (C) the underlying price per share used in such calculation shall be the greater of (i) the sum of the price per share being offered in cash, if any, plus the value of any non-cash consideration, if any, being offered in such Fundamental Transaction and (ii) the greater of (x) the last VWAP immediately prior to the public announcement of such Fundamental Transaction and (y) the last VWAP immediately prior to the consummation of such Fundamental Transaction and (D) a remaining option time equal to the time between the date of the public announcement of the applicable Fundamental Transaction and the Termination Date. The payment of the Black Scholes Value will be made by wire transfer of immediately available funds within five Business Days of the Holder’s election (or, if later, on the effective date of the Fundamental Transaction). The Company shall cause any successor entity in a Fundamental Transaction in which the Company is not the survivor (the “Successor Entity”) to assume in writing all of the obligations of the Company under this Warrant in accordance with the provisions of this Section 3(e) pursuant to written agreements in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Holder and approved by the Holder (without unreasonable delay) prior to such Fundamental Transaction and shall, at the option of the Holder, deliver to the Holder in exchange for this Warrant a security of the Successor Entity evidenced by a written instrument substantially similar in form and substance to this Warrant which is exercisable for a corresponding number of shares of capital stock of such Successor Entity (or its parent entity) equivalent to the shares of Common Stock acquirable and receivable upon exercise of this Warrant (without regard to any limitations on the exercise of this Warrant) prior to such Fundamental Transaction, and with an exercise price which applies the exercise price hereunder to such shares of capital stock (but taking into account the relative value of the shares of Common Stock pursuant to such Fundamental Transaction and the value of such shares of capital stock, such number of shares of capital stock and such exercise price being for the purpose of protecting the economic value of this Warrant immediately prior to the consummation of such Fundamental Transaction), and which is reasonably satisfactory in form and substance to the Holder. Upon the occurrence of any such Fundamental Transaction, the Successor Entity shall succeed to, and be substituted for (so that from and after the date of such Fundamental Transaction, the provisions of this Warrant referring to the “Company” shall refer instead to the Successor Entity), and may exercise every right and power of the Company and shall assume all of the obligations of the Company under this Warrant with the same effect as if such Successor Entity had been named as the Company herein.

 

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f)          Calculations. All calculations under this Section 3 shall be made to the nearest cent or the nearest 1/100th of a share, as the case may be. For purposes of this Section 3, the number of shares of Common Stock deemed to be issued and outstanding as of a given date shall be the sum of the number of shares of Common Stock (excluding treasury shares, if any) issued and outstanding.

 

g)         Notice to Holder.

 

i.          Adjustment to Exercise Price. Whenever the Exercise Price is adjusted pursuant to any provision of this Section 3, the Company shall promptly deliver to the Holder by facsimile or email a notice setting forth the Exercise Price after such adjustment and any resulting adjustment to the number of Warrant Shares and setting forth a brief statement of the facts requiring such adjustment.

 

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ii.         Notice to Allow Exercise by Holder. If (A) the Company shall declare a dividend (or any other distribution in whatever form) on the Common Stock, (B) the Company shall declare a special nonrecurring cash dividend on or a redemption of the Common Stock, (C) the Company shall authorize the granting to all holders of the Common Stock rights or warrants to subscribe for or purchase any shares of capital stock of any class or of any rights, (D) the approval of any stockholders of the Company shall be required in connection with any reclassification of the Common Stock, any consolidation or merger to which the Company is a party, any sale or transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company, or any compulsory share exchange whereby the Common Stock is converted into other securities, cash or property, or (E) the Company shall authorize the voluntary or involuntary dissolution, liquidation or winding up of the affairs of the Company, then, in each case, the Company shall cause to be delivered by facsimile or email to the Holder at its last facsimile number or email address as it shall appear upon the Warrant Register of the Company, at least 20 calendar days prior to the applicable record or effective date hereinafter specified, a notice stating (x) the date on which a record is to be taken for the purpose of such dividend, distribution, redemption, rights or warrants, or if a record is not to be taken, the date as of which the holders of the Common Stock of record to be entitled to such dividend, distributions, redemption, rights or warrants are to be determined or (y) the date on which such reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer or share exchange is expected to become effective or close, and the date as of which it is expected that holders of the Common Stock of record shall be entitled to exchange their shares of the Common Stock for securities, cash or other property deliverable upon such reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer or share exchange; provided that the failure to deliver such notice or any defect therein or in the delivery thereof shall not affect the validity of the corporate action required to be specified in such notice. To the extent that any notice provided in this Warrant constitutes, or contains, material, non-public information regarding the Company or any of the Subsidiaries, the Company shall simultaneously file such notice with the Commission pursuant to a Current Report on Form 8-K. The Holder shall remain entitled to exercise this Warrant during the period commencing on the date of such notice to the effective date of the event triggering such notice except as may otherwise be expressly set forth herein.

 

Section 4.             Transfer of Warrant.

 

a)           Transferability. This Warrant and all rights hereunder (including, without limitation, any registration rights) are transferable, in whole or in part, upon surrender of this Warrant at the principal office of the Company or its designated agent, together with a written assignment of this Warrant substantially in the form attached hereto duly executed by the Holder or its agent or attorney and funds sufficient to pay any transfer taxes payable upon the making of such transfer. Upon such surrender and, if required, such payment, the Company shall execute and deliver a new Warrant or Warrants in the name of the assignee or assignees, as applicable, and in the denomination or denominations specified in such instrument of assignment, and shall issue to the assignor a new Warrant evidencing the portion of this Warrant not so assigned, and this Warrant shall promptly be cancelled. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, the Holder shall not be required to physically surrender this Warrant to the Company unless the Holder has assigned this Warrant in full, in which case, the Holder shall surrender this Warrant to the Company within three (3) Trading Days of the date on which the Holder delivers an assignment form to the Company assigning this Warrant in full. The Warrant, if properly assigned in accordance herewith, may be exercised by a new holder for the purchase of Warrant Shares without having a new Warrant issued.

 

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b)         New Warrants. This Warrant may be divided or combined with other Warrants upon presentation hereof at the aforesaid office of the Company, together with a written notice specifying the names and denominations in which new Warrants are to be issued, signed by the Holder or its agent or attorney. Subject to compliance with Section 4(a), as to any transfer which may be involved in such division or combination, the Company shall execute and deliver a new Warrant or Warrants in exchange for the Warrant or Warrants to be divided or combined in accordance with such notice. All Warrants issued on transfers or exchanges shall be dated the initial issuance date of this Warrant and shall be identical with this Warrant except as to the number of Warrant Shares issuable pursuant thereto.

 

c)         Warrant Register. The Company shall register this Warrant, upon records to be maintained by the Company for that purpose (the “Warrant Register”), in the name of the record Holder hereof from time to time. The Company may deem and treat the registered Holder of this Warrant as the absolute owner hereof for the purpose of any exercise hereof or any distribution to the Holder, and for all other purposes, absent actual notice to the contrary.

 

Section 5.          Miscellaneous.

 

a)         No Rights as Stockholder Until Exercise; No Settlement in Cash. This Warrant does not entitle the Holder to any voting rights, dividends or other rights as a stockholder of the Company prior to the exercise hereof as set forth in Section 2(d)(i), except as expressly set forth in Section 3. Without limiting any rights of a Holder to receive Warrant Shares on a “cashless exercise” pursuant to Section 2(c) or to receive cash payments pursuant to Section 2(d)(i) and Section 2(d)(iv) herein, in no event shall the Company be required to net cash settle an exercise of this Warrant.

 

b)         Loss, Theft, Destruction or Mutilation of Warrant. The Company covenants that upon receipt by the Company of evidence reasonably satisfactory to it of the loss, theft, destruction or mutilation of this Warrant or any stock certificate relating to the Warrant Shares, and in case of loss, theft or destruction, of indemnity or security reasonably satisfactory to it (which, in the case of the Warrant, shall not include the posting of any bond), and upon surrender and cancellation of such Warrant or stock certificate, if mutilated, the Company will make and deliver a new Warrant or stock certificate of like tenor and dated as of such cancellation, in lieu of such Warrant or stock certificate.

 

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c)        Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays, etc. If the last or appointed day for the taking of any action or the expiration of any right required or granted herein shall not be a Business Day, then, such action may be taken or such right may be exercised on the next succeeding Business Day.

 

d)        Authorized Shares.

 

The Company covenants that, during the period the Warrant is outstanding, it will reserve from its authorized and unissued Common Stock a sufficient number of shares to provide for the issuance of the Warrant Shares upon the exercise of any purchase rights under this Warrant. The Company further covenants that its issuance of this Warrant shall constitute full authority to its officers who are charged with the duty of issuing the necessary Warrant Shares upon the exercise of the purchase rights under this Warrant. The Company will take all such reasonable action as may be necessary to assure that such Warrant Shares may be issued as provided herein without violation of any applicable law or regulation, or of any requirements of the Trading Market upon which the Common Stock may be listed. The Company covenants that all Warrant Shares which may be issued upon the exercise of the purchase rights represented by this Warrant will, upon exercise of the purchase rights represented by this Warrant and payment for such Warrant Shares in accordance herewith, be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable and free from all taxes, liens and charges created by the Company in respect of the issue thereof (other than taxes in respect of any transfer occurring contemporaneously with such issue).

 

Except and to the extent as waived or consented to by the Holder, the Company shall not by any action, including, without limitation, amending its certificate of incorporation or through any reorganization, transfer of assets, consolidation, merger, dissolution, issue or sale of securities or any other voluntary action, avoid or seek to avoid the observance or performance of any of the terms of this Warrant, but will at all times in good faith assist in the carrying out of all such terms and in the taking of all such actions as may be necessary or appropriate to protect the rights of Holder as set forth in this Warrant against impairment. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, the Company will (i) not increase the par value of any Warrant Shares above the amount payable therefor upon such exercise immediately prior to such increase in par value, (ii) take all such action as may be necessary or appropriate in order that the Company may validly and legally issue fully paid and nonassessable Warrant Shares upon the exercise of this Warrant and (iii) use commercially reasonable efforts to obtain all such authorizations, exemptions or consents from any public regulatory body having jurisdiction thereof, as may be, necessary to enable the Company to perform its obligations under this Warrant.

 

Before taking any action which would result in an adjustment in the number of Warrant Shares for which this Warrant is exercisable or in the Exercise Price, the Company shall obtain all such authorizations or exemptions thereof, or consents thereto, as may be necessary from any public regulatory body or bodies having jurisdiction thereof.

 

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e)        Governing Law. All questions concerning the construction, validity, enforcement and interpretation of this Warrant shall be governed by and construed and enforced in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, without regard to the principles of conflicts of law thereof. Each party agrees that all legal proceedings concerning the interpretations, enforcement and defense of the transactions contemplated by this Warrant (whether brought against a party hereto or their respective affiliates, directors, officers, shareholders, partners, members, employees or agents) shall be commenced exclusively in the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, Borough of Manhattan for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection herewith or with any transaction contemplated hereby or discussed herein, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is improper or is an inconvenient venue for such proceeding. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof via registered or certified mail or overnight delivery (with evidence of delivery) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Warrant and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any other manner permitted by law. If either party shall commence an action, suit or proceeding to enforce any provisions of this Warrant, the prevailing party in such action, suit or proceeding shall be reimbursed by the other party for their reasonable attorneys' fees and other costs and expenses incurred with the investigation, preparation and prosecution of such action or proceeding. Notwithstanding the foregoing, nothing in this paragraph shall limit or restrict the federal district court in which a Holder may bring a claim under the federal securities laws.

 

f)         Restrictions. The Holder acknowledges that the Warrant Shares acquired upon the exercise of this Warrant, if not registered, and the Holder does not utilize cashless exercise, will have restrictions upon resale imposed by state and federal securities laws.

 

g)        Nonwaiver and Expenses. No course of dealing or any delay or failure to exercise any right hereunder on the part of Holder shall operate as a waiver of such right or otherwise prejudice the Holder’s rights, powers or remedies. Without limiting any other provision of this Warrant, if the Company willfully and knowingly fails to comply with any provision of this Warrant, which results in any material damages to the Holder, the Company shall pay to the Holder such amounts as shall be sufficient to cover any costs and expenses including, but not limited to, reasonable attorneys’ fees, including those of appellate proceedings, incurred by the Holder in collecting any amounts due pursuant hereto or in otherwise enforcing any of its rights, powers or remedies hereunder.

 

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h)        Notices. Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries to be provided by the Holders hereunder including, without limitation, any Notice of Exercise, shall be in writing and delivered personally, by facsimile or e-mail, or sent by a nationally recognized overnight courier service, addressed to the Company, at 400 Oyster Point Blvd., Suite 505, South San Francisco, CA 94080, Attention: Chief Executive Officer, facsimile number [ ], E-mail: [ ], or such other facsimile number, email address or address as the Company may specify for such purposes by notice to the Holders. Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries to be provided by the Company hereunder shall be in writing and delivered personally, by facsimile or e-mail, or sent by a nationally recognized overnight courier service addressed to each Holder at the facsimile number, e- mail address or address of such Holder appearing on the books of the Company. Any notice or other communication or deliveries hereunder shall be deemed given and effective on the earliest of (i) the time of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number or via e-mail at the e-mail address set forth in this Section prior to 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any date, (ii) the next Trading Day after the time of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number or via e-mail at the e-mail address set forth in this Section on a day that is not a Trading Day or later than 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any Trading Day, (iii) the second Trading Day following the date of mailing, if sent by U.S. nationally recognized overnight courier service, or (iv) upon actual receipt by the party to whom such notice is required to be given. To the extent that any notice provided hereunder constitutes, or contains, material, non-public information regarding the Company or any Subsidiaries, the Company shall simultaneously file such notice with the Commission pursuant to a Current Report on Form 8-K.

 

i)         Limitation of Liability. No provision hereof, in the absence of any affirmative action by the Holder to exercise this Warrant to purchase Warrant Shares, and no enumeration herein of the rights or privileges of the Holder, shall give rise to any liability of the Holder for the purchase price of any Common Stock or as a stockholder of the Company, whether such liability is asserted by the Company or by creditors of the Company.

 

j)         Remedies. The Holder, in addition to being entitled to exercise all rights granted by law, including recovery of damages, will be entitled to specific performance of its rights under this Warrant. The Company agrees that monetary damages would not be adequate compensation for any loss incurred by reason of a breach by it of the provisions of this Warrant and hereby agrees to waive and not to assert the defense in any action for specific performance that a remedy at law would be adequate.

 

k)        Successors and Assigns. Subject to applicable securities laws, this Warrant and the rights and obligations evidenced hereby shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the successors and permitted assigns of the Company and the successors and permitted assigns of Holder. The provisions of this Warrant are intended to be for the benefit of any Holder from time to time of this Warrant and shall be enforceable by the Holder or holder of Warrant Shares.

 

l)         Amendment. This Warrant may be modified or amended or the provisions hereof waived with the written consent of the Company, on the one hand, and the Holder, on the other hand.

 

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m)       Severability. Wherever possible, each provision of this Warrant shall be interpreted in such manner as to be effective and valid under applicable law, but if any provision of this Warrant shall be prohibited by or invalid under applicable law, such provision shall be ineffective to the extent of such prohibition or invalidity, without invalidating the remainder of such provisions or the remaining provisions of this Warrant.

 

n)        Headings. The headings used in this Warrant are for the convenience of reference only and shall not, for any purpose, be deemed a part of this Warrant.

 

********************

 

(Signature Page Follows)

 

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Company has caused this Warrant to be executed by its officer thereunto duly authorized as of the date first above indicated.

 

  Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
     
  By:                      
    Name:
    Title:

  

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NOTICE OF EXERCISE

 

To: TITAN PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

 

(1) The undersigned hereby elects to purchase ________ Warrant Shares of the Company pursuant to the terms of the attached Warrant (only if exercised in full), and tenders herewith payment of the exercise price in full, together with all applicable transfer taxes, if any.

 

(2) Payment shall take the form of (check applicable box):

 

¨ in lawful money of the United States; or

 

¨ if permitted the cancellation of such number of Warrant Shares as is necessary, in accordance with the formula set forth in subsection 2(c), to exercise this Warrant with respect to the maximum number of Warrant Shares purchasable pursuant to the cashless exercise procedure set forth in subsection 2(c).

 

(3) Please issue said Warrant Shares in the name of the undersigned or in such other name as is specified below:

 

_______________________________

  

The Warrant Shares shall be delivered to the following DWAC Account Number:

 

_______________________________

 

_______________________________

 

_______________________________

 

[SIGNATURE OF HOLDER]

 

Name of Investing Entity: ________________________________________________________________________

Signature of Authorized Signatory of Investing Entity: _________________________________________________

Name of Authorized Signatory: ___________________________________________________________________

Title of Authorized Signatory: ____________________________________________________________________

Date: ________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

  

ASSIGNMENT FORM

 

(To assign the foregoing Warrant, execute this form and supply required information. Do not use this form to purchase shares.)

 

FOR VALUE RECEIVED, the foregoing Warrant and all rights evidenced thereby are hereby assigned to

 

Name:    
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Address:    
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Phone Number:    
     
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Dated: _______________ __, ______    
     
Holder’s Signature:      
     
Holder’s Address:      

 

 

 

Exhibit 4.11

 

 

Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

 

and

 

Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as

 

Warrant Agent

 

 

Warrant Agency Agreement

 

Dated as of _________, 2019

 

 

 

 

WARRANT AGENCY AGREEMENT

 

WARRANT AGENCY AGREEMENT, dated as of _________, 2019 (“Agreement”), between Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, a New York corporation (the “Warrant Agent”).

 

WITNESSETH

 

WHEREAS, pursuant to a registered offering by the Company (the “Offering”) of up to ______ shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Common Stock”) of the Company (or up to ______ Pre-Funded Warrants to purchase shares of Common Stock for any purchaser who, as a result of purchasing securities in this Offering, would, together with its affiliates and other related parties, beneficially own more than 4.99% or 9.99% of our outstanding Common Stock immediately _______ 2,300,000 Warrants (the “Warrants”) to purchase _______ shares of Common Stock (the “Warrant Shares”) at a price of $_____ per share; and

 

WHEREAS, the Company granted an over-allotment option to purchase up to 15% of the aggregate number of Shares and/or Warrants sold, including warrants to purchase an additional ______ shares of Common Stock (the “Over-Allotment Option”) to the Underwriters; and

 

WHEREAS, upon the terms and subject to the conditions hereinafter set forth and pursuant to an effective registration statement on Form S-1, as amended (File No. 333-______) (the “Registration Statement”), and the terms and conditions of the Warrant Certificate, the Company wishes to issue the Warrants in book entry form entitling the respective holders of the Warrants (the “Holders,” which term shall include a Holder’s transferees, successors and assigns and “Holder” shall include, if the Warrants are held in “street name,” a Participant (as defined below) or a designee appointed by such Participant); and

 

WHEREAS, the shares of Common Stock (or Pre-Funded Warrants) and Warrants to be issued in connection with the Offering shall be issued separately, but will be purchased together in the Offering; and

 

WHEREAS, the Company wishes the Warrant Agent to act on behalf of the Company, and the Warrant Agent is willing so to act, in connection with the issuance, registration, transfer, exchange, exercise and replacement of the Warrants and, in the Warrant Agent’s capacity as the Company’s transfer agent, the delivery of the Warrant Shares (as defined below).

 

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the mutual agreements herein set forth, the parties hereby agree as follows:

 

Section 1. Certain Definitions. For purposes of this Agreement, the following terms have the meanings indicated:

 

(a) “Business Day” means any day except any Saturday, any Sunday, any day which is a federal legal holiday in the United States or any day on which the New York Stock Exchange is authorized or required by law or other governmental action to close.

 

(b) “Close of Business” on any given date means 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on such date; provided, however, that if such date is not a Business Day it means 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on the next succeeding Business Day.

 

(c) “Person” means an individual, corporation, association, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, unincorporated organization, government or political subdivision thereof or governmental agency or other entity.

 

(d) “Warrant Certificate” means a certificate issued to a Holder, representing such number of Warrant Shares as is indicated therein, provided that any reference to the delivery of a Warrant Certificate in this Agreement shall include delivery of a Definitive Certificate or a Global Warrant (each as defined below)..

 

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All other capitalized terms used but not otherwise defined herein shall have the meaning ascribed to such terms in the Warrant.

 

Section 2. Appointment of Warrant Agent. The Company hereby appoints the Warrant Agent to act as agent for the Company in accordance with the terms and conditions hereof, and the Warrant Agent hereby accepts such appointment. The Company may from time to time appoint a Co-Warrant Agent as it may, in its sole discretion, deem necessary or desirable. The Warrant Agent shall have no duty to supervise, and will in no event be liable for the acts or omissions of, any co-Warrant Agent.

 

Section 3. Global Warrants.

 

(a) The Warrants shall be issuable in book entry form (the “Global Warrants”). All of the Warrants shall initially be represented by one or more Global Warrants deposited with the Warrant Agent and registered in the name of Cede & Co., a nominee of The Depository Trust Company (the “Depositary”), or as otherwise directed by the Depositary. Ownership of beneficial interests in the Warrants shall be shown on, and the transfer of such ownership shall be effected through, records maintained by (i) the Depositary or its nominee for each Global Warrant or (ii) institutions that have accounts with the Depositary (such institution, with respect to a Warrant in its account, a “Participant”).

 

(b) If the Depositary subsequently ceases to make its book-entry settlement system available for the Warrants, the Company may instruct the Warrant Agent regarding other arrangements for book-entry settlement. In the event that the Warrants are not eligible for, or it is no longer necessary to have the Warrants available in, book-entry form, the Warrant Agent shall provide written instructions to the Depositary to deliver to the Warrant Agent for cancellation each Global Warrant, and the Company shall instruct the Warrant Agent to deliver to each Holder a Warrant Certificate.

 

(c) A Holder has the right to elect at any time or from time to time a Warrant Exchange (as defined below) pursuant to a Warrant Certificate Request Notice (as defined below). Upon written notice by a Holder to the Warrant Agent for the exchange of some or all of such Holder’s Global Warrants for a Warrant Certificate (such separate certificate, a “Definitive Certificate”) evidencing the same number of Warrants, which request shall be in the form attached hereto as Annex A (a “Warrant Certificate Request Notice” and the date of delivery of such Warrant Certificate Request Notice by the Holder, the “Warrant Certificate Request Notice Date” and the deemed surrender upon delivery by the Holder of a number of Global Warrants for the same number of Warrants evidenced by a Warrant Certificate, a “Warrant Exchange”), the Warrant Agent shall promptly effect the Warrant Exchange and shall promptly issue and deliver to the Holder a Definitive Certificate for such number of Warrants in the name set forth in the Warrant Certificate Request Notice. Such Definitive Certificate shall be dated the original issue date of the Warrants and shall be manually executed by an authorized signatory of the Company. In connection with a Warrant Exchange, the Company agrees to deliver, or to direct the Warrant Agent to deliver, the Definitive Certificate to the Holder within three (3) Business Days of the Warrant Certificate Request Notice pursuant to the delivery instructions in the Warrant Certificate Request Notice (“Warrant Certificate Delivery Date”). The Company covenants and agrees that, upon the date of delivery of the Warrant Certificate Request Notice, the Holder shall be deemed to be the holder of the Definitive Certificate and, notwithstanding anything to the contrary set forth herein, the Definitive Certificate shall be deemed for all purposes to contain all of the terms and conditions of the Warrants evidenced by such Warrant Certificate and the terms of this Agreement, other than Section 3(c) and 3(d), which shall not apply to the Warrants evidenced by a Definitive Certificate. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, the Company shall act as warrant agent with respect to any Definitive Certificate requested and issued pursuant to this section. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Agreement, in the event of inconsistency between any provision in this Agreement and any provision in a Definitive Certificate, as it may from time to time be amended, the terms of such Definitive Certificate shall control.

 

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(d) A Holder of a Definitive Certificate (pursuant to a Warrant Exchange or otherwise) has the right to elect at any time or from time to time a Global Warrants Exchange (as defined below) pursuant to a Global Warrants Request Notice (as defined below). Upon written notice by a Holder to the Company for the exchange of some or all of such Holder’s Warrants evidenced by a Definitive Certificate for a beneficial interest in Global Warrants held in book-entry form through the Depositary evidencing the same number of Warrants, which request shall be in the form attached hereto as Annex B (a “Global Warrants Request Notice” and the date of delivery of such Global Warrants Request Notice by the Holder, the “Global Warrants Request Notice Date” and the surrender upon delivery by the Holder of the Warrants evidenced by Definitive Certificates for the same number of Warrants evidenced by a beneficial interest in Global Warrants held in book-entry form through the Depositary, a “Global Warrants Exchange”), the Company shall promptly effect the Global Warrants Exchange and shall promptly direct the Warrant Agent to issue and deliver to the Holder Global Warrants for such number of Warrants in the Global Warrants Request Notice, which beneficial interest in such Global Warrants shall be delivered by the Depositary’s Deposit or Withdrawal at Custodian system to the Holder pursuant to the instructions in the Global Warrants Request Notice. In connection with a Global Warrants Exchange, the Company shall direct the Warrant Agent to deliver the beneficial interest in such Global Warrants to the Holder within ten (10) Business Days of the Global Warrants Request Notice pursuant to the delivery instructions in the Global Warrant Request Notice (“Global Warrants Delivery Date”). The Company covenants and agrees that, upon the date of delivery of the Global Warrants Request Notice, the Holder shall be deemed to be the beneficial holder of such Global Warrants.

 

Section 4. Form of Warrant. The Warrants, together with the form of election to purchase Common Stock (the “Exercise Notice”) and the form of assignment to be printed on the reverse thereof, whether a Warrant Certificate or a Global Warrant, shall be substantially in the form of Exhibit 1 hereto.

 

Section 5. Countersignature and Registration. The Warrant Certificates shall be executed on behalf of the Company by its Chief Executive Officer or Chief Financial Officer, either manually or by facsimile signature, and have affixed thereto the Company’s seal or a facsimile thereof which shall be attested by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company, either manually or by facsimile signature. The Warrant Certificates shall be countersigned by the Warrant Agent either manually or by facsimile signature and shall not be valid for any purpose unless so countersigned. In case any officer of the Company who shall have signed a Warrant shall cease to be such officer of the Company before countersignature by the Warrant Agent and issuance and delivery by the Company, such Warrant, nevertheless, may be countersigned by the Warrant Agent, issued and delivered with the same force and effect as though the person who signed such Warrant had not ceased to be such officer of the Company; and any Warrant may be signed on behalf of the Company by any person who, at the actual date of the execution of such Warrant, shall be a proper officer of the Company to sign such Warrant, although at the date of the execution of this Warrant Agreement any such person was not such an officer.

 

The Warrant Agent will keep or cause to be kept, at one of its offices, or at the office of one of its agents, books for registration and transfer of the Warrant Certificates issued hereunder. Such books shall show the names and addresses of the respective Holders of the Warrant Certificates, the number of warrants evidenced on the face of each of such Warrant Certificate and the date of each of such Warrant Certificate. The Warrant Agent will create a special account for the issuance of Warrant Certificates.

 

Section 6. Transfer, Split Up, Combination and Exchange of Warrant Certificates; Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Warrant Certificates. Subject to the provisions of the Warrant and the last sentence of this first paragraph of Section 6 and subject to applicable law, rules or regulations, or any “stop transfer” instructions the Company may give to the Warrant Agent, at any time after the closing date of the Offering, and at or prior to the Close of Business on the Termination Date, any Warrant Certificate or Warrant Certificates or Global Warrant or Global Warrants may be transferred, split up, combined or exchanged for another Warrant Certificate or Warrant Certificates or Global Warrant or Global Warrants, entitling the Holder to purchase a like number of shares of Common Stock as the Warrant Certificate or Warrant Certificates or Global Warrant or Global Warrants surrendered then entitled such Holder to purchase. Any Holder desiring to transfer, split up, combine or exchange any Warrant Certificate or Global Warrant shall make such request in writing delivered to the Warrant Agent, and shall surrender the Warrant Certificate or Warrant Certificates to be transferred, split up, combined or exchanged at the principal office of the Warrant Agent, provided that no such surrender is applicable to the Holder of a Global Warrant. Any requested transfer of Warrants, whether a Global Warrant or a Warrant Certificate, shall be accompanied by reasonable evidence of authority of the party making such request that may be required by the Warrant Agent. Thereupon the Warrant Agent shall, subject to the last sentence of this first paragraph of Section 6, countersign and deliver to the Person entitled thereto any Warrant Certificate or Global Warrant, as the case may be, as so requested. The Company may require payment from the Holder of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any transfer, split up, combination or exchange of Warrants. The Company shall compensate the Warrant Agent per the fee schedule mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto and provided separately on the date hereof.

 

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Upon receipt by the Warrant Agent of evidence reasonably satisfactory to it of the loss, theft, destruction or mutilation of a Warrant Certificate, which evidence shall include an affidavit of loss, or in the case of mutilated certificates, the certificate or portion thereof remaining, and, in case of loss, theft or destruction, of indemnity in customary form and amount, and satisfaction of any other reasonable requirements established by Section 8-405 of the Uniform Commercial Code as in effect in the State of Delaware, and reimbursement to the Company and the Warrant Agent of all reasonable expenses incidental thereto, and upon surrender to the Warrant Agent and cancellation of the Warrant Certificate if mutilated, the Company will make and deliver a new Warrant Certificate of like tenor to the Warrant Agent for delivery to the Holder in lieu of the Warrant Certificate so lost, stolen, destroyed or mutilated.

 

Section 7. Exercise of Warrants; Exercise Price; Termination Date.

 

(a) The Warrants shall be exercisable commencing on the Initial Exercise Date. The Warrants shall cease to be exercisable and shall terminate and become void, and all rights thereunder and under this Agreement shall cease, at or prior to the Close of Business on the Termination Date. Subject to the foregoing and to Section 7(b) below, the Holder of a Warrant may exercise the Warrant in whole or in part upon providing the items required by Section 7(c) below to the Warrant Agent at the principal office of the Warrant Agent or to the office of one of its agents as may be designated by the Warrant Agent from time to time. In the case of the Holder of a Global Warrant, the Holder shall deliver the executed Exercise Notice and payment of the Exercise Price pursuant to Section 2(a) of the Warrant. Notwithstanding any other provision in this Agreement, a holder whose interest in a Global Warrant is a beneficial interest in a Global Warrant held in book-entry form through the Depositary (or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions), shall effect exercises by delivering to the Depositary (or such other clearing corporation, as applicable) the appropriate instruction form for exercise, complying with the procedures to effect exercise that are required by the Depositary (or such other clearing corporation, as applicable). The Company acknowledges that the bank accounts maintained by the Warrant Agent in connection with the services provided under this Agreement will be in its name and that the Warrant Agent may receive investment earnings in connection with the investment at Warrant Agent risk and for its benefit of funds held in those accounts from time to time. Neither the Company nor the Holders will receive interest on any deposits or Exercise Price.

 

(b) Upon receipt of an Exercise Notice for a cashless exercise pursuant to Section 2(c) of the Warrant (each, a “Cashless Exercise”), the Company will promptly calculate and transmit to the Warrant Agent the number of Warrant Shares issuable in connection with such Cashless Exercise and deliver a copy of the Exercise Notice to the Warrant Agent, which shall issue such number of Warrant Shares in connection with such Cashless Exercise.

 

(c) Upon the Warrant Agent’s receipt, at or prior to the Close of Business on the Termination Date set forth in a Warrant, of the executed Exercise Notice, accompanied by payment of the Exercise Price pursuant to Section 2(a) of the Warrant, the shares to be purchased (other than in the case of a Cashless Exercise), an amount equal to any applicable tax, governmental charge or expense reimbursement referred to in Section 6 in cash, or by certified check or bank draft payable to the order of the Company and, in the case of an exercise of a Warrant in the form of a Warrant Certificate for all of the Warrant Shares represented thereby, the Warrant Certificate, the Warrant Agent shall cause the Warrant Shares underlying such Warrant to be delivered to or upon the order of the Holder of such Warrant, registered in such name or names as may be designated by such Holder, no later than the Warrant Share Delivery Date. If the Company is then a participant in the DWAC system of the Depositary and either (A) there is an effective registration statement permitting the issuance of the Warrant Shares to or resale of the Warrant Shares by Holder or (B) the Warrant is being exercised via Cashless Exercise, then the certificates for Warrant Shares shall be transmitted by the Warrant Agent to the Holder by crediting the account of the Holder’s broker with the Depositary through its DWAC system. Notwithstanding anything else to the contrary in this Agreement, except in the case of a Cashless Exercise, if any Holder fails to duly deliver payment to the Warrant Agent of an amount equal to the aggregate Exercise Price of the Warrant Shares to be purchased upon exercise of such Holder’s Warrant as set forth in Section 7(a) hereof, the Warrant Agent will not obligated to deliver certificates representing any such Warrant Shares (via DWAC or otherwise) until following receipt of such payment, and the applicable Warrant Share Delivery Date shall be deemed extended by one day for each day (or part thereof) until such payment is delivered to the Warrant Agent.

 

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(d) The Warrant Agent shall deposit all funds received by it in payment of the Exercise Price for all Warrants in the account of the Company maintained with the Warrant Agent for such purpose (or to such other account as directed by the Company in writing) and shall advise the Company via telephone at the end of each day on which funds for the exercise of any Warrant are received of the amount so deposited to its account. The Warrant Agent shall promptly confirm such telephonic advice to the Company in writing.

 

(e) In case the Holder of any Warrant Certificate exercises fewer than all Warrants evidenced thereby and surrenders such Warrant Certificate in connection with such partial exercise, a new Warrant Certificate evidencing the number of Warrant Shares equivalent to the number of Warrant Shares remaining unexercised may be issued by the Warrant Agent to the Holder of such Warrant Certificate or to his duly authorized assigns in accordance with Section 2(d)(ii) of the Warrant, subject to the provisions of Section 6 hereof.

 

Section 8. Cancellation and Destruction of Warrant Certificates. All Warrant Certificates surrendered for the purpose of exercise, transfer, split up, combination or exchange shall, if surrendered to the Company or to any of its agents, be delivered to the Warrant Agent for cancellation or in canceled form, or, if surrendered to the Warrant Agent, shall be canceled by it, and no Warrant Certificates shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly permitted by any of the provisions of this Agreement. The Company shall deliver to the Warrant Agent for cancellation and retirement, and the Warrant Agent shall so cancel and retire, any other Warrant Certificate purchased or acquired by the Company otherwise than upon the exercise thereof. The Warrant Agent shall deliver all canceled Warrant Certificates to the Company, or shall, at the written request of the Company, destroy such canceled Warrant Certificates, and in such case shall deliver a certificate of destruction thereof to the Company, subject to any applicable law, rule or regulation requiring the Warrant Agent to retain such canceled certificates.

 

Section 9. Certain Representations; Reservation and Availability of Shares of Common Stock or Cash.

 

(a) This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and, assuming due authorization, execution and delivery hereof by the Warrant Agent, constitutes a valid and legally binding obligation of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms, and the Warrants have been duly authorized, executed and issued by the Company and, assuming due authentication thereof by the Warrant Agent pursuant hereto and payment therefor by the Holders as provided in the Registration Statement, constitute valid and legally binding obligations of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms and entitled to the benefits thereof; in each case except as enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium and other similar laws relating to or affecting creditors’ rights generally or by general equitable principles (regardless of whether such enforceability is considered in a proceeding in equity or at law).

 

(b) As of the date hereof and prior to the Offering, the authorized capital stock of the Company consists of (i) 125,000,000 shares of authorized Common Stock, of which _______ shares of Common Stock are issued and outstanding, and (ii) 5,000,000 shares of authorized preferred stock of which 0 are issued and outstanding. As of the date hereof there are _______ shares of Common Stock reserved for issuance upon exercise of the Warrants inclusive of any Warrants the Underwriter may acquire upon exercise of its over-allotment option described in the Registration Statement. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement, there are no other outstanding obligations, warrants, options or other rights to subscribe for or purchase from the Company any class of capital stock of the Company.

 

(c) The Company covenants and agrees that it will cause to be reserved and kept available out of its authorized and unissued shares of Common Stock or its authorized and issued shares of Common Stock held in its treasury, free from preemptive rights, the number of shares of Common Stock that will be sufficient to permit the exercise in full of all outstanding Warrants.

 

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(d) The Warrant Agent will create a special account for the issuance of Common Stock upon the exercise of Warrants.

 

(e) The Company further covenants and agrees that it will pay when due and payable any and all federal and state transfer taxes and charges which may be payable in respect of the original issuance or delivery of the Warrant Certificates or certificates evidencing Common Stock upon exercise of the Warrants. The Company shall not, however, be required to pay any tax or governmental charge which may be payable in respect of any transfer involved in the transfer or delivery of Warrant Certificates or the issuance or delivery of certificates for Common Stock in a name other than that of the Holder of the Warrant Certificate evidencing Warrants surrendered for exercise or to issue or deliver any certificate for shares of Common Stock upon the exercise of any Warrants until any such tax or governmental charge shall have been paid (any such tax or governmental charge being payable by the Holder of such Warrant Certificate at the time of surrender) or until it has been established to the Company’s reasonable satisfaction that no such tax or governmental charge is due.

 

Section 10. Common Stock Record Date. Each Holder shall be deemed to have become the holder of record for the Warrant Shares pursuant to Section 2(d)(i) of the Warrants.

 

Section 11. Adjustment of Exercise Price, Number of Shares of Common Stock or Number of the Company Warrants. The Exercise Price, the number of shares covered by each Warrant and the number of Warrants outstanding are subject to adjustment from time to time as provided in Section 3 of the Warrant. In the event that at any time, as a result of an adjustment made pursuant to Section 3 of the Warrant, the Holder of any Warrant thereafter exercised shall become entitled to receive any shares of capital stock of the Company other than shares of Common Stock, thereafter the number of such other shares so receivable upon exercise of any Warrant shall be subject to adjustment from time to time in a manner and on terms as nearly equivalent as practicable to the provisions with respect to the shares contained in Section 3 of the Warrant, and the provisions of Sections 7, 11, 12 and 13 of this Agreement with respect to the shares of Common Stock shall apply on like terms to any such other shares. All Warrants originally issued by the Company subsequent to any adjustment made to the Exercise Price pursuant to the Warrant shall evidence the right to purchase, at the adjusted Exercise Price, the number of shares of Common Stock purchasable from time to time hereunder upon exercise of the Warrants, all subject to further adjustment as provided herein.

 

Section 12. Certification of Adjusted Exercise Price or Number of Shares of Common Stock. Whenever the Exercise Price or the number of shares of Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of each Warrant is adjusted as provided in Section 11 or 13, the Company shall (a) promptly prepare a certificate setting forth the Exercise Price of each Warrant as so adjusted, and a brief statement of the facts accounting for such adjustment, (b) promptly file with the Warrant Agent and with each transfer agent for the Common Stock a copy of such certificate and (c) instruct the Warrant Agent to send a brief summary thereof to each Holder of a Warrant.

 

Section 13. Fractional Shares of Common Stock.

 

(a) The Company shall not issue fractions of Warrants or distribute a Global Warrant or Warrant Certificates that evidence fractional Warrants. Whenever any fractional Warrant would otherwise be required to be issued or distributed, the actual issuance or distribution shall reflect a rounding of such fraction down to the nearest whole Warrant.

 

(b) The Company shall not issue fractions of shares of Common Stock upon exercise of Warrants or distribute stock certificates that evidence fractional shares of Common Stock. Whenever any fraction of a share of Common Stock would otherwise be required to be issued or distributed, the actual issuance or distribution in respect thereof shall be made in accordance with Section 2(d)(v) of the Warrant.

 

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Section 14. Conditions of the Warrant Agent’s Obligations. The Warrant Agent accepts its obligations herein set forth upon the terms and conditions hereof, including the following to all of which the Company agrees and to all of which the rights hereunder of the Holders from time to time of the Warrant shall be subject:

 

(a) Compensation and Indemnification. The Company agrees promptly to pay the Warrant Agent the compensation detailed on Exhibit 2 hereto for all services rendered by the Warrant Agent and to reimburse the Warrant Agent for reasonable out-of-pocket expenses (including reasonable counsel fees) incurred without gross negligence, bad faith or willful misconduct by the Warrant Agent in connection with the services rendered hereunder by the Warrant Agent. The Company also agrees to indemnify the Warrant Agent for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, liability or expense incurred without gross negligence, bad faith or willful misconduct on the part of the Warrant Agent, arising out of or in connection with its acting as Warrant Agent hereunder, including the reasonable costs and expenses of defending against any claim of such liability.

 

(b) Agent for the Company. In acting under this Warrant Agreement and in connection with the Warrant Certificates, the Warrant Agent is acting solely as agent of the Company and does not assume any obligations or relationship of agency or trust for or with any of the Holders of Warrant Certificates or beneficial owners of Warrants.

 

(c) Counsel. The Warrant Agent may consult with counsel satisfactory to it, which may include counsel for the Company, and the written advice of such counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder in good faith and in accordance with the advice of such counsel.

 

(d) Documents. The Warrant Agent shall be protected and shall incur no liability for or in respect of any action taken or omitted by it in reliance upon any Warrant Certificate, notice, direction, consent, certificate, affidavit, statement or other paper or document reasonably believed by it to be genuine and to have been presented or signed by the proper parties.

 

(e) Certain Transactions. The Warrant Agent, and its officers, directors and employees, may become the owner of, or acquire any interest in, Warrants, with the same rights that it or they would have if it were not the Warrant Agent hereunder, and, to the extent permitted by applicable law, it or they may engage or be interested in any financial or other transaction with the Company and may act on, or as depositary, trustee or agent for, any committee or body of Holders of Warrant Securities or other obligations of the Company as freely as if it were not the Warrant Agent hereunder. Nothing in this Warrant Agreement shall be deemed to prevent the Warrant Agent from acting as trustee under any indenture to which the Company is a party.

 

(f) No Liability for Interest. Unless otherwise agreed with the Company, the Warrant Agent shall have no liability for interest on any monies at any time received by it pursuant to any of the provisions of this Agreement or of the Warrant Certificates.

 

(g) No Liability for Invalidity. The Warrant Agent shall have no liability with respect to any invalidity of this Agreement or any of the Warrant Certificates (except as to the Warrant Agent’s countersignature thereon).

 

(h) No Responsibility for Representations. The Warrant Agent shall not be responsible for any of the recitals or representations herein or in the Warrant Certificates (except as to the Warrant Agent’s countersignature thereon), all of which are made solely by the Company.

 

(i) No Implied Obligations. The Warrant Agent shall be obligated to perform only such duties as are herein and in the Warrants specifically set forth and no implied duties or obligations shall be read into this Agreement or the Warrants against the Warrant Agent. The Warrant Agent shall not be under any obligation to take any action hereunder which may tend to involve it in any expense or liability, the payment of which within a reasonable time is not, in its reasonable opinion, assured to it. The Warrant Agent shall not be accountable or under any duty or responsibility for the use by the Company of any of the Warrants authenticated by the Warrant Agent and delivered by it to the Company pursuant to this Agreement or for the application by the Company of the proceeds of the Warrants. The Warrant Agent shall have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by the Company in the performance of its covenants or agreements contained herein or in the Warrants or in the case of the receipt of any written demand from a Holder of a Warrant Certificate with respect to such default, including, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, any duty or responsibility to initiate or attempt to initiate any proceedings at law.

 

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Section 15. Purchase or Consolidation or Change of Name of Warrant Agent. Any corporation into which the Warrant Agent or any successor Warrant Agent may be merged or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger or consolidation to which the Warrant Agent or any successor Warrant Agent shall be party, or any corporation succeeding to the corporate trust business of the Warrant Agent or any successor Warrant Agent, shall be the successor to the Warrant Agent under this Agreement without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, provided that such corporation would be eligible for appointment as a successor Warrant Agent under the provisions of Section 17. In case at the time such successor Warrant Agent shall succeed to the agency created by this Agreement any of the Warrants shall have been countersigned but not delivered, any such successor Warrant Agent may adopt the countersignature of the predecessor Warrant Agent and deliver such Warrants so countersigned; and in case at that time any of the Warrants shall not have been countersigned, any successor Warrant Agent may countersign such Warrants either in the name of the predecessor Warrant Agent or in the name of the successor Warrant Agent; and in all such cases such Warrants shall have the full force provided in the Warrants and in this Agreement.

 

In case at any time the name of the Warrant Agent shall be changed and at such time any of the Warrants shall have been countersigned but not delivered, the Warrant Agent may adopt the countersignature under its prior name and deliver Warrants so countersigned; and in case at that time any of the Warrants shall not have been countersigned, the Warrant Agent may countersign such Warrants either in its prior name or in its changed name; and in all such cases such Warrants shall have the full force provided in the Warrants and in this Agreement.

 

Section 16. Duties of Warrant Agent. The Warrant Agent undertakes the duties and obligations imposed by this Agreement upon the following terms and conditions, all of which the Company, by its acceptance hereof, shall be bound:

 

(a) The Warrant Agent may consult with legal counsel reasonably acceptable to the Company (who may be legal counsel for the Company), and the opinion of such counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection to the Warrant Agent as to any action taken or omitted by it in good faith and in accordance with such opinion.

 

(b) Whenever in the performance of its duties under this Agreement the Warrant Agent shall deem it necessary or desirable that any fact or matter be proved or established by the Company prior to taking or suffering any action hereunder, such fact or matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by a certificate signed by the Chief Executive Officer or Chief Financial Officer of the Company; and such certificate shall be full authentication to the Warrant Agent for any action taken or suffered in good faith by it under the provisions of this Agreement in reliance upon such certificate.

 

(c) Subject to the limitation set forth in Section 14, the Warrant Agent shall be liable hereunder only for its own gross negligence, bad faith or willful misconduct, or for a breach by it of this Agreement.

 

(d) The Warrant Agent shall not be liable for or by reason of any of the statements of fact or recitals contained in this Agreement or in the Warrants (except its countersignature thereof) by the Company or be required to verify the same, but all such statements and recitals are and shall be deemed to have been made by the Company only.

 

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(e) The Warrant Agent shall not be under any responsibility in respect of the validity of this Agreement or the execution and delivery hereof (except the due execution hereof by the Warrant Agent) or in respect of the validity or execution of any Warrant (except its countersignature thereof); nor shall it be responsible for any breach by the Company of any covenant or condition contained in this Agreement or in any Warrant; nor shall it be responsible for the adjustment of the Exercise Price or the making of any change in the number of shares of Common Stock required under the provisions of Section 11 or 13 or responsible for the manner, method or amount of any such change or the ascertaining of the existence of facts that would require any such adjustment or change (except with respect to the exercise of Warrants evidenced by Warrant Certificates after actual notice of any adjustment of the Exercise Price); nor shall it by any act hereunder be deemed to make any representation or warranty as to the authorization or reservation of any shares of Common Stock to be issued pursuant to this Agreement or any Warrant or as to whether any shares of Common Stock will, when issued, be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

 

(f) Each party hereto agrees that it will perform, execute, acknowledge and deliver or cause to be performed, executed, acknowledged and delivered all such further and other acts, instruments and assurances as may reasonably be required by the other party hereto for the carrying out or performing by any party of the provisions of this Agreement.

 

(g) The Warrant Agent is hereby authorized to accept instructions with respect to the performance of its duties hereunder from the Chief Executive Officer or Chief Financial Officer of the Company, and to apply to such officers for advice or instructions in connection with its duties, and it shall not be liable and shall be indemnified and held harmless for any action taken or suffered to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with instructions of any such officer, provided Warrant Agent carries out such instructions without gross negligence, bad faith or willful misconduct.

 

(h) The Warrant Agent and any shareholder, director, officer or employee of the Warrant Agent may buy, sell or deal in any of the Warrants or other securities of the Company or become pecuniarily interested in any transaction in which the Company may be interested, or contract with or lend money to the Company or otherwise act as fully and freely as though it were not Warrant Agent under this Agreement. Nothing herein shall preclude the Warrant Agent from acting in any other capacity for the Company or for any other legal entity.

 

(i) The Warrant Agent may execute and exercise any of the rights or powers hereby vested in it or perform any duty hereunder either itself or by or through its attorney or agents, and the Warrant Agent shall not be answerable or accountable for any act, default, neglect or misconduct of any such attorney or agents or for any loss to the Company resulting from any such act, default, neglect or misconduct, provided reasonable care was exercised in the selection and continued employment thereof.

 

Section 17. Change of Warrant Agent. The Warrant Agent may resign and be discharged from its duties under this Agreement upon 30 days’ notice in writing sent to the Company and to each transfer agent of the Common Stock, and to the Holders of the Warrant Certificates. The Company may remove the Warrant Agent or any successor Warrant Agent upon 30 days’ notice in writing, sent to the Warrant Agent or successor Warrant Agent, as the case may be, and to each transfer agent of the Common Stock, and to the Holders of the Warrant Certificates. If the Warrant Agent shall resign or be removed or shall otherwise become incapable of acting, the Company shall appoint a successor to the Warrant Agent. If the Company shall fail to make such appointment within a period of 30 days after such removal or after it has been notified in writing of such resignation or incapacity by the resigning or incapacitated Warrant Agent or by the Holder of a Warrant Certificate (who shall, with such notice, submit his Warrant Certificate for inspection by the Company), then the Holder of any Warrant Certificate may apply to any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a new Warrant Agent. Any successor Warrant Agent, whether appointed by the Company or by such a court, shall be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States or of a state thereof, in good standing, which is authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers and is subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authority and which has at the time of its appointment as Warrant Agent a combined capital and surplus of at least $50,000,000. After appointment, the successor Warrant Agent shall be vested with the same powers, rights, duties and responsibilities as if it had been originally named as Warrant Agent without further act or deed; but the predecessor Warrant Agent shall deliver and transfer to the successor Warrant Agent any property at the time held by it hereunder, and execute and deliver any further assurance, conveyance, act or deed necessary for the purpose. Not later than the effective date of any such appointment, the Company shall file notice thereof in writing with the predecessor Warrant Agent and each transfer agent of the Common Stock, and mail a notice thereof in writing to the Holders of the Warrant Certificates. However, failure to give any notice provided for in this Section 17, or any defect therein, shall not affect the legality or validity of the resignation or removal of the Warrant Agent or the appointment of the successor Warrant Agent, as the case may be.

 

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Section 18. Issuance of New Warrant Certificates. Notwithstanding any of the provisions of this Agreement or of the Warrants to the contrary, the Company may, at its option, issue new Warrant Certificates evidencing Warrants in such form as may be approved by its Board of Directors to reflect any adjustment or change in the Exercise Price per share and the number or kind or class of shares of stock or other securities or property purchasable under the several Warrant Certificates made in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

 

Section 19. Notices. Notices or demands authorized by this Agreement to be given or made (i) by the Warrant Agent or by the Holder of any Warrant Certificate to or on the Company, (ii) subject to the provisions of Section 17, by the Company or by the Holder of any Warrant Certificate to or on the Warrant Agent or (iii) by the Company or the Warrant Agent to the Holder of any Warrant Certificate, shall be deemed given (a) on the date delivered, if delivered personally, (b) on the first Business Day following the deposit thereof with Federal Express or another recognized overnight courier, if sent by Federal Express or another recognized overnight courier, (c) on the fourth Business Day following the mailing thereof with postage prepaid, if mailed by registered or certified mail (return receipt requested), and (d) the time of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile or email attachment at or prior to 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on a Business Day and (e) the next Business Day after the date of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile or email attachment on a day that is not a Business Day or later than 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any Business Day, in each case to the parties at the following addresses (or at such other address for a party as shall be specified by like notice):

 

(a)           If to the Company, to:

 

Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

400 Oyster Point Blvd., Suite 505

South San Francisco, CA 94080

Attention: Sunil Bhonsle

 

(b)          If to the Warrant Agent, to:

 

Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company

1 State Street 30th Floor,

New York, NY 10004-1561
Attention: Compliance Department

 

For any notice delivered by email to be deemed given or made, such notice must be followed by notice sent by overnight courier service to be delivered on the next business day following such email, unless the recipient of such email has acknowledged via return email receipt of such email.

 

(c) If to the Holder of any Warrant Certificate, to the address of such Holder as shown on the registry books of the Company. Any notice required to be delivered by the Company to the Holder of any Warrant may be given by the Warrant Agent on behalf of the Company. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, where this Agreement provides for notice of any event to a Holder of any Warrant Certificate, for a Global Warrant, such notice shall be sufficiently given if given to the Depositary (or its designee) pursuant to the procedures of the Depositary or its designee.

 

Section 20. Supplements and Amendments.

 

(a) The Company and the Warrant Agent may from time to time supplement or amend this Agreement without the approval of any Holders of Warrant Certificates in order to cure any ambiguity, to correct or supplement any provision contained herein which may be defective or inconsistent with any other provisions herein, or to make any other provisions with regard to matters or questions arising hereunder which the Company and the Warrant Agent may deem necessary or desirable and which shall not adversely affect the interests of the Holders of the Warrants Certificates in any material respect.

 

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(b) In addition to the foregoing, with the consent of Holders of Warrants entitled, upon exercise thereof, to receive not less than a majority of the shares of Common Stock issuable thereunder, the Company and the Warrant Agent may modify this Agreement for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Warrant Agreement or modifying in any manner the rights of the Holders of the Warrant Certificates; provided, however, that no modification of the terms (including but not limited to the adjustments described in Section 11) upon which the Warrants are exercisable or reducing the percentage required for consent to modification of this Agreement may be made without the consent of the Holder of each outstanding warrant certificate affected thereby. As a condition precedent to the Warrant Agent’s execution of any amendment, the Company shall deliver to the Warrant Agent a certificate from a duly authorized officer of the Company that states that the proposed amendment complies with the terms of this Section 20.

 

Section 21. Successors. All covenants and provisions of this Agreement by or for the benefit of the Company or the Warrant Agent shall bind and inure to the benefit of their respective successors and assigns hereunder.

 

Section 22. Benefits of this Agreement. Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed to give any Person other than the Company, the Holders of Warrant Certificates and the Warrant Agent any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under this Agreement; but this Agreement shall be for the sole and exclusive benefit of the Company, the Warrant Agent and the Holders of the Warrant Certificates.

 

Section 23. Governing Law. This Agreement and each Warrant issued hereunder shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York without giving effect to the conflicts of law principles thereof.

 

Section 24. Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in any number of counterparts and each of such counterparts shall for all purposes be deemed to be an original, and all such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument.

 

Section 25. Captions. The captions of the sections of this Agreement have been inserted for convenience only and shall not control or affect the meaning or construction of any of the provisions hereof.

 

Section 26. Information. The Company agrees to promptly provide to the Holders of the Warrants any information it provides to all holders of the Common Stock, except to the extent any such information is publicly available on the EDGAR system (or any successor thereof) of the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Section 27. Force Majeure. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, Warrant Agent shall not be liable for any delays or failures in performance resulting from acts beyond its reasonable control including, without limitation, acts of God, terrorist acts, shortage of supply, breakdowns or malfunctions, interruptions or malfunction of computer facilities, or loss of data due to power failures or mechanical difficulties with information storage or retrieval systems, labor difficulties, war, or civil unrest, it being understood that the Warrant Agent shall use reasonable best efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances.

 

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Agreement to be duly executed as of the day and year first above written.

 

  TITAN PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
   
  By:                
  Name:
  Title:
   
  CONTINENTAL STOCK TRANSFER & TRUST COMPANY
   
  By:  
  Name:
  Title:

 

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Annex A: Form of Warrant Certificate Request Notice

 

WARRANT CERTIFICATE REQUEST NOTICE

 

To: Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company as Warrant Agent for Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the “Company”)

 

The undersigned Holder of Common Stock Purchase Warrants (“Warrants”) in the form of Global Warrants issued by the Company hereby elects to receive a Warrant Certificate evidencing the Warrants held by the Holder as specified below:

 

1. Name of Holder of Warrants in form of Global Warrants: _____________________________

 

2. Name of Holder in Warrant Certificate (if different from name of Holder of Warrants in form of Global Warrants): ________________________________

 

3. Number of Warrants in name of Holder in form of Global Warrants: ___________________

 

4. Number of Warrants for which Warrant Certificate shall be issued: __________________

 

5. Number of Warrants in name of Holder in form of Global Warrants after issuance of Warrant Certificate, if any: ___________

 

6. Warrant Certificate shall be delivered to the following address:

 

   
   
   
   
   
   
   

 

The undersigned hereby acknowledges and agrees that, in connection with this Warrant Exchange and the issuance of the Warrant Certificate, the Holder is deemed to have surrendered the number of Warrants in form of Global Warrants in the name of the Holder equal to the number of Warrants evidenced by the Warrant Certificate.

 

[SIGNATURE OF HOLDER]

 

Name of Investing Entity: ____________________________________________________

 

Signature of Authorized Signatory of Investing Entity: ______________________________

 

Name of Authorized Signatory: ________________________________________________

 

Title of Authorized Signatory: _________________________________________________

 

Date: _______________________________________________________________

 

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Annex B: Form of Global Warrant Request Notice

 

GLOBAL WARRANT REQUEST NOTICE

 

To: Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company as Warrant Agent for Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the “Company”)

 

The undersigned Holder of Common Stock Purchase Warrants (“Warrants”) in the form of Warrants Certificates issued by the Company hereby elects to receive a Global Warrant evidencing the Warrants held by the Holder as specified below:

 

1. Name of Holder of Warrants in form of Warrant Certificates: _____________________________

 

2. Name of Holder in Global Warrant (if different from name of Holder of Warrants in form of Warrant Certificates): ________________________________

 

3. Number of Warrants in name of Holder in form of Warrant Certificates: ___________________

 

4. Number of Warrants for which Global Warrant shall be issued: __________________

 

5. Number of Warrants in name of Holder in form of Warrant Certificates after issuance of Global Warrant, if any: ___________

 

6. Global Warrant shall be delivered to the following address:

 

   
   
   
   
   
   
   

 

The undersigned hereby acknowledges and agrees that, in connection with this Global Warrant Exchange and the issuance of the Global Warrant, the Holder is deemed to have surrendered the number of Warrants in form of Warrant Certificates in the name of the Holder equal to the number of Warrants evidenced by the Global Warrant.

 

[SIGNATURE OF HOLDER]

 

Name of Investing Entity: ____________________________________________________

 

Signature of Authorized Signatory of Investing Entity: ______________________________

 

Name of Authorized Signatory: ________________________________________________

 

Title of Authorized Signatory: _________________________________________________

 

Date: _______________________________________________________________

 

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Exhibit 1: Form of Warrant

 

  16  

 

 

COMMON STOCK PURCHASE WARRANT

 

Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

 

Warrant Shares: _______ Initial Exercise Date: __________, 2018

  

THIS COMMON STOCK PURCHASE WARRANT (the “Warrant”) certifies that, for value received, _____________ or its assigns (the “Holder”) is entitled, upon the terms and subject to the limitations on exercise and the conditions hereinafter set forth, at any time on or after _______________, 2018 (the “Initial Exercise Date”) and on or prior to 5:00 p.m. (New York City time) on _______________, 2023 (the “Termination Date”) but not thereafter, to subscribe for and purchase from Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), up to ______ shares (as subject to adjustment hereunder, the “Warrant Shares”) of Common Stock. The purchase price of one share of Common Stock under this Warrant shall be equal to the Exercise Price, as defined in Section 2(b). This Warrant shall initially be issued and maintained in the form of a security held in book-entry form and the Depository Trust Company or its nominee (“DTC”) shall initially be the sole registered holder of this Warrant, subject to a Holder’s right to elect to receive a Warrant in certificated form pursuant to the terms of the Warrant Agency Agreement, in which case this sentence shall not apply.

 

Section 1. Definitions. In addition to the terms defined elsewhere in this Warrant, the following terms have the meanings indicated in this Section 1:

 

Affiliate” means any Person that, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is controlled by or is under common control with a Person, as such terms are used in and construed under Rule 405 under the Securities Act.

 

Bid Price” means, for any date, the price determined by the first of the following clauses that applies: (a) if the Common Stock is then listed or quoted on a Trading Market, the bid price of the Common Stock for the time in question (or the nearest preceding date) on the Trading Market on which the Common Stock is then listed or quoted as reported by Bloomberg L.P. (based on a Trading Day from 9:30 a.m. (New York City time) to 4:02 p.m. (New York City time)), (b)  if OTCQB or OTCQX is not a Trading Market, the volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on OTCQB or OTCQX as applicable, (c) if the Common Stock is not then listed or quoted for trading on OTCQB or OTCQX and if prices for the Common Stock are then reported in the “Pink Sheets” published by OTC Markets Group, Inc. (or a similar organization or agency succeeding to its functions of reporting prices), the most recent bid price per share of the Common Stock so reported, or (d) in all other cases, the fair market value of a share of Common Stock as determined by an independent appraiser selected in good faith by the Holders of a majority in interest of the Warrants then outstanding and reasonably acceptable to the Company, the fees and expenses of which shall be paid by the Company.

 

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Board of Directors” means the board of directors of the Company.

 

Business Day” means any day except any Saturday, any Sunday, any day which is a federal legal holiday in the United States or any day on which banking institutions in the State of New York are authorized or required by law or other governmental action to close.

 

Commission” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Common Stock” means the common stock of the Company, par value $0.001 per share, and any other class of securities into which such securities may hereafter be reclassified or changed.

 

Common Stock Equivalents” means any securities of the Company or the Subsidiaries which would entitle the holder thereof to acquire at any time Common Stock, including, without limitation, any debt, preferred stock, right, option, warrant or other instrument that is at any time convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or otherwise entitles the holder thereof to receive, Common Stock.

 

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

Person” means an individual or corporation, partnership, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, limited liability company, joint stock company, government (or an agency or subdivision thereof) or other entity of any kind.

 

Registration Statement” means the Company’s registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-226841).

 

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

Trading Day” means a day on which the Common Stock is traded on a Trading Market.

 

Trading Market” means any of the following markets or exchanges on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted for trading on the date in question: the NYSE American, the Nasdaq Capital Market, the Nasdaq Global Market, the Nasdaq Global Select Market, the New York Stock Exchange, OTCQB or OTCQX (or any successors to any of the foregoing.

 

Transfer Agent” means Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, the current transfer agent of the Company, with a mailing address of 1 State Street, 30th Floor, New York, NY 10004-1561 and a facsimile number of (212) 616-7619, and any successor transfer agent of the Company.

 

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VWAP” means, for any date, the price determined by the first of the following clauses that applies: (a) if the Common Stock is then listed or quoted on a Trading Market, the daily volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on the Trading Market on which the Common Stock is then listed or quoted as reported by Bloomberg L.P. (based on a Trading Day from 9:30 a.m. (New York City time) to 4:02 p.m. (New York City time)), (b)  if OTCQB or OTCQX is not a Trading Market, the volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on OTCQB or OTCQX as applicable, (c) if the Common Stock is not then listed or quoted for trading on OTCQB or OTCQX and if prices for the Common Stock are then reported in the “Pink Sheets” published by OTC Markets Group, Inc. (or a similar organization or agency succeeding to its functions of reporting prices), the most recent bid price per share of the Common Stock so reported, or (d) in all other cases, the fair market value of a share of Common Stock as determined by an independent appraiser selected in good faith by the holders of a majority in interest of the Warrants then outstanding and reasonably acceptable to the Company, the fees and expenses of which shall be paid by the Company.

 

Warrant Agency Agreement” means that certain warrant agency agreement, dated on or about the Initial Exercise Date, between the Company and the Warrant Agent.

 

Warrant Agent” means the Transfer Agent and any successor warrant agent of the Company.

 

Warrants” means this Warrant and other Common Stock purchase warrants issued by the Company pursuant to the Registration Statement.

 

Section 2.   Exercise.

 

a)         Exercise of Warrant. Exercise of the purchase rights represented by this Warrant may be made, in whole or in part, at any time or times on or after the Initial Exercise Date and on or before the Termination Date by delivery to the Company of a duly executed facsimile copy or PDF copy submitted by e-mail (or e-mail attachment) of the Notice of Exercise in the form annexed hereto (the “Notice of Exercise”). Within the earlier of (i) two (2) Trading Days and (ii) the number of Trading Days comprising the Standard Settlement Period (as defined in Section 2(d)(i) herein) following the date of exercise as aforesaid, the Holder shall deliver the aggregate Exercise Price for the shares specified in the applicable Notice of Exercise by wire transfer or cashier’s check drawn on a United States bank unless the cashless exercise procedure specified in Section 2(c) below is specified in the applicable Notice of Exercise. No ink-original Notice of Exercise shall be required, nor shall any medallion guarantee (or other type of guarantee or notarization) of any Notice of Exercise be required. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, the Holder shall not be required to physically surrender this Warrant to the Company until the Holder has purchased all of the Warrant Shares available hereunder and the Warrant has been exercised in full, in which case, the Holder shall surrender this Warrant to the Company for cancellation within three (3) Trading Days of the date on which the final Notice of Exercise is delivered to the Company. Partial exercises of this Warrant resulting in purchases of a portion of the total number of Warrant Shares available hereunder shall have the effect of lowering the outstanding number of Warrant Shares purchasable hereunder in an amount equal to the applicable number of Warrant Shares purchased. The Holder and the Company shall maintain records showing the number of Warrant Shares purchased and the date of such purchases. The Company shall deliver any objection to any Notice of Exercise within one (1) Trading Day of receipt of such notice. The Holder and any assignee, by acceptance of this Warrant, acknowledge and agree that, by reason of the provisions of this paragraph, following the purchase of a portion of the Warrant Shares hereunder, the number of Warrant Shares available for purchase hereunder at any given time may be less than the amount stated on the face hereof.

 

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Notwithstanding the foregoing in this Section 2(a), a holder whose interest in this Warrant is a beneficial interest in certificate(s) representing this Warrant held in book-entry form through DTC (or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions), shall effect exercises made pursuant to this Section 2(a) by delivering to DTC (or such other clearing corporation, as applicable) the appropriate instruction form for exercise, complying with the procedures to effect exercise that are required by DTC (or such other clearing corporation, as applicable), subject to a Holder’s right to elect to receive a Warrant in certificated form pursuant to the terms of the Warrant Agency Agreement, in which case this sentence shall not apply, provided, however, a beneficial holder shall have all of the rights and remedies of a “Holder” hereunder.

 

b)         Exercise Price. The exercise price per share of the Common Stock under this Warrant shall be $___, subject to adjustment hereunder (the “Exercise Price”).

 

c)         Cashless Exercise. If at any time after the date hereof, there is no effective registration statement registering, or no current prospectus available for, the issuance of the Warrant Shares to the Holder, then this Warrant may only be exercised, in whole or in part, at such time by means of a “cashless exercise” in which the Holder shall be entitled to receive a number of Warrant Shares equal to the quotient obtained by dividing [(A-B) (X)] by (A), where:

 

(A) =  as applicable: (i) the VWAP on the Trading Day immediately preceding the date of the applicable Notice of Exercise if such Notice of Exercise is (1) both executed and delivered pursuant to Section 2(a) hereof on a day that is not a Trading Day or (2) both executed and delivered pursuant to Section 2(a) hereof on a Trading Day prior to the opening of “regular trading hours” (as defined in Rule 600(b)(64) of Regulation NMS promulgated under the federal securities laws) on such Trading Day, (ii) at the option of the Holder, either (y) the VWAP on the Trading Day immediately preceding the date of the applicable Notice of Exercise or (z) the Bid Price of the Common Stock on the principal Trading Market as reported by Bloomberg L.P. as of the time of the Holder’s execution of the applicable Notice of Exercise if such Notice of Exercise is executed during “regular trading hours” on a Trading Day and is delivered within two (2) hours thereafter (including until two (2) hours after the close of “regular trading hours” on a Trading Day) pursuant to Section 2(a) hereof or (iii) the VWAP on the date of the applicable Notice of Exercise if the date of such Notice of Exercise is a Trading Day and such Notice of Exercise is both executed and delivered pursuant to Section 2(a) hereof after the close of “regular trading hours” on such Trading Day;

 

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(B) =    the Exercise Price of this Warrant, as adjusted hereunder; and

 

(X) =    the number of Warrant Shares that would be issuable upon exercise of this Warrant in accordance with the terms of this Warrant if such exercise were by means of a cash exercise rather than a cashless exercise.

 

If Warrant Shares are issued in such a cashless exercise, the parties acknowledge and agree that in accordance with Section 3(a)(9) of the Securities Act, the Warrant Shares shall take on the registered characteristics of the Warrants being exercised.  The Company agrees not to take any position contrary to this Section 2(c).

 

Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, on the Termination Date, this Warrant shall be automatically exercised via cashless exercise pursuant to this Section 2(c).

 

d) Mechanics of Exercise.

 

i.            Delivery of Warrant Shares Upon Exercise. The Company shall cause the Warrant Shares purchased hereunder to be transmitted by the Transfer Agent to the Holder by crediting the account of the Holder’s or its designee’s balance account with The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit or Withdrawal at Custodian system (“DWAC”) if the Company is then a participant in such system and either (A) there is an effective registration statement permitting the issuance of the Warrant Shares to or resale of the Warrant Shares by Holder or (B) this Warrant is being exercised via cashless exercise, and otherwise by physical delivery of a certificate, registered in the Company’s share register in the name of the Holder or its designee, for the number of Warrant Shares to which the Holder is entitled pursuant to such exercise to the address specified by the Holder in the Notice of Exercise by the date that is the earliest of (i) two (2) Trading Days after the delivery to the Company of the Notice of Exercise, (ii) one (1) Trading Day after delivery of the aggregate Exercise Price to the Company and (iii) the number of Trading Days comprising the Standard Settlement Period after the delivery to the Company of the Notice of Exercise (such date, the “Warrant Share Delivery Date”). Upon delivery of the Notice of Exercise, the Holder shall be deemed for all corporate purposes to have become the holder of record of the Warrant Shares with respect to which this Warrant has been exercised, irrespective of the date of delivery of the Warrant Shares, provided that payment of the aggregate Exercise Price (other than in the case of a cashless exercise) is received within the earlier of (i) two (2) Trading Days and (ii) the number of Trading Days comprising the Standard Settlement Period following delivery of the Notice of Exercise. If the Company fails for any reason to deliver to the Holder the Warrant Shares subject to a Notice of Exercise by the Warrant Share Delivery Date, the Company shall pay to the Holder, in cash, as liquidated damages and not as a penalty, for each $1,000 of Warrant Shares subject to such exercise (based on the VWAP of the Common Stock on the date of the applicable Notice of Exercise), $10 per Trading Day (increasing to $20 per Trading Day on the fifth Trading Day after such liquidated damages begin to accrue) for each Trading Day after such Warrant Share Delivery Date until such Warrant Shares are delivered or Holder rescinds such exercise. The Company agrees to maintain a transfer agent that is a participant in the FAST program so long as this Warrant remains outstanding and exercisable. As used herein, “Standard Settlement Period” means the standard settlement period, expressed in a number of Trading Days, on the Company’s primary Trading Market with respect to the Common Stock as in effect on the date of delivery of the Notice of Exercise.

 

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ii.           Delivery of New Warrants Upon Exercise. If this Warrant shall have been exercised in part, the Company shall, at the request of a Holder and upon surrender of this Warrant certificate, at the time of delivery of the Warrant Shares, deliver to the Holder a new Warrant evidencing the rights of the Holder to purchase the unpurchased Warrant Shares called for by this Warrant, which new Warrant shall in all other respects be identical with this Warrant.

 

iii.          Rescission Rights. If the Company fails to cause the Transfer Agent to transmit to the Holder the Warrant Shares pursuant to Section 2(d)(i) by the Warrant Share Delivery Date, then the Holder will have the right to rescind such exercise.

 

iv.          Compensation for Buy-In on Failure to Timely Deliver Warrant Shares Upon Exercise. In addition to any other rights available to the Holder, if the Company fails to cause the Transfer Agent to transmit to the Holder the Warrant Shares in accordance with the provisions of Section 2(d)(i) above pursuant to an exercise on or before the Warrant Share Delivery Date, and if after such date the Holder is required by its broker to purchase (in an open market transaction or otherwise) or the Holder’s brokerage firm otherwise purchases, shares of Common Stock to deliver in satisfaction of a sale by the Holder of the Warrant Shares which the Holder anticipated receiving upon such exercise (a “Buy-In”), then the Company shall (A) pay in cash to the Holder the amount, if any, by which (x) the Holder’s total purchase price (including brokerage commissions, if any) for the shares of Common Stock so purchased exceeds (y) the amount obtained by multiplying (1) the number of Warrant Shares that the Company was required to deliver to the Holder in connection with the exercise at issue times (2) the price at which the sell order giving rise to such purchase obligation was executed, and (B) at the option of the Holder, either reinstate the portion of the Warrant and equivalent number of Warrant Shares for which such exercise was not honored (in which case such exercise shall be deemed rescinded) or deliver to the Holder the number of shares of Common Stock that would have been issued had the Company timely complied with its exercise and delivery obligations hereunder. For example, if the Holder purchases Common Stock having a total purchase price of $11,000 to cover a Buy-In with respect to an attempted exercise of shares of Common Stock with an aggregate sale price giving rise to such purchase obligation of $10,000, under clause (A) of the immediately preceding sentence the Company shall be required to pay the Holder $1,000. The Holder shall provide the Company written notice indicating the amounts payable to the Holder in respect of the Buy-In and, upon request of the Company, evidence of the amount of such loss. Nothing herein shall limit a Holder’s right to pursue any other remedies available to it hereunder, at law or in equity including, without limitation, a decree of specific performance and/or injunctive relief with respect to the Company’s failure to timely deliver shares of Common Stock upon exercise of the Warrant as required pursuant to the terms hereof.

 

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v.           No Fractional Shares or Scrip. No fractional shares or scrip representing fractional shares shall be issued upon the exercise of this Warrant. As to any fraction of a share which the Holder would otherwise be entitled to purchase upon such exercise, the Company shall, at its election, either pay a cash adjustment in respect of such final fraction in an amount equal to such fraction multiplied by the Exercise Price or round up to the next whole share.

 

vi.          Charges, Taxes and Expenses. Issuance of Warrant Shares shall be made without charge to the Holder for any issue or transfer tax or other incidental expense in respect of the issuance of such Warrant Shares, all of which taxes and expenses shall be paid by the Company, and such Warrant Shares shall be issued in the name of the Holder or in such name or names as may be directed by the Holder; provided, however, that in the event that Warrant Shares are to be issued in a name other than the name of the Holder, this Warrant when surrendered for exercise shall be accompanied by the Assignment Form attached hereto duly executed by the Holder and the Company may require, as a condition thereto, the payment of a sum sufficient to reimburse it for any transfer tax incidental thereto. The Company shall pay all Transfer Agent fees required for same-day processing of any Notice of Exercise and all fees to the Depository Trust Company (or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions) required for same-day electronic delivery of the Warrant Shares.

 

vii.         Closing of Books. The Company will not close its stockholder books or records in any manner which prevents the timely exercise of this Warrant, pursuant to the terms hereof.

 

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e)                Holder’s Exercise Limitations. The Company shall not effect any exercise of this Warrant, and a Holder shall not have the right to exercise any portion of this Warrant, pursuant to Section 2 or otherwise, to the extent that after giving effect to such issuance after exercise as set forth on the applicable Notice of Exercise, the Holder (together with the Holder’s Affiliates, and any other Persons acting as a group together with the Holder or any of the Holder’s Affiliates (such Persons, “Attribution Parties”)), would beneficially own in excess of the Beneficial Ownership Limitation (as defined below).  For purposes of the foregoing sentence, the number of shares of Common Stock beneficially owned by the Holder and its Affiliates and Attribution Parties shall include the number of shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of this Warrant with respect to which such determination is being made, but shall exclude the number of shares of Common Stock which would be issuable upon (i) exercise of the remaining, nonexercised portion of this Warrant beneficially owned by the Holder or any of its Affiliates or Attribution Parties and (ii) exercise or conversion of the unexercised or nonconverted portion of any other securities of the Company (including, without limitation, any other Common Stock Equivalents) subject to a limitation on conversion or exercise analogous to the limitation contained herein beneficially owned by the Holder or any of its Affiliates or Attribution Parties.  Except as set forth in the preceding sentence, for purposes of this Section 2(e), beneficial ownership shall be calculated in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, it being acknowledged by the Holder that the Company is not representing to the Holder that such calculation is in compliance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the Holder is solely responsible for any schedules required to be filed in accordance therewith. To the extent that the limitation contained in this Section 2(e) applies, the determination of whether this Warrant is exercisable (in relation to other securities owned by the Holder together with any Affiliates and Attribution Parties) and of which portion of this Warrant is exercisable shall be in the sole discretion of the Holder, and the submission of a Notice of Exercise shall be deemed to be the Holder’s determination of whether this Warrant is exercisable (in relation to other securities owned by the Holder together with any Affiliates and Attribution Parties) and of which portion of this Warrant is exercisable, in each case subject to the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, and the Company shall have no obligation to verify or confirm the accuracy of such determination. In addition, a determination as to any group status as contemplated above shall be determined in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. For purposes of this Section 2(e), in determining the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock, a Holder may rely on the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock as reflected in (A) the Company’s most recent periodic or annual report filed with the Commission, as the case may be, (B) a more recent public announcement by the Company or (C) a more recent written notice by the Company or the Transfer Agent setting forth the number of shares of Common Stock outstanding.  Upon the written or oral request of a Holder, the Company shall within one Trading Day confirm orally and in writing to the Holder the number of shares of Common Stock then outstanding.  In any case, the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock shall be determined after giving effect to the conversion or exercise of securities of the Company, including this Warrant, by the Holder or its Affiliates or Attribution Parties since the date as of which such number of outstanding shares of Common Stock was reported. The “Beneficial Ownership Limitation” shall be 4.99% (or, upon election by a Holder prior to the issuance of and Warrants, 9.99%) of the number of shares of the Common Stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the issuance of shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of this Warrant. The Holder, upon notice to the Company, may increase or decrease the Beneficial Ownership Limitation provisions of this Section 2(e), provided that the Beneficial Ownership Limitation in no event exceeds 9.99% of the number of shares of the Common Stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon exercise of this Warrant held by the Holder and the provisions of this Section 2(e) shall continue to apply. Any increase in the Beneficial Ownership Limitation will not be effective until the 61st day after such notice is delivered to the Company. The provisions of this paragraph shall be construed and implemented in a manner otherwise than in strict conformity with the terms of this Section 2(e) to correct this paragraph (or any portion hereof) which may be defective or inconsistent with the intended Beneficial Ownership Limitation herein contained or to make changes or supplements necessary or desirable to properly give effect to such limitation. The limitations contained in this paragraph shall apply to a successor holder of this Warrant.

 

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Section 3Certain Adjustments.

 

a)                Stock Dividends and Splits. If the Company, at any time while this Warrant is outstanding: (i) pays a stock dividend or otherwise makes a distribution or distributions on shares of its Common Stock or any other equity or equity equivalent securities payable in shares of Common Stock (which, for avoidance of doubt, shall not include any shares of Common Stock issued by the Company upon exercise of this Warrant), (ii) subdivides outstanding shares of Common Stock into a larger number of shares, (iii) combines (including by way of reverse stock split) outstanding shares of Common Stock into a smaller number of shares or (iv) issues by reclassification of shares of the Common Stock any shares of capital stock of the Company, then in each case the Exercise Price shall be multiplied by a fraction of which the numerator shall be the number of shares of Common Stock (excluding treasury shares, if any) outstanding immediately before such event and of which the denominator shall be the number of shares of Common Stock outstanding immediately after such event, and the number of shares issuable upon exercise of this Warrant shall be proportionately adjusted such that the aggregate Exercise Price of this Warrant shall remain unchanged. Any adjustment made pursuant to this Section 3(b) shall become effective immediately after the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to receive such dividend or distribution and shall become effective immediately after the effective date in the case of a subdivision, combination or re-classification.

 

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b)                Subsequent Rights Offerings. In addition to any adjustments pursuant to Sections 3(a) above, if at any time the Company grants, issues or sells any Common Stock Equivalents or rights to purchase stock, warrants, securities or other property pro rata to the record holders of any class of shares of Common Stock (the “Purchase Rights”), then the Holder will be entitled to acquire, upon the terms applicable to such Purchase Rights, the aggregate Purchase Rights which the Holder could have acquired if the Holder had held the number of shares of Common Stock acquirable upon complete exercise of this Warrant (without regard to any limitations on exercise hereof, including without limitation, the Beneficial Ownership Limitation) immediately before the date on which a record is taken for the grant, issuance or sale of such Purchase Rights, or, if no such record is taken, the date as of which the record holders of shares of Common Stock are to be determined for the grant, issue or sale of such Purchase Rights (provided, however, that, to the extent that the Holder’s right to participate in any such Purchase Right would result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, then the Holder shall not be entitled to participate in such Purchase Right to such extent (or beneficial ownership of such shares of Common Stock as a result of such Purchase Right to such extent) and such Purchase Right to such extent shall be held in abeyance for the Holder until such time, if ever, as its right thereto would not result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation).

 

c)                Pro Rata Distributions. During such time as this Warrant is outstanding, if the Company shall declare or make any dividend or other distribution of its assets (or rights to acquire its assets) to holders of shares of Common Stock, by way of return of capital or otherwise (including, without limitation, any distribution of cash, stock or other securities, property or options by way of a dividend, spin off, reclassification, corporate rearrangement, scheme of arrangement or other similar transaction) (a “Distribution”), at any time after the issuance of this Warrant, then, in each such case, the Holder shall be entitled to participate in such Distribution to the same extent that the Holder would have participated therein if the Holder had held the number of shares of Common Stock acquirable upon complete exercise of this Warrant (without regard to any limitations on exercise hereof, including without limitation, the Beneficial Ownership Limitation) immediately before the date of which a record is taken for such Distribution, or, if no such record is taken, the date as of which the record holders of shares of Common Stock are to be determined for the participation in such Distribution (provided, however, that, to the extent that the Holder's right to participate in any such Distribution would result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, then the Holder shall not be entitled to participate in such Distribution to such extent (or in the beneficial ownership of any shares of Common Stock as a result of such Distribution to such extent) and the portion of such Distribution shall be held in abeyance for the benefit of the Holder until such time, if ever, as its right thereto would not result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation). To the extent that this Warrant has not been partially or completely exercised at the time of such Distribution, such portion of the Distribution shall be held in abeyance for the benefit of the Holder until the Holder has exercised this Warrant.

 

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d)                Fundamental Transaction. If, at any time while this Warrant is outstanding, (i) the Company, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions effects any merger or consolidation of the Company with or into another Person, (ii) the Company, directly or indirectly, effects any sale, lease, license, assignment, transfer, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of its assets in one or a series of related transactions, (iii) any, direct or indirect, purchase offer, tender offer or exchange offer (whether by the Company or another Person) is completed pursuant to which holders of Common Stock are permitted to sell, tender or exchange their shares for other securities, cash or property and has been accepted by the holders of 50% or more of the outstanding Common Stock, (iv) the Company, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions effects any reclassification, reorganization or recapitalization of the Common Stock or any compulsory share exchange pursuant to which the Common Stock is effectively converted into or exchanged for other securities, cash or property, or (v) the Company, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions consummates a stock or share purchase agreement or other business combination (including, without limitation, a reorganization, recapitalization, spin-off or scheme of arrangement) with another Person or group of Persons whereby such other Person or group acquires more than 50% of the outstanding shares of Common Stock (not including any shares of Common Stock held by the other Person or other Persons making or party to, or associated or affiliated with the other Persons making or party to, such stock or share purchase agreement or other business combination) (each a “Fundamental Transaction”), then, upon any subsequent exercise of this Warrant, the Holder shall have the right to receive, for each Warrant Share that would have been issuable upon such exercise immediately prior to the occurrence of such Fundamental Transaction, at the option of the Holder (without regard to any limitation in Section 2(e) on the exercise of this Warrant), the number of shares of Common Stock of the successor or acquiring corporation or of the Company, if it is the surviving corporation, and any additional consideration (the “Alternate Consideration”) receivable as a result of such Fundamental Transaction by a holder of the number of shares of Common Stock for which this Warrant is exercisable immediately prior to such Fundamental Transaction (without regard to any limitation in Section 2(e) on the exercise of this Warrant). For purposes of any such exercise, the determination of the Exercise Price shall be appropriately adjusted to apply to such Alternate Consideration based on the amount of Alternate Consideration issuable in respect of one share of Common Stock in such Fundamental Transaction, and the Company shall apportion the Exercise Price among the Alternate Consideration in a reasonable manner reflecting the relative value of any different components of the Alternate Consideration. If holders of Common Stock are given any choice as to the securities, cash or property to be received in a Fundamental Transaction, then the Holder shall be given the same choice as to the Alternate Consideration it receives upon any exercise of this Warrant following such Fundamental Transaction. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary, the Company or any Successor Entity (as defined below) shall, at the Holder's option, exercisable at any time concurrently with, or within 30 days after, the consummation of the Fundamental Transaction (or, if later, the date of the public announcement of the applicable Fundamental Transaction), purchase this Warrant from the Holder by paying to the Holder an amount in cash equal to the Black Scholes Value (as defined below) of the remaining unexercised portion of this Warrant on the date of the consummation of such Fundamental Transaction; provided, however, if the Fundamental Transaction is not within the Company's control, including not approved by the Company's Board of Directors, the Holder shall only be entitled to receive from the Company or any Successor Entity, as of the date of consummation of such Fundamental Transaction, the same type or form of consideration (and in the same proportion), at the Black Scholes Value of the unexercised portion of this Warrant, that is being offered and paid to the holders of Common Stock of the Company in connection with the Fundamental Transaction, whether that consideration be in the form of cash, stock or any combination thereof, or whether the holders of Common Stock are given the choice to receive from among alternative forms of consideration in connection with the Fundamental Transaction. “Black Scholes Value” means the value of this Warrant based on the Black and Scholes Option Pricing Model obtained from the “OV” function on Bloomberg, L.P. (“Bloomberg”) determined as of the day of consummation of the applicable Fundamental Transaction for pricing purposes and reflecting (A) a risk-free interest rate corresponding to the U.S. Treasury rate for a period equal to the time between the date of the public announcement of the applicable Fundamental Transaction and the Termination Date, (B) an expected volatility equal to the greater of (i) 100% and (ii) the 100 day volatility obtained from the HVT function on Bloomberg as of the Trading Day immediately following the public announcement of the applicable Fundamental Transaction, (C) the underlying price per share used in such calculation shall be the greater of (i) the sum of the price per share being offered in cash, if any, plus the value of any non-cash consideration, if any, being offered in such Fundamental Transaction and (ii) the greater of (x) the last VWAP immediately prior to the public announcement of such Fundamental Transaction and (y) the last VWAP immediately prior to the consummation of such Fundamental Transaction and (D) a remaining option time equal to the time between the date of the public announcement of the applicable Fundamental Transaction and the Termination Date. The payment of the Black Scholes Value will be made by wire transfer of immediately available funds within five Business Days of the Holder’s election (or, if later, on the effective date of the Fundamental Transaction). The Company shall cause any successor entity in a Fundamental Transaction in which the Company is not the survivor (the “Successor Entity”) to assume in writing all of the obligations of the Company under this Warrant in accordance with the provisions of this Section 3(e) pursuant to written agreements in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Holder and approved by the Holder (without unreasonable delay) prior to such Fundamental Transaction and shall, at the option of the Holder, deliver to the Holder in exchange for this Warrant a security of the Successor Entity evidenced by a written instrument substantially similar in form and substance to this Warrant which is exercisable for a corresponding number of shares of capital stock of such Successor Entity (or its parent entity) equivalent to the shares of Common Stock acquirable and receivable upon exercise of this Warrant (without regard to any limitations on the exercise of this Warrant) prior to such Fundamental Transaction, and with an exercise price which applies the exercise price hereunder to such shares of capital stock (but taking into account the relative value of the shares of Common Stock pursuant to such Fundamental Transaction and the value of such shares of capital stock, such number of shares of capital stock and such exercise price being for the purpose of protecting the economic value of this Warrant immediately prior to the consummation of such Fundamental Transaction), and which is reasonably satisfactory in form and substance to the Holder. Upon the occurrence of any such Fundamental Transaction, the Successor Entity shall succeed to, and be substituted for (so that from and after the date of such Fundamental Transaction, the provisions of this Warrant referring to the “Company” shall refer instead to the Successor Entity), and may exercise every right and power of the Company and shall assume all of the obligations of the Company under this Warrant with the same effect as if such Successor Entity had been named as the Company herein.

 

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e)               Calculations. All calculations under this Section 3 shall be made to the nearest cent or the nearest 1/100th of a share, as the case may be. For purposes of this Section 3, the number of shares of Common Stock deemed to be issued and outstanding as of a given date shall be the sum of the number of shares of Common Stock (excluding treasury shares, if any) issued and outstanding.

 

f)                Notice to Holder.

 

i.            Adjustment to Exercise Price. Whenever the Exercise Price is adjusted pursuant to any provision of this Section 3, the Company shall promptly deliver to the Holder by facsimile or email a notice setting forth the Exercise Price after such adjustment and any resulting adjustment to the number of Warrant Shares and setting forth a brief statement of the facts requiring such adjustment.

 

ii.           Notice to Allow Exercise by Holder. If (A) the Company shall declare a dividend (or any other distribution in whatever form) on the Common Stock, (B) the Company shall declare a special nonrecurring cash dividend on or a redemption of the Common Stock, (C) the Company shall authorize the granting to all holders of the Common Stock rights or warrants to subscribe for or purchase any shares of capital stock of any class or of any rights, (D) the approval of any stockholders of the Company shall be required in connection with any reclassification of the Common Stock, any consolidation or merger to which the Company is a party, any sale or transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company, or any compulsory share exchange whereby the Common Stock is converted into other securities, cash or property, or (E) the Company shall authorize the voluntary or involuntary dissolution, liquidation or winding up of the affairs of the Company, then, in each case, the Company shall cause to be delivered by facsimile or email to the Holder at its last facsimile number or email address as it shall appear upon the Warrant Register of the Company, at least 20 calendar days prior to the applicable record or effective date hereinafter specified, a notice stating (x) the date on which a record is to be taken for the purpose of such dividend, distribution, redemption, rights or warrants, or if a record is not to be taken, the date as of which the holders of the Common Stock of record to be entitled to such dividend, distributions, redemption, rights or warrants are to be determined or (y) the date on which such reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer or share exchange is expected to become effective or close, and the date as of which it is expected that holders of the Common Stock of record shall be entitled to exchange their shares of the Common Stock for securities, cash or other property deliverable upon such reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer or share exchange; provided that the failure to deliver such notice or any defect therein or in the delivery thereof shall not affect the validity of the corporate action required to be specified in such notice. To the extent that any notice provided in this Warrant constitutes, or contains, material, non-public information regarding the Company or any of the Subsidiaries, the Company shall simultaneously file such notice with the Commission pursuant to a Current Report on Form 8-K. The Holder shall remain entitled to exercise this Warrant during the period commencing on the date of such notice to the effective date of the event triggering such notice except as may otherwise be expressly set forth herein.

 

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Section 4Transfer of Warrant.

 

a)          Transferability. This Warrant and all rights hereunder are transferable, in whole or in part, upon surrender of this Warrant at the principal office of the Company or its designated agent, together with a written assignment of this Warrant substantially in the form attached hereto duly executed by the Holder or its agent or attorney and funds sufficient to pay any transfer taxes payable upon the making of such transfer. Upon such surrender and, if required, such payment, the Company shall execute and deliver a new Warrant or Warrants in the name of the assignee or assignees, as applicable, and in the denomination or denominations specified in such instrument of assignment, and shall issue to the assignor a new Warrant evidencing the portion of this Warrant not so assigned, and this Warrant shall promptly be cancelled. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, the Holder shall not be required to physically surrender this Warrant to the Company unless the Holder has assigned this Warrant in full, in which case, the Holder shall surrender this Warrant to the Company within three (3) Trading Days of the date on which the Holder delivers an assignment form to the Company assigning this Warrant in full. The Warrant, if properly assigned in accordance herewith, may be exercised by a new holder for the purchase of Warrant Shares without having a new Warrant issued.

 

b)          New Warrants. This Warrant may be divided or combined with other Warrants upon presentation hereof at the aforesaid office of the Company, together with a written notice specifying the names and denominations in which new Warrants are to be issued, signed by the Holder or its agent or attorney. Subject to compliance with Section 4(a), as to any transfer which may be involved in such division or combination, the Company shall execute and deliver a new Warrant or Warrants in exchange for the Warrant or Warrants to be divided or combined in accordance with such notice. All Warrants issued on transfers or exchanges shall be dated the original issuance date and shall be identical with this Warrant except as to the number of Warrant Shares issuable pursuant thereto.

 

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c)          Warrant Register. The Warrant Agent (or, in the event a Holder elects to receive a Warrant in certificated form, the Company) shall register this Warrant, upon records to be maintained by the Company for that purpose (the “Warrant Register”), in the name of the record Holder hereof from time to time. The Warrant Agent and the Company may deem and treat the registered Holder of this Warrant as the absolute owner hereof for the purpose of any exercise hereof or any distribution to the Holder, and for all other purposes, absent actual notice to the contrary.

 

Section 5Miscellaneous.

 

a)          No Rights as Stockholder Until Exercise. This Warrant does not entitle the Holder to any voting rights, dividends or other rights as a stockholder of the Company prior to the exercise hereof as set forth in Section 2(d)(i), except as expressly set forth in Section 3. Without limiting any rights of a Holder to receive Warrant Shares on a “cashless exercise” pursuant to Section 2(c) or to receive cash payments pursuant to Section 2(d)(i) and Section 2(d)(iv) herein, in no event shall the Company be required to net cash settle an exercise of this Warrant.

 

b)          Loss, Theft, Destruction or Mutilation of Warrant. The Company covenants that upon receipt by the Company of evidence reasonably satisfactory to it of the loss, theft, destruction or mutilation of this Warrant or any stock certificate relating to the Warrant Shares, and in case of loss, theft or destruction, of indemnity or security reasonably satisfactory to it (which, in the case of the Warrant, shall not include the posting of any bond), and upon surrender and cancellation of such Warrant or stock certificate, if mutilated, the Company will make and deliver a new Warrant or stock certificate of like tenor and dated as of such cancellation, in lieu of such Warrant or stock certificate.

 

c)          Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays, etc. If the last or appointed day for the taking of any action or the expiration of any right required or granted herein shall not be a Business Day, then, such action may be taken or such right may be exercised on the next succeeding Business Day.

 

d)          Authorized Shares. The Company covenants that, during the period the Warrant is outstanding, it will reserve from its authorized and unissued Common Stock a sufficient number of shares to provide for the issuance of the Warrant Shares upon the exercise of any purchase rights under this Warrant. The Company further covenants that its issuance of this Warrant shall constitute full authority to its officers who are charged with the duty of issuing the necessary Warrant Shares upon the exercise of the purchase rights under this Warrant. The Company will take all such reasonable action as may be necessary to assure that such Warrant Shares may be issued as provided herein without violation of any applicable law or regulation, or of any requirements of the Trading Market upon which the Common Stock may be listed. The Company covenants that all Warrant Shares which may be issued upon the exercise of the purchase rights represented by this Warrant will, upon exercise of the purchase rights represented by this Warrant and payment for such Warrant Shares in accordance herewith, be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable and free from all taxes, liens and charges created by the Company in respect of the issue thereof (other than taxes in respect of any transfer occurring contemporaneously with such issue).

 

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Except and to the extent as waived or consented to by the Holder, the Company shall not by any action, including, without limitation, amending its certificate of incorporation or through any reorganization, transfer of assets, consolidation, merger, dissolution, issue or sale of securities or any other voluntary action, avoid or seek to avoid the observance or performance of any of the terms of this Warrant, but will at all times in good faith assist in the carrying out of all such terms and in the taking of all such actions as may be necessary or appropriate to protect the rights of Holder as set forth in this Warrant against impairment. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, the Company will (i) not increase the par value of any Warrant Shares above the amount payable therefor upon such exercise immediately prior to such increase in par value, (ii) take all such action as may be necessary or appropriate in order that the Company may validly and legally issue fully paid and nonassessable Warrant Shares upon the exercise of this Warrant and (iii) use commercially reasonable efforts to obtain all such authorizations, exemptions or consents from any public regulatory body having jurisdiction thereof, as may be, necessary to enable the Company to perform its obligations under this Warrant.

 

Before taking any action which would result in an adjustment in the number of Warrant Shares for which this Warrant is exercisable or in the Exercise Price, the Company shall obtain all such authorizations or exemptions thereof, or consents thereto, as may be necessary from any public regulatory body or bodies having jurisdiction thereof.

 

e)          Governing Law. All questions concerning the construction, validity, enforcement and interpretation of this Warrant shall be governed by and construed and enforced in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, without regard to the principles of conflicts of law thereof. Each party agrees that all legal proceedings concerning the interpretations, enforcement and defense of the transactions contemplated by this Warrant (whether brought against a party hereto or their respective affiliates, directors, officers, shareholders, partners, members, employees or agents) shall be commenced exclusively in the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, Borough of Manhattan for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection herewith or with any transaction contemplated hereby or discussed herein, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is improper or is an inconvenient venue for such proceeding. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof via registered or certified mail or overnight delivery (with evidence of delivery) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Warrant and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any other manner permitted by law. If either party shall commence an action, suit or proceeding to enforce any provisions of this Warrant, the prevailing party in such action, suit or proceeding shall be reimbursed by the other party for their reasonable attorneys’ fees and other costs and expenses incurred with the investigation, preparation and prosecution of such action or proceeding.

 

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f)           Restrictions. The Holder acknowledges that the Warrant Shares acquired upon the exercise of this Warrant, if not registered and the Holder does not utilize cashless exercise, will have restrictions upon resale imposed by state and federal securities laws.

 

g)          Nonwaiver and Expenses. No course of dealing or any delay or failure to exercise any right hereunder on the part of Holder shall operate as a waiver of such right or otherwise prejudice the Holder’s rights, powers or remedies. Without limiting any other provision of this Warrant, if the Company willfully and knowingly fails to comply with any provision of this Warrant, which results in any material damages to the Holder, the Company shall pay to the Holder such amounts as shall be sufficient to cover any costs and expenses including, but not limited to, reasonable attorneys’ fees, including those of appellate proceedings, incurred by the Holder in collecting any amounts due pursuant hereto or in otherwise enforcing any of its rights, powers or remedies hereunder.

 

h)          Notices. Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries to be provided by the Holders hereunder including, without limitation, any Notice of Exercise, shall be in writing and delivered personally, by facsimile or e-mail, or sent by a nationally recognized overnight courier service, addressed to the Company, at Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 400 Oyster Point Blvd., Suite 505 South San Francisco, California 94080 Attention: Chief Executive Officer, email address: sbhonsle@titanpharm.com, or such other facsimile number, email address or address as the Company may specify for such purposes by notice to the Holders. Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries to be provided by the Company hereunder shall be in writing and delivered personally, by facsimile or e-mail, or sent by a nationally recognized overnight courier service addressed to each Holder at the facsimile number, e-mail address or address of such Holder appearing on the books of the Company. Any notice or other communication or deliveries hereunder shall be deemed given and effective on the earliest of (i) the time of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number or via e-mail at the e-mail address set forth in this Section prior to 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any date, (ii) the next Trading Day after the time of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number or via e-mail at the e-mail address set forth in this Section on a day that is not a Trading Day or later than 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any Trading Day, (iii) the second Trading Day following the date of mailing, if sent by U.S. nationally recognized overnight courier service, or (iv) upon actual receipt by the party to whom such notice is required to be given. To the extent that any notice provided hereunder constitutes, or contains, material, non-public information regarding the Company or any subsidiaries, the Company shall simultaneously file such notice with the Commission pursuant to a Current Report on Form 8-K.

 

i)           Limitation of Liability. No provision hereof, in the absence of any affirmative action by the Holder to exercise this Warrant to purchase Warrant Shares, and no enumeration herein of the rights or privileges of the Holder, shall give rise to any liability of the Holder for the purchase price of any Common Stock or as a stockholder of the Company, whether such liability is asserted by the Company or by creditors of the Company.

 

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j)           Remedies. The Holder, in addition to being entitled to exercise all rights granted by law, including recovery of damages, will be entitled to specific performance of its rights under this Warrant. The Company agrees that monetary damages would not be adequate compensation for any loss incurred by reason of a breach by it of the provisions of this Warrant and hereby agrees to waive and not to assert the defense in any action for specific performance that a remedy at law would be adequate.

 

k)          Successors and Assigns. Subject to applicable securities laws, this Warrant and the rights and obligations evidenced hereby shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the successors and permitted assigns of the Company and the successors and permitted assigns of Holder. The provisions of this Warrant are intended to be for the benefit of any Holder from time to time of this Warrant and shall be enforceable by the Holder or holder of Warrant Shares.

 

l)           Amendment. This Warrant may be modified or amended or the provisions hereof waived) in accordance with the provisions set forth in Section 20 of the Warrant Agency Agreement or otherwise with the written consent of the Company and the Holder.

 

m)         Severability. Wherever possible, each provision of this Warrant shall be interpreted in such manner as to be effective and valid under applicable law, but if any provision of this Warrant shall be prohibited by or invalid under applicable law, such provision shall be ineffective to the extent of such prohibition or invalidity, without invalidating the remainder of such provisions or the remaining provisions of this Warrant.

 

n)          Headings. The headings used in this Warrant are for the convenience of reference only and shall not, for any purpose, be deemed a part of this Warrant.

 

o)          Warrant Agency Agreement. This Warrant is issued subject to the Warrant Agency Agreement. To the extent any provision of this Warrant Certificate conflicts with the express provisions of the Warrant Agency Agreement, the provisions of this Warrant shall govern and be controlling.

 

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