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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on October 13, 2017

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Albireo Pharma, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   90-0136863

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

10 Post Office Square, Suite 502 South

Boston, Massachusetts 02109

(857) 254-5555

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

Ronald H.W. Cooper

President and Chief Executive Officer

Albireo Pharma, Inc.

10 Post Office Square, Suite 502 South

Boston, Massachusetts 02109

(857) 254-5555

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

 

Megan N. Gates, Esq.   Peter A. Zorn, Esq.
John P. Condon, Esq.   Chief Corporate Officer, General Counsel and Secretary
Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C.   Albireo Pharma, Inc.
One Financial Center   10 Post Office Square, Suite 502 South
Boston, Massachusetts 02111   Boston, Massachusetts 02109
(617) 542-6000   (857) 254-5555

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement as determined by the registrant.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box:  

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box:  

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  


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Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer     (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)    Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act.  

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered

 

Amount

to be

Registered

 

Proposed

Maximum

Offering Price

per Unit

 

Proposed

Maximum
Aggregate

Offering Price

  Amount of
Registration
Fee(1)

Common Stock, $0.01 par value

  (2)   (3)   (3)   —  

Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value

  (2)   (3)   (3)   —  

Debt Securities

  (2)   (3)   (3)   —  

Warrants

  (2)   (3)   (3)   —  

Rights

  (2)   (3)   (3)   —  

Purchase Contracts

  (2)   (3)   (3)   —  

Units

  (2)   (3)   (3)   —  

Total

  (2)       $125,000,000   $9,570(4)

 

 

(1) Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, based on the proposed maximum aggregate offering price.
(2) There are being registered hereunder such indeterminate number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities, such indeterminate number of warrants, rights and purchase contracts to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, and such indeterminate number of units, as shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $125,000,000. If any debt securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the offering price of such debt securities shall be in such greater principal amount as shall result in an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $125,000,000, less the aggregate dollar amount of all securities previously issued hereunder. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or as units with other securities registered hereunder. The proposed maximum initial offering price per unit will be determined, from time to time, by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder. The securities registered also include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock or preferred stock and amount of debt securities as may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for preferred stock or debt securities that provide for conversion or exchange, upon exercise of warrants or rights or performance of purchase contracts or pursuant to the anti-dilution provisions of any such securities. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the shares being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock or preferred stock as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.
(3)
The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per class of security will be determined from time to time by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
(4) Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this registration statement includes a total of $48,135,000 of unsold securities that had previously been registered under the Registrant’s registration statement on Form S-3 filed on December 22, 2016, File No. 333-215263 (the “Prior Registration Statement”). The Prior Registration Statement registered securities for a maximum offering price of $100,000,000. The Registrant sold an aggregate of $51,865,000 of securities thereunder, leaving a balance of unsold securities with an aggregate offering price of $48,135,000. In connection with the registration of such unsold securities on the Prior Registration Statement, the Registrant paid a registration fee of $5,579 for such unsold securities, which fee will continue to be applied to such unsold securities. Accordingly, the amount of the registration fee has been calculated based on the proposed maximum offering price of the additional $76,865,000 of securities registered on this registration statement. Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6), the offering of the unsold securities registered under the Prior Registration Statement will be deemed terminated as of the date of effectiveness of this registration statement.

 

 

THE REGISTRANT HEREBY AMENDS THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT ON SUCH DATE OR DATES AS MAY BE NECESSARY TO DELAY ITS EFFECTIVE DATE UNTIL THE REGISTRANT SHALL FILE A FURTHER AMENDMENT WHICH SPECIFICALLY STATES THAT THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT SHALL THEREAFTER BECOME EFFECTIVE IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 8(a) OF THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, AS AMENDED, OR UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT SHALL BECOME EFFECTIVE ON SUCH DATE AS THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION, ACTING PURSUANT TO SAID SECTION 8(a), MAY DETERMINE.

 

 

 


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains:

 

    a base prospectus which covers the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to $125,000,000 in the aggregate of the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings; and

 

    a sales agreement prospectus covering the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $50,000,000 of our common stock that may be issued and sold from time to time under a sales agreement with Cowen and Company, LLC.

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The sales agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The $50,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under the sales agreement prospectus is included in the $125,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us under the base prospectus.


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THE INFORMATION IN THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT COMPLETE AND MAY BE CHANGED. WE MAY NOT SELL THESE SECURITIES UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT FILED WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION IS EFFECTIVE. THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT AN OFFER TO SELL THESE SECURITIES AND IS NOT SOLICITING AN OFFER TO BUY THESE SECURITIES IN ANY STATE WHERE THE OFFER OR SALE IS NOT PERMITTED.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED OCTOBER 13, 2017

 

 

PROSPECTUS

Albireo Pharma, Inc.

$125,000,000

COMMON STOCK

PREFERRED STOCK

DEBT SECURITIES

WARRANTS

RIGHTS

PURCHASE CONTRACTS

UNITS

 

 

This prospectus will allow us to issue, from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined at or prior to the time of the offering, up to $125,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, either individually or in units. We may also offer: common stock or preferred stock upon conversion of or exchange for the debt securities; common stock upon conversion of or exchange for the preferred stock; common stock, preferred stock or debt securities upon the exercise of warrants, rights or performance of purchase contracts; or any combination of these securities upon the performance of purchase contracts.

This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide you with the specific terms of any offering in one or more supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this document. You should read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, as well as any documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, carefully before you invest.

Our securities may be sold directly by us to you, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus and in the applicable prospectus supplement. If any underwriters or agents are involved in the sale of our securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such underwriters or agents and any applicable fees, commissions or discounts and over-allotment options will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds that we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “ALBO.” On October 12, 2017, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $23.99 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing on The NASDAQ Capital Market or any securities market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the prospectus supplement. Prospective purchasers of our securities are urged to obtain current information as to the market prices of our securities, where applicable.

 

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should consider carefully the risks that we have described on page  3 of this prospectus under the caption “ Risk Factors .” We may also include specific risk factors in supplements to this prospectus under the caption “ Risk Factors .” This prospectus may not be used to sell our securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is                     .


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

    Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

    i  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

    2  

RISK FACTORS

    4  

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

    5  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

    6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

    9  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

    10  

DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

    12  

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK

    13  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

    15  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

    21  

DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

    23  

DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS

    25  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

    26  

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF DELAWARE LAW AND OF THE COMPANY’S CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION AND BYLAWS

    28  

LEGAL MATTERS

    31  

EXPERTS

    31  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

    31  

INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

    32  

 


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may offer shares of our common stock or preferred stock, various series of debt securities or warrants, and rights or purchase contracts to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in units, in one or more offerings, with a total value of up to $125,000,000. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering.

This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For a more complete understanding of the offering of the securities, you should refer to the registration statement, including its exhibits. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. However, no prospectus supplement will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness. This prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplements and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, includes all material information relating to the offering of securities under this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement, the information and documents incorporated herein by reference and the additional information under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Documents by Reference” before making an investment decision.

You should rely only on the information we have provided or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You must not rely on any unauthorized information or representation. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. You should assume that the information in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and that any information we have incorporated herein by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of a security.

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate sales of our securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement. To the extent there are inconsistencies between any prospectus supplement, this prospectus and any documents incorporated by reference, the document with the most recent date will control.

Unless the context otherwise requires, “the Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to Albireo Pharma, Inc. and its direct and indirect subsidiaries.

 

(i)


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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

The following is a summary of what we believe to be the most important aspects of our business and the offering of our securities under this prospectus. We urge you to read this entire prospectus, including the more detailed consolidated financial statements, notes to the consolidated financial statements and other information incorporated by reference from our other filings with the SEC or included in any applicable prospectus supplement. Investing in our securities involves risks. Please carefully consider the risk factors set forth in any prospectus supplements and in our most recent annual and quarterly filings with the SEC, as well as other information in this prospectus and any prospectus supplements and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein, before purchasing our securities. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities.

About Albireo Pharma, Inc.

We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of novel bile acid modulators to treat orphan pediatric liver diseases and gastrointestinal, or GI, disorders where improper flow or absorption of bile causes serious medical conditions for which there is high unmet need. The initial target indication for our lead product candidate, A4250, is progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, or PFIC, a rare, life-threatening genetic disorder affecting young children for which there is currently no approved drug treatment. We have evaluated A4250 in a Phase 2 clinical trial in children with chronic cholestasis and are conducting preparatory activities for the planned initiation of a Phase 3 clinical trial in patients with PFIC. In addition to PFIC, we plan to consider conducting future clinical development of A4250 as a treatment for one or more other pediatric cholestatic liver diseases and disorders. Our clinical-stage product candidates in addition to A4250 include elobixibat, for which our licensee has submitted a new drug application for approval in Japan to treat chronic constipation, and A3384, which is in development to treat bile acid malabsorption, or BAM. We also have a preclinical program in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH.

Additional Information

For additional information related to our business and operations, please refer to the reports incorporated herein by reference, including the Annual Report on Form 10-K of Albireo Pharma, Inc. for the year ended December 31, 2016, as described under the caption “Incorporation of Documents by Reference” on page 31 of this prospectus.

Our Corporate Information

On November 3, 2016, Biodel Inc., or Biodel, completed its business combination with Albireo Limited in accordance with the terms of the Amended and Restated Share Exchange Agreement, dated as of July 13, 2016, or the Exchange Agreement, by and among Biodel, Albireo Limited and the shareholders and noteholders of Albireo Limited. Pursuant to the Exchange Agreement, each holder of Albireo Limited shares or notes convertible into Albireo Limited shares received newly issued shares of Biodel common stock, and Albireo Limited became a wholly owned subsidiary of Biodel. We refer to this exchange as the Transaction. Also on November 3, 2016, in connection with, and prior to completion of, the Transaction, Biodel effected a 1-for-30 reverse stock split of its common stock, which we refer to as the Reverse Stock Split, and, following the completion of the Transaction, changed its name to Albireo Pharma, Inc. As used herein, the words the “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to Albireo Pharma, Inc. and its direct and indirect subsidiaries. In addition, the word “Biodel” refers to the Company prior to November 3, 2016.

 



 

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Our corporate headquarters are located at 10 Post Office Square, Suite 502 South, Boston, Massachusetts 02109, and our telephone number is (857) 254-5555. We maintain a website at www.albireopharma.com, to which we regularly post copies of our press releases as well as additional information about us. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

All brand names or trademarks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective holders. Use or display by us of other parties’ trademarks, trade dress, or products in this prospectus is not intended to, and does not, imply a relationship with, or endorsements or sponsorship of, us by the trademark or trade dress owners.

Offerings Under This Prospectus

Under this prospectus, we may offer shares of our common stock or preferred stock, various series of debt securities or warrants, rights or purchase contracts to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in units, with a total value of up to $125,000,000, from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

    designation or classification;

 

    aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;

 

    maturity, if applicable;

 

    rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;

 

    redemption, conversion or sinking fund terms, if any;

 

    voting or other rights, if any; and

 

    conversion or exercise prices, if any.

The prospectus supplement also may add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. However, no prospectus supplement will fundamentally change the terms that are set forth in this prospectus or offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness.

We may sell the securities directly to investors or to or through agents, underwriters or dealers. We, and our agents or underwriters, reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we offer securities through agents or underwriters, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

 

    the names of those agents or underwriters;

 

    applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;

 

    details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and

 

    the net proceeds to us.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of any securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves significant risk. The prospectus supplement applicable to each offering of our securities will contain a discussion of the risks applicable to an investment in the Company. Prior to making a decision about investing in our securities, you should carefully consider the specific factors discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement, together with all of the other information contained or incorporated by reference in the prospectus supplement or appearing or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should also consider the risks, uncertainties and assumptions discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” included in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K, as revised or supplemented by our subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or our subsequent current reports on Form 8-K that we have filed with the SEC, all of which are incorporated herein by reference, and which may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC in the future. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our operations. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.

 

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RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

Any time debt securities are offered pursuant to this prospectus, we will provide a table setting forth our ratio of earnings to fixed charges on a historical basis in the applicable prospectus supplement, if required.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus include forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that relate to future events or to our future operations or financial performance. Any forward-looking statement involves known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statement. Our forward-looking statements include statements, other than statements of historical fact, about, among other things:

 

    the progress, scope, cost, duration or results of our development activities, nonclinical studies and clinical trials of A4250, elobixibat, A3384 or any of our other product candidates or programs, such as the target indication(s) for development or approval, the size, design, population, conduct, cost, objective or endpoints of any clinical trial, or the timing for initiation or completion of or availability of results from any clinical trial (including our planned Phase 3 clinical trial of A4250 in patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, or PFIC), for submission or approval of any regulatory filing (including a new drug application in Japan for elobixibat), for meeting with regulatory authorities;

 

    the potential benefits that may be derived from any of our product candidates;

 

    the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our existing product candidates, any product candidates that we may develop, and any related restrictions, limitations, or warnings in the label of any approved product candidates;

 

    any payment that EA Pharma Co., Ltd. (EA Pharma) may make to us or any other action or decision that EA Pharma may make concerning elobixibat or our business relationship;

 

    our future operations, financial position, revenues, costs, expenses, uses of cash, capital requirements or our need for additional financing; and

 

    our strategies, prospects, plans, expectations or objectives.

Words such as, but not limited to, “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “forecast,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “targets,” “likely,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “continue,” “scheduled” and similar expressions or phrases, or the negative of those expressions or phrases, are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, we caution you that these statements are based on our projections of the future that are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by any forward-looking statement to differ materially from those expressed or implied by any forward-looking statement. Some of these risks, uncertainties and other factors include our critical accounting policies and:

 

    the clinical trial design, size, duration and endpoints for our planned Phase 3 clinical trial of A4250 in patients with PFIC, or that will be required to obtain marketing approval for A4250 to treat patients with PFIC or any other pediatric cholestatic liver disease or for A3384 to treat BAM;

 

    whether favorable findings from clinical trials of A4250 to date, including findings in indications other than PFIC, will be predictive of results from future clinical trials, including the trials comprising our planned Phase 3 PFIC program for A4250;

 

   

whether either or both of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, and European Medicines Agency, or EMA, will determine that the primary endpoint and duration of the

 

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planned double blind Phase 3 trial in patients with PFIC is sufficient, even if such primary endpoint is met with statistical significance, to support approval of A4250 in the United States or the European Union, to treat PFIC, a symptom of PFIC or otherwise;

 

    the outcome and interpretation by regulatory authorities of an ongoing third-party study pooling and analyzing long-term PFIC patient data;

 

    the timing for initiation or completion of, or for availability of data from, the trials comprising the planned Phase 3 PFIC program for A4250, and the outcomes of such trials;

 

    whether we receive additional feedback from regulatory authorities on our planned Phase 3 PFIC program for A4250 that results in a delay in its initiation;

 

    delays or other challenges in the initiation of, or recruitment of patients for, the planned double blind Phase 3 trial of A4250;

 

    whether our current cash resources will be sufficient to fund our planned Phase 3 clinical program for A4250 in patients with PFIC to completion;

 

    whether A4250 will meet the criteria to receive a pediatric priority review voucher from the FDA when applicable, and, if necessary, whether the pediatric priority review voucher program will be renewed beyond 2020;

 

    the competitive environment and commercial opportunity for a potential treatment for PFIC and other orphan pediatric cholestatic liver diseases;

 

    the conduct and results of clinical trials and nonclinical studies and assessments of A4250, elobixibat, A3384 or any of our other product candidates and programs, including the performance of third parties engaged to execute them and difficulties or delays in patient enrollment and data analysis;

 

    the medical benefit that may be derived from A4250, elobixibat, A3384 or any of our other product candidates;

 

    the extent to which our agreement with EA Pharma for elobixibat generates nondilutive income for us;

 

    the timing and success of submission, acceptance and approval of regulatory filings, including in particular the new drug application submitted by EA Pharma in Japan for elobixibat for the treatment of chronic constipation, and any related restrictions, limitations or warnings in the label of any approved product candidates;

 

    the significant control or influence that EA Pharma has over the development and commercialization of elobixibat in Japan and other licensed territories;

 

    whether we elect to seek and, if so, our ability to establish a license or other partnering transaction with a third party for elobixibat in the United States or Europe;

 

    whether findings from nonclinical studies and clinical trials of IBAT inhibitors will be predictive of future clinical success for a future product candidate of ours in the treatment of NASH;

 

    the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues, uses of cash and capital requirements;

 

    our ability to obtain additional financing on reasonable terms, or at all;

 

    our ability to establish additional licensing, collaboration or similar arrangements on favorable terms and our ability to attract collaborators with development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;

 

    the success of competing third-party products or product candidates;

 

    our ability to successfully commercialize any approved product candidates, including their rate and degree of market acceptance;

 

    our ability to expand and protect our intellectual property estate;

 

    regulatory developments in the United States and other countries;

 

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    the performance of our third-party suppliers, manufacturers and contract research organizations and our ability to obtain alternative sources of raw materials; and

 

    our ability to attract and retain key personnel.

These and other risks and uncertainties are described in greater detail under the caption “Risk Factors” in this prospectus, as updated and supplemented by the discussion of risks and uncertainties under “Risk Factors” contained in any supplements to this prospectus, or in the sections entitled “Business,” “Risk Factors,” “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” or “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K, as revised or supplemented by our subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or our subsequent current reports on Form 8-K, as well as any amendments thereto, as filed with the SEC and which are incorporated herein by reference. As a result of the risks and uncertainties, the results or events indicated by the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus or in any document incorporated herein by reference may not occur.

Investors are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statement. Each forward-looking statement represents our views only as of the date of this prospectus or the date of the document incorporated by reference in this prospectus and should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments may cause our views to change. We expressly disclaim any obligation to update or alter any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make. All subsequent forward-looking statements attributable to us or to any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use any net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus for our operations and our further development and potential commercialization of either or both of our product candidates A4250 and A3384, as well as the development of other product candidates, and other general corporate purposes, including, but not limited to, working capital, intellectual property protection and enforcement, capital expenditures, repayment of any existing indebtedness, investments, acquisitions and collaborations. We have not determined the amounts we plan to spend on any of the areas listed above or the timing of these expenditures. As a result, our management will have broad discretion to allocate the net proceeds, if any, we receive in connection with securities offered pursuant to this prospectus for any purpose. Pending application of the net proceeds as described above, we may initially invest the net proceeds in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities or apply them to the reduction of short-term indebtedness.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may offer securities under this prospectus from time to time pursuant to public offerings through one or more placement agents or underwriters, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods. We may sell the securities (1) through underwriters or dealers, (2) through agents or (3) directly to one or more purchasers, or through a combination of such methods. We may distribute the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at:

 

    a fixed price or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

 

    market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

    prices related to the prevailing market prices; or

 

    negotiated prices.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase the securities being offered by this prospectus. We may also designate agents to solicit offers to purchase the securities from time to time, and may enter into arrangements for “at-the-market,” equity line or similar transactions. We will name in a prospectus supplement any underwriter or agent involved in the offer or sale of the securities.

If we utilize a dealer in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, we will sell the securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale.

If we utilize an underwriter in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, we will execute an underwriting agreement with the underwriter at the time of sale, and we will provide the name of any underwriter in the prospectus supplement which the underwriter will use to make resales of the securities to the public. In connection with the sale of the securities, we, or the purchasers of the securities for whom the underwriter may act as agent, may compensate the underwriter in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions. The underwriter may sell the securities to or through dealers, and the underwriter may compensate those dealers in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions.

With respect to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions and block trades, we will provide in the applicable prospectus supplement information regarding any compensation we pay to underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We may enter into agreements to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments they may be required to make in respect thereof.

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters, dealers or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in each applicable prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in each applicable prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other

 

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institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

 

    the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

 

    if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.

One or more firms, referred to as “remarketing firms,” may also offer or sell the securities, if a prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with a remarketing arrangement upon their purchase. Remarketing firms will act as principals for their own accounts or as our agents. These remarketing firms will offer or sell the securities in accordance with the terms of the securities. Each prospectus supplement will identify and describe any remarketing firm and the terms of its agreement, if any, with us and will describe the remarketing firm’s compensation. Remarketing firms may be deemed to be underwriters in connection with the securities they remarket. Remarketing firms may be entitled under agreements that may be entered into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

Certain underwriters may use this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement for offers and sales related to market-making transactions in the securities. These underwriters may act as principal or agent in these transactions, and the sales will be made at prices related to prevailing market prices at the time of sale. Any underwriters involved in the sale of the securities may qualify as “underwriters” within the meaning of Section 2(a)(11) of the Securities Act. In addition, the underwriters’ commissions, discounts or concessions may qualify as underwriters’ compensation under the Securities Act and the rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., or FINRA.

Shares of our common stock sold pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part will be authorized for listing and trading on The NASDAQ Capital Market. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing, if any, on The NASDAQ Capital Market or any securities market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the prospectus supplement. Underwriters may make a market in our common stock, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence, development or maintenance of trading markets for any of the securities.

In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involve the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than we sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing the applicable security in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if the securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.

The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in other transactions with us, or perform other services for us, in the ordinary course of their business.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

We are authorized to issue 30,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share. On September 30, 2017, we had approximately 8,882,785 shares of common stock outstanding and approximately 39 stockholders of record.

The following summary of certain provisions of our common stock does not purport to be complete. You should refer to the section of this prospectus entitled “Certain Provisions of Delaware Law and of the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws” and our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws, both of which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The summary below is also qualified by provisions of applicable law.

General

Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. An election of directors by our stockholders shall be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election. Holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future. All shares of common stock outstanding as of the date of this prospectus and, upon issuance and sale, all shares of common stock that we may offer pursuant to this prospectus, will be fully paid and nonassessable.

In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately our net assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. Our outstanding shares of common stock are validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, with offices at 17 Battery Place, New York, NY 10004.

Stock Exchange Listing

Our common stock is listed for quotation on The NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “ALBO.”

 

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DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK

We are authorized to issue 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share. As of the date of this prospectus, no shares of our preferred stock were outstanding. The following summary of certain provisions of our preferred stock does not purport to be complete. You should refer to our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws, both of which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The summary below is also qualified by provisions of applicable law.

General

Our board of directors may, without further action by our stockholders, from time to time, direct the issuance of shares of preferred stock in series and may, at the time of issuance, determine the rights, preferences and limitations of each series, including voting rights, dividend rights and redemption and liquidation preferences. Satisfaction of any dividend preferences of outstanding shares of preferred stock would reduce the amount of funds available for the payment of dividends on shares of our common stock. Holders of shares of preferred stock may be entitled to receive a preference payment in the event of any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our company before any payment is made to the holders of shares of our common stock. In some circumstances, the issuance of shares of preferred stock may render more difficult or tend to discourage a merger, tender offer or proxy contest, the assumption of control by a holder of a large block of our securities or the removal of incumbent management. Upon the affirmative vote of our board of directors, without stockholder approval, we may issue shares of preferred stock with voting and conversion rights which could adversely affect the holders of shares of our common stock.

If we offer a specific series of preferred stock under this prospectus, we will describe the terms of the preferred stock in the prospectus supplement for such offering and will file a copy of the certificate establishing the terms of the preferred stock with the SEC. To the extent required, this description will include:

 

    the title and stated value;

 

    the number of shares offered, the liquidation preference, if any, per share and the purchase price;

 

    the dividend rate(s), period(s) or payment date(s), or method(s) of calculation for such dividends;

 

    whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

 

    the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any;

 

    the provisions for a sinking fund, if any;

 

    the provisions for redemption, if applicable;

 

    any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

 

    whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock, and, if applicable, the conversion price (or how it will be calculated) and conversion period;

 

    whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities, and, if applicable, the exchange price (or how it will be calculated) and exchange period;

 

    voting rights, if any, of the preferred stock;

 

    a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

 

    the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of the Company; and

 

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    any material limitations on issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking pari passu with or senior to the series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our preferred stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any future debt securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we so indicate in a prospectus supplement, the terms of any debt securities offered under such prospectus supplement may differ from the terms we describe below, and to the extent the terms set forth in a prospectus supplement differ from the terms described below, the terms set forth in the prospectus supplement shall control.

We may sell from time to time, in one or more offerings under this prospectus, debt securities, which may be senior or subordinated. We will issue any such senior debt securities under a senior indenture that we will enter into with a trustee to be named in the senior indenture. We will issue any such subordinated debt securities under a subordinated indenture, which we will enter into with a trustee to be named in the subordinated indenture. We have filed forms of these documents as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part. We use the term “indentures” to refer to either the senior indenture or the subordinated indenture, as applicable. The indentures will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as in effect on the date of the indenture. We use the term “debenture trustee” to refer to either the trustee under the senior indenture or the trustee under the subordinated indenture, as applicable.

The following summaries of material provisions of the senior debt securities, the subordinated debt securities and the indentures are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities.

General

Each indenture provides that debt securities may be issued from time to time in one or more series and may be denominated and payable in foreign currencies or units based on or relating to foreign currencies. Neither the senior indenture nor any subordinated indenture limits the amount of debt securities that may be issued thereunder, and each indenture provides that the specific terms of any series of debt securities shall be set forth in, or determined pursuant to, an authorizing resolution or a supplemental indenture, if any, relating to such series.

We will describe in each prospectus supplement the following terms relating to a series of debt securities:

 

    the title or designation;

 

    the aggregate principal amount and any limit on the amount that may be issued;

 

    the currency or units based on or relating to currencies in which debt securities of such series are denominated and the currency or units in which principal or interest or both will or may be payable;

 

    whether we will issue the series of debt securities in global form, the terms of any global securities and who the depositary will be;

 

    the maturity date and the date or dates on which principal will be payable;

 

    the interest rate, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the date or dates interest will be payable and the record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

    whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

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    the terms of the subordination of any series of subordinated debt;

 

    the place or places where payments will be payable;

 

    our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

    the date, if any, after which, and the price at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional redemption provisions;

 

    the date, if any, on which, and the price at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities;

 

    whether the indenture will restrict our ability to pay dividends, or will require us to maintain any asset ratios or reserves;

 

    whether we will be restricted from incurring any additional indebtedness;

 

    a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to a series of debt securities;

 

    the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof; and

 

    any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities.

We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Conversion or Exchange Rights

We will set forth in the prospectus supplement the terms, if any, on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

Consolidation, Merger or Sale; No Protection in Event of a Change of Control or Highly Leveraged Transaction

The indentures do not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets must assume all of our obligations under the indentures or the debt securities, as appropriate.

Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change of control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change of control), which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.

Events of Default Under the Indenture

The following are events of default under the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

    if we fail to pay interest when due and our failure continues for 90 days and the time for payment has not been extended or deferred;

 

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    if we fail to pay the principal, or premium, if any, when due and the time for payment has not been extended or delayed;

 

    if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant set forth in the debt securities of such series or the applicable indentures, other than a covenant specifically relating to and for the benefit of holders of another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice from the debenture trustee or holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

    if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur as to us.

No event of default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an event of default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of an event of default may constitute an event of default under any bank credit agreements we may have in existence from time to time. In addition, the occurrence of certain events of default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain of our other indebtedness outstanding from time to time.

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the debenture trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) of and premium and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. Before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained with respect to debt securities of any series, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) may rescind and annul the acceleration if all events of default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the applicable indenture (including payments or deposits in respect of principal, premium or interest that had become due other than as a result of such acceleration). We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an event of default.

Subject to the terms of the indentures, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the debenture trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the debenture trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the debenture trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the debenture trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

    the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

    subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the debenture trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

 

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A holder of the debt securities of any series will only have the right to institute a proceeding under the indentures or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies if:

 

    the holder previously has given written notice to the debenture trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

    the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and such holders have offered reasonable indemnity to the debenture trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee; and

 

    the debenture trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series (or at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) other conflicting directions within 60 days after the notice, request and offer.

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

We will periodically file statements with the applicable debenture trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the applicable indenture.

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

The debenture trustee and we may change the applicable indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters, including:

 

    to fix any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture; and

 

    to change anything that does not materially adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series issued pursuant to such indenture.

In addition, under the indentures, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the debenture trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) that is affected. However, the debenture trustee and we may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

    extending the fixed maturity of the series of debt securities;

 

    reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or any premium payable upon the redemption of any debt securities;

 

    reducing the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;

 

    making the principal of or premium or interest on any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security; or

 

    reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment or waiver.

Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the

 

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outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest on any debt security of that series or in respect of a covenant or provision, which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security of the series affected; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.

Discharge

Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for obligations to:

 

    transfer or exchange debt securities of the series;

 

    replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

    maintain paying agencies;

 

    hold monies for payment in trust;

 

    compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

 

    appoint any successor trustee.

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged with respect to a series, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, the premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

Form, Exchange, and Transfer

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indentures provide that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company or another depositary named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement with respect to that series.

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

Subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange or in the applicable indenture, we will make no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

 

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If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

    issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

 

    register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

Information Concerning the Debenture Trustee

The debenture trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under the applicable indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the debenture trustee under such indenture must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the debenture trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indentures at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

Payment and Paying Agents

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that, unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check which we will mail to the holder. Unless we otherwise indicate in a prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the debenture trustee in the City of New York as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

All money we pay to a paying agent or the debenture trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities which remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

Governing Law

The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

Subordination of Subordinated Debt Securities

Our obligations pursuant to any subordinated debt securities will be unsecured and will be subordinate and junior in priority of payment to certain of our other indebtedness to the extent described in a prospectus supplement. The subordinated indenture does not limit the amount of senior indebtedness we may incur. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

General

We may issue warrants to purchase shares of our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities in one or more series together with other securities or separately, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Below is a description of certain general terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer. Particular terms of the warrants will be described in the warrant agreements and the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants.

The applicable prospectus supplement will contain, where applicable, the following terms of and other information relating to the warrants:

 

    the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the price at which we will issue, the warrants;

 

    the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

    the designation, amount and terms of the securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

    if applicable, the exercise price for shares of our common stock and the number of shares of common stock to be received upon exercise of the warrants;

 

    if applicable, the exercise price for shares of our preferred stock, the number of shares of preferred stock to be received upon exercise, and a description of that series of our preferred stock;

 

    if applicable, the exercise price for our debt securities, the amount of debt securities to be received upon exercise, and a description of that series of debt securities;

 

    the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;

 

    whether the warrants will be issued in fully registered form or bearer form, in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms, although, in any case, the form of a warrant included in a unit will correspond to the form of the unit and of any security included in that unit;

 

    any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences;

 

    the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;

 

    the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;

 

    if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and the common stock, preferred stock or debt securities will be separately transferable;

 

    if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

    information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

    the anti-dilution provisions of the warrants, if any;

 

    any redemption or call provisions;

 

    whether the warrants may be sold separately or with other securities as parts of units; and

 

    any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants.

As of September 30, 2017, we had no warrants outstanding.

 

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Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for any warrants will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

General

We may issue rights to our stockholders to purchase shares of our common stock, preferred stock or the other securities described in this prospectus. We may offer rights separately or together with one or more additional rights, debt securities, preferred stock, common stock, warrants or purchase contracts, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Each series of rights will be issued under a separate rights agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as rights agent. The rights agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the certificates relating to the rights of the series of certificates and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders of rights certificates or beneficial owners of rights. The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the rights to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The particular terms of the rights to which any prospectus supplement may relate and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions may apply to the rights so offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. To the extent that any particular terms of the rights, rights agreement or rights certificates described in a prospectus supplement differ from any of the terms described below, then the terms described below will be deemed to have been superseded by that prospectus supplement. We encourage you to read the applicable rights agreement and rights certificate for additional information before you decide whether to purchase any of our rights.

We will provide in a prospectus supplement the following terms of the rights being issued:

 

    the date of determining the stockholders entitled to the rights distribution;

 

    the aggregate number of shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities purchasable upon exercise of the rights;

 

    the exercise price;

 

    the aggregate number of rights issued;

 

    whether the rights are transferrable and the date, if any, on and after which the rights may be separately transferred;

 

    the date on which the right to exercise the rights will commence, and the date on which the right to exercise the rights will expire;

 

    the method by which holders of rights will be entitled to exercise;

 

    the conditions to the completion of the offering, if any;

 

    the withdrawal, termination and cancellation rights, if any;

 

    whether there are any backstop or standby purchaser or purchasers and the terms of their commitment, if any;

 

    whether stockholders are entitled to oversubscription rights, if any;

 

    any applicable material U.S. federal income tax considerations; and

 

    any other terms of the rights, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the distribution, exchange and exercise of the rights, as applicable.

Each right will entitle the holder of rights to purchase for cash the principal amount of shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities at the exercise price provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Rights may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date for the rights provided in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Holders may exercise rights as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Upon receipt of payment and the rights certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of

 

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the rights agent or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, forward the shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities, as applicable, purchasable upon exercise of the rights. If less than all of the rights issued in any rights offering are exercised, we may offer any unsubscribed securities directly to persons other than stockholders, to or through agents, underwriters or dealers or through a combination of such methods, including pursuant to standby arrangements, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Rights Agent

The rights agent for any rights we offer will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS

We may issue purchase contracts, including contracts obligating holders to purchase from us, and for us to sell to holders, a specific or variable number of our debt securities, shares of common stock, preferred stock, warrants or rights, or securities of an entity unaffiliated with us, or any combination of the above, at a future date or dates. Alternatively, the purchase contracts may obligate us to purchase from holders, and obligate holders to sell to us, a specific or variable number of our debt securities, shares of common stock, preferred stock, warrants, rights or other property, or any combination of the above. The price of the securities or other property subject to the purchase contracts may be fixed at the time the purchase contracts are issued or may be determined by reference to a specific formula described in the purchase contracts. We may issue purchase contracts separately or as a part of units each consisting of a purchase contract and one or more of our other securities described in this prospectus or securities of third parties, including U.S. Treasury securities, securing the holder’s obligations under the purchase contract. The purchase contracts may require us to make periodic payments to holders or vice versa and the payments may be unsecured or pre-funded on some basis. The purchase contracts may require holders to secure the holder’s obligations in a manner specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of any purchase contracts in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered, including, to the extent applicable, the following:

 

    whether the purchase contracts obligate the holder or us to purchase or sell, or both purchase and sell, the securities subject to purchase under the purchase contract, and the nature and amount of each of those securities, or the method of determining those amounts;

 

    whether the purchase contracts are to be prepaid;

 

    whether the purchase contracts are to be settled by delivery, or by reference or linkage to the value, performance or level of the securities subject to purchase under the purchase contract;

 

    any acceleration, cancellation, termination or other provisions relating to the settlement of the purchase contracts;

 

    any applicable material U.S. federal income tax considerations; and

 

    whether the purchase contracts will be issued in fully registered or global form.

The preceding description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the purchase contracts to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The particular terms of the purchase contracts to which any prospectus supplement may relate and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions may apply to the purchase contracts so offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. To the extent that any particular terms of the purchase contracts described in a prospectus supplement differ from any of the terms described above, then the terms described above will be deemed to have been superseded by that prospectus supplement. We encourage you to read the applicable purchase contract for additional information before you decide whether to purchase any of our purchase contracts.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

The following description, together with the additional information that we include in any applicable prospectus supplements summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any units that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any units offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below.

We will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of unit agreement that describes the terms of the series of units we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of the related series of units. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the units are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the unit agreement and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of units. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements related to the particular series of units that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectuses and the complete unit agreement and any supplemental agreements that contain the terms of the units.

General

We may issue units consisting of common stock, preferred stock, one or more debt securities, warrants, rights or purchase contacts for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock or debt securities in one or more series, in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each security included in the unit. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date.

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of units being offered, including:

 

    the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

    any provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described below; and

 

    any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units.

The provisions described in this section, as well as those set forth in any prospectus supplement or as described under “Description of Common Stock,” “Description of Preferred Stock,” “Description of Debt Securities,” “Description of Warrants,” “Description of Rights” and “Description of Purchase Contracts” will apply to each unit, as applicable, and to any common stock, preferred stock, debt security, warrant, right or purchase contract included in each unit, as applicable.

Unit Agent

The name and address of the unit agent for any units we offer will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Issuance in Series

We may issue units in such amounts and in such numerous distinct series as we determine.

 

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Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Units

Each unit agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable unit agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any unit. A single bank or trust company may act as unit agent for more than one series of units. A unit agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable unit agreement or unit, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a unit may, without the consent of the related unit agent or the holder of any other unit, enforce by appropriate legal action its rights as holder under any security included in the unit.

 

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CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF DELAWARE LAW AND OF THE COMPANY’S CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION AND BYLAWS

Anti-Takeover Provisions

The provisions of Delaware law and our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws could discourage or make it more difficult to accomplish a proxy contest or other change in our management or the acquisition of control by a holder of a substantial amount of our voting stock. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish, or could deter, transactions that stockholders may otherwise consider to be in their best interests or in our best interests. These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continuity and stability in the composition of our board of directors and in the policies formulated by the board of directors and to discourage certain types of transactions that may involve an actual or threatened change of our control. These provisions are designed to reduce our vulnerability to an unsolicited acquisition proposal and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. Such provisions also may have the effect of preventing changes in our management.

Delaware Statutory Business Combinations Provision

We are subject to the anti-takeover provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Section 203 prohibits a publicly-held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is, or the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder was, approved in a prescribed manner or another prescribed exception applies. For purposes of Section 203, a “business combination” is defined broadly to include a merger, asset sale or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder, and, subject to certain exceptions, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with his or her affiliates and associates, owns, or within three years prior, did own, 15% or more of the corporation’s voting stock.

Classified Board of Directors; Removal of Directors for Cause

Pursuant to our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws, our board of directors is divided into three classes, with the term of office of each class to expire at the third annual meeting of stockholders following election. At each annual meeting of stockholders, directors elected to succeed those directors whose terms expire, other than directors elected by the holders of any series of preferred stock under specified circumstances, will be elected for a three-year term of office. All directors elected to our classified board of directors will serve until the election and qualification of their respective successors or their earlier death, resignation or removal. Members of the board of directors may be removed only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority of the voting power of our then outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class. These provisions are likely to increase the time required for stockholders to change the composition of the board of directors. For example, at least two annual meetings will be necessary for stockholders to effect a change in a majority of the members of the board of directors.

Advance Notice Provisions for Stockholder Proposals and Stockholder Nominations of Directors

Our restated bylaws provide that, for nominations to the board of directors or for other business to be properly brought by a stockholder before a meeting of stockholders, the stockholder must first have given timely notice of the proposal in writing to our Secretary. For an annual meeting, a stockholder’s notice generally must be delivered not less than 90 days nor more than 120 days prior to the first anniversary of the previous year’s annual meeting date. For a special meeting, the notice must generally be delivered not earlier than the 120th day prior to the meeting and not later than the later of

 

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(1) the 90th day prior to the meeting or (2) the 10th day following the day on which public announcement of the meeting is first made. Detailed requirements as to the form of the notice and information required in the notice are specified in the restated bylaws. If it is determined that business was not properly brought before a meeting in accordance with our bylaw provisions, such business will not be conducted at the meeting.

Special Meetings of Stockholders

Special meetings of the stockholders may be called only by the chairman of our board of directors, our Chief Executive Officer, our President or our board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of our board of directors.

No Stockholder Action by Written Consent

Any action to be effected by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of the stockholders.

Super Majority Stockholder Vote Required for Certain Actions

The Delaware General Corporation Law provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, unless the corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, as the case may be, require a greater percentage. Our restated certificate of incorporation requires the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the voting power of all of our outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class, to amend or repeal any of the provisions discussed in this section of this prospectus. This 75% stockholder vote would be in addition to any separate class vote that might in the future be required pursuant to the terms of any preferred stock that might then be outstanding. A 75% vote is also required for any amendment to, or repeal of, our restated bylaws by the stockholders. Our restated bylaws may be amended or repealed by vote of a majority of the authorized number of directors.

Limitation of Liability and Indemnification

Our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws provide that we shall indemnify our directors and executive officers to the fullest extent not prohibited by the Delaware General Corporation Law or any other applicable law, except that we are not required to indemnify any director or executive officer in connection with any proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless (i) such indemnification is expressly required to be made by law, (ii) the proceeding was authorized by our board of directors, (iii) we provide such indemnification, in our sole discretion, pursuant to the powers vested in us under the Delaware General Corporation Law or any other applicable law, or (iv) such indemnification is required to be made under the enforcement provisions of our restated bylaws.

Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law permits a corporation to indemnify any director or officer of the corporation against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with any action, suit or proceeding brought by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of the corporation, if such person acted in good faith and in a manner that he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, if he or she had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. In a derivative action (i.e., one brought by or on behalf of the corporation), indemnification may be provided only for expenses actually and reasonably incurred by any director or officer in connection with the defense or settlement of such an action or suit if such person acted in good faith and in a manner that he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the corporation, except that no indemnification shall be provided if such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the

 

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corporation, unless and only to the extent that the Delaware Chancery Court or the court in which the action or suit was brought shall determine that such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses despite such adjudication of liability.

Pursuant to Section 102(b)(7) of the Delaware General Corporation Law, Article Sixth of our restated certificate of incorporation eliminates the liability of a director to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for such a breach of fiduciary duty as a director to the fullest extent under applicable law, which does not include liabilities arising:

 

    from any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;

 

    from acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

    under Section 174 of the Delaware General Corporation Law; and

 

    from any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

We have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and executive officers, in addition to the indemnification provided in our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws, and intend to enter into indemnification agreements with any new directors and executive officers in the future. We have purchased and intend to maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director or officer against any loss arising from any claim asserted against him or her and incurred by him or her in any such capacity, subject to certain exclusions.

The foregoing discussion of our restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws, indemnification agreements and Delaware law is not intended to be exhaustive and is qualified in its entirety by such restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws, indemnification agreements or law.

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers and controlling persons pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, we have been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C., Boston, Massachusetts, will pass upon the validity of the issuance of the securities to be offered by this prospectus.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Albireo Pharma, Inc. at December 31, 2016, and for the year then ended, incorporated by reference in this prospectus and the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP (United States), independent registered public accounting firm, and at December 31, 2015, and for the year then ended, by Ernst & Young LLP (United Kingdom), independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their respective reports thereon incorporated by reference herein, and are included in reliance upon such reports given on the authority of such firms as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy these reports, proxy statements and other information at the SEC’s public reference facilities at 100 F Street, N.E., Room 1580, Washington, D.C. 20549. You can request copies of these documents by writing to the SEC and paying a fee for the copying cost. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for more information about the operation of the public reference facilities. SEC filings are also available at the SEC’s web site at http://www.sec.gov.

This prospectus is only part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the SEC under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and therefore omits certain information contained in the registration statement. We have also filed exhibits and schedules with the registration statement that are excluded from this prospectus, and you should refer to the applicable exhibit or schedule for a complete description of any statement referring to any contract or other document. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement, including the exhibits and schedules, without charge, at the public reference room or obtain a copy from the SEC upon payment of the fees prescribed by the SEC.

We also maintain a website at www.albireopharma.com, through which you can access our SEC filings. The information set forth on our website is not part of this prospectus.

 

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INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with them. Incorporation by reference allows us to disclose important information to you by referring you to those other documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We filed a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, with the SEC with respect to the securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. This prospectus omits certain information contained in the registration statement, as permitted by the SEC. You should refer to the registration statement, including the exhibits, for further information about us and the securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. Statements in this prospectus regarding the provisions of certain documents filed with, or incorporated by reference in, the registration statement are not necessarily complete and each statement is qualified in all respects by that reference. Copies of all or any part of the registration statement, including the documents incorporated by reference or the exhibits, may be obtained upon payment of the prescribed rates at the offices of the SEC listed above in “Where You Can Find More Information.” The documents we are incorporating by reference are:

 

    our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016 that we filed with the SEC on March 27, 2017;

 

    the portions of our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A filed on April 21, 2017 that are deemed “filed” with the SEC under the Exchange Act;

 

    our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2017 that we filed with the SEC on May 11, 2017 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended June 30, 2017 that we filed with the SEC on August 21, 2017;

 

    our Current Reports on Form 8-K that we filed with the SEC on January 27, 2017, February 10, 2017, May 18, 2017, May 23, 2017, May 24, 2017, June 15, 2017, September 28, 2017 and October 13, 2017;

 

    the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on May 8, 2007, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description; and

 

    all reports and other documents subsequently filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination or completion of the offering of securities under this prospectus shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and to be a part hereof from the date of filing such reports and other documents.

The SEC file number for each of the documents listed above is 001-33451.

In addition, all reports and other documents filed by us pursuant to the Exchange Act after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Any statement contained in this prospectus or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

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You may request, orally or in writing, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated herein by reference. These documents will be provided to you at no cost, by contacting:

Albireo Pharma, Inc.

10 Post Office Square, Suite 502 South

Boston, Massachusetts 02109

(857) 254-5555

You may also access these documents on our website, http://www.albireopharma.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

You should rely only on information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We are not making offers to sell the securities in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making such offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation.

 

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THE INFORMATION IN THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT COMPLETE AND MAY BE CHANGED. WE MAY NOT SELL THESE SECURITIES UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT FILED WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION IS EFFECTIVE. THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT AN OFFER TO SELL THESE SECURITIES AND IS NOT SOLICITING AN OFFER TO BUY THESE SECURITIES IN ANY STATE WHERE THE OFFER OR SALE IS NOT PERMITTED.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED OCTOBER 13, 2017

PROSPECTUS

 

 

Albireo Pharma, Inc.

$50,000,000

Common Stock

 

 

We have entered into a Sales Agreement, or sales agreement, with Cowen and Company, LLC, or Cowen, dated October 13, 2017, relating to the sale of shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, under this prospectus we may offer and sell shares of our common stock, $0.01 par value per share, having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000 from time to time through Cowen, acting as our agent.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus will be made by any method permitted that is deemed an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through The NASDAQ Capital Market, the existing trading market for our common stock, sales made to or through a market maker other than on an exchange or otherwise, in negotiated transactions at market prices, and/or any other method permitted by law. Cowen is not required to sell any specific amount, but will act as our sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

Cowen will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate of 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold under the sales agreement. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page SA-18 for additional information regarding the compensation to be paid to Cowen. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Cowen may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Cowen may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

Our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “ALBO.” On October 12, 2017, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $23.99 per share.

 

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should consider carefully the risks that we have described on page SA-5 of this prospectus under the caption “ Risk Factors ” and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

Cowen

The date of this prospectus is                     , 2017


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

    Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

    SA-1  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

    SA-2  

THE OFFERING

    SA-4  

RISK FACTORS

    SA-5  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

    SA-7  

USE OF PROCEEDS

    SA-10  

DIVIDEND POLICY

    SA-10  

DILUTION

    SA-11  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

    SA-13  

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF DELAWARE LAW AND OF THE COMPANY’S CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION AND BYLAWS

    SA-15  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

    SA-18  

LEGAL MATTERS

    SA-19  

EXPERTS

    SA-19  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

    SA-19  

INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

    SA-20  

 

SA-i


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000 under this prospectus at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering.

This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For a more complete understanding of the offering of the securities, you should refer to the registration statement, including its exhibits. This prospectus, together with the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, includes all material information relating to the offering of securities under this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the information and documents incorporated herein by reference and the additional information under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Documents by Reference” before making an investment decision.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We have not, and Cowen has not, authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You must not rely on any unauthorized information or representation. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the shares of our common stock offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. You should assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and that any information we have incorporated herein by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of a security.

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

To the extent there are inconsistencies between this prospectus and any documents incorporated by reference, the document with the most recent date will control.

Unless the context otherwise requires, “the Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to Albireo Pharma, Inc. and its direct and indirect subsidiaries.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

The following is a summary of what we believe to be the most important aspects of our business and the offering of our securities under this prospectus. We urge you to read this entire prospectus, including the more detailed consolidated financial statements, notes to the consolidated financial statements and other information incorporated by reference from our other filings with the SEC. Investing in our securities involves risks. Please carefully consider the risk factors set forth in our most recent annual and quarterly filings with the SEC, as well as other information in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein, before purchasing our securities. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities.

About Albireo Pharma, Inc.

We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of novel bile acid modulators to treat orphan pediatric liver diseases and gastrointestinal, or GI, disorders where improper flow or absorption of bile causes serious medical conditions for which there is high unmet need. The initial target indication for our lead product candidate, A4250, is progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, or PFIC, a rare, life-threatening genetic disorder affecting young children for which there is currently no approved drug treatment. We have evaluated A4250 in a Phase 2 clinical trial in children with chronic cholestasis and are conducting preparatory activities for the planned initiation of a Phase 3 clinical trial in patients with PFIC. In addition to PFIC, we plan to consider conducting future clinical development of A4250 as a treatment for one or more other pediatric cholestatic liver diseases and disorders. Our clinical-stage product candidates in addition to A4250 include elobixibat, for which our licensee has submitted a new drug application for approval in Japan to treat chronic constipation, and A3384, which is in development to treat bile acid malabsorption, or BAM. We also have a preclinical program in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH.

Additional Information

For additional information related to our business and operations, please refer to the reports incorporated herein by reference, including the Annual Report on Form 10-K of Albireo Pharma, Inc. for the year ended December 31, 2016, as described under the caption “Incorporation of Documents by Reference” on page SA-20 of this prospectus.

Our Corporate Information

On November 3, 2016, Biodel Inc., or Biodel, completed its business combination with Albireo Limited in accordance with the terms of the Amended and Restated Share Exchange Agreement, dated as of July 13, 2016, or the Exchange Agreement, by and among Biodel, Albireo Limited and the shareholders and noteholders of Albireo Limited. Pursuant to the Exchange Agreement, each holder of Albireo Limited shares or notes convertible into Albireo Limited shares received newly issued shares of Biodel common stock, and Albireo Limited became a wholly owned subsidiary of Biodel. We refer to this exchange as the Transaction. Also on November 3, 2016, in connection with, and prior to completion of, the Transaction, Biodel effected a 1-for-30 reverse stock split of its common stock, which we refer to as the Reverse Stock Split, and, following the completion of the Transaction, changed its name to Albireo Pharma, Inc. As used herein, the words the “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to Albireo Pharma, Inc. and its direct and indirect subsidiaries. In addition, the word “Biodel” refers to the Company prior to November 3, 2016.

Our corporate headquarters are located at 10 Post Office Square, Suite 502 South, Boston, Massachusetts 02109, and our telephone number is (857) 254-5555. We maintain a website at

 



 

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www.albireopharma.com, to which we regularly post copies of our press releases as well as additional information about us. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

All brand names or trademarks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective holders. Use or display by us of other parties’ trademarks, trade dress, or products in this prospectus is not intended to, and does not, imply a relationship with, or endorsements or sponsorship of, us by the trademark or trade dress owners.

 



 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by us

Shares of our common having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000.

 

Manner of offering

“At the market” offering that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, Cowen and Company, LLC. See “Plan of Distribution” on page SA-18 of this prospectus.

 

Use of proceeds

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for our operations and our further development and potential commercialization of either or both of our product candidates A4250 and A3384, as well as the development of other product candidates, and other general corporate purposes, including, but not limited to, working capital, intellectual property protection and enforcement, capital expenditures, repayment of any existing indebtedness, investments, acquisitions and collaborations. See the section entitled “Use of Proceeds” on page SA-10 of this prospectus.

 

Risk factors

See “Risk Factors” beginning on page SA-5 of this prospectus and the other information included in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus for a discussion of certain factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock.

 

NASDAQ Capital Market symbol

“ALBO”

 



 

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RISK FACTORS

An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our common stock, you should consider carefully the risks described below and discussed under the sections captioned “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as in any of our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, which are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus, the information and documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment.

Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to any of these risks, and you may lose part or all of your investment. This prospectus and the incorporated documents also contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks mentioned below. Forward-looking statements included in this prospectus are based on information available to us on the date hereof, and all forward-looking statements in documents incorporated by reference are based on information available to us as of the date of such documents. We disclaim any intent to update any forward-looking statements.

Risks Related to This Offering

Our management will have broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from this offering, and you may not agree with how we use the proceeds and the proceeds may not be invested successfully.

Our management will have broad discretion as to the use of the net proceeds from this offering and could use them for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of this offering. Accordingly, you are relying on the judgment of our management with regard to the use of these net proceeds, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds will be used appropriately. It is possible that the proceeds will be invested in a way that does not yield a favorable, or any, return for the Company.

Purchasers will experience immediate dilution in the book value per share of the common stock purchased in the offering.

The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. However, we expect that the offering price of our common stock will be substantially higher than the net tangible book value per share of our outstanding common stock. After giving effect to the sale of shares of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $50,000,000 at an assumed offering price of $23.99 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on October 12, 2017 on The NASDAQ Capital Market, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2017 would have been approximately $105.3 million or approximately $9.63 per share. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of approximately $3.19 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in as adjusted net tangible book value of approximately $14.36 per share to purchasers of our common stock in this offering. Because the sales of the shares offered under this prospectus will be made directly into the market or in negotiated transactions, the prices at which we sell these shares will vary and these variations may be significant. Any purchaser of the shares we sell, as well as any existing stockholder, will experience significant dilution if we sell shares at prices significantly below the price at which the purchaser or existing stockholder invested.

 

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Further, the exercise of outstanding options could result in further dilution to investors and any additional shares issued in connection with acquisitions will result in dilution to investors. In addition, the market price of our common stock could fall as a result of resales of any of these shares of common stock due to an increased number of shares available for sale in the market. As of June 30, 2017, we had 889,423 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding, of which 277,292 shares were vested as of such date, and 228,802 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2016 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2016 Plan, plus up to an additional 193,681 shares subject to outstanding stock options granted under the Biodel Inc. 2010 Stock Incentive Plan, as amended, or the 2010 Plan, which may be issued under the 2016 Plan solely after the forfeiture, expiration or cancellation of such stock options. In addition, in September 2017, our board of directors adopted the Albireo Pharma, Inc. 2017 Inducement Equity Incentive Plan, or the Inducement Plan, without stockholder approval pursuant to Rule 5635(c)(4) of the NASDAQ Listing Rules, pursuant to which we may grant stock options, stock awards and other stock-based awards for up to a total of 150,000 shares of common stock to new employees of the Company.

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock. We cannot assure you that we will be able to sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is equal to or greater than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share in this offering.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus include forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that relate to future events or to our future operations or financial performance. Any forward-looking statement involves known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statement. Our forward-looking statements include statements, other than statements of historical fact, about, among other things:

 

    the progress, scope, cost, duration or results of our development activities, nonclinical studies and clinical trials of A4250, elobixibat, A3384 or any of our other product candidates or programs, such as the target indication(s) for development or approval, the size, design, population, conduct, cost, objective or endpoints of any clinical trial, or the timing for initiation or completion of or availability of results from any clinical trial (including our planned Phase 3 clinical trial of A4250 in patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, or PFIC), for submission or approval of any regulatory filing (including a new drug application in Japan for elobixibat), for meeting with regulatory authorities;

 

    the potential benefits that may be derived from any of our product candidates;

 

    the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our existing product candidates, any product candidates that we may develop, and any related restrictions, limitations, or warnings in the label of any approved product candidates;

 

    any payment that EA Pharma Co., Ltd. (EA Pharma) may make to us or any other action or decision that EA Pharma may make concerning elobixibat or our business relationship;

 

    our future operations, financial position, revenues, costs, expenses, uses of cash, capital requirements or our need for additional financing; and

 

    our strategies, prospects, plans, expectations or objectives.

Words such as, but not limited to, “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “forecast,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “targets,” “likely,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “continue,” “scheduled” and similar expressions or phrases, or the negative of those expressions or phrases, are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, we caution you that these statements are based on our projections of the future that are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by any forward-looking statement to differ materially from those expressed or implied by any forward-looking statement. Some of these risks, uncertainties and other factors include our critical accounting policies and:

 

    the clinical trial design, size, duration and endpoints for our planned Phase 3 clinical trial of A4250 in patients with PFIC, or that will be required to obtain marketing approval for A4250 to treat patients with PFIC or any other pediatric cholestatic liver disease or for A3384 to treat BAM;

 

    whether favorable findings from clinical trials of A4250 to date, including findings in indications other than PFIC, will be predictive of results from future clinical trials, including the trials comprising our planned Phase 3 PFIC program for A4250;

 

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    whether either or both of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, and European Medicines Agency, or EMA, will determine that the primary endpoint and duration of the planned double blind Phase 3 trial in patients with PFIC is sufficient, even if such primary endpoint is met with statistical significance, to support approval of A4250 in the United States or the European Union, to treat PFIC, a symptom of PFIC or otherwise;

 

    the outcome and interpretation by regulatory authorities of an ongoing third-party study pooling and analyzing long-term PFIC patient data;

 

    the timing for initiation or completion of, or for availability of data from, the trials comprising the planned Phase 3 PFIC program for A4250, and the outcomes of such trials;

 

    whether we receive additional feedback from regulatory authorities on our planned Phase 3 PFIC program for A4250 that results in a delay in its initiation;

 

    delays or other challenges in the initiation of, or recruitment of patients for, the planned double blind Phase 3 trial of A4250;

 

    whether our current cash resources will be sufficient to fund our planned Phase 3 clinical program for A4250 in patients with PFIC to completion;

 

    whether A4250 will meet the criteria to receive a pediatric priority review voucher from the FDA when applicable, and, if necessary, whether the pediatric priority review voucher program will be renewed beyond 2020;

 

    the competitive environment and commercial opportunity for a potential treatment for PFIC and other orphan pediatric cholestatic liver diseases;

 

    the conduct and results of clinical trials and nonclinical studies and assessments of A4250, elobixibat, A3384 or any of our other product candidates and programs, including the performance of third parties engaged to execute them and difficulties or delays in patient enrollment and data analysis;

 

    the medical benefit that may be derived from A4250, elobixibat, A3384 or any of our other product candidates;

 

    the extent to which our agreement with EA Pharma for elobixibat generates nondilutive income for us;

 

    the timing and success of submission, acceptance and approval of regulatory filings, including in particular the new drug application submitted by EA Pharma in Japan for elobixibat for the treatment of chronic constipation, and any related restrictions, limitations or warnings in the label of any approved product candidates;

 

    the significant control or influence that EA Pharma has over the development and commercialization of elobixibat in Japan and other licensed territories;

 

    whether we elect to seek and, if so, our ability to establish a license or other partnering transaction with a third party for elobixibat in the United States or Europe;

 

    whether findings from nonclinical studies and clinical trials of IBAT inhibitors will be predictive of future clinical success for a future product candidate of ours in the treatment of NASH;

 

    the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues, uses of cash and capital requirements;

 

    our ability to obtain additional financing on reasonable terms, or at all;

 

    our ability to establish additional licensing, collaboration or similar arrangements on favorable terms and our ability to attract collaborators with development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;

 

    the success of competing third-party products or product candidates;

 

    our ability to successfully commercialize any approved product candidates, including their rate and degree of market acceptance;

 

    our ability to expand and protect our intellectual property estate;

 

    regulatory developments in the United States and other countries;

 

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    the performance of our third-party suppliers, manufacturers and contract research organizations and our ability to obtain alternative sources of raw materials; and

 

    our ability to attract and retain key personnel.

These and other risks and uncertainties are described in greater detail under the caption “Risk Factors” in this prospectus, as updated and supplemented by the discussion of risks and uncertainties under “Risk Factors” contained in any supplements to this prospectus, or in the sections entitled “Business,” “Risk Factors,” “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” or “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K, as revised or supplemented by our subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or our subsequent current reports on Form 8-K, as well as any amendments thereto, as filed with the SEC and which are incorporated herein by reference. As a result of the risks and uncertainties, the results or events indicated by the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus or in any document incorporated herein by reference may not occur.

Investors are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statement. Each forward-looking statement represents our views only as of the date of this prospectus or the date of the document incorporated by reference in this prospectus and should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments may cause our views to change. We expressly disclaim any obligation to update or alter any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make. All subsequent forward-looking statements attributable to us or to any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sale proceeds of up to $50,000,000 from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. We currently intend to use any net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus for our operations and our further development and potential commercialization of either or both of our product candidates A4250 and A3384, as well as the development of other product candidates, and other general corporate purposes, including, but not limited to, working capital, intellectual property protection and enforcement, capital expenditures, repayment of any existing indebtedness, investments, acquisitions and collaborations. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures will depend on numerous factors, including the progress of our clinical trials and other development efforts and other factors described under “Risk Factors” in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein, as well as the amount of cash used in our operations. As a result, our management will have broad discretion to allocate the net proceeds, if any, we receive in connection with the shares of our common stock offered pursuant to this prospectus for any purpose. Pending application of the net proceeds as described above, we may initially invest the net proceeds in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities or apply them to the reduction of short-term indebtedness.

DIVIDEND POLICY

Except for a single dividend paid by Albireo Limited in 2012, we have never paid or declared any cash dividends on our common stock. We currently intend to retain earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. In addition, we are currently prohibited from making any dividend payments under the terms of our loan facility with our lender.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the price per share of our common stock you pay in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.

As of June 30, 2017, our historical net tangible book value was $57.0 million, or $6.43 per share of common stock. Historical net tangible book value per share represents the amount of our total tangible assets less total liabilities, divided by 8,859,141, the number of shares of common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2017.

After giving effect to the assumed sale of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $50,000,000 at an assumed offering price of $23.99 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The NASDAQ Capital Market on October 12, 2017, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2017 would have been $105.3 million, or $9.63 per share of common stock. This amount represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $3.19 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of approximately $14.36 per share to new investors in this offering.

The following table illustrates this calculation on a per share basis. The as adjusted information is illustrative only and will adjust based on the actual price to the public, the actual number of shares sold and other terms of the offering determined at the time shares of our common stock are sold pursuant to this prospectus. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices.

 

Assumed offering price per share

     $ 23.99  

Historical net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2017

  $ 6.43     

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to this offering

    3.19     
 

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering

       9.63  
    

 

 

 

Dilution per share to new investors participating in this offering

     $ 14.36  
    

 

 

 

The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 2,084,201 shares of our common stock are sold during the term of the sales agreement with Cowen at a price of $23.99 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The NASDAQ Capital Market on October 12, 2017, for aggregate gross proceeds of $50.0 million. The shares subject to the sales agreement with Cowen are being sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $23.99 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $50.0 million during the term of the sales agreement with Cowen is sold at that price, would increase our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $9.70 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $15.29 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $23.99 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $50.0 million during the term of the sales agreement with Cowen is sold at that price, would decrease our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $9.55 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $13.44 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only.

 

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The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on an aggregate of 8,859,141 shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2017 and excludes:

 

    889,423 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of June 30, 2017, at a weighted average exercise price of $16.62 per share, of which 277,292 shares were vested as of such date; and

 

    228,802 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2016 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2016 Plan, as of June 30, 2017, plus up to an additional 193,681 shares subject to outstanding stock options granted under the Biodel Inc. 2010 Stock Incentive Plan, as amended, or the 2010 Plan, as of June 30, 2017, which may be issued under the 2016 Plan solely after the forfeiture, expiration or cancellation of such stock options.

In addition, in September 2017, our board of directors adopted the Albireo Pharma, Inc. 2017 Inducement Equity Incentive Plan, or 2017 Inducement Plan, without stockholder approval pursuant to Rule 5635(c)(4) of the NASDAQ Listing Rules, pursuant to which we may grant stock options, stock awards and other stock-based awards for up to a total of 150,000 shares of common stock to new employees of the Company.

To the extent that any shares are issued upon the exercise of outstanding options or otherwise pursuant to any grants made in the future under our 2016 Plan or 2017 Inducement Plan, you will experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities may result in further dilution to our stockholders.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

We are authorized to issue 30,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, and 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share. On September 30, 2017, we had approximately 8,882,785 shares of common stock outstanding, no shares of preferred stock outstanding and approximately 39 stockholders of record.

The following summary of certain provisions of our capital stock does not purport to be complete. You should refer to the section of this prospectus entitled “Certain Provisions of Delaware Law and of the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws” and our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws, both of which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The summary below is also qualified by provisions of applicable law.

Common Stock

General

Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. An election of directors by our stockholders shall be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election. Holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future. All shares of common stock outstanding as of the date of this prospectus and, upon issuance and sale, all shares of common stock that we may offer pursuant to this prospectus, will be fully paid and nonassessable.

In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately our net assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. Our outstanding shares of common stock are validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, with offices at 17 Battery Place, New York, NY 10004.

Stock Exchange Listing

Our common stock is listed for quotation on The NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “ALBO.”

Preferred Stock

Our board of directors may, without further action by our stockholders, from time to time, direct the issuance of shares of preferred stock in series and may, at the time of issuance, determine the rights, preferences and limitations of each series, including voting rights, dividend rights and redemption and liquidation preferences. Satisfaction of any dividend preferences of outstanding shares of preferred stock would reduce the amount of funds available for the payment of dividends on shares of our common stock. Holders of shares of preferred stock may be entitled to receive a preference payment in the event of any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our company before any payment is made

 

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to the holders of shares of our common stock. In some circumstances, the issuance of shares of preferred stock may render more difficult or tend to discourage a merger, tender offer or proxy contest, the assumption of control by a holder of a large block of our securities or the removal of incumbent management. Upon the affirmative vote of our board of directors, without stockholder approval, we may issue shares of preferred stock with voting and conversion rights which could adversely affect the holders of shares of our common stock.

 

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CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF DELAWARE LAW AND OF THE COMPANY’S CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION AND BYLAWS

Anti-Takeover Provisions

The provisions of Delaware law and our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws could discourage or make it more difficult to accomplish a proxy contest or other change in our management or the acquisition of control by a holder of a substantial amount of our voting stock. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish, or could deter, transactions that stockholders may otherwise consider to be in their best interests or in our best interests. These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continuity and stability in the composition of our board of directors and in the policies formulated by the board of directors and to discourage certain types of transactions that may involve an actual or threatened change of our control. These provisions are designed to reduce our vulnerability to an unsolicited acquisition proposal and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. Such provisions also may have the effect of preventing changes in our management.

Delaware Statutory Business Combinations Provision

We are subject to the anti-takeover provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Section 203 prohibits a publicly-held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is, or the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder was, approved in a prescribed manner or another prescribed exception applies. For purposes of Section 203, a “business combination” is defined broadly to include a merger, asset sale or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder, and, subject to certain exceptions, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with his or her affiliates and associates, owns, or within three years prior, did own, 15% or more of the corporation’s voting stock.

Classified Board of Directors; Removal of Directors for Cause

Pursuant to our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws, our board of directors is divided into three classes, with the term of office of each class to expire at the third annual meeting of stockholders following election. At each annual meeting of stockholders, directors elected to succeed those directors whose terms expire, other than directors elected by the holders of any series of preferred stock under specified circumstances, will be elected for a three-year term of office. All directors elected to our classified board of directors will serve until the election and qualification of their respective successors or their earlier death, resignation or removal. Members of the board of directors may be removed only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority of the voting power of our then outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class. These provisions are likely to increase the time required for stockholders to change the composition of the board of directors. For example, at least two annual meetings will be necessary for stockholders to effect a change in a majority of the members of the board of directors.

Advance Notice Provisions for Stockholder Proposals and Stockholder Nominations of Directors

Our restated bylaws provide that, for nominations to the board of directors or for other business to be properly brought by a stockholder before a meeting of stockholders, the stockholder must first have given timely notice of the proposal in writing to our Secretary. For an annual meeting, a stockholder’s notice generally must be delivered not less than 90 days nor more than 120 days prior to the first anniversary of the previous year’s annual meeting date. For a special meeting, the notice must generally be delivered not earlier than the 120th day prior to the meeting and not later than the later of

 

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(1) the 90th day prior to the meeting or (2) the 10th day following the day on which public announcement of the meeting is first made. Detailed requirements as to the form of the notice and information required in the notice are specified in the restated bylaws. If it is determined that business was not properly brought before a meeting in accordance with our bylaw provisions, such business will not be conducted at the meeting.

Special Meetings of Stockholders

Special meetings of the stockholders may be called only by the chairman of our board of directors, our Chief Executive Officer, our President or our board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of our board of directors.

No Stockholder Action by Written Consent

Any action to be effected by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of the stockholders.

Super Majority Stockholder Vote Required for Certain Actions

The Delaware General Corporation Law provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, unless the corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, as the case may be, require a greater percentage. Our restated certificate of incorporation requires the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the voting power of all of our outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class, to amend or repeal any of the provisions discussed in this section of this prospectus. This 75% stockholder vote would be in addition to any separate class vote that might in the future be required pursuant to the terms of any preferred stock that might then be outstanding. A 75% vote is also required for any amendment to, or repeal of, our restated bylaws by the stockholders. Our restated bylaws may be amended or repealed by vote of a majority of the authorized number of directors.

Limitation of Liability and Indemnification

Our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws provide that we shall indemnify our directors and executive officers to the fullest extent not prohibited by the Delaware General Corporation Law or any other applicable law, except that we are not required to indemnify any director or executive officer in connection with any proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless (i) such indemnification is expressly required to be made by law, (ii) the proceeding was authorized by our board of directors, (iii) we provide such indemnification, in our sole discretion, pursuant to the powers vested in us under the Delaware General Corporation Law or any other applicable law, or (iv) such indemnification is required to be made under the enforcement provisions of our restated bylaws.

Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law permits a corporation to indemnify any director or officer of the corporation against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with any action, suit or proceeding brought by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of the corporation, if such person acted in good faith and in a manner that he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, if he or she had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. In a derivative action (i.e., one brought by or on behalf of the corporation), indemnification may be provided only for expenses actually and reasonably incurred by any director or officer in connection with the defense or settlement of such an action or suit if such person acted in good faith and in a manner that he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the corporation, except

 

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that no indemnification shall be provided if such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation, unless and only to the extent that the Delaware Chancery Court or the court in which the action or suit was brought shall determine that such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses despite such adjudication of liability.

Pursuant to Section 102(b)(7) of the Delaware General Corporation Law, Article Sixth of our restated certificate of incorporation eliminates the liability of a director to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for such a breach of fiduciary duty as a director to the fullest extent under applicable law, which does not include liabilities arising:

 

    from any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;

 

    from acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

    under Section 174 of the Delaware General Corporation Law; and

 

    from any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

We have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and executive officers, in addition to the indemnification provided in our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws, and intend to enter into indemnification agreements with any new directors and executive officers in the future. We have purchased and intend to maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director or officer against any loss arising from any claim asserted against him or her and incurred by him or her in any such capacity, subject to certain exclusions.

The foregoing discussion of our restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws, indemnification agreements and Delaware law is not intended to be exhaustive and is qualified in its entirety by such restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws, indemnification agreements or law.

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers and controlling persons pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, we have been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into a sales agreement with Cowen, under which we may issue and sell from time to time up to $50,000,000 of our common stock through Cowen as our sales agent. Sales of our common stock, if any, will be made at market prices by any method that is deemed to be an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on The NASDAQ Capital Market or any other trading market for our common stock and, if expressly authorized by us, in privately-negotiated transactions. If authorized by us in writing, Cowen may purchase shares of our common stock as principal.

Cowen will offer our common stock subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement on a daily basis or as otherwise agreed upon by us and Cowen. We will designate the maximum amount of common stock to be sold through Cowen on a daily basis or otherwise determine such maximum amount together with Cowen. Subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement, Cowen will use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us. We may instruct Cowen not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. Cowen or we may suspend the offering of our common stock being made through Cowen under the sales agreement upon proper notice to the other party. Cowen and we each have the right, by giving written notice as specified in the sales agreement, to terminate the sales agreement in each party’s sole discretion at any time.

The aggregate compensation payable to Cowen as sales agent equals 3.0% of the gross sales price of the shares sold through it pursuant to the sales agreement. We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding commissions payable to Cowen under the sales agreement, will be approximately $150,000.

The remaining sales proceeds, after deducting any expenses payable by us and any transaction fees imposed by any governmental, regulatory, or self-regulatory organization in connection with the sales, will equal our net proceeds for the sale of such common stock.

Cowen will provide written confirmation to us following the close of trading on The NASDAQ Capital Market on each day in which common stock is sold through it as sales agent under the sales agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares of common stock sold through it as sales agent on that day, the volume weighted average price of the shares sold, the compensation payable by us to Cowen, and the net proceeds to us.

We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of common stock sold through Cowen under the sales agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to Cowen in connection with the sales of common stock.

Settlement for sales of common stock will occur, unless the parties agree otherwise, on the second business day that is also a trading day following the date on which any sales were made in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

In connection with the sales of our common stock on our behalf, Cowen may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to Cowen may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed in the sales agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act. As sales agent, Cowen will not engage in any transactions that stabilizes our common stock.

 

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Our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Capital Market and trades under the symbol “ALBO.” The transfer agent of our common stock is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company.

Cowen and/or its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking and other financial services for us for which services they have received and, may in the future receive, customary fees.

LEGAL MATTERS

Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C., Boston, Massachusetts, will pass upon the validity of the issuance of the securities to be offered by this prospectus. Cowen and Company, LLC is being represented by Goodwin Procter LLP, New York, New York in connection with this offering.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Albireo Pharma, Inc. at December 31, 2016, and for the year then ended, incorporated by reference in this prospectus and the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP (United States), independent registered public accounting firm, and at December 31, 2015, and for the year then ended, by Ernst & Young LLP (United Kingdom), independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their respective reports thereon incorporated by reference herein, and are included in reliance upon such reports given on the authority of such firms as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy these reports, proxy statements and other information at the SEC’s public reference facilities at 100 F Street, N.E., Room 1580, Washington, D.C. 20549. You can request copies of these documents by writing to the SEC and paying a fee for the copying cost. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for more information about the operation of the public reference facilities. SEC filings are also available at the SEC’s web site at http://www.sec.gov.

This prospectus is only part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the SEC under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and therefore omits certain information contained in the registration statement. We have also filed exhibits and schedules with the registration statement that are excluded from this prospectus, and you should refer to the applicable exhibit or schedule for a complete description of any statement referring to any contract or other document. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement, including the exhibits and schedules, without charge, at the public reference room or obtain a copy from the SEC upon payment of the fees prescribed by the SEC.

We also maintain a website at www.albireopharma.com, through which you can access our SEC filings. The information set forth on our website is not part of this prospectus.

 

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INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with them. Incorporation by reference allows us to disclose important information to you by referring you to those other documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We filed a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, with the SEC with respect to the securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. This prospectus omits certain information contained in the registration statement, as permitted by the SEC. You should refer to the registration statement, including the exhibits, for further information about us and the securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. Statements in this prospectus regarding the provisions of certain documents filed with, or incorporated by reference in, the registration statement are not necessarily complete and each statement is qualified in all respects by that reference. Copies of all or any part of the registration statement, including the documents incorporated by reference or the exhibits, may be obtained upon payment of the prescribed rates at the offices of the SEC listed above in “Where You Can Find More Information.” The documents we are incorporating by reference are:

 

    our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016 that we filed with the SEC on March 27, 2017;

 

    the portions of our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A filed on April 21, 2017 that are deemed “filed” with the SEC under the Exchange Act;

 

    our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2017 that we filed with the SEC on May 11, 2017 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended June 30, 2017 that we filed with the SEC on August 21, 2017;

 

    our Current Reports on Form 8-K that we filed with the SEC on January 27, 2017, February 10, 2017, May 18, 2017, May 23, 2017, May 24, 2017, June 15, 2017, September 28, 2017 and October 13, 2017;

 

    the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on May 8, 2007, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description; and

 

    all reports and other documents subsequently filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination or completion of the offering of securities under this prospectus shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and to be a part hereof from the date of filing such reports and other documents.

The SEC file number for each of the documents listed above is 001-33451.

In addition, all reports and other documents filed by us pursuant to the Exchange Act after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Any statement contained in this prospectus or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

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You may request, orally or in writing, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated herein by reference. These documents will be provided to you at no cost, by contacting:

Albireo Pharma, Inc.

10 Post Office Square, Suite 502 South

Boston, Massachusetts 02109

(857) 254-5555

You may also access these documents on our website, http://www.albireopharma.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

You should rely only on information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We are not making offers to sell the securities in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making such offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation.

 

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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

The following table sets forth an itemization of the various expenses, all of which we will pay, in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered. All of the amounts shown are estimated except the SEC Registration Fee.

 

SEC Registration Fee

  $ 9,570  

FINRA fee

  $ 12,030  

Printing and Engraving Expenses

    *  

Legal Fees and Expenses

    *  

Accounting Fees and Expenses

    *  

Transfer Agent and Registrar Fees

    *  

Miscellaneous

    *  

Total

    *  

 

* Fees depend on number of issuances and amount of securities sold and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.

 

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers

Delaware Law

Section 102 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (“DGCL”) permits a corporation to eliminate the personal liability of directors of a corporation to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for a breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except where the director breached his duty of loyalty, failed to act in good faith, engaged in intentional misconduct or knowingly violated a law, authorized the payment of a dividend or approved a stock repurchase in violation of Delaware corporate law or obtained an improper personal benefit.

Section 145 of the DGCL provides that a corporation has the power to indemnify a director, officer, employee, or agent of the corporation, or a person serving at the request of the corporation for another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise in related capacities against expenses, including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with an action, suit or proceeding to which he was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, ending or completed action, suit or proceeding by reason of such position, if such person acted in good faith and in a manner he reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, in any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his conduct was unlawful, except that, in the case of actions brought by or in the right of the corporation, no indemnification shall be made with respect to any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or other adjudicating court determines that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all of the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Restated Bylaws

Our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws provide that we shall indemnify our directors and executive officers to the fullest extent not prohibited by the DGCL or any other applicable law, except that we are not required to indemnify any director or executive officer in connection with any proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless (i) such

 

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indemnification is expressly required to be made by law, (ii) the proceeding was authorized by our board of directors, (iii) we provide such indemnification, in our sole discretion, pursuant to the powers vested in us under the DGCL or any other applicable law, or (iv) such indemnification is required to be made under the enforcement provisions of our restated bylaws.

Our restated bylaws also provide that we shall advance to any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, by reason of the fact that he or she is or was a director or executive officer of the Company, or is or was serving at our request as a director or executive officer of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, prior to the final disposition of the proceeding, promptly following request therefor, all expenses incurred by any director or executive officer in connection with such proceeding. However, if the DGCL requires, an advancement of expenses incurred by a director or executive officer in his or her capacity as a director or executive officer (and not in any other capacity in which service was or is rendered by such indemnitee, including service to an employee benefit plan) shall be made only upon delivery to us of an undertaking by or on behalf of such indemnitee, to repay all amounts so advanced if it shall ultimately be determined by final judicial decision from which there is no further right to appeal that such indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified for such expenses under our restated bylaws or otherwise. Unless otherwise determined under our restated bylaws, no advance shall be made by the Company to an executive officer of the Company (except by reasons of the fact that such executive officer is or was a director of the Company) in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative of investigative, if a determination is reasonably and promptly made by (i) our board of directors by a majority vote of directors who were not parties to the proceeding, even if not a quorum, or (ii) by a committee of such directors designated by a majority vote of such directors, even though less than a quorum, or (iii) if there are no such directors, or such directors so direct, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion, that the facts known to the decision-making party at the time such determination is made demonstrate clearly and convincingly that such person acted in bad faith or in a manner that such person did not believe to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Company.

Our restated certificate of incorporation eliminates the liability of a director to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for such a breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except for liabilities arising:

 

    from any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;

 

    from acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

    under Section 174 of the DGCL; and

 

    from any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

Indemnification Agreements

We have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and officers, in addition to the indemnification provided in our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws, and intend to enter into indemnification agreements with any new directors and executive officers in the future. Pursuant to our indemnification agreements, we have agreed to indemnify and hold harmless these directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL. The agreements generally cover expenses that a director or officer incurs or amounts that a director or officer becomes obligated to pay in connection with any proceeding in any way connected with, resulting from or relating to his or her service as a current or former director, officer, employee or agent of the Company or any direct or indirect subsidiary of the Company. The agreements also provide for the advancement of expenses to the directors and officers subject to specified conditions. There are certain exceptions to the Company’s obligation to indemnify the directors and officers, including with respect to “short-swing”

 

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profit claims under Section 16(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended; with respect to conduct by him or her that is established to be knowingly fraudulent or deliberately dishonest or constituted willful misconduct; and, with certain exceptions, with respect to proceedings that he or she initiates.

We have purchased and intend to maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director or officer against any loss arising from any claim asserted against him or her and incurred by him or her in any such capacity, subject to certain exclusions.

The foregoing discussion of our restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws, indemnification agreements and Delaware law is not intended to be exhaustive and is qualified in its entirety by such restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws, indemnification agreements or law.

 

Item 16. Exhibits

 

Exhibit

Number

 

Exhibit Description

  Filed
Herewith
    Incorporated
by Reference
herein from
Form or
Schedule
    Filing Date     SEC File/
Reg.
Number
 
  1.1*   Form of Underwriting Agreement.        
  1.2   Sales Agreement, dated as of October 13, 2017, by and between the Registrant and Cowen and Company, LLC      

8-K

(Exhibit 2.1)

 

 

    10/13/2017       001-33451  
  2.1   Amended and Restated Share Exchange Agreement, dated as of July  13, 2016, by and among the Registrant (formerly Biodel Inc.), Albireo Limited and the Sellers listed on Schedule I thereto.      

8-K

(Exhibit 2.1)

 

 

    7/13/2016       001-33451  
  4.1.1   Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant, as amended.     X        
  4.1.2   Certificate of Designation of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock of the Registrant, filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on May 17, 2011.      

8-K

(Exhibit 4.6)

 

 

    5/19/2011       001-33451  
  4.1.3   Certificate of Designation of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock of the Registrant, filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on June 26, 2012.      

8-K

(Exhibit 4.8)

 

 

    6/27/2012       001-33451  
  4.2   Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant.      

S-8

(Exhibit 4.2)

 

 

    7/6/2007       333-144407  
  4.3   Form of common stock certificate.      

10-K

(Exhibit 4.1)

 

 

    12/22/2016       001-33451  
  4.4*   Form of Certificate of Amendment or Designation with respect to Preferred Stock.        
  4.5*   Form of Senior Debt Security.        
  4.6*   Form of Subordinated Debt Security.        

 

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Exhibit

Number

 

Exhibit Description

  Filed
Herewith
    Incorporated
by Reference
herein from
Form or
Schedule
  Filing Date     SEC File/
Reg.
Number
 
  4.7   Form of Senior Indenture.     X        
  4.8   Form of Subordinated Indenture.     X        
  4.9*   Form of Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.        
  4.10*   Form of Rights Agreement and Right Certificate.        
  4.11*   Form of Purchase Contract.        
  4.12*   Form of Unit Agreement and Unit.        
  5.1   Opinion of Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C. with respect to the legality of the securities being registered.     X        
12.1*   Computation of Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges.        
23.1   Consent of Ernst & Young LLP (United States).     X        
23.2   Consent of Ernst & Young LLP (United Kingdom).     X        
23.3   Consent of Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C. (included in Exhibit 5.1).        
24.1   Powers of Attorney (included on signature page to this registration statement).        
25.1*   The Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Senior Indenture will be incorporated herein by reference from a subsequent filing in accordance with Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.        
25.2*   The Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Subordinated Indenture will be incorporated herein by reference from a subsequent filing in accordance with Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.        

 

* To be subsequently filed, if applicable, as exhibits to an amendment to this registration statement or a Current Report on Form 8-K.

 

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Item 17. Undertakings

(a) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i) To include any prospectus required by section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided, however , that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

(i) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

(ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however , that no statement made in a registration

 

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statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

(b) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act:

(i) the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of the registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in the form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and

(ii) each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(c) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(d) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

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(e) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act (“Act”) in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under section 305(b)(2) of the Act.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Boston, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, on October 13, 2017.

 

ALBIREO PHARMA, INC.
By:  

/s/ Ronald H.W. Cooper

  Ronald H.W. Cooper
  President and Chief Executive Officer

SIGNATURES AND POWER OF ATTORNEY

We, the undersigned officers and directors of Albireo Pharma, Inc., hereby severally constitute and appoint Ronald H.W. Cooper, Thomas A. Shea and Peter A. Zorn, Esq., and each of them singly (with full power to each of them to act alone), our true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution in each of them for him and in his name, place and stead, and in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement (or any other registration statement for the same offering that is to be effective upon filing pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933), and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite or necessary to be done in and about the premises, as full to all intents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents or any of them or their or his substitute or substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed below by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ Ronald H.W. Cooper

Ronald H.W. Cooper

   President, Chief Executive Officer and Director (principal executive officer)   October 13, 2017

/s/ Thomas A. Shea

Thomas A. Shea

   Chief Financial Officer (principal financial officer and principal accounting officer)  

October 13, 2017

/s/ David Chiswell, Ph.D.

David Chiswell, Ph.D.

   Chairman of the Board of Directors  

October 13, 2017

/s/ Julia R. Brown

Julia R. Brown

   Director  

October 13, 2017

/s/ Michael Gutch, Ph.D.

Michael Gutch, Ph.D.

   Director  

October 13, 2017

 

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Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ Roger A. Jeffs, Ph.D.

Roger A. Jeffs, Ph.D.

   Director  

October 13, 2017

/s/ Heather Preston, M.D.

Heather Preston, M.D.

   Director  

October 13, 2017

/s/ Davey S. Scoon

Davey S. Scoon

   Director  

October 13, 2017

 

II-9

Exhibit 4.1.1

SECOND AMENDED AND RESTATED

CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION

OF

BIODEL INC.

The undersigned, Solomon S. Steiner, Ph.D., in accordance with the provisions of Sections 242 and 245 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (“DGCL”) hereby certifies that:

1.    He is the duly elected and acting Chairman of the Board, President and Chief Executive Officer of Biodel Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Corporation”).

2.    The original name of this Corporation was Global Positioning Group, LTD. and the date of filing of the original Certificate of Incorporation of this Corporation with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware was December 8, 2003.

3.    This Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (the “Amended and Restated Certificate”) has been duly approved and adopted by the Board of Directors of the Corporation (the “Board”) in accordance with the applicable provisions of Sections 242 and 245 of the DGCL.

4.    This Amended and Restated Certificate has been duly approved and adopted by the stockholders of the Corporation in accordance with the applicable provisions of Sections 228, 242 and 245 of the DGCL.

5.    The text of the Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as heretofore amended or supplemented, is hereby amended and restated in its entirety to read as follows:

ARTICLE FIRST

The name of this corporation is Biodel Inc. (the “Corporation”).

ARTICLE SECOND

The address of the registered office of the corporation in the State of Delaware is 2711 Centerville Road, Suite 400, City of Wilmington, County of New Castle, 19808 and the name of the registered agent of the Corporation in the State of Delaware at such address is the Corporation Service Company.

ARTICLE THIRD

The purpose of this Corporation is to engage in any lawful act or activity for which a corporation may be organized under the DGCL.

ARTICLE FOURTH

A.    This Corporation is authorized to issue two classes of stock to be designated, respectively, “Common Stock” and “Preferred Stock.” The total number of shares which the Corporation is authorized to issue is one hundred and fifty million (150,000,000) shares of which


one hundred million (100,000,000)shares shall be Common Stock, each having a par value of one cent ($.01), and fifty million (50,000,000) shares shall be Preferred Stock, each having a par value of one cent ($.01).

B.    The Preferred Stock may be issued from time to time in one or more series. The Board is hereby expressly authorized to provide for the issue of all or any of the remaining shares of the Preferred Stock in one or more series, and to fix the number of shares and to determine or alter for each such series, such voting powers, full or limited, or no voting powers, and such designation, preferences, and relative, participating, optional, or other rights and such qualifications, limitations, or restrictions thereof, as shall be stated and expressed in the resolution or resolutions adopted by the Board providing for the issuance of such shares and as may be permitted by the DGCL. The Board is also expressly authorized to increase or decrease the number of shares of any series subsequent to the issuance of shares of that series, but not below the number of shares of such series then outstanding. In case the number of shares of any series shall be decreased in accordance with the foregoing sentence, the shares constituting such decrease shall resume the status that they had prior to the adoption of the resolution originally fixing the number of shares of such series. The number of authorized shares of Preferred Stock may be increased or decreased (but not below the number of shares thereof then outstanding) by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the Common Stock, without a vote of the holders of the Preferred Stock, or of any series thereof, unless a vote of any such holders is required pursuant to the terms of any certificate of designation filed with respect to any series of Preferred Stock.

C.    Each outstanding share of Common Stock shall entitle the holder thereof to one vote on each matter properly submitted to the stockholders of the Corporation for their vote; provided, however, that, except as otherwise required by law, holders of Common Stock shall not be entitled to vote on any amendment to this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (including any certificate of designation filed with respect to any series of Preferred Stock) that relates solely to the terms of one or more outstanding series of Preferred Stock if the holders of such affected series of Preferred Stock are entitled, either separately or together as a class with the holders of one or more other such series of Preferred Stock, to vote thereon by law or pursuant to this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (including any certificate of designation filed with respect to any series of Preferred Stock).

ARTICLE FIFTH

For the management of the business and for the conduct of the affairs of the Corporation, and in further definition, limitation and regulation of the powers of the Corporation, of its directors and of its stockholders or any class thereof, as the case may be, it is further provided that:

A.    BOARD OF DIRECTORS

1.    The management of the business and the conduct of the affairs of the Corporation shall be vested in the Board. The number of directors which shall constitute the Board shall be fixed exclusively by resolutions adopted by a majority of the authorized number of directors constituting the Board.


2.    Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of Preferred Stock to elect additional directors under specified circumstances, the directors shall be divided into three classes designated as Class I, Class II and Class III, respectively. Directors shall initially be assigned to each class in accordance with a resolution or resolutions adopted by the Board. At the first annual meeting of stockholders following the date hereof, the term of office of the Class I directors shall expire and Class I directors shall be elected for a full term of three years. At the second annual meeting of stockholders following the date hereof, the term of office of the Class II directors shall expire and Class II directors shall be elected for a full term of three years. At the third annual meeting of stockholders following the date hereof, the term of office of the Class III directors shall expire and Class III directors shall be elected for a full term of three years. At each succeeding annual meeting of stockholders, directors shall be elected for a full term of three years to succeed the directors of the class whose terms expire at such annual meeting.

3.    Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this section, each director shall serve until his or her successor is duly elected and qualified or until his or her death, resignation or removal. No decrease in the number of directors constituting the Board shall shorten the term of any incumbent director.

4.    Any director or the entire Board may be removed from office at any time, but only for cause, and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority of the voting power of then outstanding shares of the capital stock of the Corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class.

5.    Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of Preferred Stock, any vacancies on the Board resulting from death, resignation, disqualification, removal or other causes and any newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the number of directors, shall, unless the Board determines by resolution that any such vacancies or newly created directorships shall be filled by the stockholders, except as otherwise provided by law, be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office, even though less than a quorum of the Board, and not by the stockholders. Any director elected in accordance with the preceding sentence shall hold office for the remainder of the full term of the director for which the vacancy was created or occurred and until such director’s successor shall have been elected and qualified.

6.    The directors of the Corporation need not be elected by written ballot unless the Bylaws so provide.

B.    BYLAW AMENDMENTS. The Board is expressly empowered to adopt, amend or repeal the Bylaws of the Corporation. Any adoption, amendment or repeal of the Bylaws of the Corporation by the Board shall require the approval of a majority of the authorized number of directors. The stockholders shall also have power to adopt, amend or repeal the Bylaws of the Corporation, subject to any restrictions which may be set forth in this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (including any certificate of designation that may be filed from time to time); provided, however, that, in addition to any vote of the holders of any class or series of stock of the Corporation required by law or by this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least seventy-five percent (75%) of the voting power of all of the then-outstanding shares of the capital stock of the Corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class, shall be required to adopt, amend or repeal any provision of the Bylaws of the Corporation.


C.    STOCKHOLDER ACTION. No action shall be taken by the stockholders of the Corporation except at an annual or special meeting of stockholders called in accordance with the Bylaws. No action shall be taken by the stockholders by written consent or electronic transmission.

D.    SPECIAL MEETING. Special meetings of stockholders of the Corporation may be called only by the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the President or the Board acting pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the Board, and any power of stockholders to call a special meeting of stockholders is specifically denied. Only such business shall be considered at a special meeting of stockholders as shall have been stated in the notice for such meeting.

E.    ADVANCE NOTICE. Advance notice of stockholder nominations for the election of directors and of business to be brought by stockholders before any meeting of the stockholders of the Corporation shall be given in the manner provided in the Bylaws of the Corporation.

ARTICLE SIXTH

A.    The liability of a director of the Corporation for monetary damages shall be eliminated to the fullest extent under applicable law. If the DGCL is amended to authorize corporate action further eliminating or limiting the personal liability of directors, then the liability of a director of the corporation shall be eliminated to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, as so amended.

B.    The Corporation shall indemnify its directors and executive officers to the fullest extent not prohibited by the DGCL or any other applicable law; provided, however, that the Corporation may modify the extent of such indemnification by individual contracts with its directors and executive officers; and, provided, further, that the Corporation shall not be required to indemnify any director or executive officer in connection with any proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless (i) such indemnification is expressly required to be made by law, (ii) the proceeding was authorized by the Board, (iii) such indemnification is provided by the Corporation, in its sole discretion, pursuant to the powers vested in the Corporation under the DGCL or any other applicable law or (iv) such indemnification is required to be made under the Bylaws of the Corporation.

C.    Any repeal or modification of this Article Sixth shall be prospective and shall not affect the rights under this Article Sixth in effect at the time of the alleged occurrence of any act or omission to act giving rise to liability or indemnification.

ARTICLE SEVENTH

A.    The Corporation reserves the right to amend, alter, change or repeal any provision contained in this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, in the manner now or hereafter prescribed by statute, except as provided in paragraph B. of this Article Seventh, and all rights conferred upon the stockholders herein are granted subject to this reservation.


B.    Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation or any provision of law which might otherwise permit a lesser vote or no vote, but in addition to any affirmative vote of the holders of any particular class or series of the Corporation required by law or by this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation or any certificate of designation filed with respect to a series of Preferred Stock, the Board acting pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the Board and the affirmative vote of the holders of at least seventy-five percent (75%) of the voting power of all of the then-outstanding shares of capital stock of the Corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class, shall be required to alter, amend or repeal Articles Fifth, Sixth and Seventh.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, BIODEL INC. has caused this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation to be signed on this 16th day of May, 2007 by the undersigned who affirms that the statements made herein are true and correct.

 

/s/ Solomon S. Steiner

Solomon S. Steiner, Ph.D.
Chairman of the Board and Chief
Executive Officer


CERTIFICATE OF DESIGNATION

OF

SERIES A CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK

OF

BIODEL INC.

PURSUANT TO SECTION 151 OF THE

DELAWARE GENERAL CORPORATION LAW

BIODEL INC., a Delaware corporation (the “ Corporation ”) in accordance with the provisions of Section 103 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”) does hereby certify that, in accordance with Sections 141(c) and 151 of the DGCL, the following resolution was duly adopted by a duly authorized committee of the Board of Directors of the Corporation by the unanimous written consent of that committee duly effected on May 12, 2011:

RESOLVED , that pursuant to the authority granted to and vested in the Board of Directors of the Corporation in accordance with the provisions of the Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation (the “ Certificate of Incorporation ”) there is hereby established a series of the Corporation’s authorized Preferred Stock, par value $.01 per share, which series shall be designated as the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, par value $.01 per share, of the Corporation, with the designation, number of shares, powers, preferences, rights, qualifications, limitations and restrictions thereof (in addition to any provisions set forth in the Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation which arc applicable to the Preferred Stock of all classes and series) as follows:

SERIES A CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK

Section 1. Definitions . For the purposes hereof, the following terms shall have the following meanings:

Affiliate means any person or entity that, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is controlled by or is under common control with a person or entity, as such terms arc used in and construed under Rule 144 under the Securities Act . With respect to a Holder, any investment fund or managed account that is managed on a discretionary basis by the same investment manager as such Holder will be deemed to be an Affiliate of such Holder.

Alternate Consideration shall have the meaning set forth in Section 7(b). “Beneficial Ownership Limitation” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(c).

Beneficial Ownership Limitation ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(c).

Business Day means any day except Saturday, Sunday, any day which shall be a federal legal holiday in the United States or any day on which banking institutions in the State of New York are authorized or required by law or other governmental action to close.


Buy-In shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(d)(iii).

Closing Sale Price means, for any security as of any date, the last closing trade price for such security prior to 4:00 p.m., New York City time, on the principal securities exchange or trading market where such security is listed or traded, as reported by Bloomberg, L.P. (or an equivalent, reliable reporting service mutually acceptable to and hereafter designated by Holders of a majority of the then-outstanding Series A Preferred Stock and the Corporation), or if the foregoing do not apply, the last trade price of such security in the over-the-counter market on the electronic bulletin board for such security as reported by Bloomberg, L.P., or, if no last trade price is reported for such security by Bloomberg, L.P., the average of the bid prices of any market makers for such security as reported on the OTC Pink Market by OTC Markets Group, Inc. If the Closing Sale Price cannot be calculated for a security on a particular date on any of the foregoing bases, the Closing Sale Price of such security on such date shall be the fair market value as determined in good faith by the Board of Directors of the Corporation.

Commission means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Common Stock means the Corporation’s Common Stock, par value $.01 per share, and stock of any other class of securities into which such securities may hereafter be reclassified or changed into.

Conversion Date shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(a).

Conversion Price shall mean $2.16, as adjusted pursuant to paragraph 7 hereof.

Conversion Ratio shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(b).

Conversion Shares means, collectively, the shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the shares of Series A Preferred Stock in accordance with the terms hereof

Daily Failure Amount means the product of (x) .005 multiplied by (y) the Closing Sale Price of the Common Stock on the applicable Share Delivery Date.

DGCL shall mean the Delaware General Corporation Law.

Distributions shall have the meaning set forth in Section 5(a).

DWAC Delivery shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(a).

Exchange Act means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Fundamental Transaction shall have the meaning set forth in Section 7(b).


Holder means any holder of Series A Preferred Stock.

Junior Securities shall have the meaning set forth in Section 5(a).

Notice of Conversion shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(a).

Parity Securities shall have the meaning set forth in Section 5(a).

Person means any individual or corporation, partnership, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, limited liability company, joint stock company, government (or an agency or subdivision thereof) or other entity of any kind.

Securities Act means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Senior Securities shall have the meaning set forth in Section 5(a).

Series A Preferred Stock Register shall have the meaning set forth in Section 2(b).

Share Delivery Date shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(d).

Stated Value shall mean $2.16.

Trading Day means a day on which the Common Sock is traded for any period on the principal securities exchange or if the Common Stock is not traded on a principal securities exchange, on a day that the Common Stock is traded on another securities market on which the Common Stock is then being traded.

Section 2. Designation, Amount and Par Value; Assignment .

a)    The series of preferred stock designated by this Certificate shall be designated as the Corporation’s “Series A Convertible Preferred Stock” (the “ Series A Preferred Stock ”) and the number of shares so designated shall be 2,000,000. Each share of Series A Preferred Stock shall have a par value of $.01 per share.

b)    The Corporation shall register shares of the Series A Preferred Stock, upon records to be maintained by the Corporation for that purpose (the “ Series A Preferred Stock Register ”), in the name of the Holders thereof from time to time. The Corporation may deem and treat the registered Holder of shares of Series A Preferred Stock as the absolute owner thereof for the purpose of any conversion thereof and for all other purposes. The Corporation shall register, or cause the Corporation’s transfer agent to register, the transfer of any shares of Series A Preferred Stock in the Series A Preferred Stock Register, upon surrender of the certificates evidencing such shares to be transferred, duly endorsed by the Holder thereof, to the Corporation at its principal place of business. Upon any such registration or transfer, a new certificate evidencing the shares of Series A Preferred Stock so transferred shall be issued to the transferee and a new certificate evidencing the remaining portion of the shares not so transferred, if any, shall be issued to the transferring Holder, in each case, within three Business Days. The provisions of this Certificate are intended to be for the benefit of all Holders from time to time and shall be enforceable by any such Holder.


Section 3. Dividends . Holders shall not be entitled to receive any dividends in respect of the Series A Preferred Stock, unless and until specifically declared by the Board of Directors of the Corporation to be payable to the Holders of the Series A Preferred Stock.

Section 4. Voting Rights . Except as otherwise provided herein or as otherwise required by the DGCL, the Series A Preferred Stock shall have no voting rights. However, as long as any shares of Series A Preferred Stock are outstanding, the Corporation shall not, without the affirmative vote of the Holders of a majority of the then outstanding shares of the Series A Preferred Stock, (a) alter or change adversely the powers, preferences or rights given to the Series A Preferred Stock or alter or amend this Certificate of Designation, (b) increase the number of authorized shares of Series A Preferred Stock, or (c) enter into any agreement with respect to any of the foregoing.

Section 5. Rank; Liquidation .

a)    The Series A Preferred Stock shall rank (i) senior to all of the Common Stock; (ii) senior to any class or series of capital stock of the Corporation hereafter created specifically ranking by its terms junior to any Series A Preferred Stock (“ Junior Securities ”).; (iii) on parity with any class or series of capital stock of the Corporation hereafter created specifically ranking by its terms on parity with the Series A Preferred Stock (“ Parity Securities ”); and (iv) junior to any class or series of capital stock of the Corporation hereafter created specifically ranking by its terms senior to any Series A Preferred Stock (“Senior Securities”) in each case, as to dividends, distributions of assets upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Corporation, whether voluntarily or involuntarily (all such distributions being referred to collectively as “Distributions”).

b)    Subject to the prior and superior rights of the holders of any Senior Securities of the Corporation, upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Corporation, whether voluntary or involuntary (each, a “ Liquidation Event ”) each holder of shares of Series A Preferred Stock shall be entitled to receive, in preference to any distributions of any of the assets or surplus funds of the Corporation to the holders of the Common Stock and Junior Securities and pari passu with any distribution to the holders of Parity Securities, an amount equal to $.01 per share of Series A Preferred Stock, plus an additional amount equal to any dividends declared but unpaid on such shares, before any payments shall be made or any assets distributed to holders of any class of Common Stock or Junior Securities. If, upon any such Liquidation Event, the assets of the Corporation shall be insufficient to pay the holders of shares of the Series A Preferred Stock the amount required under the preceding sentence, then all remaining assets of the Corporation shall be distributed ratably to holders of the shares of the Series A Preferred Stock and Parity Securities.

c)    After payment to the holders of shares of the Series A Preferred Stock of the amount required under Section 5(b) and subject to the prior and superior rights of the holders of any Senior Securities of the Corporation, the remaining assets or surplus funds of the Corporation, if any, available for distribution to stockholders shall be distributed ratably among


the holders of the Series A Preferred Stock, any other class or series of capital stock that participates with the Common Stock in the distribution of assets upon any Liquidation Event and the Common Stock, with the holders of the Series A Preferred Stock deemed to hold that number of shares of Common Stock into which such shares of Series A Preferred Stock are then convertible (without giving effect for such purposes to the Beneficial Ownership Limitation contemplated by Section 6(c)).

Section 6. Conversion .

a)     Conversions at Option of Holder . Each share of Series A Preferred Stock shall be convertible, at any time and from time to time from and after the date of the issuance thereof, at the option of the Holder thereof, into a number of shares of Common Stock equal to the Conversion Ratio in effect at the time of such conversion. Holders shall effect conversions by providing the Corporation with the form of conversion notice attached hereto as Annex A (a “ Notice of Conversion ”) duly completed and executed. Other than a conversion following a Fundamental Transaction or following a notice provided for under Section 7(d)(ii) hereof, the Notice of Conversion must specify at least a number of shares of Series A Preferred Stock to be converted equal to the lesser of (x) 100 shares (such number subject to appropriate adjustment following the occurrence of an event specified in Section 7(a) hereof) and (y) the number of shares of Series A Preferred Stock then held by the Holder. Provided the Corporation’s transfer agent is participating in the Depository Trust Company (“ DTC ”) Fast Automated Securities Transfer program, the Notice of Conversion may specify, at the Holder’s election, whether the applicable Conversion Shares shall be credited to the account of the Holder’s prime broker with DTC through its Deposit Withdrawal Agent Commission system (a “ DWAC Delivery ”). The “ Conversion Date ” or the date on which a conversion shall be deemed effective, shall be defined as the Trading Day that the Notice of Conversion, completed and executed, is sent by facsimile to, and received during regular business hours by, the Corporation; provided that the original certificate(s) representing such shares of Series A Preferred Stock being converted, duly endorsed, and the accompanying Notice of Conversion, are received by the Corporation within two (2) Trading Days thereafter. In all other cases, the Conversion Date shall be defined as the Trading Day on which the original stock certificates representing the shares of Series A Preferred Stock being converted, duly endorsed, and the accompanying Notice of Conversion, are received by the Corporation. The calculations set forth in the Notice of Conversion shall control in the absence of manifest or mathematical error.

b)     Conversion Ratio . The “ Conversion Ratio ” for each share of Series A Preferred Stock shall be equal to the Stated Value divided by the Conversion Price.

c)     Beneficial Ownership Limitation . Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, the Corporation shall not effect any conversion of the Series A Preferred Stock, and a Holder shall not have the right to convert any portion of its Series A Preferred Stock, to the extent that, after giving effect to an attempted conversion set forth on an applicable Notice of Conversion, such Holder (together with such Holder’s Affiliates, and any other Person whose beneficial ownership of Common Stock would be aggregated with the Holder’s for purposes of Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the applicable rules and regulations of the Commission, including any “group” of which the Holder is a member) would beneficially own a number of shares of Common Stock in excess of the Beneficial Ownership Limitation (as defined below).


For purposes of the foregoing sentence, the aggregate number of shares of Common Stock beneficially owned by such Holder and its Affiliates shall include the number of shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the Series A Preferred Stock subject to the Notice of Conversion with respect to which the determination of such sentence is being made, but shall exclude the number of shares of Common Stock which are issuable upon (A) conversion of the remaining, unconverted shares of Series A Preferred Stock beneficially owned by such Holder or any of its Affiliates, and (B) exercise or conversion of the unexercised or unconverted portion of any other securities of the Corporation beneficially owned by such Holder or any of its Affiliates (including, without limitation, any convertible notes, convertible stock or warrants) that are subject to a limitation on conversion or exercise analogous to the limitation contained herein. Except as set forth in the preceding sentence, for purposes of this Section 6(c), beneficial ownership shall be calculated in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the applicable rules and regulations of the Commission. In addition, for purposes hereof, “group” has the meaning set forth in Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the applicable rules and regulations of the Commission. For purposes of this Section 6(c), in determining the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock, a Holder may rely on the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock as reflected in (A) the Corporation’s most recent Form 10-K, Form 10-Q, Current Report on Form 8-K or other public filing with the Commission, as the case may be, (B) a more recent public announcement by the Corporation or (C) a more recent notice by the Corporation or the Corporation’s transfer agent to the Holder setting forth the number of shares of Common Stock then outstanding. For any reason at any time, upon the written or oral request of a Holder (which may be by email), the Corporation shall, within two (2) Business Days of such request, confirm orally and in writing to such Holder (which may be via email) the number of shares of Common Stock then outstanding. In any case, the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock shall be determined after giving effect to any actual conversion or exercise of securities of the Corporation, including shares of Series A Preferred Stock, by such Holder or its Affiliates since the date as of which such number of outstanding shares of Common Stock was last publicly reported or confirmed to the Holder. The “ Beneficial Ownership Limitation ” shall be 9.98% of the number of shares of the Common Stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the issuance of shares of Common Stock pursuant to such Notice of Conversion (to the extent permitted pursuant to this Section 6(c)). The Corporation shall be entitled to rely on representations made to it by the Holder in any Notice of Conversion regarding its Beneficial Ownership Limitation.

d)     Mechanics of Conversion

i.     Delivery of Certificate or Electronic Issuance Upon Conversion . Not later than three Trading Days after the applicable Conversion Date, or if the Holder requests the issuance of physical certificate(s), two Trading Days after receipt by the Corporation of the original certificate(s) representing such shares of Series A Preferred Stock being converted, duly endorsed, and the accompanying Notice of Conversion (the “ Share Delivery Date ”), the Corporation shall (a) deliver, or cause to be delivered, to the converting Holder a physical certificate or certificates representing the number of Conversion Shares being acquired upon the conversion of shares of Series A Preferred Stock (which certificate or certificates shall not have any legends on it) or (b) in the case of a DWAC Delivery, electronically transfer such Conversion Shares by crediting the account of the Holder’s prime broker with DTC through its DWAC system. If in the case of any Notice of Conversion such certificate or certificates are not


delivered to or as directed by or, in the case of a DWAC Delivery, such shares are not electronically delivered to or as directed by, the applicable Holder by the Share Delivery Date, the applicable Holder shall be entitled to elect to rescind such Conversion Notice by written notice to the Corporation at any time on or before its receipt of such certificate or certificates for Conversion Shares or electronic receipt of such shares, as applicable, in which event the Corporation shall promptly return to such Holder any original Series A Preferred Stock certificate delivered to the Corporation and such Holder shall promptly return to the Corporation any Common Stock certificates or otherwise direct the return of any shares of Common Stock delivered to the Holder through the DWAC system, representing the shares of Series A Preferred Stock unsuccessfully tendered for conversion to the Corporation.

ii.     Obligation Absolute . Subject to Section 6(c) hereof and subject to Holder’s right to rescind a Conversion Notice pursuant to Section 6(d)(i) above, the Corporation’s obligation to issue and deliver the Conversion Shares upon conversion of Series A Preferred Stock in accordance with the terms hereof are absolute and unconditional, irrespective of any action or inaction by a Holder to enforce the same, any waiver or consent with respect to any provision hereof, the recovery of any judgment against any Person or any action to enforce the same, or any setoff, counterclaim, recoupment, limitation or termination, or any breach or alleged breach by such Holder or any other Person of any obligation to the Corporation or any violation or alleged violation of law by such Holder or any other Person, and irrespective of any other circumstance which might otherwise limit such obligation of the Corporation to such Holder in connection with the issuance of such Conversion Shares. Subject to Section 6(c) hereof and subject to a Holder’s right to rescind a Conversion Notice pursuant to Section 6(d)(i) above, in the event a Holder shall elect to convert any or all of its Series A Preferred Stock, the Corporation may not refuse conversion based on any claim that such Holder or any one associated or affiliated with such Holder has been engaged in any violation of law, agreement or for any other reason, unless an injunction from a court, on notice to such Holder, restraining and/or enjoining conversion of all or part of the Series A Preferred Stock of such Holder shall have been sought and obtained by the Corporation, and the Corporation posts a surety bond for the benefit of such Holder in the amount of 150% of the value of the Conversion Shares into which would be converted the Series A Preferred Stock which is subject to such injunction, which bond shall remain in effect until the completion of arbitration/litigation of the underlying dispute and the proceeds of which shall be payable to such Holder to the extent it obtains judgment. In the absence of such injunction, the Corporation shall, subject to Section 6(c) hereof and subject to a Holder’s right to rescind a Conversion Notice pursuant to Section 6(d)(i) above, issue Conversion Shares upon a properly noticed conversion. If the Corporation fails to deliver to a Holder such certificate or certificates, or electronically deliver (or cause its transfer agent to electronically deliver) such shares in the case of a DWAC Delivery, pursuant to Section 6(d)(i) on or prior to the fifth (5th) Trading Day after the Share Delivery Date applicable to such conversion (other than a failure caused by incorrect or incomplete information provided by such Holder to the Corporation), then, unless the Holder has rescinded the applicable Conversion Notice pursuant to Section 6(d)(i) above, the Corporation shall pay (as liquidated damages and not as a penalty) to such Holder an amount payable, at the Corporation’s option, either (a) in cash or (b) in shares of Common Stock that are valued for these purposes at the Closing Sale Price on the date of such calculation, in each case equal to the product of (x) the number of Conversion Shares required to have been issued by the Corporation on such Share Delivery Date, (y) an amount equal to the Daily Failure Amount and (z) the number of Trading Days actually


lapsed after such fifth (5th) Trading Day after the Share Delivery Date during which such certificates have not been delivered, or, in the case of a DWAC Delivery, such shares have not been electronically delivered; provided, however, the Holder shall only receive up to such amount of shares of Common Stock such that Holder and any other persons or entities whose beneficial ownership of Common Stock would be aggregated with the Holder’s for purposes of Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act (including shares held by any “group” of which the Holder is a member, but excluding shares beneficially owned by virtue of the ownership of securities or rights to acquire securities that have limitations on the right to convert, exercise or purchase similar to the limitation set forth herein) shall not collectively beneficially own greater than 9.98% of the total number of shares of Common Stock of the Corporation then issued and outstanding. Nothing herein shall limit a Holder’s right to pursue actual damages for the Corporation’s failure to deliver Conversion Shares within the period specified herein and such Holder shall have the right to pursue all remedies available to it hereunder, at law or in equity including, without limitation, a decree of specific performance and/or injunctive relief; provided that Holder shall not receive duplicate damages for the Corporation’s failure to deliver Conversion Shares within the period specified herein. The exercise of any such rights shall not prohibit a Holder from seeking to enforce damages pursuant to any other Section hereof or under applicable law.

iii.     Compensation for Buy-In on Failure to Timely Deliver Certificates Upon Conversion . If the Corporation fails to deliver to a Holder the applicable certificate or certificates or to effect a DWAC Delivery, as applicable, by the Share Delivery Date pursuant to Section 6(d)(i) (other than a failure caused by incorrect or incomplete information provided by such Holder to the Corporation), and if after such Share Delivery Date such Holder is required by its brokerage firm to purchase (in an open market transaction or otherwise), or the Holder’s brokerage firm otherwise purchases, shares of Common Stock to deliver in satisfaction of a sale by such Holder of the Conversion Shares which such Holder was entitled to receive upon the conversion relating to such Share Delivery Date (a “Buy-In”), then the Corporation shall (A) pay in cash to such Holder (in addition to any other remedies available to or elected by such Holder) the amount by which (x) such Holder’s total purchase price (including any brokerage commissions) for the shares of Common Stock so purchased exceeds (y) the product of (1) the aggregate number of shares of Common Stock that such Holder was entitled to receive from the conversion at issue multiplied by (2) the actual sale price at which the sell order giving rise to such purchase obligation was executed (including any brokerage commissions) and (B) at the option of such Holder, either reissue (if surrendered) the shares of Series A Preferred Stock equal to the number of shares of Series A Preferred Stock submitted for conversion or deliver to such Holder the number of shares of Common Stock that would have been issued if the Corporation had timely complied with its delivery requirements under Section 6(d)(i). For example, if a Holder purchases shares of Common Stock having a total purchase price of $11,000 to cover a Buy-In with respect to an attempted conversion of shares of Series A Preferred Stock with respect to which the actual sale price (including any brokerage commissions) giving rise to such purchase obligation was a total of $10,000 under clause (A) of the immediately preceding sentence, the Corporation shall be required to pay such Holder $1,000. The Holder shall provide the Corporation written notice, within three (3) Trading Days after the occurrence of a Buy-In, indicating the amounts payable to such Holder in respect of such Buy-In together with applicable confirmations and other evidence reasonably requested by the Corporation. Nothing herein shall limit a Holder’s right to pursue any other remedies available to it hereunder, at law or in equity


including, without limitation, a decree of specific performance and/or injunctive relief with respect to the Corporation’s failure to timely deliver certificates representing shares of Common Stock upon conversion of the shares of Series A Preferred Stock as required pursuant to the terms hereof; provided, however, that the Holder shall not be entitled to both (i) require the reissuance of the shares of Series A Preferred Stock submitted for conversion for which such conversion was not timely honored and (ii) receive the number of shares of Common Stock that would have been issued if the Corporation had timely complied with its delivery requirements under Section 6(d)(i).

iv.     Reservation of Shares Issuable Upon Conversion . The Corporation covenants that it will at all times reserve and keep available out of its authorized and unissued shares of Common Stock for the sole purpose of issuance upon conversion of the Series A Preferred Stock, free from preemptive rights or any other actual contingent purchase rights of Persons other than the Holders of the Series A Preferred Stock, not less than such aggregate number of shares of the Common Stock as shall be issuable (taking into account the adjustments of Section 7) upon the conversion of all outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock. The Corporation covenants that all shares of Common Stock that shall be so issuable shall, upon issue, be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

v.     Fractional Shares . No fractional shares or scrip representing fractional shares of Common Stock shall be issued upon the conversion of the Series A Preferred Stock. As to any fraction of a share which a Holder would otherwise be entitled to receive upon such conversion, the Corporation shall at its election, either pay a cash adjustment in respect of such final fraction in an amount equal to such fraction multiplied by the Conversion Price or round up to the next whole share.

vi.     Transfer Taxes . The issuance of certificates for shares of the Common Stock upon conversion of the Series A Preferred Stock shall be made without charge to any Holder for any documentary stamp or similar taxes that may be payable in respect of the issue or delivery of such certificates, provided that the Corporation shall not be required to pay any tax that may be payable in respect of any transfer involved in the issuance and delivery of any such certificate upon conversion in a name other than that of the registered Holder(s) of such shares of Series A Preferred Stock and the Corporation shall not be required to issue or deliver such certificates unless or until the Person or Persons requesting the issuance thereof shall have paid to the Corporation the amount of such tax or shall have established to the satisfaction of the Corporation that such tax has been paid.

e)     Status as Stockholder . Upon each Conversion Date, (i) the shares of Series A Preferred Stock being converted shall be deemed converted into shares of Common Stock and (ii) the Holder’s rights as a holder of such converted shares of Series A Preferred Stock shall cease and terminate, excepting only the right to receive certificates for such shares of Common Stock and to any remedies provided herein or otherwise available at law or in equity to such Holder because of a failure by the Corporation to comply with the terms of this Certificate of Designation. In all cases, the holder shall retain all of its rights and remedies for the Corporation’s failure to convert Series A Preferred Stock.

Section 7. Certain Adjustments .


a)     Stock Dividends and Stock Splits . If the Corporation, at any time while the Series A Preferred Stock is outstanding: (A) pays a stock dividend or otherwise makes a distribution or distributions payable in shares of Common Stock (which, for avoidance of doubt, shall not include any shares of Common Stock issued by the Corporation upon conversion of shares of Series A Preferred Stock) with respect to the then outstanding shares of Common Stock; (B) subdivides outstanding shares of Common Stock into a larger number of shares; or (C) combines (including by way of a reverse stock split) outstanding shares of Common Stock into a smaller number of shares, then the Conversion Price shall be multiplied by a fraction of which the numerator shall be the number of shares of Common Stock (excluding any treasury shares of the Corporation) outstanding immediately before such event and of which the denominator shall be the number of shares of Common Stock outstanding immediately after such event (excluding any treasury shares of the Corporation). Any adjustment made pursuant to this Section 7(a) shall become effective immediately after the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to receive such dividend or distribution and shall become effective immediately after the effective date in the case of a subdivision or combination.

b)     Fundamental Transaction . If, at any time while the Series A Preferred Stock is outstanding, (A) the Corporation effects any merger or consolidation of the Corporation with or into another Person (other than a merger in which the Corporation is the surviving or continuing entity and its Common Stock is not exchanged for or converted into other securities, cash or property), (B) the Corporation effects any sale of all or substantially all of its assets in one transaction or a series of related transactions, (C) any tender offer or exchange offer (whether by the Corporation or another Person) is completed pursuant to which all of the Common Stock is exchanged for or converted into other securities, cash or property, or (D) the Corporation effects any reclassification of the Common Stock or any compulsory share exchange pursuant (other than as a result of a dividend, subdivision or combination covered by Section 7(a) above) to which the Common Stock is effectively converted into or exchanged for other securities, cash or property (in any such case, a “ Fundamental Transaction ”) then, upon any subsequent conversion of this Series A Preferred Stock the Holders shall have the right to receive, in lieu of the right to receive Conversion Shares, for each Conversion Share that would have been issuable upon such conversion immediately prior to the occurrence of such Fundamental Transaction, the same kind and amount of securities, cash or property as it would have been entitled to receive upon the occurrence of such Fundamental Transaction if it had been, immediately prior to such Fundamental Transaction, the holder of one share of Common Stock (the “ Alternate Consideration ”). For purposes of any such subsequent conversion, the determination of the Conversion Ratio shall be appropriately adjusted to apply to such Alternate Consideration based on the amount of Alternate Consideration issuable in respect of one share of Common Stock in such Fundamental Transaction, and the Corporation shall adjust the Conversion Ratio in a reasonable manner reflecting the relative value of any different components of the Alternate Consideration. If holders of Common Stock are given any choice as to the securities, cash or property to be received in a Fundamental Transaction, then the Holders shall be given the same choice as to the Alternate Consideration it receives upon any conversion of this Series A Preferred Stock following such Fundamental Transaction. To the extent necessary to effectuate the foregoing provisions, any successor to the Corporation or surviving entity in such Fundamental Transaction shall file a new Certificate of Designation with the same terms and conditions and issue to the Holders new preferred stock consistent with the foregoing provisions and evidencing the Holders’ right to convert such preferred stock into Alternate


Consideration. The terms of any agreement to which the Corporation is a party and pursuant to which a Fundamental Transaction is effected shall include terms requiring any such successor or surviving entity to comply with the provisions of this Section 7(b) and ensuring that the Series A Preferred Stock (or any such replacement security) will be similarly adjusted upon any subsequent transaction analogous to a Fundamental Transaction. The Corporation shall cause to be delivered to each Holder, at its last address as it shall appear upon the stock books of the Corporation, written notice of any Fundamental Transaction at least 20 calendar days prior to the date on which such Fundamental Transaction is expected to become effective or close.

c)     Calculations . All calculations under this Section 7 shall be made to the nearest cent or the nearest 1/100th of a share, as the case may be. For purposes of this Section 7, the number of shares of Common Stock deemed to be issued and outstanding as of a given date shall be the sum of the number of shares of Common Stock (excluding any treasury shares of the Corporation) issued and outstanding.

d)     Notice to the Holders .

i.     Adjustment to Conversion Price . Whenever the Conversion Price is adjusted pursuant to any provision of this Section 7, the Corporation shall promptly deliver to each Holder a notice setting forth the Conversion Ratio after such adjustment and setting forth a brief statement of the facts requiring such adjustment.

ii.     Other Notices . If (A) the Corporation shall declare a dividend (or any other distribution in whatever form) on the Common Stock, (B) the Corporation shall declare a special nonrecurring cash dividend on or a redemption of the Common Stock, (C) the Corporation shall authorize the granting to all holders of the Common Stock of rights or warrants to subscribe for or purchase any shares of capital stock of any class or of any rights, (D) the approval of any stockholders of the Corporation shall be required in connection with any reclassification of the Common Stock, any consolidation or merger to which the Corporation is a party, any sale or transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of the Corporation, of any compulsory share exchange whereby the Common Stock is converted into other securities, cash or property or (E) the Corporation shall authorize the voluntary or involuntary dissolution, liquidation or winding up of the affairs of the Corporation, then, in each case, the Corporation shall cause to be filed at each office or agency maintained for the purpose of conversion of this Series A Preferred Stock, and shall cause to be delivered to each Holder at its last address as it shall appear upon the stock books of the Corporation, at least 20 calendar days prior to the applicable record or effective date hereinafter specified, a notice stating (x) the date on which a record is to be taken for the purpose of such dividend, distribution, redemption, rights or warrants, or if a record is not to be taken, the date as of which the holders of the Common Stock of record to be entitled to such dividend, distributions, redemption, rights or warrants are to be determined or (y) the date on which such reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer or share exchange is expected to become effective or close, and the date as of which it is expected that holders of the Common Stock of record shall be entitled to exchange their shares of the Common Stock for securities, cash or other property deliverable upon such reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer or share exchange, provided that the failure to deliver such notice or any defect therein or in the delivery thereof shall not affect the validity of the corporate action required to be specified in such notice.


Section 8. Miscellaneous .

a)     Notices . Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries to be provided by the Holders hereunder including, without limitation, any Notice of Conversion, shall be in writing and delivered personally, by facsimile, or sent by a nationally recognized overnight courier service, addressed to the Corporation, at 100 Saw Mill Road, Danbury, Connecticut 06810, facsimile number (203) 796-5002, or such other facsimile number or address as the Corporation may specify for such purposes by notice to the Holders delivered in accordance with this Section. Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries to be provided by the Corporation hereunder shall be in writing and delivered personally, by facsimile, or sent by a nationally recognized overnight courier service addressed to each Holder at the facsimile number or address of such Holder appearing on the books of the Corporation, or if no such facsimile number or address appears on the books of the Corporation, at the principal place of business of such Holder. Any notice or other communication or deliveries hereunder shall be deemed given and effective on the earliest of (i) the date of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number specified in this Section prior to 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any date, (ii) the date immediately following the date of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number specified in this Section between 5:30 p.m. and 11:59 p.m. (New York City time) on any date, (iii) the second Business Day following the date of mailing, if sent by nationally recognized overnight courier service, or (iv) upon actual receipt by the party to whom such notice is required to be given.

b)     Lost or Mutilated Series A Preferred Stock Certificate . If a Holder’s Series A Preferred Stock certificate shall be mutilated, lost, stolen or destroyed, the Corporation shall execute and deliver, in exchange and substitution for and upon cancellation of a mutilated certificate, or in lieu of or in substitution for a lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, a new certificate for the shares of Series A Preferred Stock so mutilated, lost, stolen or destroyed, but only upon receipt of evidence of such loss, theft or destruction of such certificate, and of the ownership thereof, reasonably satisfactory to the Corporation and, in each case, customary and reasonable indemnity, if requested. Applicants for a new certificate under such circumstances shall also comply with such other reasonable regulations and procedures and pay such other reasonable third-party costs as the Corporation may prescribe.

c)     Waiver . Any waiver by the Corporation or a Holder of a breach of any provision of this Certificate of Designation shall not operate as or be construed to be a waiver of any other breach of such provision or of any breach of any other provision of this Certificate of Designation or a waiver by any other Holders. The failure of the Corporation or a Holder to insist upon strict adherence to any term of this Certificate of Designation on one or more occasions shall not be considered a waiver or deprive that party (or any other Holder) of the right thereafter to insist upon strict adherence to that term or any other term of this Certificate of Designation. Any waiver by the Corporation or a Holder must be in writing.

d)     Severability . If any provision of this Certificate of Designation is invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the balance of this Certificate of Designation shall remain in effect, and if any provision is inapplicable to any Person or circumstance, it shall nevertheless remain applicable to all other Persons and circumstances. If it shall be found that any interest or


other amount deemed interest due hereunder violates the applicable law governing usury, the applicable rate of interest due hereunder shall automatically be lowered to equal the maximum rate of interest permitted under applicable law.

e)     Next Business or Trading Day . Whenever any payment or other obligation hereunder shall be due on a day other than a Business Day or a Trading Day, such payment shall be made on the next succeeding Business Day or Trading Day, as the case may be.

(f)     Headings . The headings contained herein are for convenience only, do not constitute a part of this Certificate of Designation and shall not be deemed to limit or affect any of the provisions hereof

g)     Status of Converted Series A Preferred Stock . If any shares of Series A Preferred Stock shall be converted or reacquired by the Corporation, such shares shall resume the status of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock and shall no longer be designated as Series A Preferred Stock.


********************

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Corporation has caused this Certificate of Designation to be signed by its duly authorized officer this 17th day of May 2011.

 

BIODEL INC.

By:  

/s/ Gerard Michel

  Name: Gerard Michel
  Title: Chief Financial Officer, VP
  Corporate Development, and
  Treasurer


ANNEX A

NOTICE OF CONVERSION

(TO BE EXECUTED BY THE REGISTERED HOLDER IN ORDER TO

CONVERT SHARES OF SERIES A PREFERRED STOCK)

The undersigned Holder hereby irrevocably elects to convert the number of shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock indicated below, represented by stock certificate No(s).                 (the “ Preferred Stock Certificates ”), into shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share (the “ Common Stock ”), of Biodel Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “ Corporation ”), as of the date written below. If securities are to be issued in the name of a person other than the undersigned, the undersigned will pay all transfer taxes payable with respect thereto. Capitalized terms utilized but not defined herein shall have the meaning ascribed to such terms in that certain Certificate of Designation of Preferences, Rights and Limitations of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock (the “Certificate of Designation”) filed by the Corporation on May 17, 2011.

As of the date hereof, the number of shares of Common Stock beneficially owned by the undersigned Holder (together with such Holder’s Affiliates, and any other Person whose beneficial ownership of Common Stock would be aggregated with the Holder’s for purposes of Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the applicable regulations of the Commission, including any “group” of which the Holder is a member), including the number of shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the Series A Preferred Stock subject to this Notice of Conversion, but excluding the number of shares of Common Stock which are issuable upon (A) conversion of the remaining, unconverted Series A Preferred Stock beneficially owned by such Holder or any of its Affiliates, and (B) exercise or conversion of the unexercised or unconverted portion of any other securities of the Corporation (including any warrants) beneficially owned by such Holder or any of its Affiliates that are subject to a limitation on conversion or exercise similar to the limitation contained in Section 6(c) of the Certificate of Designation is                . For purposes hereof, beneficial ownership shall be calculated in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the applicable regulations of the Commission. In addition, for purposes hereof, “group” has the meaning set forth in Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the applicable regulations of the Commission.

Conversion calculations:

Date to Effect Conversion:                     

Number of shares of Series A Preferred Stock owned prior to Conversion:                     

Number of shares of Series A Preferred Stock to be Converted:                     

Number of shares of Common Stock to be Issued:                     

Address for delivery of physical certificates:                                         

Or for DWAC Delivery:

DWAC Instructions:

Broker no:                     

Account no:                     


[HOLDER]
By:  

 

  Name:
  Title:
  Date:


CERTIFICATE OF AMENDMENT TO

SECOND AMENDED AND RESTATED CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION,

AS AMENDED

OF

BIODEL INC.

Pursuant to Section 242 of the

General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware

Biodel Inc. (hereinafter called the “Corporation”), organized and existing under and by virtue of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, does hereby certify as follows:

By action of the Board of Directors of the Corporation by unanimous written consent effective January 12, 2012, the Board of Directors duly adopted resolutions pursuant to Section 242 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware setting forth an amendment to the Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation, as amended, (the “Restated Certificate of Incorporation”) and declaring said amendment to be advisable and directing that it be submitted to and considered by the stockholders of the Corporation for approval. The stockholders of the Corporation duly approved said proposed amendment at the Annual Meeting of Stockholders held on March 8, 2012, in accordance with Section 242 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware. The resolutions setting forth the amendment are as follows:

 

RESOLVED:

That the following paragraph be inserted prior to the first paragraph of Article FOURTH of the Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation, as amended:

 

  “That, effective at 5:00 p.m., eastern time, on the filing date of this Certificate of Amendment of Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, (the “Effective Time”), a one-for-four reverse stock split of the Corporation’s Common Stock (as defined below) shall become effective, pursuant to which each four shares of Common Stock outstanding and held of record by each stockholder of the Corporation (including treasury shares) immediately prior to the Effective Time shall be reclassified and combined into one share of Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share, automatically and without any action by the holder thereof upon the Effective Time and shall represent one share of Common Stock from and after the Effective Time. No fractional shares of Common Stock shall be issued as a result of such reclassification and combination. In lieu of any fractional shares to which the stockholder would otherwise be entitled, the Corporation shall pay cash equal to such fraction multiplied by the average of the high and low trading prices of the Common Stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market during regular trading hours for the five trading days immediately preceding the Effective Time.”


RESOLVED:

That, subject to the approval of the stockholders of the Corporation, the first paragraph of Article FOURTH of the Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation, as amended, be and hereby is deleted in its entirety and the following first paragraph of Article FOURTH is inserted in lieu thereof:

 

  “FOURTH: The total number of shares of all classes of stock which the Corporation shall have authority to issue is 75,000,000 shares, consisting of (i) 25,000,000 shares of Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share (“ Common Stock ”), and (ii) 50,000,000 shares of Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share (“ Preferred Stock ”).”

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Corporation has caused its corporate seal to be affixed hereto and this Certificate of Amendment to be signed by its duly authorized officer this 11th day of June, 2012.

 

BIODEL INC.
By:  

/s/ Paul S. Bavier

  Name: Paul S. Bavier
  Title: Secretary


CERTIFICATE OF DESIGNATION

OF

SERIES B CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK

OF

BIODEL INC.

PURSUANT TO SECTION 151 OF THE

DELAWARE GENERAL CORPORATION LAW

BIODEL INC. , a Delaware corporation (the “ Corporation ”), in accordance with the provisions of Section 103 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”) does hereby certify that, in accordance with Sections 141(c) and 151 of the DGCL, the following resolution was duly adopted by a duly authorized committee of the Board of Directors of the Corporation by the unanimous written consent of that committee duly effected on June 21, 2012:

RESOLVED , that pursuant to the authority granted to and vested in the Board of Directors of the Corporation in accordance with the provisions of the Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation, as amended (the “ Certificate of Incorporation ”), there is hereby established a series of the Corporation’s authorized Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share, which series shall be designated as the Series B Convertible Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share, of the Corporation, with the designation, number of shares, powers, preferences, rights, qualifications, limitations and restrictions thereof (in addition to any provisions set forth in the Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation which are applicable to the Preferred Stock of all classes and series) as follows:

SERIES B CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK

SECTION 1. DEFINITIONS . For the purposes hereof, the following terms shall have the following meanings:

Affiliate ” means any person or entity that, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is controlled by or is under common control with a person or entity, as such terms are used in and construed under Rule 144 under the Securities Act. With respect to a Holder, any investment fund or managed account that is managed on a discretionary basis by the same investment manager as such Holder will be deemed to be an Affiliate of such Holder.

Alternate Consideration ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 7(b).

Business Day ” means any day except Saturday, Sunday, any day which shall be a federal legal holiday in the United States or any day on which banking institutions in the State of New York are authorized or required by law or other governmental action to close.

Buy-In ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(d)(iii).


Closing Sale Price ” means, for any security as of any date, the last closing trade price for such security prior to 4:00 p.m., New York City time, on the principal securities exchange or trading market where such security is listed or traded, as reported by Bloomberg, L.P. (or an equivalent, reliable reporting service mutually acceptable to and hereafter designated by Holders of a majority of the then-outstanding Series B Preferred Stock and the Corporation), or if the foregoing do not apply, the last trade price of such security in the over-the-counter market on the electronic bulletin board for such security as reported by Bloomberg, L.P., or, if no last trade price is reported for such security by Bloomberg, L.P., the average of the bid prices of any market makers for such security as reported on the OTC Pink Market by OTC Markets Group, Inc. If the Closing Sale Price cannot be calculated for a security on a particular date on any of the foregoing bases, the Closing Sale Price of such security on such date shall be the fair market value as determined in good faith by the Board of Directors of the Corporation.

Commission ” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Common Stock ” means the Corporation’s Common Stock, par value $.01 per share, and stock of any other class of securities into which such securities may hereafter be reclassified or changed into.

Conversion Date ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(a).

Conversion Price ” shall mean $2.36, as adjusted pursuant to paragraph 7 hereof.

Conversion Ratio shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(b).

Conversion Shares ” means, collectively, the shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the shares of Series B Preferred Stock in accordance with the terms hereof

Daily Failure Amount ” means the product of (x) .005 multiplied by (y) the Closing Sale Price of the Common Stock on the applicable Share Delivery Date.

DGCL ” shall mean the Delaware General Corporation Law.

Distribution shall have the meaning set forth in Section 7(b).

DWAC Delivery shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(a).

Exchange Act ” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Fundamental Transaction ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 7(c).

Holder ” means any holder of Series B Preferred Stock.

Junior Securities ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 5(a).

Notice of Conversion shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(a).


Parity Securities shall have the meaning set forth in Section 5(a).

Person means any individual or corporation, partnership, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, limited liability company, joint stock company, government (or an agency or subdivision thereof) or other entity of any kind.

Securities Act ” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Senior Securities ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 5(a).

Series B Preferred Stock Register ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 2(b).

Share Delivery Date ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(d).

Stated Value ” shall mean $2.36.

Trading Day ” means a day on which the Common Sock is traded for any period on the principal securities exchange or if the Common Stock is not traded on a principal securities exchange, on a day that the Common Stock is traded on another securities market on which the Common Stock is then being traded.

SECTION 2. DESIGNATION, AMOUNT AND PAR VALUE; ASSIGNMENT.

(a)    The series of preferred stock designated by this Certificate shall be designated as the Corporation’s “Series B Convertible Preferred Stock” (the “ Series B Preferred Stock ”) and the number of shares so designated shall be 4,000,000 Each share of Series B Preferred Stock shall have a par value of $.01 per share.

(b)    The Corporation shall register shares of the Series B Preferred Stock, upon records to be maintained by the Corporation for that purpose (the “ Series B Preferred Stock Register ”) in the name of the Holders thereof from time to time. The Corporation may deem and treat the registered Holder of shares of Series B Preferred Stock as the absolute owner thereof for the purpose of any conversion thereof and for all other purposes. The Corporation shall register, or cause the Corporation’s transfer agent to register, the transfer of any shares of Series B Preferred Stock in the Series B Preferred Stock Register, upon surrender of the certificates evidencing such shares to be transferred, duly endorsed by the Holder thereof, to the Corporation at its principal place of business. Upon any such registration or transfer, a new certificate evidencing the shares of Series B Preferred Stock so transferred shall be issued to the transferee and a new certificate evidencing the remaining portion of the shares not so transferred, if any, shall be issued to the transferring Holder, in each case, within three Business Days. The provisions of this Certificate are intended to be for the benefit of all Holders from time to time and shall be enforceable by any such Holder.

SECTION 3. DIVIDENDS . Holders shall be entitled to receive, and the Corporation shall pay, dividends on shares of the Series B Preferred Stock equal (on an as-if-converted-to-Common-Stock basis) to and in the same form as dividends (other than dividends in the form of Common Stock) actually paid on shares of the Common Stock when, as and if such dividends (other than dividends in the form of Common Stock) are paid on shares of the Common Stock.


SECTION 4. VOTING RIGHTS . Except as otherwise provided herein or as otherwise required by the DGCL, the Series B Preferred Stock shall have no voting rights. However, as long as any shares of Series B Preferred Stock are outstanding, the Corporation shall not, without the affirmative vote of the Holders of a majority of the then outstanding shares of the Series B Preferred Stock, (a) alter or change adversely the powers, preferences or rights given to the Series B Preferred Stock or alter or amend this Certificate of Designation, (b) increase the number of authorized shares of Series B Preferred Stock, or (c) enter into any agreement with respect to any of the foregoing.

SECTION 5. RANK; LIQUIDATION .

(a)    The Series B Preferred Stock shall rank (i) senior to all of the Common Stock; (ii) senior to any class or series of capital stock of the Corporation hereafter created specifically ranking by its terms junior to any Series B Preferred Stock (“ Junior Securities ”). (iii) on parity with the Corporation’s Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share (the “ Series A Preferred Stock ”) and with any class or series of capital stock of the Corporation hereafter created specifically ranking by its terms on parity with the Series B Preferred Stock (“ Parity Securities ”); and (iv) junior to any class or series of capital stock of the Corporation hereafter created specifically ranking by its terms senior to any Series B Preferred Stock (“ Senior Securities ”) in each case, as to dividends, distributions of assets upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Corporation, whether voluntarily or involuntarily.

(b)    Subject to the prior and superior rights of the holders of any Senior Securities of the Corporation, upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Corporation, whether voluntary or involuntary (each, a “ Liquidation Event ”) each holder of shares of Series B Preferred Stock shall be entitled to receive, in preference to any distributions of any of the assets or surplus funds of the Corporation to the holders of the Common Stock and Junior Securities and pari passu with any distribution to the holders of Parity Securities, an amount equal to $.01 per share of Series B Preferred Stock, plus an additional amount equal to any dividends declared but unpaid on such shares, before any payments shall be made or any assets distributed to holders of any class of Common Stock or Junior Securities. If, upon any such Liquidation Event, the assets of the Corporation shall be insufficient to pay the holders of shares of the Series B Preferred Stock the amount required under the preceding sentence, then all remaining assets of the Corporation shall be distributed ratably to holders of the shares of the Series B Preferred Stock and Parity Securities.

(c)    After payment to the holders of shares of the Series B Preferred Stock of the amount required under Section 5(b) and subject to the prior and superior rights of the holders of any Senior Securities of the Corporation, the remaining assets or surplus funds of the Corporation, if any, available for distribution to stockholders shall be distributed ratably among the holders of the Series A Preferred Stock, the Series B Preferred Stock, any other class or series of capital stock that participates with the Common Stock in the distribution of assets upon any Liquidation Event and the Common Stock, with the holders of the Series B Preferred Stock deemed to hold that number of shares of Common Stock into which such shares of Series B Preferred Stock are then convertible (without giving effect for such purposes to any limitations on the beneficial ownership of Series B Preferred Stock to which any holders are subject).


SECTION 6. CONVERSION .

(a)     Conversions at Option of Holder . Each share of Series B Preferred Stock shall be convertible, at any time and from time to time from and after the date of the issuance thereof, at the option of the Holder thereof, into a number of shares of Common Stock equal to the Conversion Ratio in effect at the time of such conversion. Holders shall effect conversions by providing the Corporation with the form of conversion notice (via overnight courier, facsimile or email) attached hereto as Annex A (a “ Notice of Conversion ”), duly completed and executed. For purposes of clarification, unless required pursuant to industry standard stock transfer procedures, the Corporation’s transfer agent shall not require a Holder to obtain a medallion guaranty, notary attestation or any similar deliverable in order to effectuate the conversion of all or a portion of such Holder’s shares of Series B Preferred Stock. Other than a conversion following a Fundamental Transaction or following a notice provided for under Section 7(d)(ii) hereof, the Notice of Conversion must specify at least a number of shares of Series B Preferred Stock to be converted equal to the lesser of (x) 100 shares (such number subject to appropriate adjustment following the occurrence of an event specified in Section 7(a) hereof) and (y) the number of shares of Series B Preferred Stock then held by the Holder. Provided the Corporation’s transfer agent is participating in the Depository Trust Company (“ DTC ”) Fast Automated Securities Transfer program, the Notice of Conversion may specify, at the Holder’s election, whether the applicable Conversion Shares shall be credited to the account of the Holder’s prime broker with DTC through its Deposit Withdrawal Agent Commission system (a “ DWAC Delivery ”). The “ Conversion Date ”, or the date on which a conversion shall be deemed effective, shall be defined as the Trading Day that the Notice of Conversion, completed and executed, is sent by facsimile to, and received during regular business hours by, the Corporation; provided that the original certificate(s) representing such shares of Series B Preferred Stock being converted, duly endorsed, and the accompanying Notice of Conversion, are received by the Corporation within two (2) Trading Days thereafter. In all other cases, the Conversion Date shall be defined as the Trading Day on which the original stock certificates representing the shares of Series B Preferred Stock being converted, duly endorsed, and the accompanying Notice of Conversion, are received by the Corporation. The calculations set forth in the Notice of Conversion shall control in the absence of manifest or mathematical error.

(b)     Conversion Ratio . The “ Conversion Ratio ” for each share of Series B Preferred Stock shall be equal to the Stated Value divided by the Conversion Price.

(c)    [INTENTIONALLY OMITTED]

(d)    Mechanics of Conversion

(i)     Delivery of Certificate or Electronic Issuance Upon Conversion . Not later than three Trading Days after the applicable Conversion Date, or if the Holder requests the issuance of physical certificate(s), two Trading Days after receipt by the Corporation of the original certificate(s) representing such shares of Series B Preferred Stock being converted, duly endorsed, and the accompanying Notice of Conversion (the “ Share Delivery Date ”) the


Corporation shall (a) deliver, or cause to be delivered, to the converting Holder a physical certificate or certificates representing the number of Conversion Shares being acquired upon the conversion of shares of Series B Preferred Stock (which certificate or certificates shall not have any legends on it) or (b) in the case of a DWAC Delivery, electronically transfer such Conversion Shares by crediting the account of the Holder’s prime broker with DTC through its DWAC system. If in the case of any Notice of Conversion such certificate or certificates are not delivered to or as directed by or, in the case of a DWAC Delivery, such shares are not electronically delivered to or as directed by, the applicable Holder by the Share Delivery Date, the applicable Holder shall be entitled to elect to rescind such Conversion Notice by written notice to the Corporation at any time on or before its receipt of such certificate or certificates for Conversion Shares or electronic receipt of such shares, as applicable, in which event the Corporation shall promptly return to such Holder any original Series B Preferred Stock certificate delivered to the Corporation and such Holder shall promptly return to the Corporation any Common Stock certificates or otherwise direct the return of any shares of Common Stock delivered to the Holder through the DWAC system, representing the shares of Series B Preferred Stock unsuccessfully tendered for conversion to the Corporation.

(ii)     Obligation Absolute . Subject to any limitations on the beneficial ownership of Series B Preferred Stock to which a Holder may be subject and subject to such Holder’s right to rescind a Conversion Notice pursuant to Section 6(d)(i) above, the Corporation’s obligation to issue and deliver the Conversion Shares upon conversion of Series B Preferred Stock in accordance with the terms hereof are absolute and unconditional, irrespective of any action or inaction by a Holder to enforce the same, any waiver or consent with respect to any provision hereof, the recovery of any judgment against any Person or any action to enforce the same, or any setoff, counterclaim, recoupment, limitation or termination, or any breach or alleged breach by such Holder or any other Person of any obligation to the Corporation or any violation or alleged violation of law by such Holder or any other Person, and irrespective of any other circumstance which might otherwise limit such obligation of the Corporation to such Holder in connection with the issuance of such Conversion Shares. Subject to any limitations on the beneficial of ownership of Series B Preferred Stock to which a Holder may be subject and subject to such Holder’s right to rescind a Conversion Notice pursuant to Section 6(d)(i) above, in the event a Holder shall elect to convert any or all of its Series B Preferred Stock, the Corporation may not refuse conversion based on any claim that such Holder or any one associated or affiliated with such Holder has been engaged in any violation of law, agreement or for any other reason, unless an injunction from a court, on notice to such Holder, restraining and/or enjoining conversion of all or part of the Series B Preferred Stock of such Holder shall have been sought and obtained by the Corporation, and the Corporation posts a surety bond for the benefit of such Holder in the amount of 150% of the value of the Conversion Shares into which would be converted the Series B Preferred Stock which is subject to such injunction, which bond shall remain in effect until the completion of arbitration/litigation of the underlying dispute and the proceeds of which shall be payable to such Holder to the extent it obtains judgment. In the absence of such injunction, the Corporation shall, subject to any limitations on the beneficial ownership of Series B Preferred Stock to which a Holder may be subject and subject to such Holder’s right to rescind a Conversion Notice pursuant to Section 6(d)(i) above, issue Conversion Shares upon a properly noticed conversion. If the Corporation fails to deliver to a Holder such certificate or certificates, or electronically deliver (or cause its transfer agent to electronically deliver) such shares in the case of a DWAC Delivery, pursuant to Section 6(d)(i)


on or prior to the third (3rd) Trading Day after the Share Delivery Date applicable to such conversion (other than a failure caused by incorrect or incomplete information provided by such Holder to the Corporation), then, unless the Holder has rescinded the applicable Conversion Notice pursuant to Section 6(d)(i) above, the Corporation shall pay (as liquidated damages and not as a penalty) to such Holder an amount payable in cash equal to the product of (x) the number of Conversion Shares required to have been issued by the Corporation on such Share Delivery Date, (y) an amount equal to the Daily Failure Amount and (z) the number of Trading Days actually lapsed after such third (3rd) Trading Day after the Share Delivery Date during which such certificates have not been delivered, or, in the case of a DWAC Delivery, such shares have not been electronically delivered; provided, however, the Holder shall only receive up to such amount of shares of Common Stock such that Holder and any other persons or entities whose beneficial ownership of Common Stock would be aggregated with the Holder’s for purposes of Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act (including shares held by any “group” of which the Holder is a member, but excluding shares beneficially owned by virtue of the ownership of securities or rights to acquire securities that have limitations on the right to convert, exercise or purchase similar to the limitation set forth herein) shall not collectively beneficially own greater than the percentage of the total number of shares of Common Stock of the Corporation then issued and outstanding applicable to any limitation on beneficial ownership to which such Holder may be subject. Nothing herein shall limit a Holder’s right to pursue actual damages for the Corporation’s failure to deliver Conversion Shares within the period specified herein and such Holder shall have the right to pursue all remedies available to it hereunder, at law or in equity including, without limitation, a decree of specific performance and/or injunctive relief; provided that Holder shall not receive duplicate damages for the Corporation’s failure to deliver Conversion Shares within the period specified herein. The exercise of any such rights shall not prohibit a Holder from seeking to enforce damages pursuant to any other Section hereof or under applicable law.

(iii)     Compensation for Buy-In on Failure to Timely Deliver Certificates Upon Conversion . If the Corporation fails to deliver to a Holder the applicable certificate or certificates or to effect a DWAC Delivery, as applicable, by the Share Delivery Date pursuant to Section 6(d)(i) (other than a failure caused by incorrect or incomplete information provided by such Holder to the Corporation), and if after such Share Delivery Date such Holder is required by its brokerage firm to purchase (in an open market transaction or otherwise), or the Holder’s brokerage firm otherwise purchases, shares of Common Stock to deliver in satisfaction of a sale by such Holder of the Conversion Shares which such Holder was entitled to receive upon the conversion relating to such Share Delivery Date (a “Buy-In”), then the Corporation shall (A) pay in cash to such Holder (in addition to any other remedies available to or elected by such Holder) the amount by which (x) such Holder’s total purchase price (including any brokerage commissions) for the shares of Common Stock so purchased exceeds (y) the product of (1) the aggregate number of shares of Common Stock that such Holder was entitled to receive from the conversion at issue multiplied by (2) the actual sale price at which the sell order giving rise to such purchase obligation was executed (including any brokerage commissions) and (B) at the option of such Holder, either reissue (if surrendered) the shares of Series B Preferred Stock equal to the number of shares of Series B Preferred Stock submitted for conversion or deliver to such Holder the number of shares of Common Stock that would have been issued if the Corporation had timely complied with its delivery requirements under Section 6(d)(i). For example, if a Holder purchases shares of Common Stock having a total purchase price of $11,000 to cover a


Buy-In with respect to an attempted conversion of shares of Series B Preferred Stock with respect to which the actual sale price (including any brokerage commissions) giving rise to such purchase obligation was a total of $10,000 under clause (A) of the immediately preceding sentence, the Corporation shall be required to pay such Holder $1,000. The Holder shall provide the Corporation written notice, within three (3) Trading Days after the occurrence of a Buy-In, indicating the amounts payable to such Holder in respect of such Buy-In together with applicable confirmations and other evidence reasonably requested by the Corporation. Nothing herein shall limit a Holder’s right to pursue any other remedies available to it hereunder, at law or in equity including, without limitation, a decree of specific performance and/or injunctive relief with respect to the Corporation’s failure to timely deliver certificates representing shares of Common Stock upon conversion of the shares of Series B Preferred Stock as required pursuant to the terms hereof; provided, however, that the Holder shall not be entitled to both (i) require the reissuance of the shares of Series B Preferred Stock submitted for conversion for which such conversion was not timely honored and (ii) receive the number of shares of Common Stock that would have been issued if the Corporation had timely complied with its delivery requirements under Section 6(d)(i).

(iv)     Reservation of Shares Issuable Upon Conversion . The Corporation covenants that it will at all times reserve and keep available out of its authorized and unissued shares of Common Stock for the sole purpose of issuance upon conversion of the Series B Preferred Stock, free from preemptive rights or any other actual contingent purchase rights of Persons other than the Holders of the Series B Preferred Stock, not less than such aggregate number of shares of the Common Stock as shall be issuable (taking into account the adjustments of Section 7) upon the conversion of all outstanding shares of Series B Preferred Stock. The Corporation covenants that all shares of Common Stock that shall be so issuable shall, upon issue, be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

(v)     Fractional Shares . No fractional shares or scrip representing fractional shares of Common Stock shall be issued upon the conversion of the Series B Preferred Stock. As to any fraction of a share which a Holder would otherwise be entitled to receive upon such conversion, the Corporation shall at its election, either pay a cash adjustment in respect of such final fraction in an amount equal to such fraction multiplied by the Conversion Price or round up to the next whole share.

(vi)     Transfer Taxes . The issuance of certificates for shares of the Common Stock upon conversion of the Series B Preferred Stock shall be made without charge to any Holder for any documentary stamp or similar taxes that may be payable in respect of the issue or delivery of such certificates, provided that the Corporation shall not be required to pay any tax that may be payable in respect of any transfer involved in the issuance and delivery of any such certificate upon conversion in a name other than that of the registered Holder(s) of such shares of Series B Preferred Stock and the Corporation shall not be required to issue or deliver such certificates unless or until the Person or Persons requesting the issuance thereof shall have paid to the Corporation the amount of such tax or shall have established to the satisfaction of the Corporation that such tax has been paid.

(e)     Status as Stockholder . Upon each Conversion Date, (i) the shares of Series B Preferred Stock being converted shall be deemed converted into shares of Common Stock and


(ii) the Holder’s rights as a holder of such converted shares of Series B Preferred Stock shall cease and terminate, excepting only the right to receive certificates for such shares of Common Stock and to any remedies provided herein or otherwise available at law or in equity to such Holder because of a failure by the Corporation to comply with the terms of this Certificate of Designation. In all cases, the holder shall retain all of its rights and remedies for the Corporation’s failure to convert Series B Preferred Stock.

SECTION 7. CERTAIN ADJUSTMENTS.

(a)     Stock Dividends and Stock Splits . If the Corporation, at any time while the Series B Preferred Stock is outstanding: (A) pays a stock dividend or otherwise makes a distribution or distributions payable in shares of Common Stock (which, for avoidance of doubt, shall not include any shares of Common Stock issued by the Corporation upon conversion of shares of Series B Preferred Stock) with respect to the then outstanding shares of Common Stock; (B) subdivides outstanding shares of Common Stock into a larger number of shares; or (C) combines (including by way of a reverse stock split) outstanding shares of Common Stock into a smaller number of shares, then the Conversion Price shall be multiplied by a fraction of which the numerator shall be the number of shares of Common Stock (excluding any treasury shares of the Corporation) outstanding immediately before such event and of which the denominator shall be the number of shares of Common Stock outstanding immediately after such event (excluding any treasury shares of the Corporation). Any adjustment made pursuant to this Section 7(a) shall become effective immediately after the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to receive such dividend or distribution and shall become effective immediately after the effective date in the case of a subdivision or combination.

(b)     Rights Upon Distribution of Assets . If the Company shall declare or make any dividend or other distribution of its assets (or rights to acquire its assets) to holders of shares of Common Stock, by way of return of capital or otherwise (including, without limitation, any distribution of cash, stock or other securities, property or options by way of a dividend, spin off, reclassification, corporate rearrangement, scheme of arrangement or other similar transaction) (a “ Distribution ”), a Holder shall be entitled to receive the dividend or distribution of assets that would have been payable to such Holder pursuant to the Distribution had such Holder converted his or her shares of Series B Preferred Stock (or, if he or she had partially converted such shares prior to the Distribution, any unconverted portion thereof) immediately prior to such record date.

(c)     Fundamental Transaction . If, at any time while the Series B Preferred Stock is outstanding, (A) the Corporation effects any merger or consolidation of the Corporation with or into another Person (other than a merger in which the Corporation is the surviving or continuing entity and its Common Stock is not exchanged for or converted into other securities, cash or property), (B) the Corporation effects any sale of all or substantially all of its assets in one transaction or a series of related transactions, (C) any tender offer or exchange offer (whether by the Corporation or another Person) is completed pursuant to which all of the Common Stock is exchanged for or converted into other securities, cash or property, or (D) the Corporation effects any reclassification of the Common Stock or any compulsory share exchange pursuant (other than as a result of a dividend, subdivision or combination covered by Section 7(a) above) to which the Common Stock is effectively converted into or exchanged for other securities, cash or property (in any such case, a “ Fundamental Transaction ”), then, upon any subsequent


conversion of this Series B Preferred Stock the Holders shall have the right to receive, in lieu of the right to receive Conversion Shares, for each Conversion Share that would have been issuable upon such conversion immediately prior to the occurrence of such Fundamental Transaction, the same kind and amount of securities, cash or property as it would have been entitled to receive upon the occurrence of such Fundamental Transaction if it had been, immediately prior to such Fundamental Transaction, the holder of one share of Common Stock (the “ Alternate Consideration ”). For purposes of any such subsequent conversion, the determination of the Conversion Ratio shall be appropriately adjusted to apply to such Alternate Consideration based on the amount of Alternate Consideration issuable in respect of one share of Common Stock in such Fundamental Transaction, and the Corporation shall adjust the Conversion Ratio in a reasonable manner reflecting the relative value of any different components of the Alternate Consideration. If holders of Common Stock are given any choice as to the securities, cash or property to be received in a Fundamental Transaction, then the Holders shall be given the same choice as to the Alternate Consideration it receives upon any conversion of this Series B Preferred Stock following such Fundamental Transaction. To the extent necessary to effectuate the foregoing provisions, any successor to the Corporation or surviving entity in such Fundamental Transaction shall file a new Certificate of Designation with the same terms and conditions and issue to the Holders new preferred stock consistent with the foregoing provisions and evidencing the Holders’ right to convert such preferred stock into Alternate Consideration. The terms of any agreement to which the Corporation is a party and pursuant to which a Fundamental Transaction is effected shall include terms requiring any such successor or surviving entity to comply with the provisions of this Section 7(b) and ensuring that the Series B Preferred Stock (or any such replacement security) will be similarly adjusted upon any subsequent transaction analogous to a Fundamental Transaction. The Corporation shall cause to be delivered to each Holder, at its last address as it shall appear upon the stock books of the Corporation, written notice of any Fundamental Transaction at least 20 calendar days prior to the date on which such Fundamental Transaction is expected to become effective or close.

(d)     Calculations . All calculations under this Section 7 shall be made to the nearest cent or the nearest 1/100th of a share, as the case may be. For purposes of this Section 7, the number of shares of Common Stock deemed to be issued and outstanding as of a given date shall be the sum of the number of shares of Common Stock (excluding any treasury shares of the Corporation) issued and outstanding.

(e)     Notice to the Holders .

(i)     Adjustment to Conversion Price . Whenever the Conversion Price is adjusted pursuant to any provision of this Section 7, the Corporation shall promptly deliver to each Holder a notice setting forth the Conversion Ratio after such adjustment and setting forth a brief statement of the facts requiring such adjustment.

(ii)     Other Notices . If (A) the Corporation shall declare a dividend (or any other distribution in whatever form) on the Common Stock, (B) the Corporation shall declare a special nonrecurring cash dividend on or a redemption of the Common Stock, (C) the Corporation shall authorize the granting to all holders of the Common Stock of rights or warrants to subscribe for or purchase any shares of capital stock of any class or of any rights, (D) the approval of any stockholders of the Corporation shall be required in connection with any reclassification of the


Common Stock, any consolidation or merger to which the Corporation is a party, any sale or transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of the Corporation, of any compulsory share exchange whereby the Common Stock is converted into other securities, cash or property or (E) the Corporation shall authorize the voluntary or involuntary dissolution, liquidation or winding up of the affairs of the Corporation, then, in each case, the Corporation shall cause to be filed at each office or agency maintained for the purpose of conversion of this Series B Preferred Stock, and shall cause to be delivered to each Holder at its last address as it shall appear upon the stock books of the Corporation, at least 20 calendar days prior to the applicable record or effective date hereinafter specified, a notice stating (x) the date on which a record is to be taken for the purpose of such dividend, distribution, redemption, rights or warrants, or if a record is not to be taken, the date as of which the holders of the Common Stock of record to be entitled to such dividend, distributions, redemption, rights or warrants are to be determined or (y) the date on which such reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer or share exchange is expected to become effective or close, and the date as of which it is expected that holders of the Common Stock of record shall be entitled to exchange their shares of the Common Stock for securities, cash or other property deliverable upon such reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer or share exchange, provided that the failure to deliver such notice or any defect therein or in the delivery thereof shall not affect the validity of the corporate action required to be specified in such notice.

SECTION 8. MISCELLANEOUS .

(a)     Notices . Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries to be provided by the Holders hereunder including, without limitation, any Notice of Conversion, shall be in writing and delivered personally, by email, facsimile, or sent by a nationally recognized overnight courier service, addressed to the Corporation, at 100 Saw Mill Road, Danbury, Connecticut 06810, facsimile number (203) 796-5002, or such other facsimile number or address as the Corporation may specify for such purposes by notice to the Holders delivered in accordance with this Section. Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries to be provided by the Corporation hereunder shall be in writing and delivered personally, by facsimile, or sent by a nationally recognized overnight courier service addressed to each Holder at the facsimile number or address of such Holder appearing on the books of the Corporation, or if no such facsimile number or address appears on the books of the Corporation, at the principal place of business of such Holder. Any notice or other communication or deliveries hereunder shall be deemed given and effective on the earliest of (i) the date of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number specified in this Section prior to 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any date, (ii) the date immediately following the date of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number specified in this Section between 5:30 p.m. and 11:59 p.m. (New York City time) on any date, (iii) the second Business Day following the date of mailing, if sent by nationally recognized overnight courier service, or (iv) upon actual receipt by the party to whom such notice is required to be given.

(b)     Lost or Mutilated Series B Preferred Stock Certificate . If a Holder’s Series B Preferred Stock certificate shall be mutilated, lost, stolen or destroyed, the Corporation shall execute and deliver, in exchange and substitution for and upon cancellation of a mutilated certificate, or in lieu of or in substitution for a lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, a new


certificate for the shares of Series B Preferred Stock so mutilated, lost, stolen or destroyed, but only upon receipt of evidence of such loss, theft or destruction of such certificate, and of the ownership thereof, reasonably satisfactory to the Corporation and, in each case, customary and reasonable indemnity, if requested. Applicants for a new certificate under such circumstances shall also comply with such other reasonable regulations and procedures and pay such other reasonable third-party costs as the Corporation may prescribe.

(c)     Waiver . Any waiver by the Corporation or a Holder of a breach of any provision of this Certificate of Designation shall not operate as or be construed to be a waiver of any other breach of such provision or of any breach of any other provision of this Certificate of Designation or a waiver by any other Holders. The failure of the Corporation or a Holder to insist upon strict adherence to any term of this Certificate of Designation on one or more occasions shall not be considered a waiver or deprive that party (or any other Holder) of the right thereafter to insist upon strict adherence to that term or any other term of this Certificate of Designation. Any waiver by the Corporation or a Holder must be in writing.

(d)     Severability . If any provision of this Certificate of Designation is invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the balance of this Certificate of Designation shall remain in effect, and if any provision is inapplicable to any Person or circumstance, it shall nevertheless remain applicable to all other Persons and circumstances. If it shall be found that any interest or other amount deemed interest due hereunder violates the applicable law governing usury, the applicable rate of interest due hereunder shall automatically be lowered to equal the maximum rate of interest permitted under applicable law.

(e)     Next Business or Trading Day . Whenever any payment or other obligation hereunder shall be due on a day other than a Business Day or a Trading Day, such payment shall be made on the next succeeding Business Day or Trading Day, as the case may be.

(f)     Headings . The headings contained herein are for convenience only, do not constitute a part of this Certificate of Designation and shall not be deemed to limit or affect any of the provisions hereof.

(g)     Status of Converted Series B Preferred Stock . If any shares of Series B Preferred Stock shall be converted or reacquired by the Corporation, such shares shall resume the status of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock and shall no longer be designated as Series B Preferred Stock.

********************

IN WITNESS WHEREOF , the Corporation has caused this Certificate of Designation to be signed by its duly authorized officer this 26th day of June 2012.

 

BIODEL INC.

By:  

/s/ Errol De Souza

  Name: Errol De Souza
  Title: President and CEO


ANNEX A

NOTICE OF CONVERSION

(TO BE EXECUTED BY THE REGISTERED HOLDER IN ORDER TO

CONVERT SHARES OF SERIES A PREFERRED STOCK)

The undersigned Holder hereby irrevocably elects to convert the number of shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock indicated below, represented by stock certificate No(s).                 (the “ Preferred Stock Certificates ”), into shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share (the “ Common Stock ”), of Biodel Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Corporation”) as of the date written below. If securities are to be issued in the name of a person other than the undersigned, the undersigned will pay all transfer taxes payable with respect thereto. Capitalized terms utilized but not defined herein shall have the meaning ascribed to such terms in that certain Certificate of Designation of Preferences, Rights and Limitations of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock (the “Certificate of Designation”) filed by the Corporation on June 26, 2012.

[INCLUDE THIS PARAGRAPH IF APPLICABLE.]

As of the date hereof, the number of shares of Common Stock beneficially owned by the undersigned Holder (together with such Holder’s Affiliates, and any other Person whose beneficial ownership of Common Stock would be aggregated with the Holder’s for purposes of Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the applicable regulations of the Commission, including any “group” of which the Holder is a member), including the number of shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the Series B Preferred Stock subject to this Notice of Conversion, but excluding the number of shares of Common Stock which are issuable upon (A) conversion of the remaining, unconverted Series B Preferred Stock beneficially owned by such Holder or any of its Affiliates, and (B) exercise or conversion of the unexercised or unconverted portion of any other securities of the Corporation (including any warrants) beneficially owned by such Holder or any of its Affiliates that are subject to any limitations on the beneficial ownership of the Corporation’s capital stock to which a Holder may be subject, is                . For purposes hereof, beneficial ownership shall be calculated in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the applicable regulations of the Commission. In addition, for purposes hereof, “group” has the meaning set forth in Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the applicable regulations of the Commission.

Conversion calculations:

Date to Effect Conversion:                     

Number of shares of Series B Preferred Stock owned prior to Conversion:                     

Number of shares of Series B Preferred Stock to be Converted:                     

Number of shares of Common Stock to be Issued:                     

Address for delivery of physical certificates:                                         


Or for DWAC Delivery:

DWAC Instructions:

Broker no:                     

Account no:                     

 

[HOLDER]
By:  

 

  Name:
  Title:
  Date:


CERTIFICATE OF AMENDMENT OF

SECOND AMENDED AND RESTATED CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION,

AS AMENDED

OF

BIODEL INC.

Pursuant to Section 242 of the

General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware

Biodel Inc. (hereinafter called the “Corporation”), organized and existing under and by virtue of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, does hereby certify as follows:

By action of the Board of Directors of the Corporation at a meeting held on September 10, 2012, the Board of Directors duly adopted a resolution pursuant to Section 242 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware setting forth an amendment to the Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation, as amended, (the “Restated Certificate of Incorporation”) and declaring said amendment to be advisable and directing that it be submitted to and considered by the stockholders of the Corporation for approval. The stockholders of the Corporation duly approved said proposed amendment at a Special Meeting of Stockholders held on November 1, 2012, in accordance with Section 242 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware. The resolution setting forth the amendment is as follows:

 

RESOLVED:

That, subject to the approval of the stockholders of the Corporation, the second paragraph of Article FOURTH of the Restated Certificate of Incorporation (relating to the Corporation’s authorized shares of capital stock) be and hereby is deleted in its entirety and the following second paragraph of Article FOURTH is inserted in lieu thereof:

 

  “A. The total number of shares of all classes of stock which the Corporation shall have authority to issue is 112,500,000 shares, consisting of(i) 62,500,000 shares of Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share (“Common Stock”), and (ii) 50,000,000 shares of Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share (“Preferred Stock”).”


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Corporation has caused its corporate seal to be affixed hereto and this Certificate of Amendment to be signed by its duly authorized officer this 19th day of December, 2012.

 

BIODEL INC.
By:  

/s/ Paul S. Bavier

  Name: Paul S. Bavier
  Title: Secretary


CERTIFICATE OF AMENDMENT

OF

SECOND AMENDED AND RESTATED CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION,

AS AMENDED

OF

BIODEL INC.

Pursuant to Section 242 of the

General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware

Biodel Inc. (hereinafter called the “Corporation”), organized and existing under and by virtue of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, does hereby certify as follows:

By action of the Board of Directors of the Corporation at a meeting held on February 12, 2015, the Board of Directors duly adopted a resolution pursuant to Section 242 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware setting forth an amendment to the Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation, as amended, (the “Restated Certificate of Incorporation”) and declaring said amendment to be advisable and directing that it be submitted to and considered by the stockholders of the Corporation for approval. The stockholders of the Corporation duly approved said proposed amendment at the Annual Meeting of Stockholders held on March 17, 2015, in accordance with Section 242 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware. The resolution setting forth the amendment is as follows:

RESOLVED That, subject to the approval of the stockholders of the Corporation, the second paragraph of Article FOURTH of the Restated Certificate of Incorporation (relating to the Corporation’s authorized shares of capital stock) be and hereby is deleted in its entirety and the following second paragraph of Article FOURTH is inserted in lieu thereof:

“A. The total number of shares of all classes of stock which the Corporation shall have authority to issue is 250,000,000 shares, consisting of (i) 200,000,000 shares of Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share (“Common Stock”), and (ii) 50,000,000 shares of Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share (“Preferred Stock”).”

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Corporation has caused its corporate seal to be affixed hereto and this Certificate of Amendment to be signed by its duly authorized officer this 17th day of March, 2015.

 

BIODEL INC.
By:  

/s/ Errol B. De Souza

Name: Errol B. De Souza
Title: President and Chief Executive Officer


CERTIFICATE OF AMENDMENT

OF

SECOND AMENDED AND RESTATED CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION

OF

BIODEL INC.

BIODEL INC., a corporation organized and existing under and by virtue of the General. Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “ Corporation ”), does hereby certify as follows:

FIRST:     The Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation, as amended (the “ Restated Certificate of Incorporation ”) is hereby amended by deleting the first two paragraphs of Article FOURTH of the Restated Certificate of Incorporation in their entirety and inserting the following paragraphs in lieu thereof:

“A. The total number of shares of all classes of capital stock which the Corporation shall have authority to issue is 250,000,000 shares, consisting of (i) 200,000,000 shares of Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share (“ Common Stock ”) and (ii) 50,000,000 shares of Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share (“ Preferred Stock ”).

Upon the effectiveness of this Certificate of Amendment to the Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware (the “ Effective Time ”), every thirty (30) shares of Common Stock issued and outstanding (or held in treasury) immediately prior to the Effective Time shall, automatically and without any action on the part of the respective holders thereof, be reclassified and combined into one (1) validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable share of Common Stock (the “ Reverse Stock Split ”).

Notwithstanding the foregoing, no fractional shares of Common Stock shall be issued as a result of the Reverse Stock Split. If the Reverse Stock Split would result in the issuance of any fractional share, the Corporation shall, in lieu of issuing any fractional share, pay cash equal to the product of such fraction multiplied by the closing price of the Corporation’s Common Stock on The NASDAQ Capital Market on the last trading day prior to the Effective Time (as adjusted to give effect to the Reverse Stock Split), rounded up to the nearest whole cent. Upon surrender by any stockholder(s) of certificates representing shares of Common Stock issued and outstanding prior to the Effective Time, a new certificate representing the number of whole shares of Common Stock issued and outstanding after the Effective Time into which the shares of Common Stock formerly represented by such certificate(s) shall have been reclassified and cash in lieu of fractional shares, if any, will be issued to such stockholder(s).”

SECOND:     That said amendment was duly adopted in accordance with the provisions of Section 242 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.

[Signature Page Follows]


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Corporation has caused this Certificate of Amendment of the Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation to be executed by its duly authorized officer on this 3rd day of November, 2016.

 

BIODEL INC.
Name:  

/s/ Gary Gemignani

  Title: Chief Financial Officer and Interim Chief Executive Officer


CERTIFICATE OF AMENDMENT

OF

SECOND AMENDED AND RESTATED CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION

OF

BIODEL INC.

Pursuant to Section 242 of the

General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware

BIODEL INC., a corporation organized and existing under and by virtue of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “ Corporation ”), does hereby certify as follows:

1.    The name of the corporation (hereinafter called the “Corporation”) is Biodel Inc.

2.    The Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation was filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on December 8, 2003 under the name of Global Positioning Group, LTD. Thereafter a Certificate of Amendment was filed on November 19, 2004 to change the name of the Corporation to Biodel Inc. A Restated Certificate of Incorporation was filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on May 17, 2007. Thereafter a Certificate of Designation was filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on May 17, 2011, a Certificate of Amendment to the Restated Certificate of Incorporation was filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on June 11, 2012, a Certificate of Designation was filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on June 26, 2012, and Certificates of Amendment to the Restated Certificate of Incorporation were filed on December 20, 2012, March 17, 2015 and November 3, 2016.

3.    The Restated Certificate of Incorporation, filed on May 17, 2007, as amended, is further amended to change the name of the Corporation to Albireo Pharma, Inc. by striking out Article FIRST thereof and by substituting in lieu of said Article the following new Article FIRST:

FIRST:    The name of the corporation (hereinafter called the “Corporation”) is

Albireo Pharma, Inc.

4.    The amendment of the Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, herein certified has been duly adopted in accordance with the provisions of Section 242 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.

[Signature Page Follows]


Signed this 3 rd day of November, 2016.

 

BIODEL INC.
By:  

/s/ Ronald H.W. Cooper

  Name: Ronald H.W. Cooper
  Title: President and Chief Executive Officer


CERTIFICATE OF AMENDMENT

OF

RESTATED CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION

OF

ALBIREO PHARMA, INC.

Pursuant to Section 242 of the

General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware

ALBIREO PHARMA, INC., a corporation organized and existing under and by virtue of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “ Corporation ”), does hereby certify as follows:

1.    The Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation, filed on May 17, 2007, as amended (the “ Restated Certificate of Incorporation ”), is hereby amended by deleting the first paragraph of Article FOURTH of the Restated Certificate of Incorporation in its entirety and inserting the following paragraph in lieu thereof:

“The total number of shares of all classes of capital stock which the Corporation shall have authority to issue is 80,000,000 shares, consisting of (i) 30,000,000 shares of Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share (“ Common Stock ”) and (ii) 50,000,000 shares of Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share (“ Preferred Stock ”).”

2.    The amendment of the Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, herein certified has been duly adopted in accordance with the provisions of Section 242 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.

[Signature Page Follows]


Signed this 12th day of June, 2017.

 

ALBIREO PHARMA, INC.
By:  

/s/ Ronald H.W. Cooper

  Name: Ronald H.W. Cooper
  Title: President and Chief Executive Officer

Exhibit 4.7

ALBIREO PHARMA, INC.

Issuer

AND

[                    ] Trustee

INDENTURE

Dated as of [                    ]

Senior Debt Securities


CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE (1)

 

Section of Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as Amended

   Section of
Indenture
 

310(a).

     7.09  

310(b).

     7.08  
     7.10  

310(c).

     Inapplicable  

311(a).

     7.13(a)  

311(b).

     7.13(b)  

311(c).

     Inapplicable  

312(a)

     5.02(a)  

312(b).

     5.02(b)  

312(c).

     5.02(c)  

313(a).

     5.04(a)  

313(b).

     5.04(a)  

313(c).

     5.04(a)  
     5.04(b)  

313(d).

     5.04(b)  

314(a).

     5.03  

314(b).

     Inapplicable  

314(c).

     13.06  

314(d).

     Inapplicable  

314(e).

     13.06  

314(f).

     Inapplicable  

315(a).

     7.01(a)  
     7.02  

315(b).

     6.07  

315(c).

     7.01  

315(d).

     7.01(b)  
     7.01(c)  

315(e).

     6.07  

316(a).

     6.06  
     8.04  

316(b).

     6.04  

316(c).

     8.01  

317(a).

     6.02  

317(b).

     4.03  

318(a).

     13.08  

 

(1) This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

i


TABLE OF CONTENTS (2)

 

          Page  
ARTICLE I DEFINITIONS      1  

SECTION 1.01

  

Definitions of Terms.

     1  
ARTICLE II ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES      4  

SECTION 2.01

  

Designation and Terms of Securities.

     4  

SECTION 2.02

  

Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate.

     5  

SECTION 2.03

  

Denominations: Provisions for Payment.

     6  

SECTION 2.04

  

Execution and Authentications.

     7  

SECTION 2.05

  

Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

     7  

SECTION 2.06

  

Temporary Securities.

     8  

SECTION 2.07

  

Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.

     9  

SECTION 2.08

  

Cancellation.

     9  

SECTION 2.09

  

Benefits of Indenture.

     9  

SECTION 2.10

  

Authenticating Agent.

     9  

SECTION 2.11

  

Global Securities

     10  
ARTICLE III REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS      11  

SECTION 3.01

  

Redemption.

     11  

SECTION 3.02

  

Notice of Redemption.

     11  

SECTION 3.03

  

Payment Upon Redemption.

     12  

SECTION 3.04

  

Sinking Fund.

     12  

SECTION 3.05

  

Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

     12  

SECTION 3.06

  

Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

     12  
ARTICLE IV COVENANTS      13  

SECTION 4.01

  

Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.

     13  

SECTION 4.02

  

Maintenance of Office or Agency.

     13  

SECTION 4.03

  

Paying Agents.

     13  

SECTION 4.04

  

Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee.

     14  

SECTION 4.05

  

Compliance with Consolidation Provisions.

     14  
ARTICLE V SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE      14  

SECTION 5.01

  

Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders.

     14  

SECTION 5.02

  

Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders.

     14  

SECTION 5.03

  

Reports by the Company.

     15  

SECTION 5.04

  

Reports by the Trustee.

     15  
ARTICLE VI REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT      16  

SECTION 6.01

  

Events of Default.

     16  

SECTION 6.02

  

Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

     17  

SECTION 6.03

  

Application of Moneys Collected.

     18  

 

ii


SECTION 6.04

  

Limitation on Suits.

     18  

SECTION 6.05

  

Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

     19  

SECTION 6.06

  

Control by Securityholders.

     19  

SECTION 6.07

  

Undertaking to Pay Costs.

     20  
ARTICLE VII CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE      20  

SECTION 7.01

  

Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee.

     20  

SECTION 7.02

  

Certain Rights of Trustee.

     21  

SECTION 7.03

  

Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities.

     22  

SECTION 7.04

  

May Hold Securities.

     22  

SECTION 7.05

  

Moneys Held in Trust.

     22  

SECTION 7.06

  

Compensation and Reimbursement.

     22  

SECTION 7.07

  

Reliance on Officers’ Certificate.

     23  

SECTION 7.08

  

Disqualification; Conflicting Interests.

     23  

SECTION 7.09

  

Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility.

     23  

SECTION 7.10

  

Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor.

     23  

SECTION 7.11

  

Acceptance of Appointment By Successor.

     24  

SECTION 7.12

  

Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business.

     25  

SECTION 7.13

  

Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company.

     26  

ARTICLE VIII CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

     26  

SECTION 8.01

  

Evidence of Action by Securityholders.

     26  

SECTION 8.02

  

Proof of Execution by Securityholders.

     26  

SECTION 8.03

  

Who May be Deemed Owners.

     27  

SECTION 8.04

  

Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded.

     27  

SECTION 8.05

  

Actions Binding on Future Securityholders.

     27  

SECTION 8.06

  

Purposes for Which Meetings May Be Called.

     27  

SECTION 8.07

  

Call Notice and Place of Meetings.

     27  

SECTION 8.08

  

Persons Entitled To Vote at Meetings.

     28  

SECTION 8.09

  

Quorum; Action.

     28  

SECTION 8.10

  

Determination of Voting Rights; Conduct and Adjournment of Meetings.

     28  

SECTION 8.11

  

Counting Votes and Recording Action of Meetings.

     29  

ARTICLE IX SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

     29  

SECTION 9.01

  

Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders.

     29  

SECTION 9.02

  

Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders.

     30  

SECTION 9.03

  

Effect of Supplemental Indentures.

     31  

SECTION 9.04

  

Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures.

     31  

SECTION 9.05

  

Execution of Supplemental Indentures.

     31  

ARTICLE X SUCCESSOR ENTITY

     31  

SECTION 10.01

  

Company May Consolidate, Etc.

     31  

SECTION 10.02

  

Successor Entity Substituted.

     32  

SECTION 10.03

  

Evidence of Consolidation, Etc. to Trustee.

     32  

 

iii


ARTICLE XI SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

     32  

SECTION 11.01

  

Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.

     32  

SECTION 11.02

  

Discharge of Obligations.

     33  

SECTION 11.03

  

Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust.

     33  

SECTION 11.04

  

Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents.

     33  

SECTION 11.05

  

Repayment to Company.

     33  

ARTICLE XII IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

     34  

SECTION 12.01

  

No Recourse.

     34  

ARTICLE XIII MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

     34  

SECTION 13.01

  

Effect on Successors and Assigns.

     34  

SECTION 13.02

  

Actions by Successor.

     34  

SECTION 13.03

  

Surrender of Company Powers.

     34  

SECTION 13.04

  

Notices.

     34  

SECTION 13.05

  

Governing Law.

     35  

SECTION 13.06

  

Treatment of Securities as Debt.

     35  

SECTION 13.07

  

Compliance Certificates and Opinions.

     35  

SECTION 13.08

  

Payments on Business Days.

     35  

SECTION 13.09

  

Conflict with Trust Indenture Act.

     35  

SECTION 13.10

  

Counterparts.

     36  

SECTION 13.11

  

Separability.

     36  

SECTION 13.12

  

Assignment.

     36  

 

(2) This Table of Contents does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms and provisions.

 

iv


INDENTURE, dated as of [                    ], by and between Albireo Pharma, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [                    ], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

ARTICLE I

DEFINITIONS

 

SECTION 1.01 Definitions of Terms.

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

“Authenticating Agent” means an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed with respect to all or any series of the Securities by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

“Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

“Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

“Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which Federal or State banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

“Certificate” means a certificate signed by the principal executive officer, the principal financial officer or the principal accounting officer of the Company. The Certificate need not comply with the provisions of Section 13.07.

“Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

“Company” means the corporation named as the “Company” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor corporation shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Company” shall mean such successor corporation.


“Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at [                    ], except that whenever a provision herein refers to an office or agency of the Trustee in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, such office is located, at the date hereof, at [                    ].

“Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator, or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

“Default” means an event which is, or after notice or lapse of time, or both, would constitute an Event of Default.

“Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series, for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or Section 2.11.

“Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

“Global Security” means, with respect to any series of Securities, a Security executed by the Company and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with this Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

“Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (i) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are non-callable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended) as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

“herein,” “hereof” and “hereunder,” and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

“Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof.

“Interest Payment Date,” when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

“Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by the President or a Vice President and by the Chief Financial Officer, Vice President of Finance, the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer or the Controller or an Assistant Controller or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

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“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of counsel, who may be counsel to the Company (and may include directors or employees of the Company) and which opinion is acceptable to the Trustee which acceptance shall not be unreasonably withheld.

“Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as in Article III provided, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.

“Person” means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint-venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, estate, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

“Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security.

“Responsible Officer,” when used with respect to the Trustee, means any officer of the Trustee, including any vice president, assistant vice president, secretary, assistant secretary, the treasurer, any assistant treasurer, the managing director or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of such officer’s knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

“Securities” means the debt Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

“Security Register” has the meaning specified in Section 2.05.

“Security Registrar” has the meaning specified in Section 2.05.

“Securityholder,” “holder of Securities,” “registered holder,” or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security shall be registered in the Security Register.

“Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, (i) any corporation at least a majority of whose outstanding Voting Stock shall at the time be owned, directly or indirectly, by such Person or by one or more of its Subsidiaries or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries, (ii) any general partnership, joint venture or similar entity, at least a majority of whose outstanding partnership or similar interests shall at the time be owned by such Person, or by one or more of its Subsidiaries, or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries and (iii) any limited partnership of which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries is a general partner.

“Trustee” means the Person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean such successor Trustee. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

“Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, subject to the provisions of Sections 9.01, 9.02, and 10.01, as in effect at the date of execution of this instrument; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act is amended after such date, Trust Indenture Act means, to the extent required by such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as so amended, or any successor statute.

 

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“Voting Stock,” as applied to any Person, means shares, interests, participations or other equivalents in the equity interest (however designated) in such Person having ordinary voting power for the election of a majority of the directors (or the equivalent) of such Person, other than shares, interests, participations or other equivalents having such power only by reason of the occurrence of a contingency.

ARTICLE II

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION,

REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

 

SECTION 2.01 Designation and Terms of Securities.

 

  (a) The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of a given series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate of the Company, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

 

  (1) the title of the Security of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from all other Securities);

 

  (2) the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series initially to be issued and any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

 

  (3) the currency or units based on or relating to currencies in which debt securities of such series are denominated and the currency or units in which principal or interest or both will or may be payable;

 

  (4) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable and the place(s) of payment;

 

  (5) the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest or the manner of calculation of such rate or rates, if any;

 

  (6) the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, the Interest Payment Dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such Interest Payment Dates, the place(s) of payment, and the record date for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable on any such Interest Payment Dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

  (7) the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods or to defer the payment of interest and the duration of such extension;

 

  (8) the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

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  (9) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase Securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions (including payments made in cash in satisfaction of future sinking fund obligations) or at the option of a holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which, and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

  (10) whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

  (11) the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the Certificate of Authentication for such series;

 

  (12) if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable;

 

  (13) any and all other terms with respect to such series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the terms of this Indenture, as amended by any supplemental indenture) including any terms which may be required by or advisable under United States laws or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;

 

  (14) whether the Securities are issuable as a Global Security and, in such case, the identity of the Depositary for such series;

 

  (15) whether the Securities will be convertible into shares of common stock or other securities of the Company and, if so, the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible, including the conversion price and the conversion period;

 

  (16) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01; and

 

  (17) any additional or different Events of Default or restrictive covenants provided for with respect to the Securities of the series.

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officers’ Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.

Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.

 

SECTION 2.02 Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate.

The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution of the Company and as set forth in an Officers’ Certificate of the Company and may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any stock exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.

 

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SECTION 2.03 Denominations: Provisions for Payment.

The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(a)(12). The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series. The principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption thereof prior to maturity, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. Interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.

The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment. In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.

Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

 

  (1) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be mailed, first class postage prepaid, to each Securityholder at his or her address as it appears in the Security Register, not less than 10 days prior to such special record date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been mailed as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered on such special record date.

 

  (2) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

 

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Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution of the Company or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities with respect to any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the last day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.

 

SECTION 2.04 Execution and Authentications.

The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by its President, or one of its Vice Presidents, or its Treasurer, or one of its Assistant Treasurers, or its Secretary, or one of its Assistant Secretaries, under its corporate seal attested by its Secretary or one of its Assistant Secretaries. Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature. The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been a President or Vice President thereof, or of any Person who shall have been a Treasurer or Assistant Treasurer thereof, or of any Person who shall have been a Secretary or Assistant Secretary thereof, notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be the President or a Vice President, the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, of the Company. The seal of the Company may be in the form of a facsimile of such seal and may be impressed, affixed, imprinted or otherwise reproduced on the Securities. The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

A Security shall not be valid or obligatory for any purpose and shall not be entitled to any benefit under this Indenture, in each case, until authenticated with a certificate of authentication manually signed by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent. Such certificate shall be conclusive evidence, and the only evidence, that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the Security is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture. At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by its President or any Vice President and its Secretary or any Assistant Secretary, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.

In authenticating such Securities and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 7.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel stating that the form and terms thereof have been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.

The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

 

SECTION 2.05 Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

 

  (a)

Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge

 

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  in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section. In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

  (b) The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, or such other location designated by the Company a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee. The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution (the “Security Registrar”).

Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.

All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.

 

  (c) No service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, Section 3.03(b) and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.

 

  (d) The Company shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the mailing of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption. The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11 hereof.

 

SECTION 2.06 Temporary Securities.

Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination. Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company. Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series. Without unnecessary delay the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the holders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.

 

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SECTION 2.07 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.

In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof. The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company. Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith. In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

 

SECTION 2.08 Cancellation.

All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, exchange or registration of transfer shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent, be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee. In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company. If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

SECTION 2.09 Benefits of Indenture.

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities.

 

SECTION 2.10 Authenticating Agent.

So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint. Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. All references in this Indenture

 

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to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by Federal or State authorities. If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.

Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company. Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.

 

SECTION 2.11 Global Securities

 

  (a) If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that some or all of the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, a Global Security that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, the Outstanding Securities of such series which are to be issued as a Global Security, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

 

  (b) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.

 

  (c) If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company will execute, and subject to Section 2.05, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series. In such event the Company will execute and subject to Section 2.05, the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officers’ Certificate evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(c) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

 

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ARTICLE III

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND

SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

 

SECTION 3.01 Redemption.

The Company may redeem the Securities of any series issued hereunder on and after the dates and in accordance with the terms established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

 

SECTION 3.02 Notice of Redemption.

 

  (a) In case the Company shall desire to exercise such right to redeem all or, as the case may be, a portion of the Securities of any series in accordance with the right reserved so to do, the Company shall, or shall cause the Trustee to, give notice of such redemption to holders of the Securities of such series to be redeemed by mailing, first class postage prepaid, a notice of such redemption not less than 30 days and not more than 90 days before the date fixed for redemption of that series to such holders at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security Register unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed. Any notice that is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the registered holder receives the notice. In any case, failure duly to give such notice to the holder of any Security of any series designated for redemption in whole or in part, or any defect in the notice, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities of such series or any other series. In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officers’ Certificate evidencing compliance with any such restriction.

Each such notice of redemption shall specify the date fixed for redemption and the redemption price at which Securities of that series are to be redeemed, and shall state that payment of the redemption price of such Securities to be redeemed will be made at the office or agency of the Company in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in said notice, that from and after said date interest will cease to accrue and that the redemption is for a sinking fund, if such is the case. If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the notice to the holders of Securities of that series to be redeemed in whole or in part shall specify the particular Securities to be so redeemed. In case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice that relates to such Security shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed, and shall state that on and after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

 

  (b)

If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company shall give the Trustee at least 30 days’ notice in advance of the date fixed for redemption as to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series to be redeemed, and thereupon the Trustee shall select, by lot or in such other manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair in its discretion and that may provide for the selection of a portion or portions (equal to one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof) of the principal amount of such Securities of a denomination larger than $1,000, the Securities to be redeemed and shall thereafter promptly notify the Company in writing of the numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, in whole or in part. The Company may, if and whenever it shall so elect, by delivery of instructions signed on its behalf by its President or any Vice President, instruct the Trustee or any paying agent to call all or any part of the Securities of a particular series for redemption and to give notice of redemption in the manner set forth in this Section, such notice to be in the name of the Company or its own name as the Trustee or such paying agent may deem advisable. In any case in which notice of redemption is to be given by the

 

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  Trustee or any such paying agent, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to, or permit to remain with, the Trustee or such paying agent, as the case may be, such Security Register, transfer books or other records, or suitable copies or extracts therefrom, sufficient to enable the Trustee or such paying agent to give any notice by mail that may be required under the provisions of this Section.

 

SECTION 3.03 Payment Upon Redemption.

 

  (a) If the giving of notice of redemption shall have been completed as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities of the series to be redeemed specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption and interest on such Securities or portions of Securities shall cease to accrue on and after the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such redemption price and accrued interest with respect to any such Security or portion thereof. On presentation and surrender of such Securities on or after the date fixed for redemption at the place of payment specified in the notice, said Securities shall be paid and redeemed at the applicable redemption price for such series, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption (but if the date fixed for redemption is an interest payment date, the interest installment payable on such date shall be payable to the registered holder at the close of business on the applicable record date pursuant to Section 2.03).

 

  (b) Upon presentation of any Security of such series that is to be redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and the office or agency where the Security is presented shall deliver to the holder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security of the same series of authorized denominations in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

 

SECTION 3.04 Sinking Fund.

The provisions of Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06 shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series.

The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment.” If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 3.05. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.

 

SECTION 3.05 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

The Company (i) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series (other than any Securities previously called for redemption) and (ii) may apply as a credit Securities of a series that have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the redemption price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.

 

SECTION 3.06 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

Not less than 45 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities, the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series

 

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pursuant to the terms of the series, the portion thereof, if any, that is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 3.05 and the basis for such credit and will, together with such Officers’ Certificate, deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered. Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.02. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Section 3.03.

ARTICLE IV

COVENANTS

 

SECTION 4.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.

The Company will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series at the time and place and in the manner provided herein and established with respect to such Securities.

 

SECTION 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency.

So long as any series of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Company agrees to maintain an office or agency in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, with respect to each such series and at such other location or locations as may be designated as provided in this Section 4.02, where (i) Securities of that series may be presented or surrendered for payment, (ii) Securities of that series may be presented as herein above authorized for registration of transfer and exchange, and (iii) notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be given or served, such designation to continue with respect to such office or agency until the Company shall, by written notice signed by its President or a Vice President and delivered to the trustee, designate some other office or agency for such purposes or any of them. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, notices and demands.

 

SECTION 4.03 Paying Agents.

 

  (a) If the Company shall appoint one or more paying agents for all or any series of the Securities, other than the Trustee, the Company will cause each such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:

 

  (1) that it will hold all sums held by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any other obligor of such Securities) in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto;

 

  (2) that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Company (or by any other obligor of such Securities) to make any payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series when the same shall be due and payable;

 

  (3) that it will, at any time during the continuance of any failure referred to in the preceding paragraph (a)(2) above, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent; and

 

  (4) that it will perform all other duties of paying agent as set forth in this Indenture.

 

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  (b) If the Company shall act as its own paying agent with respect to any series of the Securities, it will on or before each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on Securities of that series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient with monies held by all other paying agents to pay such principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due on Securities of that series until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of such action, or any failure (by it or any other obligor on such Securities) to take such action. Whenever the Company shall have one or more paying agents for any series of Securities, it will, prior to each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal (an premium, if any) or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal, premium or interest, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of this action or failure so to act.

 

  (c) Notwithstanding anything in this Section to the contrary, (i) the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, and (ii) the Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or direct any paying agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such paying agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same terms and conditions as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such paying agent; and, upon such payment by any paying agent to the Trustee, such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.

 

SECTION 4.04 Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee.

The Company, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 7.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder.

 

SECTION 4.05 Compliance with Consolidation Provisions.

The Company will not, while any of the Securities remain Outstanding, consolidate with or merge into any other Person, in either case where the Company is not the survivor of such transaction, or sell or convey all or substantially all of its property to any other company unless the provisions of Article X hereof are complied with.

ARTICLE V

SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

 

SECTION 5.01 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders.

If the Company is not the Security Register, the Company will furnish or use reasonable efforts to cause to be furnished to the Trustee (a) on each regular record date (as defined in Section 2.03) a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the holders of each series of Securities as of such regular record date, provided that the Company shall not be obligated to furnish or cause to furnish such list at any time that the list shall not differ in any respect from the most recent list furnished to the Trustee by the Company and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished; provided, however, that, in either case, no such list need be furnished for any series for which the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar.

 

SECTION 5.02 Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders.

 

  (a)

The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to

 

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  it as provided in Section 5.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity) and shall otherwise comply with Section 312(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

  (b) The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

 

  (c) Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities.

 

SECTION 5.03 Reports by the Company.

 

  (a) The Company covenants and agrees to file with the Trustee, within 15 days after the Company is required to file the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) that the Company may be required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; or, if the Company is not required to file information, documents or reports pursuant to either of such sections, then to file with the Trustee and the Commission, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission, such of the supplementary and periodic information, documents and reports that may be required pursuant to Section 13 of the Exchange Act, in respect of a security listed and registered on a national securities exchange as may be prescribed from time to time in such rules and regulations; provided, however, the Company shall not be required to deliver to the Trustee any materials for which the Company has sought and received confidential treatment by the Commission. The Company also shall comply with the other provisions of Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

  (b) The Company covenants and agrees to file with the Trustee and the Commission, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed from to time by the Commission, such additional information, documents and reports with respect to compliance by the Company with the conditions and covenants provided for in this Indenture as may be required from time to time by such rules and regulations.

 

  (c) The Company covenants and agrees to transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, or reputable over-night delivery service that provides for evidence of receipt, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register, within 30 days after the filing thereof with the Trustee, such summaries of any information, documents and reports required to be filed by the Company pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of this Section as may be required by rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission.

 

SECTION 5.04 Reports by the Trustee.

 

  (a) The Trustee shall transmit to holders as provided in Section 313 of the Trust Indenture Act such reports concerning the Trustee and its actions under this Indenture as may be required by Section 313 of the Trust Indenture Act at the times and in the manner provided by the Trust Indenture Act.

 

  (b) A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Securityholders, be filed by the Trustee with the Company, with each stock exchange upon which any Securities are listed (if so listed) and, if required by Section 313 of the Trust Indenture Act, also with the Commission. The Company agrees to notify the Trustee when any Securities become listed on any stock exchange.

 

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ARTICLE VI

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

 

SECTION 6.01 Events of Default.

 

  (a) Whenever used herein with respect to Securities of a particular series, “Event of Default” means any one or more of the following events that has occurred and is continuing:

 

  (1) the Company defaults in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of that series, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by the Company in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

  (2) the Company defaults in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such Securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

  (3) the Company fails to observe or perform any other of its covenants or agreements with respect to that series contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to that series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof (other than a covenant or agreement that has been expressly included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of one or more series of Securities other than such series) for a period of 90 days after the date on which written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder, shall have been given to the Company by the Trustee, by registered or certified mail, or to the Company and the Trustee by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series at the time Outstanding;

 

  (4) the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law (i) commences a voluntary case, (ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case, (iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property or (iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or

 

  (5) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order under any Bankruptcy Law that (i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case, (ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company for all or substantially all of its property, or (iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 consecutive days.

 

  (b) In each and every such case, unless the principal of all the Securities of that series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by such Securityholders), may declare the principal (or, if any Securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series pursuant to Section 2.01(a)(16)) of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all the Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable.

 

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  (c) At any time after the principal of the Securities of that series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before a judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder (or, by action at a meeting of holders of the Securities of such series in accordance with Section 8.09, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding represented at such meeting), by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if: (i) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of that series and the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any and all Securities of that series that shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration and (ii) any and all Events of Default under this Indenture with respect to such series, other than the nonpayment of principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on Securities of that series that shall have become due solely because of such acceleration, shall have been remedied, cured or waived as provided in Section 6.06. No such rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

  (d) In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right with respect to Securities of that series under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned because of such rescission or annulment or for any other reason or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceedings, the Company, and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Company and the Trustee shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

 

SECTION 6.02 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

 

  (a) The Company covenants that (1) in case it shall default in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of a series, or any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series as and when the same shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 90 Business Days, or (2) in case it shall default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of a series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of a series or upon redemption or upon declaration or otherwise, then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Company will pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the holders of the Securities of that series, the whole amount that then shall have been become due and payable on all such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) or interest, or both, as the case may be, with interest upon the overdue principal (and premium, if any) and (to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law) upon overdue installments of interest at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series; and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06.

 

  (b) If the Company shall fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series, wherever situated.

 

  (c)

In case of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, readjustment, arrangement, composition or judicial proceedings affected the Company, or its creditors or property, the Trustee shall have power to intervene in such proceedings and take any action therein that may be permitted by the court and shall (except as may be otherwise provided by law) be entitled to file such proofs of claim and other papers and documents as may be necessary or

 

17


  advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee and of the holders of Securities of such series allowed for the entire amount due and payable by the Company under this Indenture at the date of institution of such proceedings and for any additional amount that may become due and payable by the Company after such date, and to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claim, and to distribute the same after the deduction of the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and any receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization is hereby authorized by each of the holders of Securities of such series to make such payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to such Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it under Section 7.06.

 

  (d) All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the terms established with respect to Securities of that series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of such Securities, or the production thereof at any trial or other proceeding relative thereto, and any such suit or proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for payment to the Trustee of any amounts due under Section 7.06, be for the ratable benefit of the holders of the Securities of such series.

In case of an Event of Default hereunder, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any of such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture, or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of that series or the rights of any holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.

 

SECTION 6.03 Application of Moneys Collected.

Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article with respect to a particular series of Securities shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, upon presentation of the Securities of that series, and notation thereon the payment, if only partially paid, and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

FIRST:    To the payment of costs and expenses of collection and of all amounts payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and
SECOND:    To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon Securities of such series for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, respectively.

 

SECTION 6.04 Limitation on Suits.

No holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any suit, action or proceeding in equity or at law upon or under or with respect to this Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless (i) such holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof with respect to the Securities of such series specifying such Event of Default, as hereinbefore provided; (ii) the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action, suit or proceeding in its own name as trustee

 

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hereunder; (iii) such holder or holders shall have offered to the Trustee such reasonable indemnity as it may require against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred therein or thereby; and (iv) the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity, shall have failed to institute any such action, suit or proceeding and (v) during such 60 day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series (or such amount as shall have acted at a meeting of the holders of Securities of such series pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture) do not give the Trustee a direction inconsistent with the request; provided, however, that no one or more of such holders may use this Indenture to prejudice the rights of another holder or to obtain preference or priority over another holder.

Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary, any other provisions of this Indenture, the right of any holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Security, as therein provided, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security (or in the case of redemption, on the redemption date), or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates or redemption date, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such holder and by accepting a Security hereunder it is expressly understood, intended and covenanted by the taker and holder of every Security of such series with every other such taker and holder and the Trustee, that no one or more holders of Securities of such series shall have any right in any manner whatsoever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of the holders of any other of such Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such holder, or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all holders of Securities of such series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

 

SECTION 6.05 Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

 

  (a) Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.07, all powers and remedies given by this Article to the Trustee or to the Securityholders shall, to the extent permitted by law, be deemed cumulative and not exclusive of any other powers and remedies available to the Trustee or the holders of the Securities, by judicial proceedings or otherwise, to enforce the performance or observance of the covenants and agreements contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to such Securities.

 

  (b) No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any holder of any of the Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power, or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such default or on acquiescence therein; and, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, every power and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders.

 

SECTION 6.06 Control by Securityholders.

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, determined in accordance with Section 8.01, shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to such series; provided, however, that such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture or be unduly prejudicial to the rights of holders of Securities of any other series at the time Outstanding determined in accordance with Section 8.01. Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer or Officers of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability. The holders either (a) through the written consent of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding or (b) by action at a meeting of holders of the Securities of such series in accordance with Section 8.09, by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding represented at such meeting, may on behalf of the holders of all of the Securities of such series waive any past default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.01 with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall

 

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become due by the terms of such Securities otherwise than by acceleration (unless such default has been cured and a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest and principal and any premium has been deposited with the Trustee (in accordance with Section 6.01(c)) and except in respect a provision hereof which, under Section 9.02, cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of each Outstanding Security affected; provided however that this Section shall not limit the right of holders of Securities of a series to rescind and annul any acceleration as set forth in Section 6.01. Upon any such waiver, the default covered thereby shall be deemed to be cured for all purposes of this Indenture and the Company, the Trustee and the holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon. The provisions which otherwise would be automatically deemed to be contained in this Indenture pursuant to Section (316)(a)(1) of the Trust Indenture Act are hereby expressly excluded from this Indenture, except to the extent such provisions are expressly included herein.

 

SECTION 6.07 Undertaking to Pay Costs.

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each holder of any Securities by such holder’s acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder, or group of Securityholders, holding more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

ARTICLE VII

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

 

SECTION 7.01 Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee.

 

  (a) The Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing of all Events of Default with respect to the Securities of that series that may have occurred, shall undertake to perform with respect to the Securities of such series such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (that has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs.

 

  (b) No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:

 

  (1) prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing or waiving of all such Events of Default with respect to that series that may have occurred:

 

  (i) the duties and obligations of the Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of such series be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to the Securities of such series except for the performance of such duties and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and

 

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  (ii) in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may with respect to the Securities of such series conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions that by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirement of this Indenture;

 

  (2) the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee, was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

 

  (3) the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of that series; and

 

  (4) None of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if there is reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or liability is not reasonably assured to it under the terms of this Indenture or adequate indemnity against such risk is not reasonably assured to it.

 

SECTION 7.02 Certain Rights of Trustee.

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01:

 

  (a) The Trustee may rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

 

  (b) Any request, direction, order or demand of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution or an instrument signed in the name of the Company, by the President or any Vice President and by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary or the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer thereof (unless other evidence in respect thereof is specifically prescribed herein);

 

  (c) The Trustee may consult with counsel and the written advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken or suffered or omitted hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;

 

  (d) The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders, pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that may be incurred therein or thereby; nothing contained herein shall, however, relieve the Trustee of the obligation, upon the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to a series of the Securities (that has not been cured or waived) to exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and to use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs;

 

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  (e) The Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

 

  (f) The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security, or other papers or documents, unless requested in writing so to do by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of the particular series affected thereby (determined as provided in Section 8.04); provided, however, that if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require reasonable indemnity against such costs, expenses or liabilities as a condition to so proceeding. The reasonable expense of every such examination shall be paid by the Company or, if paid by the Trustee, shall be repaid by the Company upon demand; and

 

  (g) The Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder.

 

SECTION 7.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities.

 

  (a) The recitals contained herein and in the Securities shall be taken as the statements of the Company, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same.

 

  (b) The Trustee makes no representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities.

 

  (c) The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Company of any of the Securities or of the proceeds of such Securities, or for the use or application of any moneys paid over by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture or established pursuant to Section 2.01, or for the use or application of any moneys received by any paying agent other than the Trustee.

 

SECTION 7.04 May Hold Securities.

The Trustee or any paying agent or Security Registrar, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, paying agent or Security Registrar.

 

SECTION 7.05 Moneys Held in Trust.

Subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder except such as it may agree with the Company to pay thereon.

 

SECTION 7.06 Compensation and Reimbursement.

 

  (a)

The Company covenants and agrees to pay to the Trustee, and the Trustee shall be entitled to, such reasonable compensation (which shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust), as the Company, and the Trustee may from time to time agree in writing, for all services rendered by it in the execution of the trusts hereby created and in the exercise and performance of any of the powers and duties hereunder of the Trustee, and, except as otherwise expressly provided herein, the Company will pay or reimburse the Trustee

 

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  upon its request for all reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by the Trustee in accordance with any of the provisions of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its counsel and of all Persons not regularly in its employ) except any such expense, disbursement or advance as may arise from its negligence or bad faith. The Company also covenants to indemnify the Trustee (and its officers, agents, directors and employees) for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, liability or expense incurred without negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee and arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of this trust, including the costs and expenses of defending itself against any claim of liability in the premises.

 

  (b) The obligations of the Company under this Section to compensate and indemnify the Trustee and to pay or reimburse the Trustee for expenses, disbursements and advances shall constitute additional indebtedness hereunder. Such additional indebtedness shall be secured by a lien prior to that of the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the benefit of the holders of particular Securities.

 

SECTION 7.07 Reliance on Officers’ Certificate.

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01, whenever in the administration of the provisions of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting to take any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officers’ Certificate delivered to the Trustee and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.

 

SECTION 7.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests.

If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Company shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

SECTION 7.09 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility.

There shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to the Securities issued hereunder which shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America or any State or Territory thereof or of the District of Columbia, or a corporation or other Person permitted to act as trustee by the Commission, authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers, having a combined capital and surplus of at least 50 million U.S. dollars ($50,000,000), and subject to supervision or examination by Federal, State, Territorial, or District of Columbia authority. If such corporation publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of the aforesaid supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. The Company may not, nor may any Person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the Company, serve as Trustee. In case at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in Section 7.10.

 

SECTION 7.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor.

 

  (a)

The Trustee or any successor hereafter appointed, may at any time resign with respect to the Securities of one or more series by giving written notice thereof to the Company and by transmitting notice of resignation by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders of such series, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of

 

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  Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee. If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the mailing of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series, or any Securityholder of that series who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.

 

  (b) In case at any time any one of the following shall occur:

 

  (1) the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 7.08 after written request therefor by the Company or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months; or

 

  (2) the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 7.09 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or by any such Securityholder; or

 

  (3) the Trustee shall become incapable of acting, or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent, or commence a voluntary bankruptcy proceeding, or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or consented to, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation, then, in any such case, the Company may remove the Trustee with respect to all Securities and appoint a successor trustee by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or, unless the Trustee’s duty to resign is stayed as provided herein, any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may, on behalf of that holder and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

 

  (c) The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to such series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company and may appoint a successor Trustee for such series with the consent of the Company.

 

  (d) Any resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of a series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 7.11.

 

  (e) Any successor trustee appointed pursuant to this Section may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more series or all of such series, and at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any particular series.

 

SECTION 7.11 Acceptance of Appointment By Successor.

 

  (a)

In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties

 

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  of the retiring Trustee; but, on the request of the Company or the successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall, upon payment of its charges, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all the rights, powers, and trusts of the retiring Trustee and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder.

 

  (b) In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor trustee shall accept such appointment and which (1) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm to, and to vest in, each successor trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates, (2) shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and (3) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust, that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee and that no Trustee shall be responsible for any act or failure to act on the part of any other Trustee hereunder; and upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein, such retiring Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates have no further responsibility for the exercise of rights and powers or for the performance of the duties and obligations vested in the Trustee under this Indenture, and each such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates; but, on request of the Company or any successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee, to the extent contemplated by such supplemental indenture, the property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates.

 

  (c) Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) of this Section, as the case may be.

 

  (d) No successor trustee shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified and eligible under this Article.

 

  (e) Upon acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee as provided in this Section, the Company shall transmit notice of the succession of such trustee hereunder by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. If the Company fails to transmit such notice within ten days after acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be transmitted at the expense of the Company.

 

SECTION 7.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business.

Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to the corporate trust business of the Trustee, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided that such corporation shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 7.08 and eligible under the provisions of Section 7.09, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the

 

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parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding. In case any Securities shall have been authenticated, but not delivered, by the Trustee then in office, any successor by merger, conversion or consolidation to such authenticating Trustee may adopt such authentication and deliver the Securities so authenticated with the same effect as if such successor Trustee had itself authenticated such Securities.

 

SECTION 7.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company.

The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act. A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act to the extent included therein.

ARTICLE VIII

CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

 

SECTION 8.01 Evidence of Action by Securityholders.

Whenever in this Indenture it is provided that the holders of a majority or specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series may take any action (including the making of any demand or request, the giving of any notice, consent or waiver or the taking of any other action), the fact that at the time of taking any such action the holders of such majority or specified percentage of that series have joined therein may be evidenced by any instrument or any number of instruments of similar tenor executed by such holders of Securities of that series in Person or by agent or proxy appointed in writing.

If the Company shall solicit from the Securityholders of any series any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, the Company may, at its option, as evidenced by an Officers’ Certificate, fix in advance a record date for such series for the determination of Securityholders entitled to give such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, but the Company shall have no obligation to do so. If such a record date is fixed, such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action may be given before or after the record date, but only the Securityholders of record at the close of business on the record date shall be deemed to be Securityholders for the purposes of determining whether Securityholders of the requisite proportion of Outstanding Securities of that series have authorized or agreed or consented to such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, and for that purpose the Outstanding Securities of that series shall be computed as of the record date; provided, however, that no such authorization, agreement or consent by such Securityholders on the record date shall be deemed effective unless it shall become effective pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture not later than six months after the record date.

 

SECTION 8.02 Proof of Execution by Securityholders.

Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, proof of the execution of any instrument by a Securityholder (such proof will not require notarization) or his agent or proxy and proof of the holding by any Person of any of the Securities shall be sufficient if made in the following manner:

 

  (a) The fact and date of the execution by any such Person of any instrument may be proved in any reasonable manner acceptable to the Trustee.

 

  (b) The ownership of Securities shall be proved by the Security Register of such Securities or by a certificate of the Security Registrar thereof.

 

  (c) The Trustee may require such additional proof of any matter referred to in this Section as it shall deem necessary.

 

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SECTION 8.03 Who May be Deemed Owners.

Prior to the due presentment for registration of transfer of any Security, the Company, the Trustee, any paying agent and any Security Registrar may deem and treat the Person in whose name such Security shall be registered upon the books of the Company as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notice of ownership or writing thereon made by anyone other than the Security Registrar) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of, premium, if any, and (subject to Section 2.03) interest on such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any paying agent nor any Security Registrar shall be affected by any notice to the contrary.

 

SECTION 8.04 Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded.

In determining whether the holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Securities of a particular series have concurred in any direction, consent of waiver under this Indenture, the Securities of that series that are owned by the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities of such series that the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. The Securities so owned that have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding for the purposes of this Section, if the pledgee shall establish to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not a Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Company or any such other obligor. In case of a dispute as to such right, any decision by the Trustee taken upon the advice of counsel shall be full protection to the Trustee.

 

SECTION 8.05 Actions Binding on Future Securityholders.

At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 8.01, of the taking of any action by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any holder of a Security of that series that is shown by the evidence to be included in the Securities the holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice with the Trustee, and upon proof of holding as provided in Section 8.02, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security. Except as aforesaid any such action taken by the holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such holder and upon all future holders and owners of such Security, and of any Security issued in exchange therefor, on registration of transfer thereof or in place thereof, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon such Security. Any action taken by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Company, the Trustee and the holders of all the Securities of that series.

 

SECTION 8.06 Purposes for Which Meetings May Be Called.

A meeting of holders of any series of Securities may be called at any time and from time to time pursuant to this Article to make, give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided by this Indenture to be made, given or taken by holders of such series of Securities.

Notwithstanding anything contained in this Article VIII, the Trustee may, during the pendency of a Default or an Event of Default, call a meeting of holders of any series of Securities in accordance with its standard practices.

 

SECTION 8.07 Call Notice and Place of Meetings.

 

  (a)

The Trustee may at any time call a meeting of holders of any series of Securities for any purpose specified in Section 8.06 hereof, to be held at such time and at such place in The City of New York or Boston, Massachusetts. Notice of every meeting of holders of any series of Securities, setting forth the time and the place of such meeting, in general terms the action proposed to be taken at such meeting and the

 

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  percentage of the principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series which shall constitute a quorum at such meeting, shall be given, in the manner provided in Section 13.04 hereof, not less than 21 nor more than 180 days prior to the date fixed for the meeting to holders of Outstanding Securities of such series.

 

  (b) In case at any time the Company, pursuant to a Board Resolution, or the holders of at least 10% in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series shall have requested the Trustee to call a meeting of the holders of Securities of such series for any purpose specified in Section 8.06 hereof, by written request setting forth in reasonable detail the action proposed to be taken at the meeting, and the Trustee shall not have made the first publication of the notice of such meeting within 21 days after receipt of such request or shall not thereafter proceed to cause the meeting to be held as provided herein, then the Company or the holders of Securities of such series in the amount specified, as the case may be, may determine the time and the place in The City of New York or Boston, Massachusetts for such meeting and may call such meeting for such purposes by giving notice thereof as provided in paragraph (a) of this Section.

 

SECTION 8.08 Persons Entitled To Vote at Meetings.

To be entitled to vote at any meeting of holders of Securities of a given series, a Person shall be (a) a holder of one or more Outstanding Securities of such series or (b) a Person appointed by an instrument in writing as proxy for a holder or holders of one or more Outstanding Securities of such series by such holder or holders. The only Persons who shall be entitled to be present or to speak at any meeting of holders shall be the Persons entitled to vote at such meeting and their counsel, any representatives of the Trustee and its counsel and any representatives of the Company and its counsel.

 

SECTION 8.09 Quorum; Action.

The Persons entitled to vote a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of a given series shall constitute a quorum with respect to a meeting of holders of Outstanding Securities of such series. In the absence of a quorum within 30 minutes of the time appointed for any such meeting, the meeting shall, if convened at the request of holders of Securities of such series, be dissolved. In any other case, the meeting may be adjourned for a period of not less than 10 days as determined by the chairman of the meeting prior to the adjournment of such meeting. In the absence of a quorum at any such adjourned meeting, such adjourned meeting may be further adjourned for a period of not less than 10 days as determined by the chairman of the meeting prior to the adjournment of such adjourned meeting. Notice of the reconvening of any adjourned meeting shall be given as provided in Section 8.07(a) hereof, except that such notice need be given only once and not less than five days prior to the date on which the meeting is scheduled to be reconvened.

At a meeting or an adjourned meeting duly reconvened and at which a quorum is present as aforesaid, any resolution and all matters (except as limited by the proviso to the first paragraph of Section 9.02 hereof) shall be effectively passed and decided if passed or decided by the Persons entitled to vote not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of Outstanding Securities of a series represented and voting at such meeting with respect to a meeting of holders of Outstanding Securities of such series.

Any resolution passed or decisions taken at any meeting of holders of Securities duly held in accordance with this Section shall be binding on all the holders of Securities of such series, whether or not present or represented at the meeting.

 

SECTION 8.10 Determination of Voting Rights; Conduct and Adjournment of Meetings.

 

  (a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Indenture, the Trustee may make such reasonable regulations as it may deem advisable for any meeting of holders of Securities in regard to proof of the holding of Securities and of the appointment of proxies and in regard to the appointment and duties of inspectors of votes, the submission and examination of proxies, certificates and other evidence of the right to vote, and such other matters concerning the conduct of the meeting as it shall deem appropriate.

 

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  (b) The Trustee shall, by an instrument in writing, appoint a temporary chairman (which may be the Trustee) of the meeting, unless the meeting shall have been called by the Company or by holders of Securities of a given series as provided in Section 8.07(b) hereof, in which case the Company or the holders of Securities of such series calling the meeting, as the case may be, shall in like manner appoint a temporary chairman. A permanent chairman and a permanent secretary of the meeting shall be elected by vote of the Persons entitled to vote a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series represented at the meeting.

 

  (c) At any meeting, each holder of a Security of the series in respect of which such meeting is being held or proxy shall be entitled to one vote for each $1,000 principal amount of Securities of such series held or represented by him; provided, however, that no vote shall be cast or counted at any meeting in respect of any Security of such series challenged as not Outstanding and ruled by the chairman of the meeting to be not Outstanding. The chairman of the meeting shall have no right to vote, except as a holder of a Security of such series or proxy.

 

  (d) Any meeting of holders of Securities duly called pursuant to Section 8.07 hereof at which a quorum is present may be adjourned from time to time by Persons entitled to vote a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of the series in respect of which such meeting is being held represented at the meeting, and the meeting may be held as so adjourned without further notice.

 

SECTION 8.11 Counting Votes and Recording Action of Meetings.

The vote upon any resolution submitted to any meeting of holders of Securities of a given series shall be by written ballots on which shall be subscribed the signatures of the holders of Securities of such series or of their representatives by proxy and the principal amounts and serial numbers of the Outstanding Securities of such series held or represented by them. The permanent chairman of the meeting shall appoint two inspectors of votes who shall count all votes cast at the meeting for or against any resolution and who shall make and file with the secretary of the meeting their verified written reports in duplicate of all votes cast at the meeting. A record, at least in duplicate, of the proceedings of each meeting of holders of Securities of such series shall be prepared by the secretary of the meeting and there shall be attached to said record the original reports of the inspectors of votes on any vote by ballot taken thereat and affidavits by one or more Persons having knowledge of the facts setting forth a copy of the notice of the meeting and showing that said notice was given as provided in Section 8.07 hereof and, if applicable, Section 8.09 hereof. Each copy shall be signed and verified by the affidavits of the permanent chairman and secretary of the meeting and one such copy shall be delivered to the Company and another to the Trustee to be preserved by the Trustee, the latter to have attached thereto the ballots voted at the meeting. Any record so signed and verified shall be conclusive evidence of the matters therein stated.

ARTICLE IX

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

 

SECTION 9.01 Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders.

In addition to any supplemental indenture otherwise authorized by this Indenture, the Company and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect), without the consent of the Securityholders, for one or more of the following purposes:

 

  (a) cure any ambiguity, correct or supplement any provision herein which may be inconsistent with any other provision herein or which is otherwise defective, or make any other provisions with respect to matters or questions arising under this Indenture which the Company and the Trustee may deem necessary or desirable and which shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture;

 

29


  (b) to comply with Article X;

 

  (c) to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities;

 

  (d) to add to the covenants of the Company for the benefit of the holders of all or any Series of Securities (and if such covenants are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such covenants are expressly being included solely for the benefit of such series) or to surrender any right or power herein conferred upon the Company;

 

  (e) to add to, delete from, or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication, and delivery of Securities, as herein set forth;

 

  (f) to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder in any material respect;

 

  (g) to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the Securities of any series as provided in Section 2.01, to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of this Indenture or any series of Securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of Securities; or

 

  (h) comply with the requirements of the Commission in order to effect or maintain the qualification of this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

The Trustee is hereby authorized to join with the Company in the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations that may be therein contained, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture that affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

Any supplemental indenture authorized by the provisions of this Section may be executed by the Company and the Trustee without the consent of the holders of any of the Securities at the time Outstanding, notwithstanding any of the provisions of Section 9.02.

 

SECTION 9.02 Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders.

With the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series or by action at a meeting of holders of the Securities of such series in accordance with Section 8.09, by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding represented at such meeting, the Company, when authorized by Board Resolutions, and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect) for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner not covered by Section 9.01 the rights of the holders of the Securities of such series under this Indenture; provided, however, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the holders of each Security then Outstanding and affected thereby, (i) extend the fixed maturity of any Securities of any series, or reduce the principal amount thereof, or reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest thereon, or reduce any premium payable upon the redemption thereof, (ii) reduce the aforesaid percentage of Securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any such supplemental indenture, or any consent or waiver, (iii) reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of the maturity of any Securities of any series or (iv) make the principal of or premium or interest on any Security of a series payable in currency or currency units other than that stated in the Securities of such series.

 

30


It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Securityholders of any series affected thereby under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such consent shall approve the substance thereof.

 

SECTION 9.03 Effect of Supplemental Indentures.

Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, this Indenture shall, with respect to such series, be and be deemed to be modified and amended in accordance therewith and the respective rights, limitations of rights, obligations, duties and immunities under this Indenture of the Trustee, the Company and the holders of Securities of the series affected thereby shall thereafter be determined, exercised and enforced hereunder subject in all respects to such modifications and amendments, and all the terms and conditions of any such supplemental indenture shall be and be deemed to be part of the terms and conditions of this Indenture for any and all purposes.

 

SECTION 9.04 Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures.

Securities of any series affected by a supplemental indenture, authenticated and delivered after the execution of such supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, may bear a notation in form approved by the Company, provided such form meets the requirements of any exchange upon which such series may be listed, as to any matter provided for in such supplemental indenture. If the Company shall so determine, new Securities of that series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Board of Directors of the Company, to any modification of this Indenture contained in any such supplemental indenture may be prepared by the Company, authenticated by the Trustee and delivered in exchange for the Securities of that series then Outstanding.

 

SECTION 9.05 Execution of Supplemental Indentures.

Upon the request of the Company, accompanied by its Board Resolutions authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the filing with the Trustee of evidence of the consent of Securityholders required to consent thereto as aforesaid, the Trustee shall join with the Company in the execution of such supplemental indenture unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion but shall not be obligated to enter into such supplemental indenture. The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, may receive an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article is authorized or permitted by, and conforms to, the terms of this Article and that it is proper for the Trustee under the provisions of this Article to join in the execution thereof; provided, however, that such Opinion of Counsel need not be provided in connection with the execution of a supplemental indenture that establishes the terms of a series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

Promptly after the execution by the Company and the Trustee of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, a notice, setting forth in general terms the substance of such supplemental indenture, to the Securityholders of all series affected thereby as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. Any failure of the Trustee to mail such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture.

ARTICLE X

SUCCESSOR ENTITY

 

SECTION 10.01 Company May Consolidate, Etc.

Nothing contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities shall prevent any consolidation or merger of the Company with or into any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company) or successive consolidations or mergers in which the Company or its successor or successors shall be a party or parties, or shall prevent any sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition of the property of the Company or its successor or successors as an entirety, or substantially as an entirety, to any other corporation (whether or not affiliated with the Company or its

 

31


successor or successors) authorized to acquire and operate the same; provided, however, the Company hereby covenants and agrees that, upon any such consolidation or merger (in each case, if the Company is not the survivor of such transaction), sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition, the due and punctual payment of the principal of (premium, if any) and interest on all of the Securities of all series in accordance with the terms of each series, according to their tenor and the due and punctual performance and observance of all the covenants and conditions of this Indenture with respect to each series or established with respect to such series pursuant to Section 2.01 to be kept or performed by the Company shall be expressly assumed, by supplemental indenture (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act, as then in effect) satisfactory in form to the Trustee executed and delivered to the Trustee by the entity formed by such consolidation, or into which the Company shall have been merged, or by the entity which shall have acquired such property.

 

SECTION 10.02 Successor Entity Substituted.

 

  (a) In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition and upon the assumption by the successor entity by supplemental indenture, executed and delivered to the Trustee and satisfactory in form to the Trustee, of the due and punctual payment of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on all of the Securities of all series Outstanding and the due and punctual performance of all of the covenants and conditions of this Indenture or established with respect to each series of the Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 to be performed by the Company with respect to each series, such successor entity shall succeed to and be substituted for the Company with the same effect as if it had been named as the Company herein, and thereupon the predecessor corporation shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

 

  (b) In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Securities thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate.

 

  (c) Nothing contained in this Article shall require any action by the Company in the case of a consolidation or merger of any Person into the Company where the Company is the survivor of such transaction, or the acquisition by the Company, by purchase or otherwise, of all or any part of the property of any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company).

 

SECTION 10.03 Evidence of Consolidation, Etc. to Trustee.

The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, may receive an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition, and any such assumption, comply with the provisions of this Article.

ARTICLE XI

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

 

SECTION 11.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.

If at any time: (a) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee for cancellation all Securities of a series theretofore authenticated (other than any Securities that shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.07) and Securities for whose payment money or Governmental Obligations have theretofore been deposited in trust or segregated and held in trust by the Company (and thereupon repaid to the Company or discharged from such trust, as provided in Section 11.05); or (b) all such Securities of a particular series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation shall have become due and payable, or are by their terms to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption, and the Company shall deposit or cause to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds the entire amount in moneys or Governmental Obligations sufficient or a combination thereof, sufficient (assuming that no tax liability will be imposed on the Trustee) in the

 

32


opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of that series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal (and premium, if any) and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be, and if the Company shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder with respect to such series by the Company then this Indenture shall thereupon cease to be of further effect with respect to such series except for the provisions of Sections 2.03, 2.05, 2.07, 4.01, 4.02, 4.03 and 7.10, that shall survive until the date of maturity or redemption date, as the case may be, and Sections 7.06 and 11.05, that shall survive to such date and thereafter, and the Trustee, on demand of the Company and at the cost and expense of the Company shall execute proper instruments acknowledging satisfaction of and discharging this Indenture with respect to such series.

 

SECTION 11.02 Discharge of Obligations.

If at any time all such Securities of a particular series not heretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation or that have not become due and payable as described in Section 11.01 shall have been paid by the Company by depositing irrevocably with the Trustee as trust funds moneys or an amount of Governmental Obligations sufficient to pay at maturity or upon redemption all such Securities of that series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal (and premium, if any) and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be, and if the Company shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company with respect to such series, then after the date such moneys or Governmental Obligations, as the case may be, are deposited with the Trustee the obligations of the Company under this Indenture with respect to such series shall cease to be of further effect except for the provisions of Sections 2.03, 2.05, 2.07, 4,01, 4.02, 4.03, 7.06, 7.10 and 11.05 hereof that shall survive until such Securities shall mature and be paid thereafter, Sections 7.06 and 11.05 shall survive.

 

SECTION 11.03 Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust.

Subject to Section 11.05, all moneys or Governmental Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Sections 11.01 or 11.02 shall be held in trust and shall be available for payment as due, either directly or through any paying agent (including the Company acting as its own paying agent), to the holders of the particular series of Securities for the payment or redemption of which such moneys or Governmental Obligations have been deposited with the Trustee.

 

SECTION 11.04 Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents.

In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture all moneys or Governmental Obligations then held by any paying agent under the provisions of this Indenture shall, upon demand of the Company, be paid to the Trustee and thereupon such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations.

 

SECTION 11.05 Repayment to Company.

Any moneys or Governmental Obligations deposited with any paying agent or the Trustee, or then held by the Company, in trust for payment of principal of or premium or interest on the Securities of a particular series that are not applied but remain unclaimed by the holders of such Securities for two years after the date upon which the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on such Securities shall have respectively become due and payable, shall be repaid to the Company or (if then held by the Company) shall be discharged from such trust in each case, promptly after the end of any such two-year period or, at the request of the Company, on a later date specified by the Company; and thereupon the paying agent and the Trustee shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations, and the holder of any of the Securities entitled to receive such payment shall thereafter, as an unsecured general creditor, look only to the Company for the payment thereof.

 

33


ARTICLE XII

IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

 

SECTION 12.01 No Recourse.

No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of this Indenture, or of any Security, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, shall be had against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, past, present or future as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, either directly or through the Company or any such predecessor or successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that this Indenture and the obligations issued hereunder are solely corporate obligations, and that no such personal liability whatever shall attach to, or is or shall be incurred by, the incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, or any of them, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom; and that any and all such personal liability of every name and nature, either at common law or in equity or by constitution or statute, of, and any and all such rights and claims against, every such incorporator, stockholder, officer or director as such, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom, are hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issuance of such Securities.

ARTICLE XIII

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

 

SECTION 13.01 Effect on Successors and Assigns.

All the covenants, stipulations, promises and agreements in this Indenture contained by or on behalf of the Company shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

 

SECTION 13.02 Actions by Successor.

Any act or proceeding by any provision of this Indenture authorized or required to be done or performed by any board, committee or officer of the Company shall and may be done and performed with like force and effect by the corresponding board, committee or officer of any corporation that shall at the time be the lawful successor of the Company.

 

SECTION 13.03 Surrender of Company Powers.

The Company by instrument in writing executed by authority of its Board of Directors and delivered to the Trustee may surrender any of the powers reserved to the Company, and thereupon such power so surrendered shall terminate both as to the Company and as to any successor corporation.

 

SECTION 13.04 Notices.

Except as otherwise expressly provided herein any notice or demand that by any provision of this Indenture is required or permitted to be given or served by the Trustee or by the holders of Securities to or on the Company may be given or served by being deposited first class postage prepaid in a post-office letterbox addressed (until another address is filed in writing by the Company with the Trustee), as follows: Albireo Pharma, Inc., Attn: [                    ], 10 Post Office Square, Suite 502 South, Boston, Massachusetts 02109. Any notice, election, request or demand by the Company or any Securityholder to or upon the Trustee shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given or made, for all purposes, if given or made in writing at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee. Any notice or communication to a holder shall be mailed by first-class mail to his address shown on the Security Register kept by the Security Registrar.

 

34


Failure to mail a notice or communication to a holder or any defect in such notice or communication shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other holders. If a notice or communication is mailed or sent in the manner provided above within the time prescribed, it is duly given as of the date it is mailed, whether or not the addressee receives it, except that notice to the Trustee or the Company shall only be effective upon receipt thereof by the Trustee or the Company, respectively. If the Company mails a notice or communication to holders of Securities, it shall mail a copy to the Trustee at the same time.

 

SECTION 13.05 Governing Law.

This Indenture and each Security shall be deemed to be a contract made under the internal laws of the State of New York, and for all purposes shall be construed in accordance with the laws of said State.

 

SECTION 13.06 Treatment of Securities as Debt.

It is intended that the Securities will be treated as indebtedness and not as equity for federal income tax purposes. The provisions of this Indenture shall be interpreted to further this intention.

 

SECTION 13.07 Compliance Certificates and Opinions.

 

  (a) Upon any application or demand by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under any of the provisions of this Indenture, the Company, shall furnish to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with and an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or demand as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or demand, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

 

  (b) Each certificate or opinion provided for in this Indenture and delivered to the Trustee with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant in this Indenture shall include (1) a statement that the Person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition; (2) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based; (3) a statement that, in the opinion of such Person, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and (4) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such Person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

 

SECTION 13.08 Payments on Business Days.

Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and as set forth in an Officers’ Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, in any case where the date of maturity of interest or principal of any Security or the date of redemption of any Security shall not be a Business Day, then payment of interest or principal (and premium, if any) may be made on the next succeeding Business Day with the same force and effect as if made on the nominal date of maturity or redemption, and no interest shall accrue for the period after such nominal date.

 

SECTION 13.09 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act.

If and to the extent that any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with the duties imposed by Sections 310 to 317, inclusive, of the Trust Indenture Act, such imposed duties shall control.

 

35


SECTION 13.10 Counterparts.

This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which shall be an original, but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument.

 

SECTION 13.11 Separability.

In case any one or more of the provisions contained in this Indenture or in the Securities of any series shall for any reason be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any respect, such invalidity, illegality or unenforceability shall not affect any other provisions of this Indenture or of such Securities, but this Indenture and such Securities shall be construed as if such invalid or illegal or unenforceable provision had never been contained herein or therein.

 

SECTION 13.12 Assignment.

The Company will have the right at all times to assign any of its rights or obligations under this Indenture to a direct or indirect wholly-owned Subsidiary of the Company, provided that, in the event of any such assignment, the Company, will remain liable for all such obligations. Subject to the foregoing, this Indenture is binding upon and inures to the benefit of the parties thereto and their respective successors and assigns. This Indenture may not otherwise be assigned by the parties thereto.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed all as of the day and year first above written.

 

ALBIREO PHARMA, INC.
By:  

 

  Name:  
  Title:  
[                                         ],
As Trustee
By:  

 

  Name:  
  Title:  

 

36

Exhibit 4.8

ALBIREO PHARMA, INC.

Issuer

AND

[                    ] Trustee

INDENTURE

Dated as of [                    ]

Subordinated Debt Securities


CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE (1)

 

Section of Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as Amended

   Section of
Indenture
 

310(a).

     7.09  

310(b).

     7.08  
     7.10  

310(c).

     Inapplicable  

311(a).

     7.13(a)  

311(b).

     7.13(b)  

311(c).

     Inapplicable  

312(a).

     5.02(a)  

312(b).

     5.02(b)  

312(c).

     5.02(c)  

313(a).

     5.04(a)  

313(b).

     5.04(a)  

313(c).

     5.04(a)  
     5.04(b)  

313(d).

     5.04(b)  

314(a).

     5.03  

314(b).

     Inapplicable  

314(c).

     13.06  

314(d).

     Inapplicable  

314(e).

     13.06  

314(f).

     Inapplicable  

315(a).

     7.01(a)  
     7.02  

315(b).

     6.07  

315(c).

     7.01  

315(d).

     7.01(b)  
     7.01(c)  

315(e).

     6.07  

316(a).

     6.06  
     8.04  

316(b).

     6.04  

316(c).

     8.01  

317(a).

     6.02  

317(b).

     4.03  

318(a)

     13.08  

 

(1) This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

i


TABLE OF CONTENTS (2)

 

          Page  
ARTICLE I DEFINITIONS      1  

SECTION 1.01

  

Definitions of Terms.

     1  
ARTICLE II ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES      4  

SECTION 2.01

  

Designation and Terms of Securities.

     4  

SECTION 2.02

  

Form of Securities and Tr