Registration No.            



UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 


 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

 

UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 


 

SILVERSUN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware

 

16-1633636

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

 

120 Eagle Rock Ave

East Hanover, NJ 07936

(973) 396-1720

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

Mark Meller

120 Eagle Rock Ave

East Hanover, NJ 07936

973-396-1720

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

Copies to:

Joseph M. Lucosky, Esq.

Lawrence Metelitsa, Esq.

Lucosky Brookman LLP

101 Wood Avenue South, 5th Floor

Iselin, NJ 08830

(732) 395-4400

 


 

APPROXIMATE DATE OF COMMENCEMENT OF PROPOSED SALE TO THE PUBLIC: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. ☐

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. ☑

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

 

 

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective on filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

             

Large accelerated filer

 

 

Accelerated filer

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 



 

 

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of Each 
Class
of Securities to
be Registered
(1)(2)

 

Amount to be
Registered (1)

   

Proposed
Maximum
Offering
Price per Share or
Unit (1) (2)

   

Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price (3)

   

Amount of
Registration
Fee (3)

 

Offering:

                               

Common Stock

                               

Preferred Stock

                               

Debt Securities (which may be senior or subordinated, convertible or non-convertible, secured or unsecured)

                               

Warrants

                               

Units (4)

                               

Total  (5)

  $ 50,000,000       100

%

  $ 50,000,000     $ 6,490.00 (3)

 

   

(1)

Pursuant to Rule 457(i) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act), the securities registered hereunder include such indeterminate (a) number of shares of common stock, (b) number of shares of preferred stock, (c) debt securities, (d) warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities of the Registrant, (e) units, and (f) rights, consisting of some or all of these securities, as may be sold from time to time by the Registrant. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or as units with other securities registered hereunder. There are also being registered hereunder an indeterminate number of shares of common stock, preferred stock and debt securities as shall be issuable upon conversion, exchange or exercise of any securities that provide for such issuance. In no event will the aggregate offering price of all types of securities issued by the Registrant pursuant to this registration statement exceed $50,000,000. Pursuant to Rule 416(a), this registration statement also covers any additional securities that may be offered or issued in connection with any stock split, stock dividend or similar transaction.

(2)

The proposed maximum per unit and aggregate offering prices per class of securities will be determined from time to time by the Registrant in connection with the issuance by the Registrant of the securities registered under this registration statement and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.

(3)

Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.

(4)

Consisting of some or all of the securities listed above, in any combination, including common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, and warrants.

(5)

Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or as units with other securities registered hereunder. The proposed maximum offering price per unit will be determined by the Registrant in connection with the issuance of the securities. In no event will the aggregate offering price of all securities issued by the Registrant from time to time pursuant to this Registration Statement exceed $50,000,000 or the equivalent thereof in one or more foreign currencies, foreign currency units or composite currencies.

 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 

EXPLANATORY NOTE

 

This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

 

 

 

 

a base prospectus which covers the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to $50,000,000 of our common stock, preferred stock, warrants, units, and rights; and

 

 

 

a sales agreement prospectus covering the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $3,489,499 of our common stock that may be issued and sold under an At The Market Issuance Sales Agreement we have entered into with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC as sales agent.

 

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of the securities offered pursuant to the base prospectus are specified in the sales agreement prospectus immediately following the base prospectus.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to Completion, dated October 1, 2020.

 

PROSPECTUS

SILVERSUN20200827_S3IMG001.GIF  

 

SILVERSUN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

 

$50,000,000

 

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Rights

Units

 


 

We may offer and sell up to $50 million in the aggregate of the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities.

 

Each time we offer and sell securities, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and the amounts, prices and terms of the securities. The supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in any of our securities.

 

We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections of this prospectus entitled “About this Prospectus” and “Plan of Distribution” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.

 

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS. SEE THE “RISK FACTORS” ON PAGE 10 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY SIMILAR SECTION CONTAINED IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT CONCERNING FACTORS YOU SHOULD CONSIDER BEFORE INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES.

 

Our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “SSNT”. On September 30, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The NASDAQ Capital Market was $2.65 per share.

 

The aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates is $10,468,499, based on 4,501,271 shares of outstanding common stock, of which 2,562,660 are held by affiliates, and a per share price of $5.40 based on the closing sale price of our common stock on August 4, 2020. Pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, in no event will we sell our common stock in a public primary offering with a value exceeding more than one-third of our public float in any 12-month period so long as our public float remains below $75,000,000. We have not offered any securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6. of Form S-3 during the prior 12 calendar month period that ends on and includes the date of this prospectus.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is      , 2020.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

   

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

1

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

1

THE COMPANY

3

RISK FACTORS

10

SPECIAL NOTICE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

10

USE OF PROCEEDS

10

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

10

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

14

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

19

DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

20

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

21

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

21

LEGAL MATTERS

23

EXPERTS

23

 

 

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell securities from time to time and in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $50 million as described in this prospectus. Each time that we offer and sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the securities being offered and sold and the specific terms of that offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, you should rely on the prospectus supplement. Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”

 

We have not authorized any other person to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We will not make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement to this prospectus is accurate as of the date on its respective cover, and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, unless we indicate otherwise. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

 

When we refer to “SilverSun,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” in this prospectus, we mean SilverSun Technologies, Inc., unless otherwise specified. When we refer to “you,” we mean the holders of the applicable series of securities.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

 

Available Information

 

We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Information filed with the SEC by us can be inspected and copied at the Public Reference Room maintained by the SEC at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may also obtain copies of this information by mail from the Public Reference Room of the SEC at prescribed rates. Further information on the operation of the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, D.C. can be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains a web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov.

 

Our website address is https://www.silversuntech.com. The information on our website, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus.

 

This prospectus and any prospectus supplement are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided below. Forms of the documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement at the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, D.C. or through the SEC’s website, as provided above.

 

Incorporation by Reference

 

The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus modifies or replaces that statement.

 

We incorporate by reference our documents listed below and any future filings made by us with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which we refer to as the “Exchange Act” in this prospectus, between the date of this prospectus and the termination of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus. We are not, however, incorporating by reference any documents or portions thereof, whether specifically listed below or filed in the future, that are not deemed “filed” with the SEC, including any information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or related exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K.

 

1

 

This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC:

 

     

 

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 26, 2020.

 

 

 

 

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on May 13, 2020.

 

 

 

 

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on August 12, 2020.

 

 

 

 

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on April 23, 2020 and May 21, 2020.

 

All reports and other documents we subsequently file pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the termination of this offering, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, but excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC, will also be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and deemed to be part of this prospectus from the date of the filing of such reports and documents.

 

You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus (other than exhibits, unless they are specifically incorporated by reference in the documents) by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

 

SilverSun Technologies, Inc.

120 Eagle Rock Ave

East Hanover, NJ 07936

(973) 396-1720

 

Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement.

 

2

 

THE COMPANY


Overview

 

We are a business application, technology and consulting company providing strategies and solutions to meet our clients’ information, technology and business management needs. Our services and technologies enable customers to manage, protect and monetize their enterprise assets whether on-premise or in the “Cloud”. As a value-added reseller of business application software, we offer solutions for accounting and business management, financial reporting, Enterprise Resource Planning (“ERP”), Human Capital Management (“HCM”), Warehouse Management Systems (“WMS”), Customer Relationship Management (“CRM”), and Business Intelligence (“BI”). Additionally, we have our own development staff building software solutions for various ERP enhancements. Our value-added services focus on consulting and professional services, specialized programming, training, and technical support. We have a dedicated Information Technology (“IT”) network services practice that provides managed services, cybersecurity, application hosting, disaster recovery, business continuity, cloud and other services. Our customers are nationwide, with concentrations in the New York/New Jersey metropolitan area, Arizona, Southern California, North Carolina, Washington, Oregon and Illinois.

 

Our core business is divided into the following practice areas:

 

ERP (Enterprise Resource Management) and Accounting Software

 

We are a value-added reseller for a number of industry-leading ERP applications. We are a Sage Software Authorized Business Partner and Sage Certified Gold Development Partner. We believe we are among the largest Sage partners in North America, with a sales and implementation presence complemented by a scalable software development practice for customizations and enhancements. Due to the growing demand for cloud-based ERP solutions, we also have in our ERP portfolio Acumatica, a browser-based ERP solution that can be offered on premise, in the public cloud, or in a private cloud. We develop and resell a variety of add-on solutions to all our ERP and accounting packages that help customize the installation to our customers’ needs and streamline their operations.

 

Value-Added Services for ERP

 

We go beyond simply reselling software packages; we have a consulting and professional services organization that manages the process as we move from the sales stage into implementation, go live, and production. We work inside our customers’ organizations to ensure all software and IT solutions are enhancing their business needs. A significant portion of our services revenue comes from continuing to work with existing customers as their business needs change, upgrading from one version of software to another, or providing additional software solutions to help them manage their business and grow their revenue. We have a dedicated help desk team that fields hundreds of calls every week. Our custom programming department builds specialized software packages as well as “off the shelf” enhancements and time and billing software. 

 

Network and Managed Services

 

We provide comprehensive IT network and managed services designed to eliminate the IT concerns of our customers. Businesses can focus on their core strengths rather than technology issues. We adapt our solutions for virtually any type of business, from large national and international product and service providers, to small businesses with local customers. Our business continuity services provide automatic on-site and off-site backups, complete encryption, and automatic failure testing. We also provide application hosting, IT consulting and managed network services. Our focus in the network and managed services practice is to focus on industry verticals in order to demonstrate our ability to better understand our customers’ needs. 

 

Industry Overview

 

As a value-added reseller of business application software, we offer solutions for accounting and business management, financial reporting, managed services, ERP, HCM, WMS, CRM, and BI.  Additionally, we have our own development staff building software solutions for various ERP enhancements.  Our value-added services focus on consulting and professional services, specialized programming, training, and technical support. The majority of our customers are small and medium businesses (“SMBs”).

 

3

 

Potential Competitive Strengths

 

•       

Independent Software Vendor.  As an independent software vendor we have published integrations between ERPs and third-party products which differentiates us from other business application providers because, as a value-added reseller of the ERPs that our proprietary products integrate with, we have specific software solution expertise in the ERPs we resell, which ensures that our products tightly integrate with the ERPs. We own the intellectual property related to these integrations and sell the solutions both directly and through other software resellers within the Sage and Acumatica channel.

 

•       

Sage Certified Gold Development Partner.  As a Sage Certified Gold Development Partner, we are licensed to customize the source code of the Sage ERPs. Very few resellers are master developers, and in fact, we provide custom programming services for many other resellers. We have full-time programmers on staff, which provides us with a depth and breadth of expertise that we believe very few competitors can match.

 

•       

Ability to Recruit, Manage and Retain Quality Personnel.  We have a track record of recruiting, managing and retaining skilled labor and our ability to do so represents an important advantage in an industry in which a shortage of skilled labor is often a key limitation for both clients and competitors alike. We recruit skilled labor from competitors and from amongst end users with experience using the various products we sell, whom we then train as consultants. We believe our ability to hire, manage and maintain skilled labor gives an edge over our competitors as we continue to grow.

 

•        

Combination of Hardware/Software Expertise.  Many competitors have software solution expertise. Others have network/hardware expertise. We believe we are among the very few organizations with an expertise in both software and hardware, affording us the opportunity to provide turnkey solutions for our customers without the need to bring in additional vendors on a project.

 

•        

Technical Expertise.  Our geographical reach and substantial technical capabilities afford our clients the ability to customize and tailor solutions to satisfy all of their business needs.

 

Our Growth Strategy

 

General

 

Our strategy is to grow our business through a combination of intra-company growth of our software applications, technology solutions and managed services, as well as expansion through acquisitions. We have established a national presence via our internal marketing, sales programs, and acquisitions and now have ERP customers throughout most of the United States. 

 

Intra-Company Growth

 

Our intra-company growth strategy is to increase our market penetration and client retention through the upgrade of, and expanded sales efforts with, our existing products and managed services and development of new and enhanced software and technology solutions. Our client retention is sustained by our providing responsive, ongoing software and technical support and monitoring and maintenance services for both the solutions we sell and other client technology needs we provide.

 

Repeat business from our existing customer base has been key to our success and we expect it will continue to play a vital role in our growth. We focus on nurturing long-standing relationships with existing customers while also establishing relationships with new customers.

 

Acquisitions

 

The markets in which we provide our services are occupied by a large number of competitors, many substantially larger than us, and with significantly greater resources and geographic reach. We believe that to remain competitive, we need to take advantage of acquisition opportunities that arise which may help us achieve greater geographic presence and economies both within our existing footprint and expanded territories. As such, we have completed 33 acquisitions and/or collaborative agreements in the past sixty (60) months. We may also utilize acquisitions, whenever appropriate, to expand our technological capabilities and product offerings. We focus on acquisitions that are profitable and fit seamlessly with our existing operations.

 

4

 

We believe our markets contain a number of attractive acquisition candidates. We foresee expanding through acquisitions of one or more of the following types of software and technology organizations:

 

Managed Service Providers (“MSPs”). MSPs provide their small and medium-sized business clients with a suite of services, which may include 24/7/365 remote monitoring of networks, application hosting, disaster recovery, business continuity, data back-up, cyber-security and the like. There are hundreds of providers of such services in the U.S., most with annual recurring revenue of less than $10 million. We believe that we may be able to consolidate a number of these MSPs with our existing operation in an effort to become one of the more significant providers of these services in the U.S.

  

Independent Software Vendors (“ISVs”). ISVs are publishers of both stand-alone software solutions and integrations that integrate with other third party products. Our interest lies with ISVs selling into the small and medium-sized business marketplace, providing applications addressing e-commerce, mobility, security, and other functionalities. Since we have expertise in both selling directly to end-users and selling through a sales channel, we believe we can significantly enhance the sales volume of any potential acquisition via our existing infrastructure, our sales channel, and our internal marketing programs. There are many ISVs in North America, constituting a large and significant target base for our acquisition efforts.

 

Value-Added Resellers (“VARs”) of ERP, Human Capital Management (“HCM”), Warehouse Management Systems (“WMS”), CRM and BI Software. VAR’s gross margins are a function of the sales volume they provide a publisher in a twelve (12) month period, and we are currently operating at the highest margins. Smaller resellers who sell less and operate at significantly lower margins, are at a competitive disadvantage to companies such as ours and are often amenable to creating a liquidity event for themselves by selling to larger organizations. We have benefitted from completing such acquisitions in a number of ways, including but not limited to: (i) garnering new customers to whom we can upsell and cross-sell our broad range of products and services; (ii) gaining technical resources that enhance our capabilities; and (iii) extending our geographic reach.

 

Our business strategy provides that we will examine the potential acquisition of businesses within and outside our industry. In determining a suitable acquisition candidate, we will carefully analyze a target’s potential to add to and complement our product mix, expand our existing revenue base, improve our margins, expand our geographic coverage, strengthen our management team, add technical resources and expertise, and, above all, improve stockholder returns. More specifically, we have identified the criteria listed below, by which we evaluate potential acquisition targets in an effort to gain the synergies necessary for successful growth of the Company:

 

 

Access to new customers and geographic markets;

     
 

Recurring revenue of the target;

     
 

Opportunity to gain operating leverage and increased profit margins;

     
 

Diversification of sales by customer and/or product;

     
 

Improvements in product/service offerings; and

     
 

Ability to attract public capital and increased investor interest. 

  

We are unable to predict the nature, size or timing of any acquisition. We can give no assurance that we will reach agreement or procure the financial resources necessary to fund any acquisition, or that we will be able to successfully integrate or improve returns as a result of any such acquisition.

 

We continue to seek out and hold preliminary discussions with various acquisition candidates. However, currently we have not entered into any agreements or understandings for any acquisitions that management deems material.

 

Enterprise Resource Planning Software Strategy

 

Our ERP software strategy is focused on serving the needs of our expansive installed base of customers for our Sage 100cloud, Sage 500 ERP, and Sage BusinessWorks practices, while rapidly growing the number of customers using Sage X3 and Acumatica.  We currently have approximately 8,000 ERP customers using one of these five solutions, including customers using certain add-on support products to these solutions.  In the past we, have focused primarily on on-premise mid-market Sage Software solutions but in the past three years have focused on larger enterprise-type offerings and cloud ERP solutions.  This has allowed us to increase our average deal size and also to keep pace with the changing trends that we see in the industry. 

 

5

 

Managed Services Strategy

 

The IT Managed Services market is broadly segmented by types of services, for example, managed data-center, managed network, managed mobility, managed infrastructure, managed communications, managed information, managed security and other managed services. In addition, the market is segmented by market verticals, such as public sector, banking, financial services and insurance, education, retail, contact centers and service industries, high tech and telecommunications, healthcare and pharmaceuticals, travel and logistics, manufacturing, energy and utilities among others.

 

The recent trend in the industry shows that there is a high demand for managed services across every industry vertical. The implementation of managed services can reduce IT costs by 30% to 40% in such enterprises. This enables organizations to have flexibility and technical advantage. Enterprises having their services outsourced look forward to risk sharing and to reduce their IT costs and IT commitments, so that they are able to concentrate on their core competencies. Organizations implementing managed services have reported almost a 50% to 60% increase in the operational efficiency of their outsourced processes. Enterprises have accepted outsourcing services as a means to enable them to reduce their capital expenditure (CapEx) and free up internal sources. Newer managed services that penetrate almost all the industry domains, along with aggressive pricing in services, are being offered. This results in an increase in the overall revenues of the managed services market. It is observed that there is an increase in outsourcing of wireless, communications, mobility and other value-added services, such as content and e-commerce facilities. With increasing technological advancements and the cost challenges associated with having the IT services in-house, we believe the future seems optimistic for managed services providers.

 

Our strategy is to continue to expand our product offerings to the small and medium sized business marketplace, and to increase our scale and capabilities via acquisition throughout the United States, but initially in those regions where we currently have existing offices.

 

Geographic Expansion

 

Generally, our technology offerings require some on-premise implementation and support. When we expand into new geographic territories, we prefer to find qualified personnel in an area to augment our current staff of consultants to service our business. The need for hands-on implementation and support may also require investment in additional physical offices and other overhead. We believe our approach is conservative.

 

We may accelerate expansion if we find complementary businesses that we are able to acquire in other regions. Our marketing efforts to expand into new territories have included attendance at trade shows in addition to personal contact. 

 

Our Products and Services

 

Enterprise Resource Planning Software

 

Substantially all our initial sales of ERP financial accounting solutions consist of pre-packaged software and associated services to customers in the United States.

 

The Company resells ERP software published by Sage Software, Acumatica and other providers for the financial accounting requirements of small- and medium-sized businesses focused on manufacturing and distribution, and the delivery of related services from the sales of these products, including installation, support and training. The programs perform and support a wide variety of functions related to accounting, including financial reporting, accounts payable and accounts receivable, and inventory management.

 

We provide a variety of services along with our financial accounting software sales to assist our customers in maximizing the benefits from these software applications. These services include training, technical support, and professional services. We employ class instructors and have formal, specific training in the topics they are teaching. We can also provide on-site training services that are highly tailored to meet the needs of a particular customer. Our instructors must pass annual subject-matter examinations required by Sage to retain their product-based teaching certifications.

 

We provide end-user technical support services through our support/help desk. Our product and technology consultants assist customers calling with questions about product features, functions, usability issues, and configurations. The support/help desk offers services in a variety of ways, including prepaid services, time and materials billed as utilized and annual support contracts. Customers can communicate with the support/help desk through e-mail, telephone, and fax channels. Standard support/help desk services are offered during normal business hours five (5) days per week.

 

6

 

Warehouse Management Systems

 

We are resellers of the Accellos Warehouse Management System software published by High Jump, Inc. (“High Jump”). High Jump develops warehouse management software for mid-market distributors. The primary purpose of a WMS is to control the movement and storage of materials within an operation and process the associated transactions. Directed picking, directed replenishment, and directed put-away are the key to WMS. The detailed setup and processing within a WMS can vary significantly from one software vendor to another. However, the basic WMS will use a combination of item, location, quantity, unit of measure, and order information to determine where to stock, where to pick, and in what sequence to perform these operations.

 

The Accellos WMS software improves accuracy and efficiency, streamlines materials handling, meets retail compliance requirements, and refines inventory control. Accellos also works as part of a complete operational solution by integrating seamlessly with radio frequency hardware, accounting software, shipping systems and warehouse automation equipment.

 

We market the Accellos solution to our existing and new medium-sized business customers.

 

IT Managed Network Services and Business Consulting

 

We provide IT managed services, cybersecurity, business continuity, disaster recovery, data back-up, network maintenance and service upgrades for our business clients. We are a Microsoft Solutions Provider. Our staff includes engineers who maintain certifications from Microsoft and Sage Software. They are Microsoft Certified Systems Engineers and Microsoft Certified Professionals, and they provide a host of services for our clients, including remote network monitoring, server implementation, support and assistance, operation and maintenance of large central systems, technical design of network infrastructure, technical troubleshooting for large scale problems, network and server security, and backup, archiving, and storage of data from servers. There are numerous competitors, both larger and smaller, nationally and locally, with whom we compete in this market.

  

Cybersecurity

 

We provide enterprise level security services to the mid-market.  Our cybersecurity-as-a-service offering includes a security operations center, incident response, cybersecurity assessments, and hacking simulations.  The service is particularly well-suited for customers in compliance-driven and regulated industries, including financial services, pension administration, insurance, and the land and title sector.

 

Application Hosting

 

Through our wholly owned subsidiary, Secure Cloud Services, Inc., we acquired the assets of Nellnube, Inc. to further market application hosting services throughout the country.

 

Product Development

 

We are continually looking to improve and develop new products. Our product initiatives include various new product offerings, which are either extensions of existing products or newly conceptualized product offerings. We are using a dual-shore development approach to keep product development costs at a minimum.  All our product development is led by U.S. based employees.  The project leaders are technical resources who are involved in developing technical specifications, design decisions, usability testing, and transferring the project knowledge to our offshore development team.  Several times per week, the product development leadership team meets with our project leaders and development teams to discuss project status, development obstacles, and project timelines. 

 

Arrangements with Principal Suppliers

 

Our revenues are primarily derived from the resale of vendor software products and services. These resales are made pursuant to channel sales agreements whereby we are granted authority to purchase and resell the vendor products and services. Under these agreements, we either resell software directly to our customers or act as a sales agent for various vendors and receive commissions for our sales efforts.

 

We are required to enter into an annual Channel Partner Agreement with Sage Software whereby Sage Software appoints us as a non-exclusive partner to market, distribute, and support Sage 100cloud, Sage 500 ERP and Sage X3. The Channel Partner Agreement is for a one-year term, and automatically renews for an additional one-year term on the anniversary of the agreement’s effective date. These agreements authorize us to sell these software products to customers in the United States. There are no clauses in this agreement that limit or restrict the services that we can offer to customers. We also operate a Sage Software Authorized Training Center Agreement and also are party to a Master Developers Program License Agreement.

 

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For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, purchases from Sage Software were approximately 24% and 19%, respectively, of the Company’s total cost of revenue.  Generally, the Company does not rely on any one specific supplier for all its purchases and maintains relationships with other suppliers that could replace its existing supplier should the need arise.

 

Customers

 

We market our products primarily throughout North America.  For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, our top ten (10) customers accounted for 10% ($3,903,702) and 14% ($5,219,755), respectively, of our total revenues. Generally, we do not rely on any one specific customer for any significant portion of our revenue base. No single customer accounted for ten percent or more of our consolidated revenues base.

 

Intellectual Property

 

We regard our technology and other proprietary rights as essential to our business. We rely on copyright, trade secret, confidentiality procedures, contract provisions, and trademark law to protect our technology and intellectual property. We have also entered into confidentiality agreements with our consultants and corporate partners and intend to control access to, and distribution of our products, documentation, and other proprietary information.

 

Competition

 

Our markets are highly fragmented, and the business is characterized by a large number of participants, including several large companies, as well significant number of small, privately-held, local competitors. A significant portion of our revenue is currently derived from requests for proposals (“RFPs”) and price is often an important factor in awarding such agreements. Accordingly, our competitors may underbid us if they elect to price their services aggressively to procure such business. Our competitors may also develop the expertise, experience and resources to provide services that are equal or superior in both price and quality to our services, and we may not be able to enhance our competitive position.  The principal competitive factors for our professional services include geographic presence, breadth of service offerings, technical skills, quality of service and industry reputation. We believe we compete favorably with our competitors on the basis of these factors.

 

Employees

 

As of September 30, 2020, we had approximately 157 full time employees with 49 of our employees engaged in sales and marketing activities, 72 employees are engaged in service fulfillment, and 36 employees performing administrative functions.

 

Our future success depends in significant part upon the continued services of our key sales, technical, and senior management personnel and our ability to attract and retain highly qualified sales, technical, and managerial personnel. None of our employees are represented by a collective bargaining agreement and we have never experienced a work stoppage.

 

Our Corporate History

 

We were incorporated on October 3, 2002, as a wholly owned subsidiary of iVoice, Inc. (“iVoice”). On February 11, 2004, the Company was spun off from iVoice and became an independent publicly traded company. On September 5, 2003, we changed our corporate name to Trey Resources, Inc. In March 2004, Trey Resources, Inc. began trading on the OTCBB under the symbol TYRIA.OB. In June 2011, we changed our name to SilverSun Technologies, Inc., trading under the symbol SSNT.

 

Prior to June 2004, we were engaged in the design, manufacture, and marketing of specialized telecommunication equipment. On June 2, 2004, our wholly-owned subsidiary, SWK Technologies, Inc. (“SWK”) completed its acquisition of SWK, Inc. Since the acquisition of SWK, Inc. we have focused on three (3) core business sectors, including acting as the following: (i) a managed service provider for computer networks, providing cybersecurity, 24/7 remote monitoring of networks, data backup, hosting,  and business continuity and disaster recovery services; and (ii) a value added reseller and master developer for Sage Software’s Sage 100cloud, Sage 500 ERP and Sage EM (formerly Sage ERP X3) enterprise resource planning (“ERP”) financial software. We also publish twenty (20) other assorted software solutions. We focus on the business application software and the information technology consulting market for small and medium-sized businesses (“SMB’s”), selling services and products to various end users, manufacturers, wholesalers and distributors located throughout the United States.

 

Our strategy is to grow our business through a combination of intra-company growth of our software applications and technology solutions, as well as expansion through acquisitions, both within our existing geographic reach and through geographic expansion. To that end, since 2006, we have completed a number of acquisitions that have increased our client base, technical expertise and geographic footprint.

 

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On June 2, 2006, SWK completed the acquisition of certain assets of AMP-Best Consulting, Inc. (“AMP”) of Syracuse, New York.  AMP is an information technology company and value-added reseller of licensed ERP software published by Sage Software.  AMP sold services and products to various end users, manufacturers, wholesalers and distribution industry clients located throughout the United States, with special emphasis on companies located in the upstate New York region.

 

During 2011, SWK acquired Sage’s Software’s customer accounts in connection with IncorTech, LLC (“IncorTech”), a Southern California-based Sage business partner. This transaction increased our geographical influence in Southern California for the sale and support of our MAPADOC integrated EDI solution and the marketing of our Sage EM (formerly Sage ERP X3) to both former IncorTech customers as well as new consumers. IncorTech had previously provided professional accounting, technology, and business consulting services to over 300 clients.

 

In June 2012, SWK acquired selected assets and obligations of Hightower, Inc., a Chicago-based reseller of Sage software applications. In addition to the strategic geographic benefits that this acquisition brings to SWK, there is also a substantial suite of proprietary enhancement software solutions.

 

In May 2014, we completed the purchase of selected assets of ESC Software (“ESC”), a leading Arizona-based reseller of Sage Software and Acumatica applications. Founded in 2000, ESC has implemented technology solutions at prominent companies throughout the Southwest.  In addition to the strategic benefits of this acquisition, it has given us additional annual revenues, approximately 300 additional Sage Software ERP customers and affords us market penetration in the Southwest.

 

On March 11, 2015 SWK entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement with 2000 SOFT, Inc. d/b/a Accounting Technology Resource (“ATR”), a California corporation. In addition to the strategic geographic benefits of this acquisition, it has provided additional revenues from the approximately 250 additional customers.

 

On July 6, 2015 SWK entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement with ProductiveTech, Inc. (“PTI”), a Southern New Jersey corporation. In addition to the strategic geographic benefits of this acquisition, it has provided additional revenues from the approximately 85 additional customers.

 

On October 1, 2015, SWK entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement with The Macabe Associates, Inc., (“Macabe”) a Washington based reseller of Sage Software and Acumatica applications. In addition to the strategic geographic benefits of this acquisition, it has provided additional revenues from the approximately 180 additional customers.

 

On October 19, 2015, SWK entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement with Oates & Company, (“Oates”) a North Carolina reseller of Sage Software applications. In addition to the strategic geographic benefits of this acquisition, it has provided additional revenues from the approximately 185 additional customers.

 

On May 31, 2018, SWK entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement with Info Sys Management, Inc., (“ISM”) an Oregon based reseller of Sage Software and Acumatica applications. In addition to the strategic geographic benefits of this acquisition, it has provided additional revenues from the approximately 700 additional customers.

 

In May 2018, the Company formed a wholly owned subsidiary, Secure Cloud Services, Inc. (“SCS”), a Nevada corporation, for the purpose of providing application hosting services. On May 31, 2018, Secure Cloud Services entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement with Nellnube, Inc. (“Nellnube”) an Oregon based application hosting provider.

 

In May 2018, the Company formed a wholly owned subsidiary, Critical Cyber Defense Corp. (“CCD”), a Nevada corporation, for the purpose of providing cyber defense products and services.

 

On January 1, 2019, SWK entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement with Partners in Technology, Inc., (“PIT”) an Illinois based reseller of Sage Software. In addition to the strategic geographic benefits of this acquisition, it has provided additional revenues from the approximately 170 additional customers.

 

On August 26, 2019 SWK entered into and closed that certain Asset Purchase Agreement (the “MAPADOC Asset Purchase Agreement”) by and among the Company, SPS Commerce, Inc., as buyer (“SPS”), and SWK as seller, pursuant to which SPS agreed to acquire from SWK substantially all of the assets related to the MAPADOC business.

 

On July 31, 2020, SWK entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement with Prairie Technology Solutions Group, LLC, (“PT”) an Illinois based managed service provider for the purpose of enhancing the strategic geographic reach of our managed service division.

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K we file after the date of this prospectus, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, and the risk factors and other information contained in the applicable prospectus supplement before acquiring any of such securities. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.

 

SPECIAL NOTICE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, principally in the sections entitled “Risk Factors.” All statements other than statements of historical fact contained in this prospectus, including statements regarding future events, our future financial performance, business strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. We have attempted to identify forward-looking statements by terminology including “anticipates,” “believes,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “should,” or “will” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. Although we do not make forward looking statements unless we believe we have a reasonable basis for doing so, we cannot guarantee their accuracy. These statements are only predictions and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including the risks outlined under “Risk Factors” or elsewhere in this prospectus, which may cause our or our industry’s actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.

 

Forward-looking statements should not be read as a guarantee of future performance or results, and will not necessarily be accurate indications of the times at, or by which, that performance or those results will be achieved. Forward-looking statements are based on information available at the time they are made and/or management’s good faith belief as of that time with respect to future events, and are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual performance or results to differ materially from what is expressed in or suggested by the forward-looking statements.

 

Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made. You should not put undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. We assume no obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect actual results, changes in assumptions or changes in other factors affecting forward-looking information, except to the extent required by applicable securities laws. If we do update one or more forward-looking statements, no inference should be drawn that we will make additional updates with respect to those or other forward-looking statements.

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

The following description of our capital stock is not complete and may not contain all the information you should consider before investing in our capital stock. This description is summarized from, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws, which have been publicly filed with the SEC. See “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”

 

Our authorized capital stock consists of 75,000,000 shares of common stock, par value of $0.00001 per share, and 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value of $0.001 per share. As of September 30, 2020, there were 4,501,271 shares of our common stock issued and outstanding held by 852 holders of record. We currently have no shares of preferred stock issued and outstanding.

 

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Common Stock

 

Each share of our common stock entitles its holder to one vote in the election of each director and on all other matters voted on generally by our stockholders. No share of our common stock affords any cumulative voting rights. This means that the holders of a majority of the voting power of the shares voting for the election of directors can elect all directors to be elected if they choose to do so.

 

Holders of our common stock will be entitled to dividends in such amounts and at such times as our Board of Directors in its discretion may declare out of funds legally available for the payment of dividends. We currently do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on the common stock in the foreseeable future. Any future dividends will be paid at the discretion of our Board of Directors after taking into account various factors, including:

 

     

 

general business conditions;

 

 

 

 

industry practice;

 

 

 

 

our financial condition and performance;

 

 

 

 

our future prospects;

 

 

 

 

our cash needs and capital investment plans;

 

 

 

 

our obligations to holders of any preferred stock we may issue;

 

 

 

 

income tax consequences; and

 

 

 

 

the restrictions Delaware and other applicable laws and our credit arrangements may impose, from time to time.

 

If we liquidate or dissolve our business, the holders of our common stock will share ratably in all our assets that are available for distribution to our stockholders after our creditors are paid in full and the holders of all series of our outstanding preferred stock, if any, receive their liquidation preferences in full.

 

Our common stock has no preemptive rights and is not convertible or redeemable or entitled to the benefits of any sinking or repurchase fund.

 

Preferred Stock

 

The Company has 1,000,000 authorized shares of preferred stock par value $0.001 per share and no shares issued or outstanding.

 

Our Board has the authority, within the limitations and restrictions in our certificate of incorporation, to issue shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions thereof, including dividend rights, dividend rates, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, redemption prices, liquidation preferences and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of any series, without further vote or action by the stockholders. The issuance of shares of preferred stock may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in our control without further action by the stockholders. The issuance of shares of preferred stock with voting and conversion rights may adversely affect the voting power of the holders of our common stock. In some circumstances, this issuance could have the effect of decreasing the market price of our common stock.

 

Undesignated preferred stock may enable our Board to render more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of the Company by means of a tender offer, proxy contest, merger or otherwise, and thereby to protect the continuity of our management. The issuance of shares of preferred stock may adversely affect the rights of our common stockholders. For example, any shares of preferred stock issued may rank senior to the common stock as to dividend rights, liquidation preference or both, may have full or limited voting rights and may be convertible into shares of common stock. As a result, the issuance of shares of preferred stock, or the issuance of rights to purchase shares of preferred stock, may discourage an unsolicited acquisition proposal or bids for our common stock or may otherwise adversely affect the market price of our common stock or any existing preferred stock.

 

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Warrants

 

As of September 30, 2020, there are warrants outstanding to purchase 4,988 shares of our common stock of which none are subject to full ratchet price protection on the exercise price potentially increasing the total number of common shares issuable upon exercise. The warrants are exercisable for a term of 1.5 years with a weighted average exercise price of $4.01.

 

Anti-Takeover Provisions

 

Delaware Anti-Takeover Law and Certain Charter and Bylaw Provisions

 

Our certificate of incorporation, bylaws and the DGCL contain certain provisions that could discourage potential takeover attempts and make it more difficult for our stockholders to change management or receive a premium for their shares.

 

Delaware law

 

We are subject to Section 203 of the DGCL, an anti-takeover law. In general, the statute prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a business combination with an “interested stockholder” for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder. A “business combination” includes a merger, sale of 10% or more of our assets and certain other transactions resulting in a financial benefit to the stockholder. For purposes of Section 203, an “interested stockholder” is defined to include any person that is:

 

 

the owner of 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation;

 

 

 

 

an affiliate or associate of the corporation and was the owner of 15% or more of the corporation’s voting stock outstanding, at any time within three years immediately before the relevant date; and

 

 

 

 

an affiliate or associate of the persons described in the foregoing bullet points.

 

However, the above provisions of Section 203 do not apply if:

 

 

our board approves the transaction that made the stockholder an interested stockholder before the date of that transaction;

 

 

 

 

after the completion of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, that stockholder owned at least 85% of our voting stock outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding shares owned by our officers and directors; or

 

 

 

 

on or subsequent to the date of the transaction, the business combinations approved by our board and authorized at a meeting of our stockholders by an affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock not owned by the interested stockholder.

 

Stockholders may, by adopting an amendment to the corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, elect for the corporation not to be governed by Section 203, effective 12 months after adoption. Neither our certificate of incorporation nor our bylaws exempts us from the restrictions imposed under Section 203. It is anticipated that the provisions of Section 203 may encourage companies interested in acquiring us to negotiate in advance with our board.

 

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Stockholder Proposals and Director Nominations.

 

Our stockholders can submit stockholder proposals and nominate candidates for our board of directors if the stockholders follow advance notice procedures described in our bylaws.

 

To nominate directors, stockholders must submit a written notice at least 120 days before the first anniversary of the date of our proxy statement for the previous year’s annual stockholders’ meeting. The notice must include the name and address of the stockholder, the class and number of shares owned by the stockholder, information about the nominee required by the SEC and the written consent of the nominee to serve as a director. Our board of directors may require the nominee to furnish the same information as is required in the stockholders’ notice that pertains to the nominee.

 

Stockholder proposals must be submitted at least 120 days before the first anniversary of the date of our proxy statement for the previous year’s annual stockholders’ meeting. The notice must include a description of the proposal, the reasons for bringing the proposal before the meeting, the name and address of the stockholder, the class and number of shares owned by the stockholder and any material interest of the stockholder in the proposal.

 

In each case, if we did not hold an annual meeting in the previous year or if we have changed the date of the annual meeting by more than 30 days from the date contemplated in the previous year’s proxy statement, stockholders must submit the notice within a reasonable time before we begin to print and send our proxy materials.

 

Director nominations and stockholder proposals that are late or that do not include all required information may be rejected. This could prevent stockholders from bringing certain matters before an annual meeting, including making nominations for directors.

 

Limitation of Liability; Indemnification

 

Our certificate of incorporation contains certain provisions permitted under the DGCL relating to the liability of directors. These provisions eliminate a director’s personal liability for monetary damages resulting from a breach of fiduciary duty, except that a director will be personally liable:

 

 

for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;

 

 

 

 

for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

 

 

 

under Section 174 of the DGCL relating to unlawful stock repurchases or dividends; and

 

 

 

 

for any transaction from which the director derives an improper personal benefit.

 

These provisions do not limit or eliminate our rights or those of any stockholder to seek non-monetary relief, such as an injunction or rescission, in the event of a breach of a director’s fiduciary duty. These provisions will not alter a director’s liability under federal securities laws.

 

The NASDAQ Capital Market Listing

 

Our common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “SSNT”.

 

Transfer Agent

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Pacific Stock Transfer Company at 6725 Via Austi Pkwy, Suite 300, Las Vegas, NV 89119.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

General

 

The debt securities that we may offer by this prospectus consist of notes, debentures, or other evidences of indebtedness. The debt securities may constitute either senior or subordinated debt securities, and in either case may be either secured or unsecured. Any debt securities that we offer and sell will be our direct obligations. Debt securities may be issued in one or more series. All debt securities of any one series need not be issued at the same time, and unless otherwise provided, a series of debt securities may be reopened, with the required consent of the holders of outstanding debt securities, for issuance of additional debt securities of that series or to establish additional terms of that series of debt securities (with such additional terms applicable only to unissued or additional debt securities of that series). The form of indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and is subject to any amendments or supplements that we may enter into with the trustee(s), however, we may issue debt securities not subject to the indenture provided such terms of debt securities are not otherwise required to be set forth in the indenture. The material terms of the indenture are summarized below and we refer you to the indenture for a detailed description of these material terms. Additional or different provisions that are applicable to a particular series of debt securities will, if material, be described in a prospectus supplement relating to the offering of debt securities of that series. These provisions may include, among other things and to the extent applicable, the following:

 

 

the title of the debt securities, including, as applicable, whether the debt securities will be issued as senior debt securities, senior subordinated debt securities or subordinated debt securities, any subordination provisions particular to the series of debt securities;

 

any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

whether the debt securities are senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities and applicable subordination provisions, if any;

 

whether the debt securities will be secured or unsecured;

 

if other than 100% of the aggregate principal amount, the percentage of the aggregate principal amount at which we will sell the debt securities, such as an original issuance discount;

 

the date or dates, whether fixed or extendable, on which the principal of the debt securities will be payable;

 

the rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, at which the debt securities will bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which any such interest will accrue, the interest payment dates on which we will pay any such interest, the basis upon which interest will be calculated if other than that of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months, and, in the case of registered securities, the record dates for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable;

 

the place or places where the principal of and any premium or interest on the debt securities will be payable and where the debt securities may be surrendered for conversion or exchange;

 

whether we may, at our option, redeem the debt securities, and if so, the price or prices at which, the period or periods within which, and the terms and conditions upon which, we may redeem the debt securities, in whole or in part, pursuant to any sinking fund or otherwise;

 

if other than 100% of the aggregate principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the debt securities which will be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date thereof or provable in bankruptcy, or, if applicable, which is convertible or exchangeable;

 

any obligation we may have to redeem, purchase or repay the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of debt securities, and the price or prices at which, the currency in which and the period or periods within which, and the terms and conditions upon which, the debt securities will be redeemed, purchased or repaid, in whole or in part, pursuant to any such obligation, and any provision for the remarketing of the debt securities;

 

the issuance of debt securities as registered securities or unregistered securities or both, and the rights of the holders of the debt securities to exchange unregistered securities for registered securities, or vice versa, and the circumstances under which any such exchanges, if permitted, may be made;

 

the denominations, which may be in United States Dollars or in any foreign currency, in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

  whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities, and if so, the form of the debt securities (or forms thereof if unregistered and registered securities are issuable in that series), including the legends required by law or as we deem necessary or appropriate, the form of any coupons or temporary global security which may be issued and the forms of any other certificates which may be required under the indenture or which we may require in connection with the offering, sale, delivery or exchange of the debt securities;

 

14

 

 

if other than United States Dollars, the currency or currencies in which payments of principal, interest and other amounts payable with respect to the debt securities will be denominated, payable, redeemable or repurchasable, as the case may be;

 

whether the debt securities may be issuable in tranches;

 

the obligations, if any, we may have to permit the conversion or exchange of the debt securities into common stock, preferred stock or other capital stock or property, or a combination thereof, and the terms and conditions upon which such conversion or exchange will be effected (including conversion price or exchange ratio), and any limitations on the ownership or transferability of the securities or property into which the debt securities may be converted or exchanged;

 

if other than the trustee under the indenture, any trustees, authenticating or paying agents, transfer agents or registrars or any other agents with respect to the debt securities;

 

any deletions from, modifications of or additions to the events of default with respect to the debt securities or the right of the Trustee or the holders of the debt securities in connection with events of default;

 

any deletions from, modifications of or additions to the covenants with respect to the debt securities;

 

if the amount of payments of principal of, and make-whole amount, if any, and interest on the debt securities may be determined with reference to an index, the manner in which such amount will be determined;

 

whether the debt securities will be issued in whole or in part in the global form of one or more debt securities and, if so, the depositary for such debt securities, the circumstances under which any such debt security may be exchanged for debt securities registered in the name of, and under which any transfer of debt securities may be registered in the name of, any person other than such depositary or its nominee, and any other provisions regarding such debt securities;

 

whether, under what circumstances and the currency in which, we will pay additional amounts on the debt securities to any holder of the debt securities who is not a United States person in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge and, if so, whether we will have the option to redeem such debt securities rather than pay such additional amounts, and the terms of any such option;

 

whether the debt securities will be secured by any collateral and, if so, a general description of the collateral and the terms of any related security, pledge or other agreements;

 

the persons to whom any interest on the debt securities will be payable, if other than the registered holders thereof on the regular record date therefor; and

 

any other material terms or conditions upon which the debt securities will be issued.

 

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will issue debt securities in fully registered form without coupons and in denominations of $1,000 and in integral multiples of $1,000, and interest will be computed on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months. If any interest payment date or the maturity date falls on a day that is not a business day, then the payment will be made on the next business day without additional interest and with the same effect as if it were made on the originally scheduled date. “Business day” means any calendar day that is not a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday in New York, New York, and on which the trustee and commercial banks are open for business in New York, New York.

 

Unless we inform you otherwise in a prospectus supplement, each series of our senior debt securities will rank equally in right of payment with all of our other unsubordinated debt. The subordinated debt securities will rank junior in right of payment and be subordinate to all of our unsubordinated debt.

 

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the trustee will act as paying agent and registrar for the debt securities under the indenture. We may act as paying agent under the indenture.

 

The prospectus supplement will contain a description of United States federal income tax consequences relating to the debt securities, to the extent applicable.

 

Covenants

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe any covenants, such as restrictive covenants restricting us or our subsidiaries, if any, from incurring, issuing, assuming or guarantying any indebtedness or restricting us or our subsidiaries, if any, from paying dividends or acquiring any of our or its capital stock.

 

15

 

Consolidation, Merger and Transfer of Assets

 

The indenture permits a consolidation or merger between us and another entity and/or the sale, conveyance or lease by us of all or substantially all of our property and assets, provided that:

     

 

the resulting or acquiring entity, if other than us, is organized and existing under the laws of a United States jurisdiction and assumes all of our responsibilities and liabilities under the indenture, including the payment of all amounts due on the debt securities and performance of the covenants in the indenture;

 

immediately after the transaction, and giving effect to the transaction, no event of default under the indenture exists; and

 

we have delivered to the trustee an officers’ certificate stating that the transaction and, if a supplemental indenture is required in connection with the transaction, the supplemental indenture comply with the indenture and that all conditions precedent to the transaction contained in the indenture have been satisfied.

 

If we consolidate or merge with or into any other entity, or sell or lease all or substantially all of our assets in compliance with the terms and conditions of the indenture, the resulting or acquiring entity will be substituted for us in the indenture and the debt securities with the same effect as if it had been an original party to the indenture and the debt securities. As a result, such successor entity may exercise our rights and powers under the indenture and the debt securities, in our name and, except in the case of a lease, we will be released from all our liabilities and obligations under the indenture and under the debt securities.

 

Notwithstanding the foregoing, we may transfer all of our property and assets to another entity if, immediately after giving effect to the transfer, such entity is our wholly owned subsidiary. The term “wholly owned subsidiary” means any subsidiary in which we and/or our other wholly owned subsidiaries, if any, own all of the outstanding capital stock.

 

Modification and Waiver

 

Under the indenture, some of our rights and obligations and some of the rights of the holders of the debt securities may be modified or amended with the consent of the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities affected by the modification or amendment. However, the following modifications and amendments will not be effective against any holder without its consent:

     

 

a change in the stated maturity date of any payment of principal or interest;

 

a reduction in the principal amount of or interest on any debt securities;

 

an alteration or impairment of any right to convert at the rate or upon the terms provided in the indenture;

 

a change in the currency in which any payment on the debt securities is payable;

 

an impairment of a holder’s right to sue us for the enforcement of payments due on the debt securities; or

 

a reduction in the percentage of outstanding debt securities required to consent to a modification or amendment of the indenture or required to consent to a waiver of compliance with certain provisions of the indenture or certain defaults under the indenture.

 

Under the indenture, the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities may, on behalf of all holders of the debt securities:

     

 

waive compliance by us with certain restrictive provisions of the indenture; and

 

waive any past default under the indenture in accordance with the applicable provisions of the indenture, except a default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any series of debt securities.

 

Events of Default

 

Unless we indicate otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, “event of default” under the indenture will mean, with respect to any series of debt securities, any of the following:

     

 

failure to pay interest on any debt security for 30 days after the payment is due;

 

failure to pay the principal of any debt security when due, either at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise;

 

failure on our part to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement in the indenture that applies to the debt securities for 90 days after we have received written notice of the failure to perform in the manner specified in the indenture; and

 

certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization.

 

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Remedies Upon an Event of Default

 

If an event of default occurs and continues, the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series may declare the entire principal of all the debt securities to be due and payable immediately, except that, if the event of default is caused by certain events in bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the entire principal of all of the debt securities of such series will become due and payable immediately without any act on the part of the trustee or holders of the debt securities. If such a declaration occurs, the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series can, subject to conditions, rescind the declaration.

 

The indenture requires us to furnish to the trustee not less often than annually, a certificate from our principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer, as the case may be, as to such officer’s knowledge of our compliance with all conditions and covenants under the indenture. The trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any default, except defaults in the payment of principal of or interest on any debt securities if the trustee in good faith determines that the withholding of notice is in the best interests of the holders. For purposes of this paragraph, “default” means any event which is, or after notice or lapse of time or both would become, an event of default under the indenture.

 

The trustee is not obligated to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture at the request, order or direction of any holders of debt securities, unless the holders offer the trustee satisfactory security or indemnity. If satisfactory security or indemnity is provided, then, subject to other rights of the trustee, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities may direct the time, method and place of:

     

 

conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee; or

 

exercising any trust or power conferred upon the trustee.

 

The holder of a debt security will have the right to begin any proceeding with respect to the indenture or for any remedy only if:

     

 

the holder has previously given the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default;

 

the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities have made a written request of, and offered reasonable indemnity to, the trustee to begin such proceeding;

 

the trustee has not started such proceeding within 60 days after receiving the request; and

 

no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the trustee under the indenture.

 

However, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute right to receive payment of principal of and interest on the debt security when due and to institute suit to enforce this payment.

 

Satisfaction and Discharge; Defeasance

 

Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture. Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, if at any time,

     

 

we have paid the principal of and interest on all the debt securities of any series, except for debt securities which have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which have been replaced or paid in accordance with the indenture, as and when the same shall have become due and payable, or

 

we have delivered to the trustee for cancellation all debt securities of any series theretofore authenticated, except for debt securities of such series which have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which have been replaced or paid as provided in the indenture, or

 

all the debt securities of such series not theretofore delivered to the trustee for cancellation have become due and payable, or are by their terms are to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year, and we have deposited with the trustee, in trust, sufficient money or government obligations, or a combination thereof, to pay the principal, any interest and any other sums due on the debt securities, on the dates the payments are due or become due under the indenture and the terms of the debt securities,

 

17

 

then the indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to the debt securities of such series, except for: 

     

 

rights of registration of transfer and exchange, and our right of optional redemption;

 

substitution of mutilated, defaced, destroyed, lost or stolen debt securities;

 

rights of holders to receive payments of principal thereof and interest thereon upon the original stated due dates therefor (but not upon acceleration) and remaining rights of the holders to receive mandatory sinking fund payments, if any;

 

the rights, obligations and immunities of the trustee under the indenture; and

 

the rights of the holders of such series of debt securities as beneficiaries thereof with respect to the property so deposited with the trustee payable to all or any of them.

 

Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance.  Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may elect with respect to any debt securities of any series either: 

     

 

to defease and be discharged from all of our obligations with respect to such debt securities (“defeasance”), with certain exceptions described below; or

 

to be released from our obligations with respect to such debt securities under such covenants as may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, and any omission to comply with those obligations will not constitute a default or an event of default with respect to such debt securities (“covenant defeasance”).


We must comply with the following conditions before the defeasance or covenant defeasance can be effected:

       

 

 

we must irrevocably deposit with the indenture trustee or other qualifying trustee, under the terms of an irrevocable trust agreement in form and substance satisfactory to the trustee, trust funds in trust solely for the benefit of the holders of such debt securities, sufficient money or government obligations, or a combination thereof, to pay the principal, any interest and any other sums on the due dates for those payments; and

 

 

we must deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of such debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of defeasance or covenant defeasance, as the case may be, to be effected with respect to such debt securities and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amount, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such defeasance or covenant defeasance, as the case may be, had not occurred.

 

In connection with defeasance, any irrevocable trust agreement contemplated by the indenture must include, among other things, provision for:

     

 

payment of the principal of and interest on such debt securities, if any, appertaining thereto when due (by redemption, sinking fund payments or otherwise),

 

the payment of the expenses of the trustee incurred or to be incurred in connection with carrying out such trust provisions,

 

rights of registration, transfer, substitution and exchange of such debt securities in accordance with the terms stated in the indenture, and

 

continuation of the rights, obligations and immunities of the trustee as against the holders of such debt securities as stated in the indenture.

 

The accompanying prospectus supplement may further describe any provisions permitting or restricting defeasance or covenant defeasance with respect to the debt securities of a particular series.

 

Global Securities

 

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, each debt security offered by this prospectus will be issued in the form of one or more global debt securities representing all or part of that series of debt securities. This means that we will not issue certificates for that series of debt securities to the holders. Instead, a global debt security representing that series will be deposited with, or on behalf of, a securities depositary and registered in the name of the depositary or a nominee of the depositary. Any such depositary must be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act. We will describe the specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to a series of debt securities to be represented by a global security in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Notices

 

We will give notices to holders of the debt securities by mail at the addresses listed in the security register. In the case of notice in respect of unregistered securities or coupon securities, we may give notice by publication in a newspaper of general circulation in New York, New York.

 

18

 

Governing Law

 

The particular terms of a series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series of debt securities. Any indentures will be subject to and governed by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, and may be supplemented or amended from time to time following their execution. Unless otherwise stated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will not be limited in the amount of debt securities that we may issue, and neither the senior debt securities nor the subordinated debt securities will be secured by any of our property or assets. Thus, by owning debt securities, you are one of our unsecured creditors.

 

Regarding the Trustee

 

From time to time, we may maintain deposit accounts and conduct other banking transactions with the trustee to be appointed under the indenture or its affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

 

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

We may offer to sell warrants from time to time. If we do so, we will describe the specific terms of the warrants in a prospectus supplement. In particular, we may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series. We may also issue warrants independently or together with other securities and the warrants may be attached to or separate from those securities.

 

We will evidence each series of warrants by warrant certificates that we will issue under a separate agreement. We will enter into the warrant agreement with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of warrants.

 

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of warrants, including:

     

 

the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;

 

the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;

 

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

 

if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

 

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreement and the warrants;

 

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

 

the manner in which the warrant agreement and warrants may be modified;

 

certain United States federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising the warrants;

 

the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and

 

any other specific material terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

 

Holders may exercise the warrants by delivering the warrant certificate representing the warrants to be exercised together with other requested information, and paying the required amount to the warrant agent in immediately available funds, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the information that the holder of the warrant will be required to deliver to the warrant agent.

 

Upon receipt of the required payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If a holder exercises fewer than all of the warrants represented by the warrant certificate, then we will issue a new warrant certificate for the remaining amount of warrants.

 

19

 

Holder will not have any of the rights of the holders of the securities purchasable upon the exercise of warrants until you exercise them. Accordingly, holder will not be entitled to, among other things, vote or receive dividend payments or similar distributions on the securities you can purchase upon exercise of the warrants.

 

The information provided above is only a summary of the terms under which we may offer warrants for sale. Accordingly, investors must carefully review the applicable warrant agreement for more information about the specific terms and conditions of these warrants before investing in us. In addition, please carefully review the information provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, which contains additional information that is important for you to consider in evaluating an investment in our securities.

   

DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

 

We may issue rights to our stockholders to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock described in this prospectus. We may offer rights separately or together with one or more additional rights, preferred stock, common stock, warrants or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Each series of rights will be issued under a separate rights agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as rights agent. The rights agent for any rights we offer will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. The rights agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the certificates relating to the rights of the series of certificates and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders of rights certificates or beneficial owners of rights. The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the rights to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The particular terms of the rights to which any prospectus supplement may relate and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions may apply to the rights so offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. To the extent that any particular terms of the rights, rights agreement or rights certificates described in a prospectus supplement differ from any of the terms described below, then the terms described below will be deemed to have been superseded by that prospectus supplement. We encourage you to read the applicable rights agreement and rights certificate for additional information before you decide whether to purchase any of our rights.

 

The prospectus supplement relating to any rights that we offer will include specific terms relating to the offering, including, among other matters:

     

 

the date of determining the stockholders entitled to the rights distribution;

 

 

 

 

the aggregate number of shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities purchasable upon exercise of the rights;

 

 

 

  

the exercise price;

 

 

 

 

the aggregate number of rights issued;

 

 

 

 

whether the rights are transferrable and the date, if any, on and after which the rights may be separately transferred;

 

 

 

 

the date on which the right to exercise the rights will commence, and the date on which the right to exercise the rights will expire;

 

 

 

 

the method by which holders of rights will be entitled to exercise;

 

 

 

 

the conditions to the completion of the offering;

 

 

 

 

the withdrawal, termination and cancellation rights;

 

 

 

 

whether there are any backstop or standby purchaser or purchasers and the terms of their commitment;

 

 

 

 

whether stockholders are entitled to oversubscription right;

 

 

 

 

any U.S. federal income tax considerations; and

 

 

 

 

any other terms of the rights, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the distribution, exchange and exercise of the rights.

 

20

 

If less than all of the rights issued in any rights offering are exercised, we may offer any unsubscribed securities directly to persons other than stockholders, to or through agents, underwriters or dealers or through a combination of such methods, including pursuant to standby arrangements, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. In connection with any rights offering, we may enter into a standby underwriting or other arrangement with one or more underwriters or other persons pursuant to which such underwriters or other persons would purchase any offered securities remaining unsubscribed for after such rights offering.

 

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

 

We may issue units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus in one or more series. We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we will issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into unit agreements with a unit agent. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of units.

 

The following description, together with the additional information included in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the general features of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. You should read any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of units being offered, as well as the complete unit agreements that contain the terms of the units. Specific unit agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and we will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from another report that we file with the SEC, the form of each unit agreement relating to units offered under this prospectus.

 

If we offer any units, certain terms of that series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following, as applicable:

     

 

the title of the series of units;

 

 

 

 

identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;

 

 

 

 

the price or prices at which the units will be issued;

 

 

 

 

the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;

 

 

 

 

a discussion of certain United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the units; and

 

 

 

 

any other terms of the units and their constituent securities.

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods or through underwriters or dealers, through agents and/or directly to one or more purchasers. The securities may be distributed from time to time in one or more transactions:

     

 

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

 

 

 

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

 

 

 

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

 

 

 

at negotiated prices.

 

Each time that we sell securities covered by this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement or supplements that will describe the method of distribution and set forth the terms and conditions of the offering of such securities, including the offering price of the securities and the proceeds to us, if applicable.

 

Offers to purchase the securities being offered by this prospectus may be solicited directly. Agents may also be designated to solicit offers to purchase the securities from time to time. Any agent involved in the offer or sale of our securities will be identified in a prospectus supplement.

 

21

 

If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, the securities will be sold to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale.

 

If an underwriter is utilized in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, an underwriting agreement will be executed with the underwriter at the time of sale and the name of any underwriter will be provided in the prospectus supplement that the underwriter will use to make resales of the securities to the public. In connection with the sale of the securities, we or the purchasers of securities for whom the underwriter may act as agent, may compensate the underwriter in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions. The underwriter may sell the securities to or through dealers, and those dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters and/or commissions from the purchasers for which they may act as agent. Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, an agent will be acting on a best efforts basis and a dealer will purchase securities as a principal, and may then resell the securities at varying prices to be determined by the dealer.

 

Any compensation paid to underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers will be provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We may enter into agreements to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments they may be required to make in respect thereof and to reimburse those persons for certain expenses.

 

Any common stock will be listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market, but any other securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. To facilitate the offering of securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involve the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than were sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option, if any. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.

 

We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act.

 

In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment). In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement. Such financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.

 

We do not make any representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above might have on the price of the securities. In addition, we do not make any representation that underwriters will engage in such transactions or that such transactions, once commenced, will not be discontinued without notice.

 

The specific terms of any lock-up provisions in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

To comply with applicable state securities laws, the securities offered by this prospectus will be sold, if necessary, in such jurisdictions only through registered or licensed brokers or dealers. In addition, securities may not be sold in some states unless they have been registered or qualified for sale in the applicable state or an exemption from the registration or qualification requirement is available and is complied with.

 

The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business for which they receive compensation.

 

22

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

Lucosky Brookman LLP will pass upon certain legal matters relating to the issuance and sale of the securities offered hereby on behalf of SilverSun Technologies, Inc. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

EXPERTS

 

Our consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, and the related consolidated statements of operations, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of those two years have been audited by Friedman LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in its report incorporated by reference and are included in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

 

 

23

 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

 

Subject to Completion, dated October 1, 2020.

               

 

(To prospectus dated                 , 2020)

                     PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO_1.JPG

 

 

 

SILVERSUN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

 

$50,000,000

 

 

 

 

We have entered into an At The Market Issuance Sales Agreement, or sales agreement, with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC or Wainwright, relating to shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus supplement. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $3,489,499 from time to time through Wainwright acting as our sales agent.

 

Our common stock is traded on The NASDAQ Capital Market, or Nasdaq, under the symbol “SSNT.” The last reported sale price of our common stock on September 30, 2020 was $2.65 per share.

 

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement will be made by any method permitted that is deemed an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through Nasdaq or any other existing trading market in the United States for our common stock, sales made to or through a market maker other than on an exchange or otherwise, directly to Wainwright as principal, in negotiated transactions at market prices prevailing at the time of sale or at prices related to such prevailing market prices and/or in any other method permitted by law. If we and Wainwright agree on any method of distribution other than sales of shares of our common stock on or through Nasdaq or another existing trading market in the United States at market prices, we will file a further prospectus supplement providing all information about such offering as required by Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act. Wainwright is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of securities, but will act as our sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

Wainwright will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate equal to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Wainwright will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Wainwright will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Wainwright with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

 

 

Investing in our securities involves significant risks. Please read the information contained in or incorporated by reference under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-11 of this prospectus supplement, and under similar headings in other documents filed after the date hereof and incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities, or determined if this prospectus is accurate or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

H.C. WAINWRIGHT & CO. 

 

The date of this prospectus supplement is                 , 2020

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Prospectus Supplement

 

   

 

Page

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

S-1

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

S-2

THE OFFERING

S-9

SPECIAL NOTICE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

S-10

RISK FACTORS

S-11

USE OF PROCEEDS

S-12

DIVIDEND POLICY

S-12

DILUTION

S-12

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

S-13

LEGAL MATTERS

S-13

EXPERTS

S-13

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

S-14

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

S-14

 

 

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

This document is part of the registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process and consists of two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this offering. The second part, the accompanying prospectus, gives more general information, some of which may not apply to this offering. Generally, when we refer only to the “prospectus,” we are referring to both parts combined. This prospectus supplement may add to, update or change information in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. By using a shelf registration statement, we may offer shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $3,489,499 from time to time under this prospectus supplement at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of offering.

 

If information in this prospectus supplement is inconsistent with the accompanying prospectus or with any document incorporated by reference that was filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus supplement, you should rely on this prospectus supplement. This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated into each by reference include important information about us, the securities being offered and other information you should know before investing in our securities. You should also read and consider information in the documents we have referred you to in the sections of this prospectus supplement entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation by Reference.”

 

You should rely only on this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference herein or therein and any free writing prospectus prepared by us or on our behalf. We have not, and the underwriters have not, authorized anyone to provide you with information that is in addition to or different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We and the underwriters are not offering to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any free writing prospectus, or incorporated by reference herein, is accurate as of any date other than as of the date of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus or any free writing prospectus, as the case may be, or in the case of the documents incorporated by reference, the date of such documents regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or any sale of our securities. Our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

 

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

 

When we refer to “SilverSun,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” in this prospectus, we mean SilverSun Technologies, Inc., unless otherwise specified. When we refer to “you,” we mean the holders of the applicable series of securities.

 

No action is being taken in any jurisdiction outside the United States to permit a public offering of the securities or possession or distribution of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus in that jurisdiction. Persons who come into possession of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus in jurisdictions outside the United States are required to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions as to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus applicable to that jurisdiction.

 

S-1

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights information contained elsewhere or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding to invest in our common stock. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the “Risk Factors” section contained in this prospectus, our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto and the other documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

Our Company

Overview

 

We are a business application, technology and consulting company providing strategies and solutions to meet our clients’ information, technology and business management needs. Our services and technologies enable customers to manage, protect and monetize their enterprise assets whether on-premise or in the “Cloud”. As a value-added reseller of business application software, we offer solutions for accounting and business management, financial reporting, Enterprise Resource Planning (“ERP”), Human Capital Management (“HCM”), Warehouse Management Systems (“WMS”), Customer Relationship Management (“CRM”), and Business Intelligence (“BI”). Additionally, we have our own development staff building software solutions for various ERP enhancements. Our value-added services focus on consulting and professional services, specialized programming, training, and technical support. We have a dedicated Information Technology (“IT”) network services practice that provides managed services, cybersecurity, application hosting, disaster recovery, business continuity, cloud and other services. Our customers are nationwide, with concentrations in the New York/New Jersey metropolitan area, Arizona, Southern California, North Carolina, Washington, Oregon and Illinois.

 

Our core business is divided into the following practice areas:

 

ERP (Enterprise Resource Management) and Accounting Software

 

We are a value-added reseller for a number of industry-leading ERP applications. We are a Sage Software Authorized Business Partner and Sage Certified Gold Development Partner. We believe we are among the largest Sage partners in North America, with a sales and implementation presence complemented by a scalable software development practice for customizations and enhancements. Due to the growing demand for cloud-based ERP solutions, we also have in our ERP portfolio Acumatica, a browser-based ERP solution that can be offered on premise, in the public cloud, or in a private cloud. We develop and resell a variety of add-on solutions to all our ERP and accounting packages that help customize the installation to our customers’ needs and streamline their operations.

 

Value-Added Services for ERP

 

We go beyond simply reselling software packages; we have a consulting and professional services organization that manages the process as we move from the sales stage into implementation, go live, and production. We work inside our customers’ organizations to ensure all software and IT solutions are enhancing their business needs. A significant portion of our services revenue comes from continuing to work with existing customers as their business needs change, upgrading from one version of software to another, or providing additional software solutions to help them manage their business and grow their revenue. We have a dedicated help desk team that fields hundreds of calls every week. Our custom programming department builds specialized software packages as well as “off the shelf” enhancements and time and billing software. 

 

Network and Managed Services

 

We provide comprehensive IT network and managed services designed to eliminate the IT concerns of our customers. Businesses can focus on their core strengths rather than technology issues. We adapt our solutions for virtually any type of business, from large national and international product and service providers, to small businesses with local customers. Our business continuity services provide automatic on-site and off-site backups, complete encryption, and automatic failure testing. We also provide application hosting, IT consulting and managed network services. Our focus in the network and managed services practice is to focus on industry verticals in order to demonstrate our ability to better understand our customers’ needs. 

 

Industry Overview

 

As a value-added reseller of business application software, we offer solutions for accounting and business management, financial reporting, managed services, ERP, HCM, WMS, CRM, and BI.  Additionally, we have our own development staff building software solutions for various ERP enhancements.  Our value-added services focus on consulting and professional services, specialized programming, training, and technical support. The majority of our customers are small and medium businesses (“SMBs”).

 

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Potential Competitive Strengths

 

•       

Independent Software Vendor.  As an independent software vendor we have published integrations between ERPs and third-party products which differentiates us from other business application providers because, as a value-added reseller of the ERPs that our proprietary products integrate with, we have specific software solution expertise in the ERPs we resell, which ensures that our products tightly integrate with the ERPs. We own the intellectual property related to these integrations and sell the solutions both directly and through other software resellers within the Sage and Acumatica channel.

 

•       

Sage Certified Gold Development Partner.  As a Sage Certified Gold Development Partner, we are licensed to customize the source code of the Sage ERPs. Very few resellers are master developers, and in fact, we provide custom programming services for many other resellers. We have full-time programmers on staff, which provides us with a depth and breadth of expertise that we believe very few competitors can match.

 

•       

Ability to Recruit, Manage and Retain Quality Personnel.  We have a track record of recruiting, managing and retaining skilled labor and our ability to do so represents an important advantage in an industry in which a shortage of skilled labor is often a key limitation for both clients and competitors alike. We recruit skilled labor from competitors and from amongst end users with experience using the various products we sell, whom we then train as consultants. We believe our ability to hire, manage and maintain skilled labor gives an edge over our competitors as we continue to grow.

 

•        

Combination of Hardware/Software Expertise.  Many competitors have software solution expertise. Others have network/hardware expertise. We believe we are among the very few organizations with an expertise in both software and hardware, affording us the opportunity to provide turnkey solutions for our customers without the need to bring in additional vendors on a project.

 

•        

Technical Expertise.  Our geographical reach and substantial technical capabilities afford our clients the ability to customize and tailor solutions to satisfy all of their business needs.

 

Our Growth Strategy

 

General

 

Our strategy is to grow our business through a combination of intra-company growth of our software applications, technology solutions and managed services, as well as expansion through acquisitions. We have established a national presence via our internal marketing, sales programs, and acquisitions and now have ERP customers throughout most of the United States. 

 

Intra-Company Growth

 

Our intra-company growth strategy is to increase our market penetration and client retention through the upgrade of, and expanded sales efforts with, our existing products and managed services and development of new and enhanced software and technology solutions. Our client retention is sustained by our providing responsive, ongoing software and technical support and monitoring and maintenance services for both the solutions we sell and other client technology needs we provide.

 

Repeat business from our existing customer base has been key to our success and we expect it will continue to play a vital role in our growth. We focus on nurturing long-standing relationships with existing customers while also establishing relationships with new customers.

 

Acquisitions

 

The markets in which we provide our services are occupied by a large number of competitors, many substantially larger than us, and with significantly greater resources and geographic reach. We believe that to remain competitive, we need to take advantage of acquisition opportunities that arise which may help us achieve greater geographic presence and economies both within our existing footprint and expanded territories. As such, we have completed 33 acquisitions and/or collaborative agreements in the past sixty (60) months. We may also utilize acquisitions, whenever appropriate, to expand our technological capabilities and product offerings. We focus on acquisitions that are profitable and fit seamlessly with our existing operations.

 

S-3

 

We believe our markets contain a number of attractive acquisition candidates. We foresee expanding through acquisitions of one or more of the following types of software and technology organizations:

 

Managed Service Providers (“MSPs”). MSPs provide their small and medium-sized business clients with a suite of services, which may include 24/7/365 remote monitoring of networks, application hosting, disaster recovery, business continuity, data back-up, cyber-security and the like. There are hundreds of providers of such services in the U.S., most with annual recurring revenue of less than $10 million. We believe that we may be able to consolidate a number of these MSPs with our existing operation in an effort to become one of the more significant providers of these services in the U.S.

  

Independent Software Vendors (“ISVs”). ISVs are publishers of both stand-alone software solutions and integrations that integrate with other third party products. Our interest lies with ISVs selling into the small and medium-sized business marketplace, providing applications addressing e-commerce, mobility, security, and other functionalities. Since we have expertise in both selling directly to end-users and selling through a sales channel, we believe we can significantly enhance the sales volume of any potential acquisition via our existing infrastructure, our sales channel, and our internal marketing programs. There are many ISVs in North America, constituting a large and significant target base for our acquisition efforts.

 

Value-Added Resellers (“VARs”) of ERP, Human Capital Management (“HCM”), Warehouse Management Systems (“WMS”), CRM and BI Software. VAR’s gross margins are a function of the sales volume they provide a publisher in a twelve (12) month period, and we are currently operating at the highest margins. Smaller resellers who sell less and operate at significantly lower margins, are at a competitive disadvantage to companies such as ours and are often amenable to creating a liquidity event for themselves by selling to larger organizations. We have benefitted from completing such acquisitions in a number of ways, including but not limited to: (i) garnering new customers to whom we can upsell and cross-sell our broad range of products and services; (ii) gaining technical resources that enhance our capabilities; and (iii) extending our geographic reach.

 

Our business strategy provides that we will examine the potential acquisition of businesses within and outside our industry. In determining a suitable acquisition candidate, we will carefully analyze a target’s potential to add to and complement our product mix, expand our existing revenue base, improve our margins, expand our geographic coverage, strengthen our management team, add technical resources and expertise, and, above all, improve stockholder returns. More specifically, we have identified the criteria listed below, by which we evaluate potential acquisition targets in an effort to gain the synergies necessary for successful growth of the Company:

 

 

Access to new customers and geographic markets;

     
 

Recurring revenue of the target;

     
 

Opportunity to gain operating leverage and increased profit margins;

     
 

Diversification of sales by customer and/or product;

     
 

Improvements in product/service offerings; and

     
 

Ability to attract public capital and increased investor interest. 

  

We are unable to predict the nature, size or timing of any acquisition. We can give no assurance that we will reach agreement or procure the financial resources necessary to fund any acquisition, or that we will be able to successfully integrate or improve returns as a result of any such acquisition.

 

We continue to seek out and hold preliminary discussions with various acquisition candidates. However, currently we have not entered into any agreements or understandings for any acquisitions that management deems material.

 

Enterprise Resource Planning Software Strategy

 

Our ERP software strategy is focused on serving the needs of our expansive installed base of customers for our Sage 100cloud, Sage 500 ERP, and Sage BusinessWorks practices, while rapidly growing the number of customers using Sage X3 and Acumatica.  We currently have approximately 8,000 active ERP customers using one of these five solutions, including customers using certain add-on support products to these solutions.  In the past we, have focused primarily on on-premise mid-market Sage Software solutions but in the past three years have focused on larger enterprise-type offerings and cloud ERP solutions.  This has allowed us to increase our average deal size and also to keep pace with the changing trends that we see in the industry. 

 

S-4

 

Managed Services Strategy

 

The IT Managed Services market is broadly segmented by types of services, for example, managed data-center, managed network, managed mobility, managed infrastructure, managed communications, managed information, managed security and other managed services. In addition, the market is segmented by market verticals, such as public sector, banking, financial services and insurance, education, retail, contact centers and service industries, high tech and telecommunications, healthcare and pharmaceuticals, travel and logistics, manufacturing, energy and utilities among others.

 

The recent trend in the industry shows that there is a high demand for managed services across every industry vertical. The implementation of managed services can reduce IT costs by 30% to 40% in such enterprises. This enables organizations to have flexibility and technical advantage. Enterprises having their services outsourced look forward to risk sharing and to reduce their IT costs and IT commitments, so that they are able to concentrate on their core competencies. Organizations implementing managed services have reported almost a 50% to 60% increase in the operational efficiency of their outsourced processes. Enterprises have accepted outsourcing services as a means to enable them to reduce their capital expenditure (CapEx) and free up internal sources. Newer managed services that penetrate almost all the industry domains, along with aggressive pricing in services, are being offered. This results in an increase in the overall revenues of the managed services market. It is observed that there is an increase in outsourcing of wireless, communications, mobility and other value-added services, such as content and e-commerce facilities. With increasing technological advancements and the cost challenges associated with having the IT services in-house, we believe the future seems optimistic for managed services providers.

 

Our strategy is to continue to expand our product offerings to the small and medium sized business marketplace, and to increase our scale and capabilities via acquisition throughout the United States, but initially in those regions where we currently have existing offices.

 

Geographic Expansion

 

Generally, our technology offerings require some on-premise implementation and support. When we expand into new geographic territories, we prefer to find qualified personnel in an area to augment our current staff of consultants to service our business. The need for hands-on implementation and support may also require investment in additional physical offices and other overhead. We believe our approach is conservative.

 

We may accelerate expansion if we find complementary businesses that we are able to acquire in other regions. Our marketing efforts to expand into new territories have included attendance at trade shows in addition to personal contact. 

 

Our Products and Services

 

Enterprise Resource Planning Software

 

Substantially all our initial sales of ERP financial accounting solutions consist of pre-packaged software and associated services to customers in the United States.

 

The Company resells ERP software published by Sage Software, Acumatica and other providers for the financial accounting requirements of small- and medium-sized businesses focused on manufacturing and distribution, and the delivery of related services from the sales of these products, including installation, support and training. The programs perform and support a wide variety of functions related to accounting, including financial reporting, accounts payable and accounts receivable, and inventory management.

 

We provide a variety of services along with our financial accounting software sales to assist our customers in maximizing the benefits from these software applications. These services include training, technical support, and professional services. We employ class instructors and have formal, specific training in the topics they are teaching. We can also provide on-site training services that are highly tailored to meet the needs of a particular customer. Our instructors must pass annual subject-matter examinations required by Sage to retain their product-based teaching certifications.

 

We provide end-user technical support services through our support/help desk. Our product and technology consultants assist customers calling with questions about product features, functions, usability issues, and configurations. The support/help desk offers services in a variety of ways, including prepaid services, time and materials billed as utilized and annual support contracts. Customers can communicate with the support/help desk through e-mail, telephone, and fax channels. Standard support/help desk services are offered during normal business hours five (5) days per week.

 

S-5

 

Warehouse Management Systems

 

We are resellers of the Accellos Warehouse Management System software published by High Jump, Inc. (“High Jump”). High Jump develops warehouse management software for mid-market distributors. The primary purpose of a WMS is to control the movement and storage of materials within an operation and process the associated transactions. Directed picking, directed replenishment, and directed put-away are the key to WMS. The detailed setup and processing within a WMS can vary significantly from one software vendor to another. However, the basic WMS will use a combination of item, location, quantity, unit of measure, and order information to determine where to stock, where to pick, and in what sequence to perform these operations.

 

The Accellos WMS software improves accuracy and efficiency, streamlines materials handling, meets retail compliance requirements, and refines inventory control. Accellos also works as part of a complete operational solution by integrating seamlessly with radio frequency hardware, accounting software, shipping systems and warehouse automation equipment.

 

We market the Accellos solution to our existing and new medium-sized business customers.

 

IT Managed Network Services and Business Consulting

 

We provide IT managed services, cybersecurity, business continuity, disaster recovery, data back-up, network maintenance and service upgrades for our business clients. We are a Microsoft Solutions Provider. Our staff includes engineers who maintain certifications from Microsoft and Sage Software. They are Microsoft Certified Systems Engineers and Microsoft Certified Professionals, and they provide a host of services for our clients, including remote network monitoring, server implementation, support and assistance, operation and maintenance of large central systems, technical design of network infrastructure, technical troubleshooting for large scale problems, network and server security, and backup, archiving, and storage of data from servers. There are numerous competitors, both larger and smaller, nationally and locally, with whom we compete in this market.

  

Cybersecurity

 

We provide enterprise level security services to the mid-market.  Our cybersecurity-as-a-service offering includes a security operations center, incident response, cybersecurity assessments, and hacking simulations.  The service is particularly well-suited for customers in compliance-driven and regulated industries, including financial services, pension administration, insurance, and the land and title sector.

 

Application Hosting

 

Through our wholly owned subsidiary, Secure Cloud Services, Inc., we acquired the assets of Nellnube, Inc. to further market application hosting services throughout the country.

 

Product Development

 

We are continually looking to improve and develop new products. Our product initiatives include various new product offerings, which are either extensions of existing products or newly conceptualized product offerings. We are using a dual-shore development approach to keep product development costs at a minimum.  All our product development is led by U.S. based employees.  The project leaders are technical resources who are involved in developing technical specifications, design decisions, usability testing, and transferring the project knowledge to our offshore development team.  Several times per week, the product development leadership team meets with our project leaders and development teams to discuss project status, development obstacles, and project timelines. 

 

Arrangements with Principal Suppliers

 

Our revenues are primarily derived from the resale of vendor software products and services. These resales are made pursuant to channel sales agreements whereby we are granted authority to purchase and resell the vendor products and services. Under these agreements, we either resell software directly to our customers or act as a sales agent for various vendors and receive commissions for our sales efforts.

 

We are required to enter into an annual Channel Partner Agreement with Sage Software whereby Sage Software appoints us as a non-exclusive partner to market, distribute, and support Sage 100cloud, Sage 500 ERP and Sage X3. The Channel Partner Agreement is for a one-year term, and automatically renews for an additional one-year term on the anniversary of the agreement’s effective date. These agreements authorize us to sell these software products to customers in the United States. There are no clauses in this agreement that limit or restrict the services that we can offer to customers. We also operate a Sage Software Authorized Training Center Agreement and also are party to a Master Developers Program License Agreement.

 

S-6

 

For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, purchases from Sage Software were approximately 24% and 19%, respectively, of the Company’s total cost of revenue.  Generally, the Company does not rely on any one specific supplier for all its purchases and maintains relationships with other suppliers that could replace its existing supplier should the need arise.

 

Customers

 

We market our products primarily throughout North America.  For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, our top ten (10) customers accounted for 10% ($3,903,702) and 14% ($5,219,755), respectively, of our total revenues. Generally, we do not rely on any one specific customer for any significant portion of our revenue base. No single customer accounted for ten percent or more of our consolidated revenues base.

 

Intellectual Property

 

We regard our technology and other proprietary rights as essential to our business. We rely on copyright, trade secret, confidentiality procedures, contract provisions, and trademark law to protect our technology and intellectual property. We have also entered into confidentiality agreements with our consultants and corporate partners and intend to control access to, and distribution of our products, documentation, and other proprietary information.

 

Competition

 

Our markets are highly fragmented, and the business is characterized by a large number of participants, including several large companies, as well significant number of small, privately-held, local competitors. A significant portion of our revenue is currently derived from requests for proposals (“RFPs”) and price is often an important factor in awarding such agreements. Accordingly, our competitors may underbid us if they elect to price their services aggressively to procure such business. Our competitors may also develop the expertise, experience and resources to provide services that are equal or superior in both price and quality to our services, and we may not be able to enhance our competitive position.  The principal competitive factors for our professional services include geographic presence, breadth of service offerings, technical skills, quality of service and industry reputation. We believe we compete favorably with our competitors on the basis of these factors.

 

Employees

 

As of September 30, 2020, we had approximately 157 full time employees with 49 of our employees engaged in sales and marketing activities, 72 employees are engaged in service fulfillment, and 36 employees performing administrative functions.

 

Our future success depends in significant part upon the continued services of our key sales, technical, and senior management personnel and our ability to attract and retain highly qualified sales, technical, and managerial personnel. None of our employees are represented by a collective bargaining agreement and we have never experienced a work stoppage.

 

Our Corporate History

 

We were incorporated on October 3, 2002, as a wholly owned subsidiary of iVoice, Inc. (“iVoice”). On February 11, 2004, the Company was spun off from iVoice and became an independent publicly traded company. On September 5, 2003, we changed our corporate name to Trey Resources, Inc. In March 2004, Trey Resources, Inc. began trading on the OTCBB under the symbol TYRIA.OB. In June 2011, we changed our name to SilverSun Technologies, Inc., trading under the symbol SSNT.

 

Prior to June 2004, we were engaged in the design, manufacture, and marketing of specialized telecommunication equipment. On June 2, 2004, our wholly-owned subsidiary, SWK Technologies, Inc. (“SWK”) completed its acquisition of SWK, Inc. Since the acquisition of SWK, Inc. we have focused on three (3) core business sectors, including acting as the following: (i) a managed service provider for computer networks, providing cybersecurity, 24/7 remote monitoring of networks, data backup, hosting,  and business continuity and disaster recovery services; and (ii) a value added reseller and master developer for Sage Software’s Sage 100cloud, Sage 500 ERP and Sage EM (formerly Sage ERP X3) enterprise resource planning (“ERP”) financial software. We also publish twenty (20) other assorted software solutions. We focus on the business application software and the information technology consulting market for small and medium-sized businesses (“SMB’s”), selling services and products to various end users, manufacturers, wholesalers and distributors located throughout the United States.

 

Our strategy is to grow our business through a combination of intra-company growth of our software applications and technology solutions, as well as expansion through acquisitions, both within our existing geographic reach and through geographic expansion. To that end, since 2006, we have completed a number of acquisitions that have increased our client base, technical expertise and geographic footprint.

 

S-7

 

On June 2, 2006, SWK completed the acquisition of certain assets of AMP-Best Consulting, Inc. (“AMP”) of Syracuse, New York.  AMP is an information technology company and value-added reseller of licensed ERP software published by Sage Software.  AMP sold services and products to various end users, manufacturers, wholesalers and distribution industry clients located throughout the United States, with special emphasis on companies located in the upstate New York region.

 

During 2011, SWK acquired Sage’s Software’s customer accounts in connection with IncorTech, LLC (“IncorTech”), a Southern California-based Sage business partner. This transaction increased our geographical influence in Southern California for the sale and support of our MAPADOC integrated EDI solution and the marketing of our Sage EM (formerly Sage ERP X3) to both former IncorTech customers as well as new consumers. IncorTech had previously provided professional accounting, technology, and business consulting services to over 300 clients.

 

In June 2012, SWK acquired selected assets and obligations of Hightower, Inc., a Chicago-based reseller of Sage software applications. In addition to the strategic geographic benefits that this acquisition brings to SWK, there is also a substantial suite of proprietary enhancement software solutions.

 

In May 2014, we completed the purchase of selected assets of ESC Software (“ESC”), a leading Arizona-based reseller of Sage Software and Acumatica applications. Founded in 2000, ESC has implemented technology solutions at prominent companies throughout the Southwest.  In addition to the strategic benefits of this acquisition, it has given us additional annual revenues, approximately 300 additional Sage Software ERP customers and affords us market penetration in the Southwest.

 

On March 11, 2015 SWK entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement with 2000 SOFT, Inc. d/b/a Accounting Technology Resource (“ATR”), a California corporation. In addition to the strategic geographic benefits of this acquisition, it has provided additional revenues from the approximately 250 additional customers.

 

On July 6, 2015 SWK entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement with ProductiveTech, Inc. (“PTI”), a Southern New Jersey corporation. In addition to the strategic geographic benefits of this acquisition, it has provided additional revenues from the approximately 85 additional customers.

 

On October 1, 2015, SWK entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement with The Macabe Associates, Inc., (“Macabe”) a Washington based reseller of Sage Software and Acumatica applications. In addition to the strategic geographic benefits of this acquisition, it has provided additional revenues from the approximately 180 additional customers.

 

On October 19, 2015, SWK entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement with Oates & Company, (“Oates”) a North Carolina reseller of Sage Software applications. In addition to the strategic geographic benefits of this acquisition, it has provided additional revenues from the approximately 185 additional customers.

 

On May 31, 2018, SWK entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement with Info Sys Management, Inc., (“ISM”) an Oregon based reseller of Sage Software and Acumatica applications. In addition to the strategic geographic benefits of this acquisition, it has provided additional revenues from the approximately 700 additional customers.

 

In May 2018, the Company formed a wholly owned subsidiary, Secure Cloud Services, Inc. (“SCS”), a Nevada corporation, for the purpose of providing application hosting services. On May 31, 2018, Secure Cloud Services entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement with Nellnube, Inc. (“Nellnube”) an Oregon based application hosting provider.

 

In May 2018, the Company formed a wholly owned subsidiary, Critical Cyber Defense Corp. (“CCD”), a Nevada corporation, for the purpose of providing cyber defense products and services.

 

On January 1, 2019, SWK entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement with Partners in Technology, Inc., (“PIT”) an Illinois based reseller of Sage Software. In addition to the strategic geographic benefits of this acquisition, it has provided additional revenues from the approximately 170 additional customers.

 

On August 26, 2019 SWK entered into and closed that certain Asset Purchase Agreement (the “MAPADOC Asset Purchase Agreement”) by and among the Company, SPS Commerce, Inc., as buyer (“SPS”), and SWK as seller, pursuant to which SPS agreed to acquire from SWK substantially all of the assets related to the MAPADOC business.

 

On July 31, 2020, SWK entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement with Prairie Technology Solutions Group, LLC , (“PT”) an Illinois based managed service provider for the purpose of enhancing the strategic geographic reach of our managed service division.

 

S-8

 

THE OFFERING

 

     

Common stock offered by us pursuant to this prospectus

 

Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $3,489,499.

     

Common stock to be outstanding after this offering

 

Up to 5,818,063 shares, assuming a sales price of $2.65 per share, which was the closing price on the Nasdaq Capital Market on September 30, 2020. The actual number of shares issued and outstanding will vary depending on the price at which shares may be sold from time to time during this offering.

     

Manner of offering

 

“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time on The NASDAQ Capital Market or other market for our common stock in the U.S. through our sales agent, H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC. See the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” on page S-13 of this prospectus.

     

Use of proceeds

 

We intend to use the net proceeds of this offering for general corporate purposes. See the section entitled “Use of Proceeds” on page S-12 of this prospectus.

     

Risk factors

 

See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-11 of this prospectus supplement and the other information included in, or incorporated by reference into, our prospectus for a discussion of certain factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock.

     

NASDAQ Capital Market symbol

 

SSNT

 

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering is based on 4,501,271 shares of our common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2020. The number of shares outstanding as of September 30, 2020 excludes:

 

 

4,988 shares issuable upon exercise of outstanding warrants with a weighted average exercise price of $4.01

 

S-9

 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, principally in the sections entitled “Risk Factors.” All statements other than statements of historical fact contained in this prospectus, including statements regarding future events, our future financial performance, business strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. We have attempted to identify forward-looking statements by terminology including “anticipates,” “believes,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “should,” or “will” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. Although we do not make forward looking statements unless we believe we have a reasonable basis for doing so, we cannot guarantee their accuracy. These statements are only predictions and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including the risks outlined under “Risk Factors” or elsewhere in this prospectus, which may cause our or our industry’s actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.

 

Forward-looking statements should not be read as a guarantee of future performance or results, and will not necessarily be accurate indications of the times at, or by which, that performance or those results will be achieved. Forward-looking statements are based on information available at the time they are made and/or management’s good faith belief as of that time with respect to future events, and are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual performance or results to differ materially from what is expressed in or suggested by the forward-looking statements.

 

Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made. You should not put undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. We assume no obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect actual results, changes in assumptions or changes in other factors affecting forward-looking information, except to the extent required by applicable securities laws. If we do update one or more forward-looking statements, no inference should be drawn that we will make additional updates with respect to those or other forward-looking statements.

 

 

S-10

 

RISK FACTORS

 

Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K we file after the date of this prospectus, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, and the risk factors and other information contained in the applicable prospectus supplement before acquiring any of such securities. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.

 

Risks Associated with this Offering

 

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds of this offering and may not use them effectively.

 

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes. However, our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering and could spend the proceeds in ways that do not improve our results of operations or enhance the value of our common stock. The failure by management to apply these funds effectively could result in financial losses that could have a material adverse effect on our business, cause the price of our common stock to decline and delay the development of our product candidates.

 

You may experience immediate and substantial dilution.

 

The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 1,316,792 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $2.65 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Exchange on September 30, 2020, for aggregate gross proceeds of $3,489,499, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, if you purchase common stock in this offering, you will experience immediate dilution of $1.60 per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2020 after giving effect to this offering and the assumed offering price. The exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants, or the conversion of outstanding preferred stock into common stock, will result in further dilution of your investment. See the section entitled “Dilution” below for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you would incur if you participate in this offering.

 

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

 

In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering.

 

The common stock offered hereby will be sold in “at-the-market” offerings, and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.

 

Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices and numbers of shares sold, and there is no minimum or maximum sales price. Investors may experience a decline in the value of their shares as a result of share sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.

 

The actual number of shares we will issue under the sales agreement, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.

 

Subject to certain limitations in the sales agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a sales notice to Wainwright at any time throughout the term of the sales agreement. The number of shares that are sold by Wainwright after we deliver a sales notice will fluctuate based on the market price of the common stock during the sales period and limits we set with Wainwright. Because the price per share of each share sold will fluctuate based on the market price of our common stock during the sales period, it is not possible at this stage to predict the number of shares that will be ultimately issued.

 

S-11

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $3,489,499 from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. We estimate that the net proceeds from the sale of the shares of common stock that we are offering may be up to approximately $3,287,334, after deducting Wainwright’s commission and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

We intend to use the net proceeds of this offering for general corporate purposes.

 

DIVIDEND POLICY

 

We have paid cash dividends on our common stock in each of the past 4 years. Any future determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to applicable laws, and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors that our board of directors considers relevant.

 

DILUTION

 

If you invest in our common stock, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the price per share you pay in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering. Our net tangible book value of our common stock as of June 30, 2020 was approximately $2,826,697 or approximately $0.63 per share of common stock based upon 4,501,271 shares outstanding. Net tangible book value per share is equal to our total tangible assets, less our total liabilities, divided by the total number of shares outstanding as of June 30, 2020.

 

After giving effect to the sale of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $3,489,499 at an assumed offering price of $2.65 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The NASDAQ Capital Market on September 30, 2020, and after deducting estimated offering commissions payable by us, our net tangible book value as of June 30, 2020 would have been $6,114,032 or $1.05 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $0.42 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $1.60 per share to new investors in this offering.

 

The following table illustrates this calculation on a per share basis:

 

Assumed Offering price per share

  $ 2.65  

Net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2020

  $ 0.63  

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to the offering

  $ 0.42  

As-adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to the offering

  $ 1.05  

Dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors

  $ 1.60  

 

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering is based on 4,501,271 shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020. The number of shares outstanding as of June 30, 2020 excludes:

 

 

 

4,988 shares issuable upon exercise of outstanding warrants with a weighted average exercise price of $4.01;

 

The foregoing table does not give effect to the exercise of any outstanding options or warrants or the conversion of preferred stock to common stock. To the extent options and warrants are exercised, or to the extent preferred stock is converted to common stock, there may be further dilution to new investors.

 

The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 1,316,792 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $2.65 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The NASDAQ Capital Market on September 30, 2020, for aggregate gross proceeds of $3,489,499. The shares, if any, sold in this offering will be sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $2.65 per share shown in the table above, assuming we sell the same aggregate 1,316,792 shares, would increase our as-adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering to $1.27 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $2.38 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $2.65 per share shown in the table above, assuming we sell the same aggregate 1,316,792 shares, would decrease our as-adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering to $0.83 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $0.82 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us.

 

S-12

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We have entered into an At The Market Issuance Sales Agreement, or the sales agreement, with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC, or Wainwright, under which we may issue and sell our common stock from time to time through Wainwright acting as sales agent, subject to certain limitations, including the number of shares registered under the registration statement to which the offering relates. The sales, if any, of shares made under the sales agreement will be made by any method that is deemed an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act. If we and Wainwright agree on any method of distribution other than sales of shares of our common stock on or through the Nasdaq Capital Market or another existing trading market in the United States at market prices, we will file a further prospectus supplement providing all information about such offering as required by Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act.

 

Each time we wish to issue and sell common stock under the sales agreement, we will notify Wainwright of the number of shares to be issued, the dates on which such sales are anticipated to be made, any minimum price below which sales may not be made and other sales parameters as we deem appropriate. Once we have so instructed Wainwright, unless Wainwright declines to accept the terms of the notice, Wainwright has agreed to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such shares up to the amount specified on such terms. The obligations of Wainwright under the sales agreement to sell our common stock are subject to a number of conditions that we must meet. We may instruct Wainwright not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us from time to time. We or Wainwright may suspend the offering of common stock upon notice and subject to other conditions.

 

We will pay Wainwright commissions for its services in acting as agent in the sale of common stock. Wainwright will be entitled to a commission in an amount equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sale of common stock offered hereby. In addition, we have agreed to reimburse Wainwright for fees and disbursements related to its legal counsel in an amount not to exceed $50,000. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding compensation payable to Wainwright under the terms of the sales agreement, will be approximately $97,480.

 

Settlement for sales of common stock will generally occur on the second business day following the date on which any sales are made, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and Wainwright in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf in this “at the market offering,”, Wainwright will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Wainwright will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Wainwright against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act.

 

The offering of our common stock pursuant to the sales agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (i) the sale of all of our common stock provided for in this prospectus or (ii) termination of the sales agreement as provided therein.

 

Wainwright and its affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees. To the extent required by Regulation M, Wainwright will not engage in any market making activities involving our common stock while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus.

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

The validity of the common stock offered hereby will be passed upon by Lucosky Brookman LLP. Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP, is counsel for Wainwright in connection with this offering.

 

EXPERTS

 

Our consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, and the related consolidated statements of operations, stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of those two years have been audited by Friedman LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in its report incorporated by reference and are included in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

S-13

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Information filed with the SEC by us can be inspected and copied at the Public Reference Room maintained by the SEC at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may also obtain copies of this information by mail from the Public Reference Room of the SEC at prescribed rates. Further information on the operation of the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, D.C. can be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains a web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov.

 

Our website address is https://www.silversuntech.com. The information on our website, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus.

 

This prospectus and any prospectus supplement are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided below. Forms of the documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement at the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, D.C. or through the SEC’s website, as provided above.

 

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus modifies or replaces that statement.

 

We incorporate by reference our documents listed below and any future filings made by us with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which we refer to as the “Exchange Act” in this prospectus, between the date of this prospectus and the termination of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus. We are not, however, incorporating by reference any documents or portions thereof, whether specifically listed below or filed in the future, that are not deemed “filed” with the SEC, including any information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or related exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K.

 

This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC:

 

     

 

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 26, 2020.

 

 

 

 

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on May 13, 2020.

 

 

 

 

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on August 12, 2020.

 

 

 

 

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on April 23, 2020 and May 21, 2020.

 

All reports and other documents we subsequently file pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the termination of this offering, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, but excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC, will also be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and deemed to be part of this prospectus from the date of the filing of such reports and documents.

 

S-14

 

You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus (other than exhibits, unless they are specifically incorporated by reference in the documents) by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

 

SilverSun Technologies, Inc.

120 Eagle Rock Ave

East Hanover, NJ 07936

(973) 396-1720

 

 

Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement.

 

S-15

 

 

$3,489,499

 

 

LOGO_1.JPG

 

 

 

Common Stock

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

 

H.C. Wainwright & Co.

 

 

                , 2020

 

 

PART II

 

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

 

The following is an estimate of the expenses (all of which are to be paid by the registrant) that we may incur in connection with the securities being registered hereby.

 

SEC registration fee

  $ 6,490  

FINRA filing fee

    *  

Printing expenses

    *  

Legal fees and expenses

    *  

Accounting fees and expenses

    *  

Blue Sky, qualification fees and expenses

    *  

Transfer agent fees and expenses

    *  

Trustee fees and expenses

    *  

Warrant agent fees and expenses

    *  

Miscellaneous

    *  
         

Total

  $  

*

 

*

These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.

 

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers

 

Section 145 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware provides, in general, that a corporation incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware, as we are, may indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding (other than a derivative action by or in the right of the corporation) by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe such person’s conduct was unlawful. In the case of a derivative action, a Delaware corporation may indemnify any such person against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, except that no indemnification will be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person will have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or any other court in which such action was brought determines such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses.

 

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that we will indemnify our directors, officers, employees and agents to the extent and in the manner permitted by the provisions of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, as amended from time to time, subject to any permissible expansion or limitation of such indemnification, as may be set forth in any stockholders’ or directors’ resolution or by contract. Any repeal or modification of these provisions approved by our stockholders will be prospective only and will not adversely affect any limitation on the liability of any of our directors or officers existing as of the time of such repeal or modification.

 

We are also permitted to apply for insurance on behalf of any director, officer, employee or other agent for liability arising out of his actions, whether or not the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware would permit indemnification.

 

Item 16. Exhibits

 

(a) Exhibits

 

A list of exhibits filed with this registration statement on Form S-3 is set forth on the Exhibit Index and is incorporated herein by reference.

 

II-1

 

Item 17. Undertakings

 

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(a) Rule 415 Offering. The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

 

(i)

To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

 

 

(ii)

To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of this registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in this registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

 

(iii)

To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in this registration statement or any material change to such information in this registration statement;

 

provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of this registration statement;

 

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof;

 

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering;

 

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

 

 

(A)

Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of this registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in this registration statement; and

 

 

(B)

Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5) or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in this registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of this registration statement relating to the securities in this registration statement to which the prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Providedhowever, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of this registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into this registration statement or prospectus that is part of this registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in this registration statement or prospectus that was part of this registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date; and

 

II-2

 

 

(5)

That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

 

(i)

Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

 

(ii)

Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

 

(iii)

The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

 

(iv)

Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(b) Filings Incorporating Subsequent Exchange Act Documents by Reference. The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(c) Request for Acceleration of Effective Date or Filing of Registration Statement Becoming Effective Upon Filing. Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

(d) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, (i) the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of this registration statement as of the time it was declared effective and (ii) each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

II-3

 

EXHIBIT INDEX

 

     

Exhibit No.

 

Exhibit Description

1.1*   At The Market Issuance Sales Agreement between SilverSun Technologies, Inc. and H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC

3.1

 

Second Amended Certificate of incorporation of SilverSun Technologies, Inc., filed September 5, 2003 (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 of the registration statement on Form SB-2, filed with the SEC on November 25, 2003)

3.2

 

Fourth Amended and Restated Certificate of incorporation of SilverSun Technologies, Inc., (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 on Form 8-K, dated June 27, 2011, filed with the SEC on June 30, 2011).

3.3

 

Certificate of Elimination of Series B Preferred Stock (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 on Form 8-K, dated September 13, 2019).

3.4

 

By-laws of iVoice, Inc., a New Jersey corporation (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.2 of the Registrant’s Form 10-QSB for the period ended March 31, 2003)

3.5

 

Amendment to the Bylaws of the Company (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.2 on Form 8-K, dated June 27, 2011, filed with the SEC on June 30, 2011).

4.1*

 

Form of Indenture relating to the issuance from time to time in one or more series of debentures, notes, bonds or other evidences of indebtedness

5.1**

 

Opinion of Lucosky Brookman LLP

23.1*

 

Consent of Friedman LLP

23.2**

 

Consent of Lucosky Brookman LLP (reference is made to Exhibit 5.1)

24.1*

 

Power of Attorney (included on the signature page of this Registration Statement)


   

*

Filed herewith.

**

To be filed by amendment.

 

II-4

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of East Hanover, State of New Jersey, on October 1, 2020.

 


SILVERSUN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Date: October 1, 2020

By:

/s/ Mark Meller

 

 

 

Mark Meller

 

 

 

Principal Executive Officer

 

 

Date: October 1, 2020

By:

/s/ Christine Dye

 

 

 

Christine Dye

 

 

 

Principal Financial Officer

 

 

POWER OF ATTORNEY: KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS that each individual whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Gianni B. Arcaini, his true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents with full power of substitution, for him and in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this Registration Statement, and to sign any registration statement for the same offering covered by the Registration Statement that is to be effective upon filing pursuant to Rule 462(b) promulgated under the Securities Act, and all post-effective amendments thereto, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and all documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents or any of them, or his, her or their substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done or by virtue hereof.

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated:

 

Name

 

Position

 

Date

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Mark Meller

 

Principal Executive Officer

 

October 1, 2020

Mark Meller

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Stanley Wunderlich

 

Director

 

October 1, 2020

Stanley Wunderlich

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Joseph Macaluso

 

Director

 

October 1, 2020

Joseph Macaluso

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ John Schachtel

 

Director

 

October 1, 2020

John Schachtel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ Christine Dye

 

Principal Financial Officer

 

October 1, 2020

Christine Dye

 

 

   

 

II-5

Exhibit 1.1

 

AT THE MARKET OFFERING AGREEMENT

 

 

October 1, 2020

 

H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC
430 Park Avenue
New York, NY 10022

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

       

SilverSun Technologies, Inc., a corporation organized under the laws of the State of Delaware (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC (the “Manager”) as follows:

 

1.     Definitions. The terms that follow, when used in this Agreement and any Terms Agreement, shall have the meanings indicated.

 

Accountants” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4(m).

 

Act” shall mean the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission promulgated thereunder.

 

Action” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3(q).

 

Affiliate” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3(p).

 

Applicable Time” shall mean, with respect to any Shares, the time of sale of such Shares pursuant to this Agreement or any relevant Terms Agreement.

 

Base Prospectus” shall mean the base prospectus contained in the Registration Statement at the Effective Time.

 

Board” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2(b)(iii).

 

Broker Fee” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2(b)(v).

 

Business Day” shall mean any day other than Saturday, Sunday or other day on which commercial banks in The City of New York are authorized or required by law to remain closed; provided, however, that, for purposes of clarity, commercial banks shall not be deemed to be authorized or required by law to remain closed due to “stay at home”, “shelter-in-place”, “non-essential employee”  or any other similar orders or restrictions or the closure of any physical branch locations at the direction of any governmental authority so long as the electronic funds transfer systems (including for wire transfers) of commercial banks in The City of New York generally are open for use by customers on such day.

 

 

 

Commission” shall mean the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Common Stock” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.

 

Common Stock Equivalents” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3(g).

 

Company Counsel” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4(l).

 

DTC” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2(b)(vii).

 

Effective Date” shall mean each date and time that the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment or amendments thereto became or becomes effective.

 

Effective Time” shall mean the first date and time that the Registration Statement becomes effective.

 

Exchange Act” shall mean the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission promulgated thereunder.

 

Execution Time” shall mean the date and time that this Agreement is executed and delivered by the parties hereto.

 

Filing Date” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4(w).

 

Free Writing Prospectus” shall mean a free writing prospectus, as defined in Rule 405.

 

GAAP” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3(n).

 

Incorporated Documents” shall mean the documents or portions thereof filed with the Commission on or prior to the Effective Date that are incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus and any documents or portions thereof filed with the Commission after the Effective Date that are deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus.

 

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Intellectual Property Rights” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3(v).

 

Issuer Free Writing Prospectus” shall mean an issuer free writing prospectus, as defined in Rule 433.

 

Losses” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 7(d).

 

Material Adverse Effect” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3(b).

 

Material Permits” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3(t).

 

Net Proceeds” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2(b)(v).

 

Permitted Free Writing Prospectus” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4(g).

 

Placement” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2(c).

 

Proceeding” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3(b).

 

Prospectus” shall mean the Base Prospectus, as supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement in the Registration Statement at the Effective Time and any subsequently filed Prospectus Supplement.

 

Prospectus Supplement” shall mean the prospectus supplement relating to the Shares contained in the Registration Statement at the Effective Time and any other prospectus supplement relating to the Shares prepared and filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) from time to time.

 

Registration Statement” shall mean the shelf registration statement on Form S-3 to be filed after the Execution Time, including exhibits and financial statements and any prospectus supplement relating to the Shares that is filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) and deemed part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B, as amended on each Effective Date and, in the event any post-effective amendment thereto becomes effective, shall also mean such registration statement as so amended.

 

Representation Date” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 4(k).

 

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Required Approvals” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3(e).

 

Rule 158”, “Rule 163”, “Rule 164”, “Rule 172”, “Rule 173”, “Rule 405”, “Rule 415”, “Rule 424”, “Rule 430B” and “Rule 433” refer to such rules under the Act.

 

Sales Notice” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2(b)(i).

 

SEC Reports” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3(m).

 

Settlement Date” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2(b)(vii).

 

Subsidiary” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3(a).

 

Terms Agreement” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2(a).

 

Time of Delivery” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2(c).

 

Trading Day” means a day on which the Trading Market is open for trading.

 

Trading Market” means Nasdaq Capital Market.

 

2.     Sale and Delivery of Shares. The Company proposes to issue and sell through or to the Manager, as sales agent and/or principal, from time to time during the term of this Agreement and on the terms set forth herein, up to the lesser of such number of shares (the “Shares”) of the Company’s Common Stock, $0.00001 par value per share (“Common Stock”), that does not exceed (a) the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock registered on the Registration Statement, pursuant to which the offering is being made, (b) the number of authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock (less the number of Common Shares issuable upon exercise, conversion or exchange of any outstanding securities of the Company or otherwise reserved from the Company’s authorized capital stock) or (c) the dollar amount of shares of Common Stock that would cause the Company or the offering of the Shares to not satisfy the eligibility and transaction requirements for use of Form S-3 (including, if applicable, General Instruction I.B.6 of Registration Statement on Form S-3 (the lesser of (a), (b) and (c), the “Maximum Amount”)). Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitations set forth in this Section 2 on the number and aggregate sales price of Shares issued and sold under this Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company and that the Manager shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance.

 

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(a)     Appointment of Manager as Selling Agent; Terms Agreement. For purposes of selling the Shares through the Manager, the Company hereby appoints the Manager as exclusive agent of the Company for the purpose of selling the Shares of the Company pursuant to this Agreement and the Manager agrees to use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell the Shares on the terms and subject to the conditions stated herein. The Company agrees that, whenever it determines to sell the Shares directly to the Manager as principal, it will enter into a separate agreement (each, a “Terms Agreement”) in substantially the form of Annex I hereto, relating to such sale in accordance with Section 2 of this Agreement.

 

(b)     Agent Sales. Subject to the terms and conditions and in reliance upon the representations and warranties herein set forth, following the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the Company will issue and agrees to sell Shares from time to time through the Manager, acting as sales agent, and the Manager agrees to use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell, as sales agent for the Company, on the following terms:

 

(i)     The Shares are to be sold on a daily basis or otherwise as shall be agreed to by the Company and the Manager on any day that (A) is a Trading Day, (B) the Company has instructed the Manager by telephone (confirmed promptly by electronic mail) to make such sales (“Sales Notice”) and (C) the Company has satisfied its obligations under Section 6 of this Agreement. The Company will designate the maximum amount of the Shares to be sold by the Manager daily (subject to the limitations set forth in Section 2(d)) and the minimum price per Share at which such Shares may be sold. Subject to the terms and conditions hereof, the Manager shall use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell on a particular day all of the Shares designated for the sale by the Company on such day. The gross sales price of the Shares sold under this Section 2(b) shall be the market price for the shares of Common Stock on the Trading Market at the time of sale of such Shares.

 

(ii)     The Company acknowledges and agrees that (A) there can be no assurance that the Manager will be successful in selling the Shares, (B) the Manager will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell the Shares for any reason other than a failure by the Manager to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations to sell such Shares as required under this Agreement, and (C) the Manager shall be under no obligation to purchase Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise specifically agreed by the Manager and the Company pursuant to a Terms Agreement.

 

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(iii)     The Company shall not authorize the issuance and sale of, and the Manager shall not be obligated to use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell, any Share at a price lower than the minimum price therefor designated from time to time by the Company’s Board of Directors (the “Board”), or a duly authorized committee thereof, or such duly authorized officers of the Company, and notified to the Manager in writing. The Company or the Manager may, upon notice to the other party hereto by telephone (confirmed promptly by electronic mail), suspend the offering of the Shares for any reason and at any time; provided, however, that such suspension or termination shall not affect or impair the parties’ respective obligations with respect to the Shares sold hereunder prior to the giving of such notice.

 

(iv)     The Manager may sell Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Act, including without limitation sales made directly on the Trading Market, on any other existing trading market for the Common Stock or to or through a market maker. The Manager may also sell Shares in privately negotiated transactions, provided that the Manager receives the Company’s prior written approval for any sales in privately negotiated transactions and if so provided in the “Plan of Distribution” section of the Prospectus Supplement or a new Prospectus Supplement disclosing the terms of such privately negotiated transaction.

 

(v)     The compensation to the Manager for sales of the Shares under this Section 2(b) shall be a placement fee of 3% of the gross sales price of the Shares sold pursuant to this Section 2(b) (“Broker Fee”). The foregoing rate of compensation shall not apply when the Manager acts as principal, in which case the Company may sell Shares to the Manager as principal at a price agreed upon at the relevant Applicable Time pursuant to a Terms Agreement. The remaining proceeds, after deduction of the Broker Fee and deduction of any transaction fees imposed by any clearing firm, execution broker, or governmental or self-regulatory organization, including, without limitation, any fees for settlement, delivery or processing, in respect of such sales, shall constitute the net proceeds to the Company for such Shares (the “Net Proceeds”).

 

(vi)     The Manager shall provide written confirmation (which may be by facsimile or electronic mail) to the Company following the close of trading on the Trading Market each day in which the Shares are sold under this Section 2(b) setting forth the number of the Shares sold on such day, the aggregate gross sales proceeds and the Net Proceeds to the Company, and the compensation payable by the Company to the Manager with respect to such sales.

 

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(vii)     Unless otherwise agreed between the Company and the Manager, settlement for sales of the Shares will occur at 10:00 a.m. (New York City time) on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date”). On or before the Trading Day prior to each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Shares being sold by crediting the Manager’s or its designee’s account (provided that the Manager shall have given the Company written notice of such designee at least one Trading Day prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which Shares in all cases shall be freely tradable, transferable, and registered shares in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, the Manager will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date. The Company agrees that, if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver duly authorized Shares on a Settlement Date, in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 7 hereto, the Company will (i) hold the Manager harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or reasonable, documented expense (including reasonable and documented legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company, and (ii) pay to the Manager any commission, discount or other compensation to which the Manager would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.

 

(viii)     At each Applicable Time, Settlement Date, Representation Date and Filing Date, the Company shall be deemed to have affirmed each representation and warranty contained in this Agreement as if such representation and warranty were made as of such date, modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended as of such date. Any obligation of the Manager to use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell the Shares on behalf of the Company shall be subject to the continuing accuracy of the representations and warranties of the Company herein, to the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder and to the continuing satisfaction of the additional conditions specified in Section 6 of this Agreement.

 

(ix)     If the Company shall declare or make any dividend or other distribution of its assets (or rights to acquire its assets) to holders of Common Shares, by way of return of capital or otherwise (including, without limitation, any distribution of cash, stock or other securities,

 

7

 

property or options by way of a dividend, spin off, reclassification, corporate rearrangement, scheme of arrangement or other similar transaction) (a “Distribution” and the record date for the determination of shareholders entitled to receive the Distribution, the “Record Date”), the Company hereby covenants that, in connection with any sales of Shares pursuant to a Sales Notice on the Record Date, the Company covenants and agrees that the Company shall issue and deliver such Shares to the Manager on the Record Date and the Record Date shall be the Settlement Date and the Company shall cover any additional costs of the Manager in connection with the delivery of Shares on the Record Date.

 

(c)     Term Sales. If the Company wishes to sell the Shares pursuant to this Agreement but other than as set forth in Section 2(b) of this Agreement (each, a “Placement”), the Company will notify the Manager of the proposed terms of such Placement. If the Manager, acting as principal, wishes to accept such proposed terms (which it may decline to do for any reason in its sole discretion) or, following discussions with the Company wishes to accept amended terms, the Manager and the Company will enter into a Terms Agreement setting forth the terms of such Placement. The terms set forth in a Terms Agreement will not be binding on the Company or the Manager unless and until the Company and the Manager have each executed such Terms Agreement accepting all of the terms of such Terms Agreement. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Terms Agreement, the terms of such Terms Agreement will control. A Terms Agreement may also specify certain provisions relating to the reoffering of such Shares by the Manager. The commitment of the Manager to purchase the Shares pursuant to any Terms Agreement shall be deemed to have been made on the basis of the representations and warranties of the Company herein contained and shall be subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth. Each Terms Agreement shall specify the number of the Shares to be purchased by the Manager pursuant thereto, the price to be paid to the Company for such Shares, any provisions relating to rights of, and default by, underwriters acting together with the Manager in the reoffering of the Shares, and the time and date (each such time and date being referred to herein as a “Time of Delivery”) and place of delivery of and payment for such Shares. Such Terms Agreement shall also specify any requirements for opinions of counsel, accountants’ letters and officers’ certificates pursuant to Section 6 of this Agreement and any other information or documents required by the Manager.

 

(d)     Maximum Number of Shares. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Shares if, after giving effect to the sale of such Shares, the aggregate amount of Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement would exceed the lesser of (A) together with all sales of Shares under this Agreement, the Maximum Amount, (B) the amount available for offer and sale under the currently effective Registration Statement and (C) the amount authorized from time to time to be issued and sold under this Agreement by the Board, a duly authorized committee thereof or a duly authorized executive

 

8

 

committee, and notified to the Manager in writing. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Shares pursuant to this Agreement at a price lower than the minimum price authorized from time to time by the Board, a duly authorized committee thereof or a duly authorized executive committee, and notified to the Manager in writing. Further, under no circumstances shall the Company cause or permit the aggregate offering amount of Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement to exceed the Maximum Amount.

 

(e)     Regulation M Notice. Unless the exceptive provisions set forth in Rule 101(c)(1) of Regulation M under the Exchange Act are satisfied with respect to the Shares, the Company shall give the Manager at least one Business Day’s prior notice of its intent to sell any Shares in order to allow the Manager time to comply with Regulation M.

 

3.     Representations and Warranties. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, the Manager at the Execution Time and on each such time the following representations and warranties are repeated or deemed to be made pursuant to this Agreement, as set forth below or in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or the Incorporated Documents.

 

(a)     Subsidiaries. All of the direct and indirect subsidiaries (individually, a “Subsidiary”) of the Company are set forth on Exhibit 21.1 to the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Commission. The Company owns, directly or indirectly, all of the capital stock or other equity interests of each Subsidiary free and clear of any “Liens” (which for purposes of this Agreement shall mean a lien, charge, security interest, encumbrance, right of first refusal, preemptive right or other restriction), and all the issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of each Subsidiary are validly issued and are fully paid, non-assessable and free of preemptive and similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities.

 

(b)     Organization and Qualification. The Company and each of the Subsidiaries is an entity duly incorporated or otherwise organized, validly existing and in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its incorporation or organization (as applicable), with the requisite power and authority to own and use its properties and assets and to carry on its business as currently conducted. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary is in violation or default of any of the provisions of its respective certificate or articles of incorporation, bylaws or other organizational or charter documents. Each of the Company and the Subsidiaries is duly qualified to conduct business and is in good standing as a foreign corporation or other entity in each jurisdiction in which the nature of the business conducted or property owned by it makes such qualification necessary, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing, as the case may be, could not reasonably be expected to result in (i) a material adverse effect on the legality, validity or enforceability of this Agreement, (ii) a material adverse change in the results of operations, assets, business, prospects or condition (financial or

 

9

 

otherwise) of the Company and the Subsidiaries, taken as a whole, from that set forth in the Registration Statement, the Base Prospectus, any Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus or the Incorporated Documents, or (iii) a material adverse effect on the Company’s ability to perform in any material respect on a timely basis its obligations under this Agreement (any of (i), (ii) or (iii), a “Material Adverse Effect”) and no “Proceeding” (which for purposes of this Agreement shall mean any action, claim, suit, investigation or proceeding (including, without limitation, an investigation or partial proceeding, such as a deposition), whether commenced or threatened) has been instituted in any such jurisdiction revoking, limiting or curtailing or seeking to revoke, limit or curtail such power and authority or qualification.

 

(c)     Authorization and Enforcement. The Company has the requisite corporate power and authority to enter into and to consummate the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and otherwise to carry out its obligations hereunder. The execution and delivery of this Agreement by the Company and the consummation by it of the transactions contemplated hereby have been duly authorized by all necessary action on the part of the Company and no further action is required by the Company, the Board or its stockholders in connection herewith other than in connection with the Required Approvals. This Agreement has been duly executed and delivered by the Company and constitutes the valid and binding obligation of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms except (i) as limited by general equitable principles and applicable bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium and other laws of general application affecting enforcement of creditors’ rights generally, (ii) as limited by laws relating to the availability of specific performance, injunctive relief or other equitable remedies and (iii) insofar as indemnification and contribution provisions may be limited by applicable law.

 

(d)     No Conflicts. The execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement by the Company, the issuance and sale of the Shares and the consummation by the Company of the other transactions contemplated herein do not and will not (i) conflict with or violate any provision of the Company’s or any Subsidiary’s certificate or articles of incorporation, bylaws or other organizational or charter documents, or (ii) conflict with, or constitute a default (or an event that with notice or lapse of time or both would become a default) under, result in the creation of any Lien upon any of the properties or assets of the Company or any Subsidiary, or give to others any rights of termination, amendment, anti-dilution or similar adjustments, acceleration or cancellation (with or without notice, lapse of time or both) of, any agreement, credit facility, debt or other instrument (evidencing a Company or Subsidiary debt or otherwise) or other understanding to which the Company or any Subsidiary is a party or by which any property or asset of the Company or any Subsidiary is bound or affected, or (iii) subject to the Required Approvals, conflict with or result in a violation of any law, rule, regulation, order, judgment, injunction, decree or other restriction of any court or governmental authority to which the Company or a Subsidiary is subject (including federal and state securities laws and regulations), or by which any property or asset of the Company or a Subsidiary is bound or affected, except in the case of each of clauses (ii) and (iii), such as could not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(e)     Filings, Consents and Approvals. The Company is not required to obtain any consent, waiver, authorization or order of, give any notice to, or make any filing or registration with, any court or other federal, state, local or other governmental authority or other “Person” (defined as an individual or corporation, partnership, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, limited liability company, joint stock company, government (or an agency or subdivision thereof) or other entity of any kind, including the Trading Market) in connection with the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement, other than (i) the filings required by this Agreement, (ii) the filing with the Commission of the Prospectus Supplement, (iii) the filing of application(s) to and approval by the Trading Market for the listing of the Shares for trading thereon in the time and manner required thereby, and (iv) such filings as are required to be made under applicable state securities laws and the rules and regulations of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”) (collectively, the “Required Approvals”).

 

(f)     Issuance of Shares. The Shares are duly authorized and, when issued and paid for in accordance with this Agreement, will be duly and validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of all Liens imposed by the Company. The Company has reserved from its duly authorized capital stock the maximum number of shares of Common Stock issuable pursuant to this Agreement. The issuance by the Company of the Shares has been registered under the Act and all of the Shares are freely transferable and tradable by the purchasers thereof without restriction (other than any restrictions arising solely from an act or omission of such a purchaser). The Shares are being issued pursuant to the Registration Statement and the issuance of the Shares has been registered by the Company under the Act. The “Plan of Distribution” section within the Registration Statement permits the issuance and sale of the Shares as contemplated by this Agreement. Upon receipt of the Shares, the purchasers of such Shares will have good and marketable title to such Shares and the Shares will be freely tradable on the Trading Market.

 

(g)     Capitalization. The capitalization of the Company is as set forth in the Registration Statement, the Base Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus. The Company has not issued any capital stock since its most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act, other than pursuant to the exercise of employee stock options under the Company’s stock option plans, the issuance of shares of Common Stock to employees pursuant to the Company’s employee stock purchase plan and pursuant to the conversion or exercise of securities exercisable, exchangeable or convertible into Common Stock (“Common Stock Equivalents”). No Person has any right of first refusal,

 

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preemptive right, right of participation, or any similar right to participate in the transactions contemplated by this Agreement. Except (i) pursuant to the Company’s stock option plans and (ii) pursuant to agreements or instruments filed as exhibits to Incorporated Documents, there are no outstanding options, warrants, script rights to subscribe to, calls or commitments of any character whatsoever relating to, or securities, rights or obligations convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or giving any Person any right to subscribe for or acquire, any shares of Common Stock, or contracts, commitments, understandings or arrangements by which the Company or any Subsidiary is or may become bound to issue additional shares of Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents. The issuance and sale of the Shares will not obligate the Company to issue shares of Common Stock or other securities to any Person. There are no outstanding securities or instruments of the Company or any Subsidiary with any provision that adjusts the exercise, conversion, exchange or reset price of such security or instrument upon an issuance of securities by the Company or any Subsidiary. All of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company are validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, have been issued in compliance with all federal and state securities laws, and none of such outstanding shares was issued in violation of any preemptive rights or similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities. There are no stockholders agreements, voting agreements or other similar agreements with respect to the Company’s capital stock to which the Company is a party or, to the knowledge of the Company, between or among any of the Company’s stockholders.

 

(h)     Registration Statement. The Company meets the requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Act and will prepare and file with the Commission the Registration Statement, including a related Base Prospectus, for registration under the Act of the offering and sale of the Shares. The Base Prospectus will contain all information required by the Act and the rules thereunder, and, except to the extent the Manager shall agree in writing to a modification, shall be in all substantive respects in the form furnished to the Manager prior to any such time this representation is repeated or deemed to be made. The Registration Statement, each such time this representation is repeated or deemed to be made, and at all times during which a prospectus is required by the Act to be delivered (whether physically or through compliance with Rule 172, 173 or any similar rule) in connection with any offer or sale of the Shares, meets the requirements set forth in Rule 415(a)(1)(x). The Company meets the transaction requirements with respect to the aggregate market value of securities being sold pursuant to this offering and during the twelve (12) months prior to this offering, as set forth in General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3.

 

(i)     Accuracy of Incorporated Documents. The Incorporated Documents, when they were filed with the Commission, conformed in all material respects to the requirements of the Exchange Act and the rules thereunder, and none of the Incorporated Documents, when they were filed with the Commission, contained any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact

 

12

 

necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made not misleading; and any further documents so filed and incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Base Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus, when such documents are filed with the Commission, will conform in all material respects to the requirements of the Exchange Act and the rules thereunder, as applicable, and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

(j)     Ineligible Issuer. (i) At the earliest time after the filing of the Registration Statement that the Company or another offering participant made a bona fide offer (within the meaning of Rule 164(h)(2)) of the Shares and (ii) as of the Execution Time and on each such time this representation is repeated or deemed to be made (with such date being used as the determination date for purposes of this clause (ii)), the Company was not and is not an Ineligible Issuer (as defined in Rule 405), without taking account of any determination by the Commission pursuant to Rule 405 that it is not necessary that the Company be considered an Ineligible Issuer.

 

(k)     Free Writing Prospectus. The Company is eligible to use Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses. Each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus does not include any information the substance of which conflicts with the information contained in the Registration Statement, including any Incorporated Documents and any prospectus supplement deemed to be a part thereof that has not been superseded or modified; and each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The foregoing sentence does not apply to statements in or omissions from any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus based upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Manager specifically for use therein. Any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus that the Company is required to file pursuant to Rule 433(d) has been, or will be, filed with the Commission in accordance with the requirements of the Act and the rules thereunder. Each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus that the Company has filed, or is required to file, pursuant to Rule 433(d) or that was prepared by or behalf of or used by the Company complies or will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Act and the rules thereunder. The Company will not, without the prior consent of the Manager, prepare, use or refer to, any Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses.

 

(l)     Proceedings Related to Registration Statement. The Registration Statement is not the subject of a pending proceeding or examination under Section 8(d) or 8(e) of the Act, and the Company is not the subject of a pending proceeding under Section 8A of the Act in connection with the offering of the Shares. The Company has not received any notice that the Commission has issued or intends to issue a stop-order with respect to the Registration Statement or that the Commission otherwise has suspended or withdrawn the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, either temporarily or permanently, or intends or has threatened in writing to do so.

 

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(m)     SEC Reports. The Company has complied in all material respects with requirements to file all reports, schedules, forms, statements and other documents required to be filed by it under the Act and the Exchange Act, including pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) thereof, for the two years preceding the date hereof (or such shorter period as the Company was required by law to file such material) (the foregoing materials, including the exhibits thereto and documents incorporated by reference therein, being collectively referred to herein as the “SEC Reports”) on a timely basis or has received a valid extension of such time of filing and has filed any such SEC Reports prior to the expiration of any such extension.

 

(n)     Financial Statements. The consolidated financial statements incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or the Incorporated Documents and any amendments thereof or supplements thereto comply in all material respects with applicable accounting requirements and the rules and regulations of the Commission with respect thereto as in effect at the time of filing or as amended or corrected in a subsequent filing. Such financial statements have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles applied on a consistent basis during the periods involved (“GAAP”), except as may be otherwise specified in such financial statements or the notes thereto and except that unaudited financial statements may not contain all footnotes required by GAAP, and fairly present in all material respects the financial position of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries as of and for the dates thereof and the results of operations and cash flows for the periods then ended, subject, in the case of unaudited statements, to normal, immaterial, year-end audit adjustments.

 

(o)    Accountants. The Company’s accountants are Friedman LLP. To the knowledge of the Company, such accountants, which the Company expects would be able to express their opinion with respect to the financial statements to be included in the Company’s next Annual Report on Form 10-K, are a registered public accounting firm as required by the Act.

 

(p)     Material Adverse Events. Since the date of the latest audited financial statements included within the SEC Reports, except as specifically disclosed in a subsequent SEC Report filed prior to the date hereof, (i) there has been no event, occurrence or development that has had or that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, (ii) the Company has not incurred any liabilities (contingent or otherwise) other than (A) trade payables and accrued expenses incurred in the ordinary course of business consistent with past practice and (B) liabilities not required to be reflected in the Company’s financial

 

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statements pursuant to GAAP or required to be disclosed in filings made with the Commission, (iii) the Company has not altered its method of accounting, (iv) the Company has not declared or made any dividend or distribution of cash or other property to its stockholders or purchased, redeemed or made any agreements to purchase or redeem any shares of its capital stock and (v) the Company has not issued any equity securities to any officer, director or “Affiliate” (defined as any Person that, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is controlled by or is under common control with a Person, as such terms are used in and construed under Rule 144 under the Act), except pursuant to existing Company stock option plans. The Company does not have pending before the Commission any request for confidential treatment of information. No event, liability or development has occurred or exists with respect to the Company or its Subsidiaries or their respective business, properties, operations or financial condition, that would be required to be disclosed by the Company under applicable securities laws at the time this representation is deemed made that has not been publicly disclosed at least 1 Trading Day prior to the date that this representation is deemed made.

 

(q)     Litigation. There is no action, suit, inquiry, notice of violation, Proceeding or investigation pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened against or affecting the Company, any Subsidiary or any of their respective properties before or by any court, arbitrator, governmental or administrative agency or regulatory authority (federal, state, county, local or foreign) (collectively, an “Action”) which (i) adversely affects or challenges the legality, validity or enforceability of this Agreement or the Shares or (ii) could, if there were an unfavorable decision, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary, nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director or officer thereof, is or has been the subject of any Action involving a claim of violation of or liability under federal or state securities laws or a claim of breach of fiduciary duty. There has not been, and to the knowledge of the Company, there is not pending or contemplated, any investigation by the Commission involving the Company or any current or former director or officer of the Company. The Commission has not issued any stop order or other order suspending the effectiveness of any registration statement filed by the Company or any Subsidiary under the Exchange Act or the Act.

 

(r)     Labor Relations. No material labor dispute exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is imminent with respect to any of the employees of the Company which could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. None of the Company’s or its Subsidiaries’ employees is a member of a union that relates to such employee’s relationship with the Company, and neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is a party to a collective bargaining agreement, and the Company and its Subsidiaries believe that their relationships with their employees are good. No executive officer, to the knowledge of the Company, is, or is now expected to be, in violation of any material term of any employment contract, confidentiality, disclosure or proprietary information

 

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agreement or non-competition agreement, or any other contract or agreement or any restrictive covenant, and the continued employment of each such executive officer does not subject the Company or any of its Subsidiaries to any liability with respect to any of the foregoing matters. The Company and its Subsidiaries are in compliance with all U.S. federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations relating to employment and employment practices, terms and conditions of employment and wages and hours, except where the failure to be in compliance could not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(s)     No Existing Defaults. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary (i) is in default under or in violation of (and no event has occurred that has not been waived that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would result in a default by the Company or any Subsidiary under), nor has the Company or any Subsidiary received notice of a claim that it is in default under or that it is in violation of, any indenture, loan or credit agreement or any other agreement or instrument to which it is a party or by which it or any of its properties is bound (whether or not such default or violation has been waived), (ii) is in violation of any order of any court, arbitrator or governmental body, or (iii) is or has been in violation of any statute, rule or regulation of any governmental authority, including without limitation all foreign, federal, state and local laws relating to taxes, environmental protection, occupational health and safety, product quality and safety and employment and labor matters, except in each case as could not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(t)     Regulatory Permits. The Company and the Subsidiaries possess all certificates, authorizations and permits issued by the appropriate federal, state, local or foreign regulatory authorities necessary to conduct their respective businesses as described in the Registration Statement, the Base Prospectus, any Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus, except where the failure to possess such permits could not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect (“Material Permits”), and neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any Material Permit.

 

(u)     Title to Assets. The Company and the Subsidiaries have good and marketable title in fee simple to all real property owned by them that is material to the business of the Company and the Subsidiaries and good and marketable title in all personal property owned by them that is material to the business of the Company and the Subsidiaries, in each case free and clear of all Liens, except for Liens as do not materially affect the value of such property and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and the Subsidiaries and Liens for the payment of federal, state or other taxes, the payment of which is neither delinquent nor subject to penalties. Any real property and facilities held under lease by the Company and the Subsidiaries are held by them under valid, subsisting and enforceable leases of which the Company and the Subsidiaries are in compliance, except where such non-compliance would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(v)     Intellectual Property. The Company and the Subsidiaries have, or have rights to use, all patents, patent applications, trademarks, trademark applications, service marks, trade names, trade secrets, inventions, copyrights, licenses and other similar intellectual property rights necessary or material for use in connection with their respective businesses as described in the Registration Statement, the Base Prospectus, any Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus and which the failure to so have could reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect (collectively, the “Intellectual Property Rights”). Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received, since the date of the latest audited financial statements included within the SEC Reports, a notice (written or otherwise) that the Intellectual Property Rights violate or infringe upon the rights of any Person, except as would not have a Material Adverse Effect. To the knowledge of the Company, all such Intellectual Property Rights are enforceable (other than patent and trademark applications) and there is no existing infringement by another Person of any of the Intellectual Property Rights. The Company and its Subsidiaries have taken reasonable security measures to protect the secrecy, confidentiality and value of all of their Intellectual Property Rights, except where failure to do so could not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(w)     Insurance. The Company and the Subsidiaries are insured by insurers of recognized financial responsibility against such losses and risks and in such amounts as are prudent and customary for companies of similar size as the Company in the businesses in which the Company and the Subsidiaries are engaged, including, but not limited to, directors and officers insurance coverage. To the knowledge of the Company, such insurance contracts and policies are accurate and complete. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business without a significant increase in cost.

 

(x)     Affiliate Transactions. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement, the Base Prospectus, any Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus, none of the officers or directors of the Company and, to the knowledge of the Company, none of the employees of the Company is presently a party to any transaction with the Company or any Subsidiary (other than for services as employees, officers and directors), including any contract, agreement or other arrangement providing for the furnishing of services to or by, providing for rental of real or personal property to or from, or otherwise requiring payments to or from any officer, director or such employee or, to the knowledge of the Company, any entity in which any officer, director, or any such employee has a substantial interest or is an officer, director, trustee or partner, in each case in excess of $120,000, other than (i) for payment of salary or consulting fees for services rendered, (ii) reimbursement for expenses incurred on behalf of the Company and (iii) for other employee benefits, including stock option agreements under any stock option plan of the Company.

 

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(y)     Sarbanes Oxley Compliance. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Base Prospectus, any Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus, the Company is in material compliance with all provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 which are applicable to it as of the Effective Date. The Company and the Subsidiaries maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that: (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations, (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain asset accountability, (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization, and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. The Company has established disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e)) for the Company and designed such disclosure controls and procedures to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms. The Company’s certifying officers have evaluated the effectiveness of the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures as of the end of the period covered by the Company’s most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act (such date, the “Evaluation Date”). The Company presented in its most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act the conclusions of the certifying officers about the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures based on their evaluations as of the Evaluation Date. Since the Evaluation Date, there have been no changes in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in the Exchange Act) that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

 

(z)     Finders Fees. Other than payments to be made to the Manager, no brokerage or finder’s fees or commissions are or will be payable by the Company to any broker, financial advisor or consultant, finder, placement agent, investment banker, bank or other Person with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement. The Manager shall have no obligation with respect to any fees or with respect to any claims made by or on behalf of other Persons for fees of a type contemplated in this Section that may be due in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

 

(aa)     No Other Sales Agency Agreement. The Company has not entered into any other sales agency agreements or other similar arrangements with any agent or any other representative in respect of at the market offerings of the Shares.

 

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(bb)     Regulation M Compliance. The Company has not, and to its knowledge no one acting on its behalf has, (i) taken, directly or indirectly, any action designed to cause or to result in the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of any of the Shares, (ii) sold, bid for, purchased, or paid any compensation for soliciting purchases of, any of the Shares or (iii) paid or agreed to pay to any person any compensation for soliciting another to purchase any other securities of the Company, other than, in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii), compensation paid to the Manager in connection with the placement of the Shares.

 

(cc)     Listing and Maintenance Requirements. The issuance and sale of the Shares as contemplated in this Agreement does not contravene the rules and regulations of the Trading Market. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) or 12(g) of the Exchange Act, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or which to its knowledge is likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission is contemplating terminating such registration. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Base Prospectus, any Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus or the Incorporated Documents, the Company has not, in the 12 months preceding the date hereof, received notice from any Trading Market on which the Common Stock is or has been listed or quoted to the effect that the Company is not in compliance with the listing or maintenance requirements of such Trading Market.

 

(dd)    Application of Takeover Protections. Except as set forth in the Registration Statement, the Base Prospectus, any Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus, the Company and its Board have taken all necessary action, if any, in order to render inapplicable any control share acquisition, business combination, poison pill (including any distribution under a rights agreement) or other similar anti-takeover provision under the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation (or similar charter documents) or the laws of its state of incorporation that is or could become applicable to the purchasers of the Shares.

 

(ee)     Solvency. Based on the financial condition of the Company as of the Effective Date, (i) the Company’s fair saleable value of its assets exceeds the amount that will be required to be paid on or in respect of the Company’s existing debts and other liabilities (including known contingent liabilities) as they mature, (ii) the Company’s assets do not constitute unreasonably small capital to carry on its business as now conducted and as proposed to be conducted including its capital needs taking into account the particular capital requirements of the business conducted by the Company, and projected capital requirements and capital availability thereof, and (iii) the current cash flow of the Company, together with the proceeds the Company would receive, were it to liquidate all of

 

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its assets, after taking into account all anticipated uses of the cash, would be sufficient to pay all amounts on or in respect of its debt when such amounts are required to be paid. Within one year of the Effective Date, the Company does not intend to incur debts beyond its ability to pay such debts as they mature (taking into account the timing and amounts of cash to be payable on or in respect of its debt). The SEC Reports set forth as of the dates thereof all outstanding secured and unsecured Indebtedness of the Company or any Subsidiary, or for which the Company or any Subsidiary has commitments. For the purposes of this Agreement, “Indebtedness” shall mean (a) any liabilities for borrowed money or amounts owed in excess of $50,000 (other than accrued liabilities and trade accounts payable incurred in the ordinary course of business), (b) all guaranties, endorsements and other contingent obligations in respect of indebtedness of others, whether or not the same are or should be reflected in the Company’s balance sheet (or the notes thereto), except guaranties by endorsement of negotiable instruments for deposit or collection or similar transactions in the ordinary course of business; and (c) the present value of any lease payments in excess of $50,000 due under leases required to be capitalized in accordance with GAAP. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary is in default with respect to any Indebtedness.

 

(ff)     Tax Status. Except for matters that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, the Company and each Subsidiary (i) have made or filed all necessary United States federal, and state income and all foreign income and franchise tax returns and have paid or accrued all taxes shown as due thereon, and the Company has no knowledge of a tax deficiency which has been asserted or threatened against the Company or any report and declaration required by any jurisdiction to which it is subject, (ii) have paid all taxes and other governmental assessments and charges that are material in amount, shown or determined to be due on such returns, reports and declarations and (iii) have set aside on its books provision reasonably adequate for the payment of all material taxes for periods subsequent to the periods to which such returns, reports or declarations apply. There are no unpaid taxes in any material amount claimed to be due by the taxing authority of any jurisdiction, and the officers of the Company or of any Subsidiary know of no basis for any such claim.

 

(gg)     Foreign Corrupt Practices. Neither the Company, nor to the knowledge of the Company, any agent or other person acting on behalf of the Company, has (i) directly or indirectly, used any funds for unlawful contributions, gifts, entertainment or other unlawful expenses related to foreign or domestic political activity, (ii) made any unlawful payment to foreign or domestic government officials or employees or to any foreign or domestic political parties or campaigns from corporate funds, (iii) failed to disclose fully any contribution made by the Company (or made by any person acting on its behalf of which the Company is aware) which is in violation of law, or (iv) violated in any material respect any provision of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended.

 

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(hh)     Office of Foreign Assets Control. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary nor, to the Company's knowledge, any director, officer, agent, employee or affiliate of the Company or any Subsidiary is currently subject to any U.S. sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Treasury Department (“OFAC”).

 

(ii)     U.S. Real Property Holding Corporation. The Company is not and has never been a U.S. real property holding corporation within the meaning of Section 897 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the Company shall so certify upon the Manager’s request.

 

(jj)     Bank Holding Company Act. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries or Affiliates is subject to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the “BHCA”) and to regulation by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”). Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries or Affiliates owns or controls, directly or indirectly, five percent (5%) or more of the outstanding shares of any class of voting securities or twenty-five percent or more of the total equity of a bank or any entity that is subject to the BHCA and to regulation by the Federal Reserve. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries or Affiliates exercises a controlling influence over the management or policies of a bank or any entity that is subject to the BHCA and to regulation by the Federal Reserve.

 

(kk)     Money Laundering. The operations of the Company and its Subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with applicable financial record-keeping and reporting requirements of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, applicable money laundering statutes and applicable rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”), and no Action or Proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any Subsidiary with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company or any Subsidiary, threatened.

 

(ll)     FINRA Member Shareholders. There are no affiliations with any FINRA member firm among the Company’s officers, directors or, to the knowledge of the Company, any five percent (5%) or greater stockholder of the Company, except as set forth in the Registration Statement, the Base Prospectus, any Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus.

 

4.     Agreements. The Company agrees with the Manager that:

 

(a)     Right to Review Amendments and Supplements to Registration Statement and Prospectus. During any period when the delivery of a prospectus relating to the Shares is required (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172, 173 or any similar rule) to be

 

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delivered under the Act in connection with the offering or the sale of Shares, the Company will not file any amendment to the Registration Statement or supplement (including any Prospectus Supplement) to the Base Prospectus unless the Company has furnished to the Manager a copy for its review prior to filing and will not file any such proposed amendment or supplement to which the Manager reasonably objects (provided, however, that the Company will have no obligation to provide the Manager any advance copy of such filing or to provide the Manager an opportunity to object to such filing if the filing does not name the Manager and does not relate to the transaction herein provided). The Company will properly cause any supplement to the Prospectus filed after the Effective Time to be properly completed, in a form approved by the Manager, and will file such supplement with the Commission pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) within the time period prescribed thereby and will provide evidence reasonably satisfactory to the Manager of such timely filing. The Company will promptly advise the Manager (i) when the Prospectus, and any supplement thereto, shall have been filed (if required) with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b), (ii) when, during any period when the delivery of a prospectus (whether physically or through compliance with Rule 172, 173 or any similar rule) is required under the Act in connection with the offering or sale of the Shares, any amendment to the Registration Statement shall have been filed or become effective (other than any annual report of the Company filed pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act), (iii) of any request by the Commission or its staff for any amendment of the Registration Statement, or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, or for any supplement to the Prospectus or for any additional information, (iv) of the issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or of any notice objecting to its use or the institution or threatening of any proceeding for that purpose and (v) of the receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification of the Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the institution or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose. The Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any such stop order or the occurrence of any such suspension or objection to the use of the Registration Statement and, upon such issuance, occurrence or notice of objection, to obtain as soon as possible the withdrawal of such stop order or relief from such occurrence or objection, including, if necessary, by filing an amendment to the Registration Statement or a new registration statement and using its commercially reasonable efforts to have such amendment or new registration statement declared effective as soon as practicable.

 

(b)     Subsequent Events. If, at any time on or after an Applicable Time but prior to the related Settlement Date, any event occurs as a result of which the Registration Statement or Prospectus would include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary to make the statements therein in the light of the circumstances under which they were made or the circumstances then prevailing not misleading, the Company will (i) notify promptly the Manager so that any use of the Registration Statement or Prospectus may cease until such are amended or supplemented; (ii) amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to correct such statement or omission; and (iii) supply any amendment or supplement to the Manager in such quantities as the Manager may reasonably request.

 

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(c)     Notification of Subsequent Filings. During any period when the delivery of a prospectus relating to the Shares is required (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172, 173 or any similar rule) to be delivered under the Act, any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then supplemented would include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary to make the statements therein in the light of the circumstances under which they were made not misleading, or if it shall be necessary to amend the Registration Statement, file a new registration statement or supplement the Prospectus to comply with the Act or the Exchange Act or the respective rules thereunder, including in connection with use or delivery of the Prospectus, the Company promptly will (i) notify the Manager of any such event, (ii) subject to Section 4(a), prepare and file with the Commission an amendment or supplement or new registration statement which will correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance, (iii) use its commercially reasonable efforts to have any amendment to the Registration Statement or new registration statement declared effective as soon as practicable in order to avoid any disruption in use of the Prospectus and (iv) supply any supplemented Prospectus to the Manager in such quantities as the Manager may reasonably request.

 

(d)     Earnings Statements. As soon as practicable, the Company will make generally available to its security holders and to the Manager an earnings statement or statements of the Company and its Subsidiaries which will satisfy the provisions of Section 11(a) of the Act and Rule 158.

 

(e)     Delivery of Registration Statement. Upon the request of the Manager, the Company will furnish to the Manager and counsel for the Manager, without charge, signed copies of the Registration Statement (including exhibits thereto) and, so long as delivery of a prospectus by the Manager or dealer may be required by the Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172, 173 or any similar rule), as many copies of the Prospectus and each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus and any supplement thereto as the Manager may reasonably request. The Company will pay the expenses of printing or other production of all documents relating to the offering.

 

(f)     Qualification of Shares. The Company will arrange, if necessary, for the qualification of the Shares for sale under the laws of such jurisdictions as the Manager may designate and will maintain such qualifications in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Shares; provided that in no event shall the Company be obligated to qualify to do business in any jurisdiction where it is not now so qualified or to take any action that would subject it to service of process in suits, other than those arising out of the offering or sale of the Shares, in any jurisdiction where it is not now so subject.

 

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(g)     Free Writing Prospectus. The Company agrees that, unless it has or shall have obtained the prior written consent of the Manager, and the Manager agrees with the Company that, unless it has or shall have obtained, as the case may be, the prior written consent of the Company, it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Shares that would constitute an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or that would otherwise constitute a “free writing prospectus” (as defined in Rule 405) required to be filed by the Company with the Commission or retained by the Company under Rule 433. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Manager or the Company is hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company agrees that (i) it has treated and will treat, as the case may be, each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus and (ii) it has complied and will comply, as the case may be, with the requirements of Rules 164 and 433 applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, including in respect of timely filing with the Commission, legending and record keeping.

 

(h)     Subsequent Equity Issuances. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary will offer, sell, issue, contract to sell, contract to issue or otherwise dispose of, directly or indirectly, any other shares of Common Stock or any Common Stock Equivalents (other than the Shares) during the term of this Agreement (i) without giving the Manager at least three Business Days’ prior written notice specifying the nature of the proposed transaction and the date of such proposed transaction and (ii) unless the Manager suspends acting under this Agreement for such period of time requested by the Company or as deemed appropriate by the Manager in light of the proposed transaction; provided, however, that the Company may issue and sell Common Stock pursuant to any employee stock option plan, stock ownership plan or dividend reinvestment plan of the Company in effect at the Execution Time and the Company may issue Common Stock issuable upon the conversion or exercise of Common Stock Equivalents outstanding at the Execution Time.

 

(i)     Market Manipulation. Until the termination of this Agreement, the Company will not take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that would constitute or that might reasonably be expected to cause or result in, under the Exchange Act or otherwise, stabilization or manipulation in violation of the Act, Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares or otherwise violate any provision of Regulation M under the Exchange Act.

 

(j)     Notification of Incorrect Certificate. The Company will, at any time during the term of this Agreement, as supplemented from time to time, advise the Manager immediately after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect any opinion, certificate, letter and other document provided to the Manager pursuant to Section 6 herein.

 

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(k)     Certification of Accuracy of Disclosure. Upon commencement of the offering of the Shares under this Agreement (and upon the recommencement of the offering of the Shares under this Agreement following the termination of a suspension of sales hereunder lasting more than 30 Trading Days), and each time that (i) the Registration Statement or Prospectus shall be amended or supplemented, other than by means of Incorporated Documents, (ii) the Company files its Annual Report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act, (iii) the Company files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act, (iv) the Company files a Current Report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than information that is furnished and not filed), if the Manager reasonably determines that the information in such Form 8-K is material, or (v) the Shares are delivered to the Manager as principal at the Time of Delivery pursuant to a Terms Agreement (such commencement or recommencement date and each such date referred to in (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v) above, a “Representation Date”), unless waived by the Manager, the Company shall furnish or cause to be furnished to the Manager forthwith a certificate dated and delivered on the Representation Date, in form reasonably satisfactory to the Manager to the effect that the statements contained in the certificate referred to in Section 6 of this Agreement which were last furnished to the Manager are true and correct at the Representation Date, as though made at and as of such date (except that such statements shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to such date) or, in lieu of such certificate, a certificate of the same tenor as the certificate referred to in said Section 6, modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the date of delivery of such certificate. The requirement to furnish or cause to be furnished a certificate under this Section 4(k) shall be waived for any Representation Date occurring on a date on which no instruction to the Manager to sell Shares pursuant to this Agreement has been delivered by the Company or is pending. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Shares following any Representation Date when the Company relied on such waiver and did not provide the Manager a certificate pursuant to this Section 4(k), then before the Company instructs the Manager to sell Shares pursuant to this Agreement, the Company shall provide the Manager such certificate

 

(l)     Bring Down Opinions; Negative Assurance. At each Representation Date, unless waived by the Manager, the Company shall furnish or cause to be furnished forthwith to the Manager and to counsel to the Manager a written opinion of counsel to the Company (“Company Counsel”) addressed to the Manager and dated and delivered on such Representation Date, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Manager, including a negative assurance representation. In lieu of delivering such an opinion for Representation Dates subsequent to the commencement of the offering of the Shares under this

 

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Agreement such counsel may furnish the Manager with a letter to the effect that the Manager may rely on a prior opinion delivered under Section 6(b) or this Section 4(l) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented as of such subsequent Representation Date). The requirement to furnish or cause to be furnished an opinion under this Section 4(l) shall be waived for any Representation Date other than a Representation Date on which a material amendment to the Registration Statement or Prospectus is made or the Company files its Annual Report on Form 10-K or a material amendment thereto under the Exchange Act, unless the Manager reasonably requests such deliverable required this Section 4(l) in connection with a Representation Date, upon which request such deliverable shall be deliverable hereunder.

 

(m)     Auditor Bring Down Comfort Letter. At each Representation Date, unless waived by the Manager, the Company shall cause (1) the Company’s auditors (the “Accountants”), or other independent accountants satisfactory to the Manager forthwith to furnish the Manager a letter, and (2) the Chief Financial Officer of the Company forthwith to furnish the Manager a certificate, in each case dated on such Representation Date, in form satisfactory to the Manager, of the same tenor as the letters and certificate referred to in Section 6 of this Agreement but modified to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letters and certificate. The requirement to furnish or cause to be furnished a “comfort” letter under this Section 4(m) shall be waived for any Representation Date other than a Representation Date on which a material amendment to the Registration Statement or Prospectus is made or the Company files its Annual Report on Form 10-K or a material amendment thereto under the Exchange Act, unless the Manager reasonably requests the deliverables required this Section 4(m) in connection with a Representation Date, upon which request such deliverable shall be deliverable hereunder.

 

(n)     Due Diligence Session. Upon commencement of the offering of the Shares under this Agreement (and upon the recommencement of the offering of the Shares under this Agreement following the termination of a suspension of sales hereunder lasting more than 30 Trading Days), and at each Representation Date, the Company will conduct a due diligence session, in form and substance, reasonably satisfactory to the Manager, which shall include representatives of management and Accountants. The Company shall cooperate timely with any reasonable due diligence request from or review conducted by the Manager or its agents from time to time in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, including, without limitation, providing information and available documents and access to appropriate corporate officers and the Company’s agents during regular business hours, and timely furnishing or causing to be furnished such certificates, letters and opinions from the Company, its officers and its agents, as the Manager may reasonably request. The requirement to conduct a due

 

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diligence session under this Section 4(n) shall be waived for any Representation Date occurring on a date on which no instruction to the Manager to sell Shares pursuant to this Agreement has been delivered by the Company or is pending. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Shares following any Representation Date when the Company relied on such waiver and did not conduct a due diligence session pursuant to this Section 4(n), then before the Company instructs the Manager to sell Shares pursuant to this Agreement, the Company shall conduct a due diligence session in accordance with this Section 4(n)

 

(o)     Acknowledgment of Trading. The Company consents to the Manager trading in the Common Stock for the Manager’s own account and for the account of its clients at the same time as sales of the Shares occur pursuant to this Agreement or pursuant to a Terms Agreement.

 

(p)     Disclosure of Shares Sold. The Company will disclose in its Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, as applicable, the number of Shares sold through the Manager under this Agreement, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation paid by the Company with respect to sales of Shares pursuant to this Agreement during the relevant quarter; and, if required by any subsequent change in Commission policy or request, more frequently by means of a Current Report on Form 8-K or a further Prospectus Supplement.

 

(q)     Rescission Right. If to the knowledge of the Company, the conditions set forth in Section 6 shall not have been satisfied as of the applicable Settlement Date, the Company will offer to any person who has agreed to purchase Shares from the Company as the result of an offer to purchase solicited by the Manager the right to refuse to purchase and pay for such Shares.

 

(r)     Bring Down of Representations and Warranties. Each acceptance by the Company of an offer to purchase the Shares hereunder, and each execution and delivery by the Company of a Terms Agreement, shall be deemed to be an affirmation to the Manager that the representations and warranties of the Company contained in or made pursuant to this Agreement are true and correct as of the date of such acceptance or of such Terms Agreement as though made at and as of such date, and an undertaking that such representations and warranties will be true and correct as of the Settlement Date for the Shares relating to such acceptance or as of the Time of Delivery relating to such sale, as the case may be, as though made at and as of such date (except that such representations and warranties shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented relating to such Shares).

 

(s)     Reservation of Shares. The Company shall ensure that there are at all times sufficient shares of Common Stock to provide for the issuance, free of any preemptive rights, out of its authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock or shares of Common Stock held in treasury, of the maximum aggregate number of Shares authorized for issuance by the Board pursuant to the terms of this Agreement. The Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Shares to be listed for trading on the Trading Market and to maintain such listing.

 

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(t)     Obligation Under Exchange Act. During any period when the delivery of a prospectus relating to the Shares is required (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172, 173 or any similar rule) to be delivered under the Act, the Company will file all documents required to be filed with the Commission pursuant to the Exchange Act within the time periods required by the Exchange Act and the regulations thereunder.

 

(u)     DTC Facility. The Company shall cooperate with Manager and use its reasonable efforts to permit the Shares to be eligible for clearance and settlement through the facilities of DTC.

 

(v)     Use of Proceeds. The Company will apply the Net Proceeds from the sale of the Shares in the manner set forth in the Prospectus.

 

(w)     Filing of Prospectus Supplement. On or prior to the earlier of (i) the date on which the Company shall file a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or an Annual Report on Form 10-K in respect of any fiscal quarter in which sales of Shares were made by the Manager pursuant to Section 2(b) of this Agreement and (ii) the date on which the Company shall be obligated to file such document referred to in clause (i) in respect of such quarter (each such date, and any date on which an amendment to any such document is filed, a “Filing Date”), the Company will file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b), which prospectus supplement will set forth, with regard to such quarter, the number of the Shares sold through the Manager as agent pursuant to Section 2(b) of this Agreement, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation paid by the Company with respect to such sales of the Shares pursuant to Section 2(b) of this Agreement and deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to the Trading Market as are required by such exchange. In the event any sales are made pursuant to this Agreement which are NOT made in “at the market” offerings as defined in Rule 415, including, without limitation, any Placement pursuant to a Terms Agreement, the Company shall file a Prospectus Supplement describing the terms of such transaction, the amount of Shares sold, the price thereof, the Manager’s compensation, and such other information as may be required pursuant to Rule 424 and Rule 430B, as applicable, within the time required by Rule 424.

 

(x)     Additional Registration Statement. To the extent that the Registration Statement is not available for the sales of the Shares as contemplated by this Agreement, the Company shall file a new registration statement with

 

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respect to any additional shares of Common Stock necessary to complete such sales of the Shares and shall cause such registration statement to become effective as promptly as practicable. After the effectiveness of any such registration statement, all references to “Registration Statement” included in this Agreement shall be deemed to include such new registration statement, including all documents incorporated by reference therein pursuant to Item 12 of Form S-3, and all references to “Base Prospectus” included in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the final form of prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in any such registration statement at the time such registration statement became effective.

 

5.     Payment of Expenses. The Company agrees to pay the costs and expenses incident to the performance of its obligations under this Agreement, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereby are consummated, including without limitation: (i) the preparation, printing or reproduction and filing with the Commission of the Registration Statement (including financial statements and exhibits thereto), the Prospectus and each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, and each amendment or supplement to any of them; (ii) the printing (or reproduction) and delivery (including postage, air freight charges and charges for counting and packaging) of such copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, and each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, and all amendments or supplements to any of them, as may, in each case, be reasonably requested for use in connection with the offering and sale of the Shares; (iii) the preparation, printing, authentication, issuance and delivery of certificates for the Shares, including any stamp or transfer taxes in connection with the original issuance and sale of the Shares; (iv) the printing (or reproduction) and delivery of this Agreement, any blue sky memorandum and all other agreements or documents printed (or reproduced) and delivered in connection with the offering of the Shares; (v) the registration of the Shares under the Exchange Act, if applicable, and the listing of the Shares on the Trading Market; (vi) any registration or qualification of the Shares for offer and sale under the securities or blue sky laws of the several states (including filing fees and the reasonable fees and expenses of counsel for the Manager relating to such registration and qualification); (vii) the transportation and other expenses incurred by or on behalf of Company representatives in connection with presentations to prospective purchasers of the Shares; (viii) the fees and expenses of the Company’s accountants and the fees and expenses of counsel (including local and special counsel) for the Company; (ix) the filing fee under FINRA Rule 5110; (x) the reasonable fees and expenses of the Manager’s counsel, not to exceed $50,000 (excluding any periodic due diligence fees provided for under Section 4(n)), which shall be paid upon the Execution Time; and (xi) all other costs and expenses incident to the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder.

 

6.     Conditions to the Obligations of the Manager. The obligations of the Manager under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement shall be subject to (i) the accuracy of the representations and warranties on the part of the Company contained herein as of the Execution Time, each Representation Date, and as of each Applicable Time, Settlement Date and Time of Delivery, (ii) the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder and (iii) the following additional conditions:

 

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(a)     Effectiveness of the Registration Statement; Filing of Prospectus Supplement. The Registration Statement shall have been declared effective by the Commission and the Prospectus, and any supplement thereto, required by Rule 424 to be filed with the Commission have been filed in the manner and within the time period required by Rule 424(b) with respect to any sale of Shares; each Prospectus Supplement shall have been filed in the manner required by Rule 424(b) within the time period required hereunder and under the Act; any other material required to be filed by the Company pursuant to Rule 433(d) under the Act, shall have been filed with the Commission within the applicable time periods prescribed for such filings by Rule 433; and no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any notice objecting to its use shall have been issued and no proceedings for that purpose shall have been instituted or threatened.

 

(b)     Delivery of Opinion. The Company shall have caused the Company Counsel to furnish to the Manager its opinion and negative assurance statement, dated as of such date and addressed to the Manager in form and substance acceptable to the Manager.

 

(c)     Delivery of Officer’s Certificate. The Company shall have furnished or caused to be furnished to the Manager a certificate of the Company signed by the Chief Executive Officer or the President and the principal financial or accounting officer of the Company, dated as of such date, to the effect that the signers of such certificate have carefully examined the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any Prospectus Supplement and any documents incorporated by reference therein and any supplements or amendments thereto and this Agreement and that:

 

(i)     the representations and warranties of the Company in this Agreement are true and correct on and as of such date with the same effect as if made on such date and the Company has complied with all the agreements and satisfied all the conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied at or prior to such date;

 

(ii)     no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any notice objecting to its use has been issued and no proceedings for that purpose have been instituted or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened; and

 

(iii)     since the date of the most recent financial statements included in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Incorporated Documents, there has been no Material Adverse Effect on the condition (financial or otherwise), earnings, business or properties of the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business, except as set forth in or contemplated in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

 

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(d)     Delivery of Accountants’ Comfort Letter. The Company shall have requested and caused the Accountants to have furnished to the Manager letters (which may refer to letters previously delivered to the Manager), dated as of such date, in form and substance satisfactory to the Manager, confirming that they are independent accountants within the meaning of the Act and the Exchange Act and the respective applicable rules and regulations adopted by the Commission thereunder and that they have performed a review of any unaudited interim financial information of the Company included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and provide customary “comfort” as to such review in form and substance satisfactory to the Manager.

 

(e)     No Material Adverse Event. Since the respective dates as of which information is disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Incorporated Documents, except as otherwise stated therein, there shall not have been (i) any change or decrease in previously reported results specified in the letter or letters referred to in paragraph (d) of this Section 6 or (ii) any change, or any development involving a prospective change, in or affecting the condition (financial or otherwise), earnings, business or properties of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business, except as set forth in or contemplated in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Incorporated Documents (exclusive of any amendment or supplement thereto) the effect of which, in any case referred to in clause (i) or (ii) above, is, in the sole judgment of the Manager, so material and adverse as to make it impractical or inadvisable to proceed with the offering or delivery of the Shares as contemplated by the Registration Statement (exclusive of any amendment thereof), the Incorporated Documents and the Prospectus (exclusive of any amendment or supplement thereto).

 

(f)     Payment of All Fees. The Company shall have paid the required Commission filing fees relating to the Shares within the time period required by Rule 456(b)(1)(i) of the Act without regard to the proviso therein and otherwise in accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r) of the Act and, if applicable, shall have updated the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in accordance with Rule 456(b)(1)(ii) either in a post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement or on the cover page of a prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b).

 

(g)     No FINRA Objections. FINRA shall not have raised any objection with respect to the fairness and reasonableness of the terms and arrangements under this Agreement.

 

(h)     Shares Listed on Trading Market. The Shares shall have been listed and admitted and authorized for trading on the Trading Market, and satisfactory evidence of such actions shall have been provided to the Manager.

 

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(i)     Other Assurances. Prior to each Settlement Date and Time of Delivery, as applicable, the Company shall have furnished to the Manager such further information, certificates and documents as the Manager may reasonably request.

 

If any of the conditions specified in this Section 6 shall not have been fulfilled when and as provided in this Agreement, or if any of the opinions and certificates mentioned above or elsewhere in this Agreement shall not be reasonably satisfactory in form and substance to the Manager and counsel for the Manager, this Agreement and all obligations of the Manager hereunder may be canceled at, or at any time prior to, any Settlement Date or Time of Delivery, as applicable, by the Manager. Notice of such cancellation shall be given to the Company in writing or by telephone or facsimile confirmed in writing.

 

The documents required to be delivered by this Section 6 shall be delivered to the office of Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP, counsel for the Manager, at 1345 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10105, email: capmkts@egsllp.com on each such date as provided in this Agreement.

 

7.     Indemnification and Contribution.

 

(a)     Indemnification by Company. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Manager, the directors, officers, employees and agents of the Manager and each person who controls the Manager within the meaning of either the Act or the Exchange Act against any and all losses, claims, damages or liabilities, joint or several, to which they or any of them may become subject under the Act, the Exchange Act or other Federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such losses, claims, damages or liabilities (or actions in respect thereof) arise out of or are based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement for the registration of the Shares as originally filed or in any amendment thereof, or in the Base Prospectus, any Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus, any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, or in any amendment thereof or supplement thereto, or arise out of or are based upon the omission or alleged omission to state therein a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading or result from or relate to any breach of any of the representations, warranties, covenants or agreements made by the Company in this Agreement, and agrees to reimburse each such indemnified party for any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by them in connection with investigating or defending any such loss, claim, damage, liability or action; provided, however, that the Company will not be liable in any such case to the extent that any such loss, claim, damage or liability arises out of or is based upon any such untrue statement or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission made therein in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Manager specifically for inclusion therein. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company may otherwise have.

 

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(b)     Indemnification by Manager. The Manager agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company, each of its directors, each of its officers who signs the Registration Statement, and each person who controls the Company within the meaning of either the Act or the Exchange Act, to the same extent as the foregoing indemnity from the Company to the Manager, but only with reference to written information relating to the Manager furnished to the Company by the Manager specifically for inclusion in the documents referred to in the foregoing indemnity; provided, however, that in no case shall the Manager be responsible for any amount in excess of the Broker Fee applicable to the Shares and paid hereunder. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability which the Manager may otherwise have.

 

(c)     Indemnification Procedures. Promptly after receipt by an indemnified party under this Section 7 of notice of the commencement of any action, such indemnified party will, if a claim in respect thereof is to be made against the indemnifying party under this Section 7, notify the indemnifying party in writing of the commencement thereof; but the failure so to notify the indemnifying party (i) will not relieve it from liability under paragraph (a) or (b) above unless and to the extent it did not otherwise learn of such action and such failure results in the forfeiture by the indemnifying party of substantial rights and defenses and (ii) will not, in any event, relieve the indemnifying party from any obligations to any indemnified party other than the indemnification obligation provided in paragraph (a) or (b) above. The indemnifying party shall be entitled to appoint counsel of the indemnifying party’s choice at the indemnifying party’s expense to represent the indemnified party in any action for which indemnification is sought (in which case the indemnifying party shall not thereafter be responsible for the fees and expenses of any separate counsel retained by the indemnified party or parties except as set forth below); provided, however, that such counsel shall be reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party. Notwithstanding the indemnifying party’s election to appoint counsel to represent the indemnified party in an action, the indemnified party shall have the right to employ separate counsel (including local counsel), and the indemnifying party shall bear the reasonable fees, costs and expenses of such separate counsel if (i) the use of counsel chosen by the indemnifying party to represent the indemnified party would present such counsel with a conflict of interest, (ii) the actual or potential defendants in, or targets of, any such action include both the indemnified party and the indemnifying party and the indemnified party shall have reasonably concluded that there may be legal defenses available to it and/or other indemnified parties which are different from or additional to those available to the indemnifying party, (iii) the indemnifying party shall not have employed counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party to represent the indemnified party within a reasonable time after notice of the institution of such action or (iv) the indemnifying party shall authorize the indemnified party to

 

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employ separate counsel at the expense of the indemnifying party. An indemnifying party will not, without the prior written consent of the indemnified parties, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment with respect to any pending or threatened claim, action, suit or proceeding in respect of which indemnification or contribution may be sought hereunder (whether or not the indemnified parties are actual or potential parties to such claim or action) unless such settlement, compromise or consent includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party from all liability arising out of such claim, action, suit or proceeding.

 

(d)     Contribution. In the event that the indemnity provided in paragraph (a), (b) or (c) of this Section 7 is unavailable to or insufficient to hold harmless an indemnified party for any reason, the Company and the Manager agree to contribute to the aggregate losses, claims, damages and liabilities (including legal or other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with investigating or defending the same) (collectively “Losses”) to which the Company and the Manager may be subject in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and by the Manager on the other from the offering of the Shares; provided, however, that in no case shall the Manager be responsible for any amount in excess of the Broker Fee applicable to the Shares and paid hereunder. If the allocation provided by the immediately preceding sentence is unavailable for any reason, the Company and the Manager severally shall contribute in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only such relative benefits but also the relative fault of the Company on the one hand and of the Manager on the other in connection with the statements or omissions which resulted in such Losses as well as any other relevant equitable considerations. Benefits received by the Company shall be deemed to be equal to the total net proceeds from the offering (before deducting expenses) received by it, and benefits received by the Manager shall be deemed to be equal to the Broker Fee applicable to the Shares and paid hereunder as determined by this Agreement. Relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether any untrue or any alleged untrue statement of a material fact or the omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information provided by the Company on the one hand or the Manager on the other, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such untrue statement or omission. The Company and the Manager agree that it would not be just and equitable if contribution were determined by pro rata allocation or any other method of allocation which does not take account of the equitable considerations referred to above. Notwithstanding the provisions of this paragraph (d), no person guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Act) shall be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 7, each person who controls the Manager within the meaning of either the Act or the Exchange Act and each director, officer, employee and agent of the Manager shall have the same rights to contribution as the Manager, and each person who controls the Company within the meaning of either the Act or the Exchange Act, each officer of the Company and each director of the Company shall have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the applicable terms and conditions of this paragraph (d).

 

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8.     Termination.

 

(a)     The Company shall have the right, by giving written notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate the provisions of this Agreement relating to the solicitation of offers to purchase the Shares in its sole discretion at any time upon five (5) Business Days’ prior written notice. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that (i) with respect to any pending sale, through the Manager for the Company, the obligations of the Company (including all obligations pursuant to Section 6), including in respect of compensation of the Manager, shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding the termination and (ii) the provisions of Sections 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12 and 14 of this Agreement shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(b)     The Manager shall have the right, by giving written notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate the provisions of this Agreement relating to the solicitation of offers to purchase the Shares in its sole discretion at any time. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Sections 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12 and 14 of this Agreement shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(c)     This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect until the date that this Agreement is terminated pursuant to Sections 8(a) or (b) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties, provided that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Sections 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12 and 14 shall remain in full force and effect.

 

(d)     Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination, provided that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by the Manager or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date or Time of Delivery for any sale of the Shares, such sale shall settle in accordance with the provisions of Section 2(b) of this Agreement.

 

(e)     In the case of any purchase of Shares by the Manager pursuant to a Terms Agreement, the obligations of the Manager pursuant to such Terms Agreement shall be subject to termination, in the absolute discretion of the Manager, by prompt oral notice given to the Company prior to the Time of Delivery relating to such Shares, if any, and confirmed promptly by facsimile or electronic mail, if since the time of execution of the Terms Agreement and prior to such delivery and payment, (i) trading in the Common Stock shall have been

 

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suspended by the Commission or the Trading Market or trading in securities generally on the Trading Market shall have been suspended or limited or minimum prices shall have been established on such exchange, (ii) a banking moratorium shall have been declared either by Federal or New York State authorities or (iii) there shall have occurred any outbreak or escalation of hostilities, declaration by the United States of a national emergency or war, or other calamity or crisis the effect of which on financial markets is such as to make it, in the sole judgment of the Manager, impractical or inadvisable to proceed with the offering or delivery of the Shares as contemplated by the Prospectus (exclusive of any amendment or supplement thereto).

 

9.     Representations and Indemnities to Survive. The respective agreements, representations, warranties, indemnities and other statements of the Company or its officers and of the Manager set forth in or made pursuant to this Agreement will remain in full force and effect, regardless of any investigation made by the Manager or the Company or any of the officers, directors, employees, agents or controlling persons referred to in Section 7, and will survive delivery of and payment for the Shares.

 

10.     Notices. All communications hereunder will be in writing and effective only on receipt, and will be mailed, delivered, e-mailed or facsimiled to the addresses of the Company and the Manager, respectively, set forth on the signature page hereto.

 

11.     Successors. This Agreement will inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the parties hereto and their respective successors and the officers, directors, employees, agents and controlling persons referred to in Section 7, and no other person will have any right or obligation hereunder.

 

12.     No Fiduciary Duty. The Company hereby acknowledges that (a) the purchase and sale of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement is an arm’s-length commercial transaction between the Company, on the one hand, and the Manager and any affiliate through which it may be acting, on the other, (b) the Manager is acting solely as sales agent and/or principal in connection with the purchase and sale of the Company’s securities and not as a fiduciary of the Company and (c) the Company’s engagement of the Manager in connection with the offering and the process leading up to the offering is as independent contractors and not in any other capacity. Furthermore, the Company agrees that it is solely responsible for making its own judgments in connection with the offering (irrespective of whether the Manager has advised or is currently advising the Company on related or other matters). The Company agrees that it will not claim that the Manager has rendered advisory services of any nature or respect, or owe an agency, fiduciary or similar duty to the Company, in connection with such transaction or the process leading thereto.

 

13.     Integration. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement supersede all prior agreements and understandings (whether written or oral) between the Company and the Manager with respect to the subject matter hereof. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, the letter agreement, dated September ___, 2020, by and between the Company and the Manager shall continue to be effective and the terms therein shall continue to survive and be enforceable by the Manager in accordance with its terms, provided that, in the event of a conflict between the terms of the letter agreement and this Agreement, the terms of this Agreement shall prevail.

 

36

 

14.     Amendments; Waivers. No provision of this Agreement may be waived, modified, supplemented or amended except in a written instrument signed, in the case of an amendment, by the Company and the Manager. No waiver of any default with respect to any provision, condition or requirement of this Agreement shall be deemed to be a continuing waiver in the future or a waiver of any subsequent default or a waiver of any other provision, condition or requirement hereof, nor shall any delay or omission of any party to exercise any right hereunder in any manner impair the exercise of any such right.

 

15.     Applicable Law. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York applicable to contracts made and to be performed within the State of New York. Each of the Company and the Manager: (i) agrees that any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or relating to this Agreement shall be instituted exclusively in New York Supreme Court, County of New York, or in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, (ii) waives any objection which it may have or hereafter to the venue of any such suit, action or proceeding, and (iii) irrevocably consents to the jurisdiction of the New York Supreme Court, County of New York, and the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York in any such suit, action or proceeding. Each of the Company and the Manager further agrees to accept and acknowledge service of any and all process which may be served in any such suit, action or proceeding in the New York Supreme Court, County of New York, or in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York and agrees that service of process upon the Company mailed by certified mail to the Company’s address shall be deemed in every respect effective service of process upon the Company, in any such suit, action or proceeding, and service of process upon the Manager mailed by certified mail to the Manager’s address shall be deemed in every respect effective service process upon the Manager, in any such suit, action or proceeding. If either party shall commence an action or proceeding to enforce any provision of this Agreement, then the prevailing party in such action or proceeding shall be reimbursed by the other party for its reasonable attorney’s fees and other costs and expenses incurred with the investigation, preparation and prosecution of such action or proceeding.

 

16.     Waiver of Jury Trial. The Company hereby irrevocably waives, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to this Agreement, any Terms Agreement or the transactions contemplated hereby or thereby.

 

17.     Counterparts. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement may be signed in one or more counterparts, each of which shall constitute an original and all of which together shall constitute one and the same agreement, which may be delivered by facsimile or in .pdf file via e-mail.

 

***************************

 

 

37

 

 

18.     Headings. The section headings used in this Agreement and any Terms Agreement are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

         

If the foregoing is in accordance with your understanding of our agreement, please sign and return to us the enclosed duplicate hereof, whereupon this letter and your acceptance shall represent a binding agreement among the Company and the Manager.

 

 

Very truly yours,

 

SILVERSUN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

 

By: ________________________

Name:

Title: 

 

Address for Notice:

 

 

Attention: 

E-mail:

 

 

The foregoing Agreement is hereby confirmed and accepted as of the date first written above.

 

H.C. WAINWRIGHT & CO., LLC

 

 

By: ________________________

Name:

Title:

 

Address for Notice:

430 Park Avenue
New York, New York 10022
Attention: Chief Executive Officer

E-mail: notices@hcwco.com

 

38

 

Form of Terms Agreement

 

ANNEX I 

 

SILVERSUN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

 

TERMS AGREEMENT

 

 

Dear Sirs:

 

          SilverSun Technologies, Inc. (the “Company”) proposes, subject to the terms and conditions stated herein and in the At The Market Offering Agreement, dated October 1, 2020 (the “At The Market Offering Agreement”), between the Company and H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC (“Agent”), to issue and sell to Agent the securities specified in the Schedule I hereto (the “Purchased Shares”).

 

          Each of the provisions of the At The Market Offering Agreement not specifically related to the solicitation by Agent, as agent of the Company, of offers to purchase securities is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, and shall be deemed to be part of this Terms Agreement to the same extent as if such provisions had been set forth in full herein. Each of the representations and warranties set forth therein shall be deemed to have been made at and as of the date of this Terms Agreement and the Time of Delivery, except that each representation and warranty in Section 3 of the At The Market Offering Agreement which makes reference to the Prospectus (as therein defined) shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty as of the date of the At The Market Offering Agreement in relation to the Prospectus, and also a representation and warranty as of the date of this Terms Agreement and the Time of Delivery in relation to the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to relate to the Purchased Shares.

 

          An amendment to the Registration Statement (as defined in the At The Market Offering Agreement), or a supplement to the Prospectus, as the case may be, relating to the Purchased Shares, in the form heretofore delivered to the Agent is now proposed to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

          Subject to the terms and conditions set forth herein and in the At The Market Offering Agreement which are incorporated herein by reference, the Company agrees to issue and sell to Agent and the latter agrees to purchase from the Company the number of shares of the Purchased Shares at the time and place and at the purchase price set forth in the Schedule I hereto.

 

39

 

          If the foregoing is in accordance with your understanding, please sign and return to us a counterpart hereof, whereupon this Terms Agreement, including those provisions of the At The Market Offering Agreement incorporated herein by reference, shall constitute a binding agreement between the Agent and the Company.

 

 

 

 

 

 

SILVERSUN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

 

 

By:__________________________________________

     Name: 

     Title: 

 

ACCEPTED as of the date first written above.

 

 

 

 

 

H.C. WAINWRIGHT & CO., LLC


 

 

 

By:__________________________________________

     Name:

     Title:

 

 

 

40

Exhibit 4.1

 

SILVERSUN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

 

AND

 

_______________________,

TRUSTEE

 

____________________

 

INDENTURE

 

DATED AS OF

 

_______, 2020

 

DEBT SECURITIES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SILVERSUN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

RECONCILIATION AND TIE BETWEEN TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939

AND INDENTURE, DATED AS OF _______ ___, 2020

 

 

 

 

Section of Trust Indenture Act of 1939

 

Section(s) of Indenture

 

 

 

§ 310(a)(1)

 

609

(a)(2)

 

609

(a)(3)

 

Not Applicable

(a)(4)

 

Not Applicable

(a)(5)

 

609

(b)

 

608, 610

§ 311(a)

 

613

(b)

 

613

(c)

 

Not Applicable

§ 312(a)

 

701, 702 (a)

(b)

 

702 (b)

(c)

 

702 (b)

§ 313(a)

 

703 (a)

(b)

 

703 (a)

(c)

 

703 (a)

(d)

 

703 (b)

§ 314(a)

 

704, 1005

(b)

 

Not Applicable

(c)(1)

 

103

(c)(2)

 

103

(c)(3)

 

Not Applicable

(d)

 

Not Applicable

(e)

 

103

§ 315(a)

 

601 (a)

(b)

 

602

(c)

 

601 (b)

(d)

 

601 (c)

(d)(1)

 

601 (c) (1)

(d)(2)

 

601 (c) (2)

(d)(3)

 

601 (c) (3)

(e)

 

511

§ 316(a)(1)(A)

 

505

(a)(1)(B)

 

504

(a)(2)

 

Not Applicable

(a)(last sentence)

 

101

(b)

 

507

(c)

 

105

§ 317(a)(1)

 

503

(a)(2)

 

509

(b)

 

1003

§ 318(a)

 

108

(b)

 

Not Applicable

(c)

 

108

  

Note:    This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be a part of the Indenture.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

ARTICLE I DEFINITIONS AND OTHER PROVISIONS OF GENERAL APPLICATION

1

 

 

 

SECTION 101.

DEFINITIONS.

1

SECTION 102.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF TRUST INDENTURE ACT.

8

SECTION 103.

COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATES AND OPINIONS.

9

SECTION 104.

FORM OF DOCUMENTS DELIVERED TO TRUSTEE.

9

SECTION 105.

ACTS OF HOLDERS; RECORD DATES.

10

SECTION 106.

NOTICES, ETC., TO TRUSTEE AND COMPANY.

11

SECTION 107.

NOTICE TO HOLDERS; WAIVER.

12

SECTION 108.

CONFLICT WITH TRUST INDENTURE ACT.

12

SECTION 109.

EFFECT OF HEADINGS AND TABLE OF CONTENTS.

12

SECTION 110.

SUCCESSORS AND ASSIGNS.

12

SECTION 111.

SEPARABILITY CLAUSE.

12

SECTION 112.

BENEFITS OF INDENTURE.

12

SECTION 113.

GOVERNING LAW.

13

SECTION 114.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS.

13

SECTION 115.

CORPORATE OBLIGATION.

13

SECTION 116.

WAIVER OF TRIAL JURY.

13

SECTION 117.

FORCE MAJEURE.

13

 

 

 

ARTICLE II SECURITY FORMS

14

 

 

 

SECTION 201.

FORMS GENERALLY.

14

SECTION 202.

FORM OF TRUSTEE’S CERTIFICATE OF AUTHENTICATION.

14

SECTION 203.

SECURITIES IN GLOBAL FORM.

14

SECTION 204.

BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES.

15

 

 

 

ARTICLE III THE SECURITIES

17

 

 

 

SECTION 301.

AMOUNT UNLIMITED; ISSUABLE IN SERIES.

17

SECTION 302.

DENOMINATIONS.

19

SECTION 303.

EXECUTION, AUTHENTICATION, DELIVERY AND DATING.

19

SECTION 304.

TEMPORARY SECURITIES.

20

SECTION 305.

REGISTRATION, REGISTRATION OF TRANSFER AND EXCHANGE.

21

SECTION 306.

MUTILATED, DESTROYED, LOST AND STOLEN SECURITIES.

22

SECTION 307.

PAYMENT OF INTEREST; INTEREST RIGHTS PRESERVED.

23

SECTION 308.

PERSONS DEEMED OWNERS.

24

SECTION 309.

CANCELLATION.

24

SECTION 310.

COMPUTATION OF INTEREST.

25

SECTION 311.

CUSIP NUMBERS.

25

 

 

 

ARTICLE IV SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; LEGAL DEFEASANCE AND  COVENANT DEFEASANCE

25

 

 

 

SECTION 401.

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE.

25

SECTION 402.

OPTION TO EFFECT LEGAL DEFEASANCE OR COVENANT DEFEASANCE.

26

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION 403.

LEGAL DEFEASANCE AND DISCHARGE.

26

SECTION 404.

COVENANT DEFEASANCE.

27

SECTION 405.

CONDITIONS TO LEGAL OR COVENANT DEFEASANCE.

27

SECTION 406.

DEPOSITED MONEY AND U.S. GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS TO BE HELD IN TRUST; OTHER MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.

28

SECTION 407.

REPAYMENT TO COMPANY.

29

SECTION 408.

REINSTATEMENT.

29

 

 

 

ARTICLE V REMEDIES

29

 

 

 

SECTION 501.

EVENTS OF DEFAULT.

29

SECTION 502.

ACCELERATION.

31

SECTION 503.

OTHER REMEDIES.

31

SECTION 504.

WAIVER OF PAST DEFAULTS.

31

SECTION 505.

CONTROL BY MAJORITY.

32

SECTION 506.

LIMITATION ON SUITS.

32

SECTION 507.

RIGHTS OF HOLDERS OF SECURITIES TO RECEIVE PAYMENT.

32

SECTION 508.

COLLECTION SUIT BY TRUSTEE.

32

SECTION 509.

TRUSTEE MAY FILE PROOFS OF CLAIM.

33

SECTION 510.

PRIORITIES.

33

SECTION 511.

UNDERTAKING FOR COSTS.

33

 

 

 

ARTICLE VI THE TRUSTEE

34

 

 

 

SECTION 601.

CERTAIN DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES.

34

SECTION 602.

NOTICE OF DEFAULTS.

35

SECTION 603.

CERTAIN RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE.

35

SECTION 604.

NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR RECITALS OR ISSUANCE OF SECURITIES.

36

SECTION 605.

MAY HOLD SECURITIES.

37

SECTION 606.

MONEY HELD IN TRUST.

37

SECTION 607.

COMPENSATION AND REIMBURSEMENT.

37

SECTION 608.

DISQUALIFICATION; CONFLICTING INTERESTS.

38

SECTION 609.

CORPORATE TRUSTEE REQUIRED; ELIGIBILITY.

38

SECTION 610.

RESIGNATION AND REMOVAL; APPOINTMENT OF SUCCESSOR.

38

SECTION 611.

ACCEPTANCE OF APPOINTMENT BY SUCCESSOR.

40

SECTION 612.

MERGER, CONVERSION, CONSOLIDATION OR SUCCESSION TO BUSINESS.

41

SECTION 613.

PREFERENTIAL COLLECTION OF CLAIMS AGAINST COMPANY.

41

SECTION 614.

APPOINTMENT OF AUTHENTICATING AGENT.

41

 

 

 

ARTICLE VII HOLDER’S LISTS AND REPORTS BY TRUSTEE AND COMPANY

42

 

 

 

SECTION 701.

COMPANY TO FURNISH TRUSTEE NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF HOLDERS.

42

SECTION 702.

PRESERVATION OF INFORMATION; COMMUNICATIONS TO HOLDERS.

43

SECTION 703.

REPORTS BY TRUSTEE.

43

SECTION 704.

REPORTS BY COMPANY.

43

 

 

 

ARTICLE VIII CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, CONVEYANCE,  TRANSFER OR LEASE

44

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION 801.

COMPANY MAY CONSOLIDATE, ETC., ONLY ON CERTAIN TERMS.

44

SECTION 802.

SUCCESSOR PERSON SUBSTITUTED.

45

 

 

 

ARTICLE IX SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

45

 

 

 

SECTION 901.

WITHOUT CONSENT OF HOLDERS.

45

SECTION 902.

WITH CONSENT OF HOLDERS.

46

SECTION 903.

COMPLIANCE WITH TRUST INDENTURE ACT.

47

SECTION 904.

REVOCATION AND EFFECT OF CONSENTS.

47

SECTION 905.

NOTATION ON OR EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES.

47

SECTION 906.

TRUSTEE TO SIGN AMENDMENTS, ETC.

47

 

 

 

ARTICLE X COVENANTS

48

 

 

 

SECTION 1001.

PAYMENT OF PRINCIPAL, PREMIUM AND INTEREST.

48

SECTION 1002.

MAINTENANCE OF OFFICE OR AGENCY.

48

SECTION 1003.

MONEY FOR SECURITIES PAYMENTS TO BE HELD IN TRUST.

48

SECTION 1004.

EXISTENCE.

49

SECTION 1005.

STATEMENT BY OFFICERS AS TO DEFAULT.

50

SECTION 1006.

WAIVER OF CERTAIN COVENANTS.

50

SECTION 1007.

ADDITIONAL AMOUNTS.

50

 

 

 

ARTICLE XI REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES

51

 

 

 

SECTION 1101.

APPLICABILITY OF ARTICLE.

51

SECTION 1102.

ELECTION TO REDEEM; NOTICE TO TRUSTEE.

51

SECTION 1103.

SELECTION BY TRUSTEE OF SECURITIES TO BE REDEEMED.

51

SECTION 1104.

NOTICE OF REDEMPTION.

52

SECTION 1105.

DEPOSIT OF REDEMPTION PRICE.

52

SECTION 1106.

SECURITIES PAYABLE ON REDEMPTION DATE.

52

SECTION 1107.

SECURITIES REDEEMED IN PART.

53

SECTION 1108.

PURCHASE OF SECURITIES.

53

 

 

 

ARTICLE XII SINKING FUNDS

53

 

 

 

SECTION 1201.

APPLICABILITY OF ARTICLE.

53

SECTION 1202.

SATISFACTION OF SINKING FUND PAYMENTS WITH SECURITIES.

54

SECTION 1203.

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES FOR SINKING FUND.

54

 

 

 

ARTICLE XIII MEETINGS OF HOLDERS OF SECURITIES

54

 

 

 

SECTION 1301.

PURPOSES FOR WHICH MEETINGS MAY BE CALLED.

54

SECTION 1302.

CALL, NOTICE AND PLACE OF MEETINGS.

54

SECTION 1303.

PERSONS ENTITLED TO VOTE AT MEETINGS.

55

SECTION 1304.

QUORUM; ACTION.

55

SECTION 1305.

DETERMINATION OF VOTING RIGHTS; CONDUCT AND ADJOURNMENT OF MEETINGS.

56

SECTION 1306.

COUNTING VOTES AND RECORDING ACTION OF MEETINGS.

56

  

 

 

INDENTURE

 

THIS Indenture, dated as of ________ ___, 2020, between Silversun Technologies, Inc., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware (herein called the “Company”), having its principal office at 120 Eagle Rock Ave, East Hanover, NJ 07936, and ________________, a ________ banking corporation, as Trustee (herein called the “Trustee”) the office of the Trustee at which at the date hereof its corporate trust business is principally administered being ______________________.

 

RECITALS OF THE COMPANY

 

The Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance from time to time of its unsecured debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness (herein called the “Securities”), to be issued in one or more series as in this Indenture provided.

 

The Securities of each series will be in such form as may be established by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in each case with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions, and other variations as are required or permitted by this Indenture, and may have such letters, numbers, or other marks of identification and such legends or endorsements placed thereon as may be required to comply with the rules of any securities exchange or as may, consistently herewith, be determined by the officers executing such Securities, as evidenced by their execution of the Securities.

 

This Indenture is subject to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act and the rules and regulations of the SEC promulgated thereunder that are required to be part of this Indenture and, to the extent applicable, shall be governed by such provisions.

 

All things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

 

NOW, THEREFORE, THIS INDENTURE WITNESSETH:

 

For and in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the Holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed, for the equal and proportionate benefit of all Holders of the Securities or of series thereof, as follows:

 

ARTICLE I

 

DEFINITIONS AND OTHER PROVISIONS

OF GENERAL APPLICATION

 

SECTION 101.       DEFINITIONS.

 

For all purposes of this Indenture, except as otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires:

 

(1)         the terms defined in this Article have the meanings assigned to them in this Article and include the plural as well as the singular;

 

1

 

(2)         all accounting terms not otherwise defined herein have the meanings assigned to them in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, and, except as otherwise herein expressly provided, the term “generally accepted accounting principles” with respect to any computation required or permitted hereunder shall mean such accounting principles as are generally accepted in the United States at the date of such computation; and

 

(3)         the words “herein,” “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

 

Certain terms, used principally in Article V, are defined in Section 102.

 

“Act” when used with respect to any Holder, has the meaning specified in Section 105.

 

“Additional Amounts” means any additional amounts that are required by the express terms of a Security or by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, under circumstances specified therein or pursuant thereto, to be paid by the Company with respect to certain taxes, assessments or other governmental charges imposed on certain Holders and that are owing to such Holders.

 

“Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified Person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” when used with respect to any specified Person means the power to direct the management and policies of such Person, directly or indirectly, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise; and the terms “controlling” and “controlled” have meanings correlative to the foregoing.

 

“Authenticating Agent” means any Person authorized by the Trustee to act on behalf of the Trustee pursuant to Section 614 to authenticate Securities of one or more series.

 

“Authorized Newspaper” means a newspaper, in the English language or in an official language of the country of publication, customarily published on each Business Day, whether or not published on Saturdays, Sundays or holidays, and of general circulation in the place in connection with which the term is used or in the financial community of such place. Where successive publications are required to be made in Authorized Newspapers, the successive publications may be made in the same or in different newspapers in the same city meeting the foregoing requirements and in each case on any Business Day.

 

“Board of Directors” means

 

(1)         with respect to a corporation, the board of directors of the corporation;

 

(2)         with respect to a partnership, the board of directors of the general partner of the partnership; and

 

(3)         with respect to any other Person, the board or committee of such Person serving a similar function.

 

“Board Resolution” means, with respect to any Person, a resolution of such Person duly adopted by the Board of Directors of such Person and in full force and effect.

 

“Book-Entry Security” has the meaning specified in Section 204.

 

2

 

“Business Day,” when used with respect to any Place of Payment, means each Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday that is not a day on which banking institutions in that Place of Payment or the city in which the Corporate Trust Office is located are authorized or obligated by law or executive order to close.

 

“Capital Lease Obligation” means, at the time any determination thereof is to be made, the amount of the liability in respect of a capital lease that would at that time be required to be capitalized on a balance sheet in accordance with GAAP.

 

“Capital Stock” means:

 

(i)          in the case of a corporation, corporate stock;

 

(ii)         in the case of an association or business entity, any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated) of corporate stock;

 

(iii)        in the case of a partnership or limited liability company, partnership or membership interests (whether general or limited); and

 

(iv)        any other interest or participation that confers on a Person the right to receive a share of the profits and losses of, or distributions of assets of, the issuing Person.

 

“Company” means the Person named as the “Company” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Person shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Company” shall mean such successor Person.

 

“Company Request” and “Company Order” mean, respectively, a written request or order signed in the name of the Company by its Chairman of the Board, its President or a Vice President, and by its Treasurer, an Assistant Treasurer, its Controller, an Assistant Controller, its Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, and delivered to the Trustee.

 

“Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is that indicated in the introductory paragraph of this Indenture or such other address as the Trustee may designate from time to time by notice to the Holders and the Company.

 

“Currency Agreement” means, with respect to any specified Person, any foreign exchange contract, currency swap agreement or other similar agreement or arrangement designed to protect such specified Person against fluctuations in currency values.

 

“Default” means an event or condition the occurrence of which is, or with the lapse of time or the giving of notice or both would be, an Event of Default.

 

“Defaulted Interest” has the meaning specified in Section 307.

 

“Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in the form of a global Security, the Person designated as Depositary by the Company pursuant to Section 301 until a successor Depositary shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depositary” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Depositary hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Securities of that series.

 

3

 

“Dollar” or “$” means a dollar or other equivalent unit in such coin or currency of the United States as at the time shall be legal tender for the payment of public and private debts.

 

“Event of Default” has the meaning specified in Section 501.

 

“GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as may be approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession of the United States of America, as in effect as of the date of issuance of Securities.

 

“Guarantee” means a guarantee (other than by endorsement of negotiable instruments for collection in the ordinary course of business), direct or indirect, in any manner (including, without limitation, by way of a pledge of assets or through letters of credit or reimbursement agreements), of all or any part of Indebtedness.

 

“Guarantor” means any Subsidiary that incurs a Guarantee.

 

“Hedging Agreement” means, with respect to any Person, any agreement with respect to the hedging of price risk associated with the purchase of commodities used in the business of such Person, so long as any such agreement has been entered into in the ordinary course of business and not for purposes of speculation.

 

“Holder” when used with respect to any Security, means the Person in whose name the Security is registered in the Security Register.

 

“Indebtedness” means, with respect to any specified Person, any indebtedness of such Person, whether or not contingent, in respect of:

 

(1)         borrowed money;

 

(2)         evidenced by bonds, notes, debentures or similar instruments or letters of credit (or reimbursement agreements in respect thereof) (other than obligations with respect to letters of credit securing obligations (other than obligations described in clause (1), (2) and (4) of this definition) entered into in the ordinary course of business of such Person to the extent that such letters of credit are not drawn upon);

 

(3)         banker’s acceptances;

 

(4)         any Capital Lease Obligations;

 

(5)         the balance deferred and unpaid of the purchase price of any property, except any such balance that constitutes an accrued expense or trade payable incurred in the ordinary course of business; or

 

(6)         any Hedging Agreements,

 

if and to the extent any of the preceding items (other than letters of credit and Hedging Agreements) would appear as a liability upon a balance sheet of the specified Person prepared in accordance with GAAP. In addition, the term “Indebtedness” includes all Indebtedness of others secured by a Lien on any asset of the specified Person (whether or not such Indebtedness is assumed by the specified Person) and, to the extent not otherwise included, the guarantee by the specified Person of any indebtedness of any other Person.

 

4

 

The amount of any Indebtedness outstanding as of any date shall be:

 

(1)         the accreted value thereof, in the case of any Indebtedness issued with original issue discount; and

 

(2)         the principal amount thereof, together with any interest thereon that is more than 30 days past due, in the case of any other Indebtedness.

 

“Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into pursuant to the applicable provisions hereof and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 301 and the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act that are deemed to be a part of and govern this instrument.

 

“Interest Payment Date,” means the Stated Maturity of an installment of interest on such Security.

 

“Interest Swap Obligations,” means the obligations of any Person pursuant to any arrangement with any other Person, whereby directly or indirectly, such Person is entitled to receive from time to time periodic payments calculated by applying either a floating or a fixed rate of interest on a stated notional amount in exchange for periodic payments made by such other Person calculated by applying a fixed or a floating rate of interest on the same notional amount and shall include, without limitation, interest rate swaps, options, caps, floors, collars and similar agreements.

 

“Lien” means any lien, mortgage, deed of trust, pledge, security interest, charge or encumbrance of any kind (including any conditional sale or other title retention agreement, any lease in the nature thereof and any agreement to give any security interest).

 

“Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security or an installment of principal becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise.

 

“Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by the Chairman of the Board, the President or a Vice President, and by the Treasurer, the Controller, the Secretary or an Assistant Treasurer, Assistant Controller or Assistant Secretary, of the Company, and delivered to the Trustee, which certificate shall be in compliance with Section 103 hereof.

 

“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of counsel, who may be counsel for or an employee of the Company, rendered, if applicable, in accordance with Section 314(c) of the Trust Indenture Act, which opinion shall be in compliance with Section 103 hereof.

 

“Original Issue Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 502.

 

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“Outstanding” when used with respect to Securities, means, as of the date of determination, all Securities theretofore authenticated and delivered under this Indenture, except:

 

(i)          Securities theretofore cancelled by the Trustee or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation;

 

(ii)         Securities for whose payment or redemption money in the necessary amount has been theretofore irrevocably deposited with the Trustee or any Paying Agent (other than the Company) in trust or set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own Paying Agent) for the Holders of such Securities; provided that, if such Securities are to be redeemed, notice of such redemption has been duly given pursuant to this Indenture or provision therefor satisfactory to the Trustee has been made; and

 

(iii)        Securities that have been paid pursuant to Section 306 or in exchange for or in lieu of which other Securities have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to this Indenture, other than any such Securities in respect of which there shall have been presented to the Trustee proof satisfactory to it that such Securities are held by a bona fide purchaser in whose hands such Securities are valid obligations of the Company;

 

provided, however, that in determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of the Outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, or whether a quorum is present at a meeting of Holders of Securities, (a) the principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security that shall be deemed to be Outstanding for such purposes shall be the principal amount thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 502, (b) the principal amount of a Security denominated in a foreign currency shall be the U.S. Dollar equivalent, determined by the Company on the date of original issuance of such Security, of the principal amount (or, in the case of an Original Issue Discount Security, the U.S. Dollar equivalent, determined on the date of original issuance of such Security, of the amount determined as provided in (a) above), of such Security and (c) Securities owned by the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or of such other obligor shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding, except that, in determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying upon any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver or upon any such determination as to the presence of a quorum, only Securities which the Trustee knows to be so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities so owned which have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or of such other obligor.

 

“Paying Agent” means any Person, which may include the Company, authorized by the Company to pay the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any one or more series of Securities on behalf of the Company.

 

“Person” means an individual, partnership, corporation, limited liability company, unincorporated organization, trust or joint venture, or a governmental agency or political subdivision thereof.

 

“Place of Payment” when used with respect to the Securities of any series, means the place or places where the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series are payable as specified in accordance with Section 301 subject to the provisions of Section 1002.

 

“Post-Petition Interest” means any interest that accrues after the commencement of any case, proceeding or other action relating to the bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of the Company (or would accrue but for the operation of applicable bankruptcy or insolvency laws), whether or not such interest is allowed or allowable as a claim in any such proceeding.

 

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“Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 306 in exchange for or in lieu of a mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security.

 

“Redemption Date” when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, means the date fixed for such redemption by or pursuant to this Indenture.

 

“Redemption Price” when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, means the price at which it is to be redeemed pursuant to this Indenture.

 

“Registered Security” means any Security in the form established pursuant to Section 201 which is registered in the Security Register.

 

“Regular Record Date” for the interest payable on any Interest Payment Date on the Registered Securities of any series means the date specified for that purpose as contemplated by Section 301, or, if not so specified, the last day of the calendar month preceding such Interest Payment Date if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of the calendar month or the fifteenth day of the calendar month preceding such Interest Payment Date if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a calendar month, whether or not such day shall be a Business Day.

 

“Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee, means any officer within the corporate trust department of the Trustee including any vice-president, assistant vice-president, assistant treasurer, trust officer or any other officer who customarily performs functions similar to those performed by the Persons who at the time shall be such officers who have direct responsibility for the administration of the Indenture and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

 

“Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and more particularly means any Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

“Security Register” and “Security Registrar” have the respective meanings specified in Section 305.

 

“Special Record Date” for the payment of any Defaulted Interest on the Registered Securities of any series means a date fixed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 307.

 

“Stated Maturity” when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal or interest is due and payable.

 

“Subsidiary” means, with respect to any specified Person:

 

(i)          any corporation of which the outstanding Capital Stock having at least a majority of the votes entitled to be cast in the election of directors under ordinary circumstances shall at the time be owned, directly or indirectly by such Person; or

 

(ii)         any other Person of which at least a majority of the voting interest under ordinary circumstances is at the time, directly or indirectly, owned by such Person.

 

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“Trustee” means the Person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that series.

 

“Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as in force at the date as of which this instrument was executed, except as provided in Section 903.

 

“United States” means the United States of America (including the States and the District of Columbia) and its “possessions,” which include Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, Wake Island and the Northern Mariana Islands.

 

“United States Alien” means any Person who, for United States federal income tax purposes, is a foreign corporation, a nonresident alien individual, a nonresident alien or foreign fiduciary of an estate or trust, or a foreign partnership.

 

“U.S. Government Obligations” means direct noncallable obligations of, or noncallable obligations the payment of principal of and interest on which is guaranteed by, the United States of America, or to the payment of which obligations or guarantees the full faith and credit of the United States of America is pledged, or beneficial interests in a trust the corpus of which consists exclusively of money or such obligations or a combination thereof.

 

“Vice President” when used with respect to the Company or the Trustee, means any vice president, whether or not designated by a number or a word or words added before or after the title “vice president”.

 

“Wholly Owned Subsidiary” of any Person means any Subsidiary of such Person of which all the outstanding voting securities (other than in the case of a Restricted Subsidiary that is incorporated in a jurisdiction other than a State in the United States of America or the District of Columbia, directors’ qualifying shares or an immaterial amount of shares required to be owned by other Persons pursuant to applicable law) are owned by such Person or any Wholly Owned Subsidiary of such Person.

 

“Yield to Maturity” when used with respect to any Original Issue Discount Security, means the yield to maturity, if any, set forth on the face thereof.

 

SECTION 102.     INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF TRUST INDENTURE ACT.

 

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the Trust Indenture Act, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following Trust Indenture Act terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

 

“Bankruptcy Act” means the Bankruptcy Act or Title 11 of the United States Code, as amended.

 

“indenture securities” means the Securities.

 

“indenture securityholder” means a Holder.

 

“indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.

 

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“indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.

 

“obligor” on the indenture securities means the Company or any other obligor on the Securities.

 

All terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the Trust Indenture Act, defined by Trust Indenture Act reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the Trust Indenture Act and not otherwise defined herein have the meanings assigned to them therein.

 

SECTION 103.     COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATES AND OPINIONS.

 

Except as otherwise expressly provided by this Indenture, upon any application or request by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under any provision of this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that all conditions precedent, if any (including any covenants the compliance with which constitutes a condition precedent), provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with and an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent, if any (including any covenants the compliance with which constitutes a condition precedent), have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or request as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or request, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

 

Every certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture shall include

 

(1)         a statement that each Person signing such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition and the definitions herein relating thereto;

 

(2)         a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

 

(3)         a statement that, in the opinion of each such Person, such Person has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable such Person to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

 

(4)         a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of each such Person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

 

SECTION 104.     FORM OF DOCUMENTS DELIVERED TO TRUSTEE.

 

In any case where several matters are required to be certified by, or covered by an opinion of, any specified Person, it is not necessary that all such matters be certified by, or covered by the opinion of, only one such Person, or that they be so certified or covered by only one document, but one such Person may certify or give an opinion with respect to some matters and one or more other such Persons as to other matters, and any such Person may certify or give an opinion as to such matters in one or several documents.

 

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Any certificate or opinion of an officer of the Company may be based, insofar as it relates to legal matters, upon a certificate or opinion of, or representations by, counsel, unless such officer knows, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know, that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his certificate or opinion is based are erroneous. Any such certificate or Opinion of Counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to factual matters, upon a certificate or opinion of, or representations by, an officer or officers of the Company stating that the information with respect to such factual matters is in the possession of the Company, unless such counsel knows, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know, that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to such matters are erroneous.

 

Where any Person is required to make, give or execute two or more applications, requests, consents, certificates, statements, opinions or other instruments under this Indenture, they may, but need not, be consolidated and form one instrument.

 

SECTION 105.     ACTS OF HOLDERS; RECORD DATES.

 

(1)         Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided by this Indenture to be given or taken by Holders may be embodied in and evidenced by one or more instruments of substantially similar tenor signed by such Holders in person or by an agent duly appointed in writing. Except as herein otherwise expressly provided, such action shall become effective when such instrument or instruments or record or both are delivered to the Trustee and, where it is hereby expressly required, to the Company. Such instrument or instruments and any such record (and the action embodied therein and evidenced thereby) are herein sometimes referred to as the “Act” of the Holders signing such instrument or instruments and so voting at any such meeting. Proof of execution of any such instrument or of a writing appointing any such agent, or the holding of any Person of a Security, shall be sufficient for any purpose of this Indenture and (subject to Section 601) conclusive in favor of the Trustee and the Company, if made in the manner provided in this Section. The record of any meeting of Holders of Securities shall be proved in the manner provided in Section 1306.

 

The Company may set in advance a record date for purposes of determining the identity of Holders of Registered Securities entitled to vote or consent to any action by vote or consent authorized or permitted under this Indenture. If not set by the Company prior to the first solicitation of a Holder of Registered Securities of such series made by any Person in respect of any such action, or in the case of any such vote, prior to such vote, the record date for any such action or vote shall be the later of 30 days prior to such first solicitation of such consent or the date of the most recent list of Holders furnished to the Trustee prior to such solicitation. If a record date is fixed, those Persons who were Holders of Outstanding Registered Securities at such record date (or their duly designated proxies), and only those Persons, shall be entitled with respect to such Securities to take such action by vote or consent or to revoke any vote or consent previously given, whether or not such Persons continue to be Holders after such record date. Promptly after any record date is set pursuant to this paragraph, the Company, at its own expense, shall cause notice thereof to be given to the Trustee in writing in the manner provided in Section 106 and to the relevant Holders as set forth in Section 107.

 

(2)         The fact and date of the execution by any Person of any such instrument or writing may be proved by the affidavit of a witness of such execution or by a certificate of a notary public or other officer authorized by law to take acknowledgments of deeds, certifying that the individual signing such instrument or writing acknowledged to him the execution thereof. Where such execution is by a signer acting in a capacity other than his individual capacity, such certificate or affidavit shall also constitute sufficient proof of his authority. The fact and date of the execution of any such instrument or writing, or the authority of the Person executing the same, may also be proved in any other manner which the Trustee deems sufficient.

 

(3)         The principal amount and serial numbers of Registered Securities held by any Person, and the date of holding the same, shall be proved by the Security Register.

 

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(4)         Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act of the Holder of any Security shall bind every future Holder of the same Security and the Holder of every Security issued upon the registration of transfer thereof or in exchange therefor or in lieu thereof in respect of anything done, omitted or suffered to be done by the Trustee or the Company in reliance thereon, whether or not notation of such action is made upon such Security. Any Holder or subsequent Holder may revoke the request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or other Act as to his Security or portion of his Security; provided, however, that such revocation shall be effective only if the Trustee receives the notice of revocation before the date the Act becomes effective.

 

SECTION 106.     NOTICES, ETC., TO TRUSTEE AND COMPANY.

 

Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or Act of Holders or other document provided or permitted by this Indenture to be made upon, given or furnished to, or filed with,

 

(1)         the Trustee by any Holder or by the Company shall be sufficient for every purpose hereunder if made, given, furnished or filed in writing to or with the Trustee at its Corporate Trust Office, Attention: Corporate Trust Administration, or

 

(2)         the Company by the Trustee or by any Holder shall be sufficient for every purpose hereunder (unless otherwise herein expressly provided) if in writing and mailed, first-class postage prepaid, to the Company addressed to it at the address of its principal office specified in the first paragraph of this Indenture or at any other address previously furnished in writing to the Trustee by the Company, Attention: Corporate Secretary.

 

The Company or the Trustee, by notice to the other, may designate additional or different addresses for subsequent notices or communications.

 

All notices and communications (other than those sent to the Trustee) shall be deemed to have been duly given: at the time delivered by hand, if personally delivered; five Business Days after being deposited in the mail, postage prepaid, if mailed; when receipt acknowledged, if telecopied; and the next Business Day after timely delivery to the courier, if sent by overnight air courier guaranteeing next-day delivery. All notices and communications to the Trustee shall be deemed duly given and effective only upon receipt.

 

Any notice or communication to a Holder shall be mailed by first class mail, certified or registered, return receipt requested, or by overnight air courier guaranteeing next-day delivery to its address shown on the Security Register. Any notice or communication shall also be so mailed to any Person described in TIA Section 313(c), to the extent required by the TIA. Failure to mail a notice or communication to a Holder or any defect in it shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Holders.

 

If a notice or communication is mailed in the manner provided above within the time prescribed, it is duly given, whether or not the addressee receives it.

 

If the Company mails a notice or communication to Holders, it shall mail a copy to the Trustee and each Agent at the same time. 

 

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SECTION 107.     NOTICE TO HOLDERS; WAIVER.

 

Where this Indenture provides for notice to Holders of Securities of any event, such notice shall be sufficiently given (unless otherwise herein expressly provided) if in writing and mailed, first-class postage prepaid, to each Holder affected by such event, at the address of such Holder as it appears in the Security Register, not later than the latest date, and not earlier than the earliest date, prescribed for the giving of such notice.

 

In case by reason of the suspension of regular mail service, or by reason of any other cause it shall be impracticable to give such notice to Holders of Registered Securities by mail, then such notification as shall be made with the approval of the Trustee shall constitute a sufficient notification for every purpose hereunder. In any case in which notice to Holders of Registered Securities is given by mail, neither the failure to mail such notice, nor any defect in any notice so mailed, to any particular Holder of a Registered Security, shall affect the sufficiency of such notice with respect to other Holders of Registered Securities.

 

Where this Indenture provides for notice in any manner, such notice may be waived in writing by the Person entitled to receive such notice, either before or after the event, and such waiver shall be the equivalent of such notice. Waivers of notice by Holders shall be filed with the Trustee, but such filing shall not be a condition precedent to the validity of any action taken in reliance upon such waiver.

 

SECTION 108.     CONFLICT WITH TRUST INDENTURE ACT.

 

If any provision hereof limits, qualifies or conflicts with any provision of the Trust Indenture Act or another provision hereof required to be included in this Indenture by any of the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act, such provision of the Trust Indenture Act shall control. If any provision of this Indenture modifies or excludes any provision of the Trust Indenture Act that may be so modified or excluded, the former provision shall be deemed to apply to this Indenture as so modified or to be excluded.

 

SECTION 109.     EFFECT OF HEADINGS AND TABLE OF CONTENTS.

 

The Article and Section headings herein and the Table of Contents are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

 

SECTION 110.     SUCCESSORS AND ASSIGNS.

 

All covenants and agreements in this Indenture by the Company shall bind its successors and assigns, whether or not so expressed.

 

SECTION 111.     SEPARABILITY CLAUSE.

 

In case any provision in this Indenture or in the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

 

SECTION 112.     BENEFITS OF INDENTURE.

 

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and their successors hereunder, any Authenticating Agent, Paying Agent and Security Registrar, and the Holders, any benefit or any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under this Indenture.

 

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SECTION 113.     GOVERNING LAW.

 

This Indenture and the Securities shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, but without giving effect to applicable principles of conflicts of law to the extent the application of the laws of another jurisdiction would be required thereby.

 

SECTION 114.     LEGAL HOLIDAYS.

 

In any case where any Interest Payment Date, Redemption Date or Stated Maturity of any Security shall not be a Business Day at any Place of Payment, then (notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture or of the Securities) payment of principal and interest (and premium and Additional Amounts, if any) need not be made at such Place of Payment on such date, but may be made on the next succeeding Business Day at such Place of Payment with the same force and effect as if made on the Interest Payment Date or Redemption Date, or at the Stated Maturity, provided that no interest shall accrue for the period from and after such Interest Payment Date, Redemption Date or Stated Maturity, as the case may be.

 

SECTION 115.     CORPORATE OBLIGATION.

 

No recourse may be taken, directly or indirectly, against any incorporator, subscriber to the capital stock, stockholder, officer, director or employee of the Company or the Trustee or of any predecessor or successor of the Company or the Trustee with respect to the Company’s obligations on the Securities or the obligations of the Company or the Trustee under this Indenture or any certificate or other writing delivered in connection herewith.

 

SECTION 116.     WAIVER OF TRIAL JURY.

 

EACH OF THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS INDENTURE, THE NOTES OR THE TRANSACTION CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

 

SECTION 117.     FORCE MAJEURE.

 

In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services; it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances.

 

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ARTICLE II

 

SECURITY FORMS

 

SECTION 201.     FORMS GENERALLY.

 

The Securities of each series shall be Registered Securities and shall be in substantially such form or forms (including temporary or permanent global form) as shall be established by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in each case with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as are required or permitted by this Indenture and may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification and such legends or endorsements placed thereon as may be required to comply with the rules of any securities exchange or as may, consistently herewith, be determined by the officers executing such Securities, as evidenced by their execution of the Securities. If temporary Securities of any series are issued in global form as permitted by Section 304, the form thereof shall be established as provided in the preceding sentence. A copy of the Board Resolution establishing the form or forms of Securities of any series (or any such temporary global Security) shall be delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Company Order contemplated by Section 303 for the authentication and delivery of such Securities (or any such temporary global Security).

 

The definitive Securities shall be printed, lithographed or engraved on steel engraved borders or may be produced in any other manner, all as determined by the officers executing such Securities, as evidenced by their execution thereof.

 

SECTION 202.     FORM OF TRUSTEE’S CERTIFICATE OF AUTHENTICATION.

 

The Trustee’s certificate of authentication shall be in substantially the following form:

 

“This is one of the Securities of the series designated therein referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

 

 

 

 

By

 

 

 

AUTHORIZED OFFICER”

 

SECTION 203.     SECURITIES IN GLOBAL FORM.

 

If Securities of a series are issuable in global form, as contemplated by Section 301, then, notwithstanding clause (10) of Section 301 and the provisions of Section 302, any such Security shall represent such of the Outstanding Securities of such series as shall be specified therein and may provide that it shall represent the aggregate amount of Outstanding Securities from time to time endorsed thereon and that the aggregate amount of Outstanding Securities represented thereby may from time to time be reduced to reflect exchanges. Any endorsement of a Security in global form to reflect the amount, or any increase or decrease in the amount, of Outstanding Securities represented thereby shall be made by the Trustee in such manner and upon instructions given by such Person or Persons as shall be specified in such Security or in a Company Order to be delivered to the Trustee pursuant to Section 303 or Section 304. Subject to the provisions of Section 303 and, if applicable, Section 304, the Trustee shall deliver and redeliver any Security in permanent global form in the manner and upon instructions given by the Person or Persons specified in such Security or in the applicable Company Order. If a Company Order pursuant to Section 303 or 304 has been, or simultaneously is, delivered, any instructions by the Company with respect to endorsement or delivery or redelivery of a Security in global form shall be in writing but need not comply with Section 103 and need not be accompanied by an Opinion of Counsel.

 

The provisions of the last sentence of Section 303 shall apply to any Security in global form if such Security was never issued and sold by the Company and the Company delivers to the Trustee the Security in global form together with written instructions (which need not comply with Section 103 and need not be accompanied by an Opinion of Counsel) with regard to the reduction in the principal amount of Securities represented thereby, together with the written statement contemplated by the last sentence of Section 303.

 

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Notwithstanding the provisions of Sections 201 and 307, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 301, payment of principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on any Security in permanent global form shall be made to the Person or Persons specified therein.

 

Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 308 and except as provided in the preceding paragraph, the Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company or of the Trustee shall treat a Person as the Holder of such principal amount of Outstanding Securities represented by a global Security as shall be specified in a written statement, if any, of the Holder of such global Security, which is produced to the Security Registrar by such Holder.

 

Global Securities may be issued in either temporary or permanent form. Permanent global Securities will be issued in definitive form.

 

SECTION 204.     BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES.

 

Notwithstanding any provision of this Indenture to the contrary:

 

(a)          At the discretion of the Company, any Registered Security may be issued from time to time, in whole or in part, in permanent global form registered in the name of a Depositary, or its nominee. Each such Registered Security in permanent global form is hereafter referred to as a “Book-Entry Security.” Subject to Section 303, upon such election, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee or an Authenticating Agent shall authenticate and deliver, one or more Book-Entry Securities that (i) are denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series if elected in whole or such lesser amount if elected in part, (ii) are registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) are delivered by the Trustee or an Authenticating Agent to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instructions and (iv) bear a legend in substantially the following form (or such other form as the Depositary and the Company may agree upon):

 

UNLESS THIS SECURITY IS PRESENTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF [THE DEPOSITARY], TO THE COMPANY OR ITS AGENT FOR REGISTRATION OF TRANSFER, EXCHANGE OR PAYMENT, AND ANY CERTIFICATE ISSUED IS REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF [NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY] OR IN SUCH OTHER NAME AS IS REQUESTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF [THE DEPOSITARY] (AND ANY PAYMENT IS MADE TO [NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY] OR TO SUCH OTHER ENTITY AS IS REQUESTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF [THE DEPOSITARY]), ANY TRANSFER, PLEDGE OR OTHER USE HEREOF FOR VALUE OR OTHERWISE BY OR TO ANY PERSON IS WRONGFUL INASMUCH AS THE REGISTERED OWNER HEREOF, [NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY], HAS AN INTEREST HEREIN.

 

(b)          Any Book-Entry Security shall be initially executed and delivered as provided in Section 303. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture, unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Registered Securities not issued in global form, a Book-Entry Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary to a nominee of such Depositary, by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary, or by such Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such successor Depositary.

 

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(c)          If at any time the Depositary notifies the Company or the Trustee that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for any Book-Entry Securities, the Company shall appoint a successor Depositary, whereupon the retiring Depositary shall surrender or cause the surrender of its Book-Entry Security or Securities to the Trustee. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company upon receipt of such notice. If a successor Depositary has not been so appointed by the effective date of the resignation of the Depositary, the Book-Entry Securities will be issued as Registered Securities not issued in global form, in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Book-Entry Security or Securities theretofore held by the Depositary.

 

The Company may at any time and in its sole discretion determine that the Securities shall no longer be Book-Entry Securities represented by a global certificate or certificates, and will so notify the Depositary. Upon receipt of such notice, the Depositary shall promptly surrender or cause the surrender of its Book-Entry Security or Securities to the Trustee. Concurrently therewith, Registered Securities not issued in global form will be issued in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Book-Entry Security or Securities theretofore held by the Depositary.

 

Upon any exchange of Book-Entry Securities for Registered Securities not issued in global form as set forth in this Section 204(c), such Book-Entry Securities shall be cancelled by the Trustee, and Securities issued in exchange for such Book-Entry Securities pursuant to this Section shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary for such Book-Entry Securities, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee or any Authenticating Agent shall deliver such Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

 

(d)          The Company and the Trustee shall be entitled to treat the Person in whose name any Book-Entry Security is registered as the Holder thereof for all purposes of the Indenture and any applicable laws, notwithstanding any notice to the contrary received by the Trustee or the Company; and the Trustee and the Company shall have no responsibility for transmitting payments to, communication with, notifying, or otherwise dealing with any beneficial owners of any Book-Entry Security. Neither the Company nor the Trustee shall have any responsibility or obligations, legal or otherwise, to the beneficial owners or to any other party including the Depositary, except for the Holder of any Book-Entry Security; provided however, notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, (i) for the purposes of determining whether the requisite principal amount of Outstanding Securities have given, made or taken any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver, instruction or other action hereunder as of any date, the Trustee shall treat any Person specified in a written statement of the Depositary with respect to any Book-Entry Securities as the Holder of the principal amount of such Securities set forth therein and (ii) nothing herein shall prevent the Company, the Trustee, or any agent of the Company or Trustee, from giving effect to any written certification, proxy or other authorization furnished by a Depositary with respect to any Book-Entry Securities, or impair, as between a Depositary and holders of beneficial interests in such Securities, the operation of customary practices governing the exercise of the rights of the Depositary as Holder of such Securities.

 

(e)          So long as any Book-Entry Security is registered in the name of a Depositary or its nominee, all payments of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Book-Entry Security and redemption thereof and all notices with respect to such Book-Entry Security shall be made and given, respectively, in the manner provided in the arrangements of the Company with such Depositary.

 

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ARTICLE III

 

THE SECURITIES

 

SECTION 301.     AMOUNT UNLIMITED; ISSUABLE IN SERIES.

 

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.

 

The Securities may be issued in one or more series. There shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, prior to the issuance of Securities of any series:

 

(1)         the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from all other Securities);

 

(2)         any limit, if any, upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration or transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the series pursuant to Section 304, 305, 306, 905 or 1107);

 

(3)         whether Securities of the series are to be issuable as Registered Securities, whether any Securities of the series are to be issuable initially in temporary global form and whether any Securities of the series are to be issuable in permanent global form, as Book-Entry Securities or otherwise, and, if so, whether beneficial owners of interests in any such permanent global Security may exchange such interests for Securities of such series and of like tenor of any authorized form and denomination and the circumstances under which any such exchanges may occur, if other than in the manner provided in Section 305, and the Depositary for any global Security or Securities;

 

(4)         the manner in which any interest payable on a temporary global Security on any Interest Payment Date will be paid if other than in the manner provided in Section 304;

 

(5)         the date or dates on which the principal of (and premium, if any, on) the Securities of the series is payable or the method of determination thereof;

 

(6)         the rate or rates, or the method of determination thereof, at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest, if any, whether and under what circumstances Additional Amounts with respect to such Securities shall be payable, the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, the Interest Payment Dates on which such interest shall be payable and, if other than as set forth in Section 101, the Regular Record Date for the interest payable on any Registered Securities on any Interest Payment Date;

 

(7)         if other than the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, the place or places where, subject to the provisions of Section 1002, the principal of (and premium, if any), any interest on and any Additional Amounts with respect to the Securities of the series shall be payable;

 

(8)         the period or periods within which, the price or prices (whether denominated in cash, securities or otherwise) at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company, if the Company is to have that option, and the manner in which the Company must exercise any such option;

 

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(9)          the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase Securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices (whether denominated in cash, securities or otherwise) at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased in whole or in part pursuant to such obligation;

 

(10)        the denomination in which any Registered Securities of that series shall be issuable, if other than denominations of $2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof;

 

(11)        the currency or currencies (including composite currencies) in which payment of the principal of (and premium, if any), any interest on and any Additional Amounts with respect to the Securities of the series shall be payable if other than the currency of the United States of America;

 

(12)        if the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of the series are to be payable, at the election of the Company or a Holder thereof, in a currency or currencies (including composite currencies) other than that in which the Securities are stated to be payable, the currency or currencies (including composite currencies) in which payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on and any Additional Amounts with respect to Securities of such series as to which such election is made shall be payable, and the periods within which and the terms and conditions upon which such election is to be made;

 

(13)        if the amount of payments of principal of (and premium, if any), any interest on and any Additional Amounts with respect to the Securities of the series may be determined with reference to any commodities, currencies or indices, or values, rates or prices, the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;

 

(14)        if other than the entire principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 502;

 

(15)        any additional means of satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to Securities of the series pursuant to Section 401, any additional conditions to discharge pursuant to Section 401, 402, 403, 404, or 405, and the application, if any, of Section 403 and 404;

 

(16)        any deletions or modifications of or additions to the Events of Default set forth in Section 501, the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 502, or the covenants of the Company set forth in Article X pertaining to the Securities of the series;

 

(17)        the terms, if any, on which the Securities of any series may be converted into or exchanged for stock or other securities of the Company or other entities, any specific terms relating to the adjustment thereof and the period during which such Securities may be so converted or exchanged;

 

(18)        whether the Securities of a series will be issued as part of units consisting of Securities and other securities of the Company or another issuer; and

 

(19)        any other terms of the series permitted under the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

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All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except, in the case of Registered Securities, as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to the Board Resolution referred to above and (subject to Section 303) set forth, or determined in the manner provided, in the Officers’ Certificate referred to above or in any such indenture supplemental hereto.

 

All Securities of any one series need not be issued at the same time and, unless otherwise provided in such Board Resolution or supplemental indenture, a series may be reopened for issuances of additional Securities of such series pursuant to a Board Resolution or in any indenture supplemental hereto.

 

At the option of the Company, interest on the Registered Securities of any series that bears interest may be paid by mailing a check or otherwise transmitting payment to the address of any Holder as such address shall appear in the Security Register.

 

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution, a copy of an appropriate record of such action together with such Board Resolution shall be certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officers’ Certificate setting forth the terms of the series.

 

SECTION 302.     DENOMINATIONS.

 

The Securities of each series shall be issuable in such denominations as shall be specified as contemplated by Section 301. In the absence of any such provisions with respect to the Securities of any series, the Registered Securities of such series denominated in Dollars shall be issuable in denominations of $2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof. Unless otherwise provided as contemplated by Section 301 with respect to any series of Securities, any Securities of a series denominated in a currency other than Dollars shall be issuable in denominations that are the equivalent, as determined by the Company by reference to the noon buying rate in the City of New York for cable transfers for such currency, as such rate is reported or otherwise made available by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, on the applicable issue date for such Securities, of $2,000 and any integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof.

 

SECTION 303.      EXECUTION, AUTHENTICATION, DELIVERY AND DATING.

 

The Securities shall be executed on behalf of the Company by its Chairman of the Board, its Chief Executive Officer, its President, its Chief Financial Officer, its Treasurer or one of its Vice Presidents, under its corporate seal reproduced thereon or affixed thereto attested by its Secretary or one of its Assistant Secretaries. The signature of any of these officers on the Securities may be manual or facsimile. Coupons shall bear the facsimile signature of the Chairman of the Board, President, Treasurer or any Vice President of the Company.

 

Securities bearing the manual or facsimile signatures of individuals who were at any time the proper officers of the Company shall bind the Company, notwithstanding that such individuals or any of them have ceased to hold such offices prior to the authentication and delivery of such Securities or did not hold such offices at the date of such Securities.

 

At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a Company Order for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, and the Trustee in accordance with the Company Order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities as in this Indenture provided and not otherwise.

 

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If the form or terms of the Securities of the series have been established in or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions or Officer’s Certificate as permitted by Sections 201 and 301, in authenticating such Securities, and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be given (in addition to the other documents required by Section 103 hereof), and (subject to Section 601) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel stating,

 

(a)          if the form of such Securities has been established by or pursuant to Board Resolution as permitted by Section 201, that such form has been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture;

 

(b)          if the terms of such Securities have been established by or pursuant to Board Resolution as permitted by Section 301, that such terms have been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture; and

 

(c)          that such Securities, when authenticated and delivered by the Trustee and issued by the Company in the manner and subject to any conditions specified in such Opinion of Counsel, will constitute legal, valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable in accordance with their terms, except as such enforcement is subject to the effect of bankruptcy, insolvency, fraudulent conveyance, reorganization or other laws relating to or affecting creditors’ rights, and general principles of equity (regardless of whether such enforcement is considered in a proceeding in equity or at law); provided that such Opinion of Counsel need express no opinion as to whether a court in the United States would render a money judgment in currency other than that of the United States.

 

If such form or terms have been so established, the Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.