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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 6, 2018

Registration No. 333-224950

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

Amendment No. 2

to

FORM S-1

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

ORAGENICS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Florida   2836   59-3410522

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(Primary Standard Industrial

Classification Code Number)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

Alan Joslyn

Chief Executive Officer and President

Oragenics, Inc.

4902 Eisenhower Boulevard, Suite 125

Tampa, Florida 33634

(813) 286-7900

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

With copies to:

 

Mark A. Catchur, Esq.

Shumaker, Loop & Kendrick, LLP

101 East Kennedy Boulevard

Suite 2800

Tampa, Florida 33602

Telephone: (813) 229-7600

Facsimile: (813) 229-1660

 

Michael F. Nertney

Ellenoff Grossman & Schole, LLP

1345 Avenue of the Americas

New York, NY 10105

Tel: (212) 370-1300

Fax: (212) 370-7889

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:

As soon as practicable after this registration statement becomes effective.

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer   ☐  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)    Smaller reporting company   
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☐

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of securities

to be registered (1)

  Proposed
maximum
aggregate
offering price (1)
  Amount of
Registration Fee (2)

Class A Units consisting of:

  $  3,500,000  

  435.75

(i) shares of Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share (3)

       

(ii)  Warrants to purchase Common Stock (3)(4)

       

Class B Units consisting of:

  $  8,000,000     996.00

(i) Series D Convertible Preferred Stock (3)

       

(ii)  Common Stock issuable on conversion of Series D Convertible Preferred Stock (3)(5)

       

(iii)  Warrants to purchase Common Stock (3)(4)

       

Common Stock issuable on exercise of Warrants (3)

  $11,500,000   1,431.75

Total

  $23,000,000      2,863.50 (6)

 

 

(1) Estimated solely for the purpose of computing the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Act”). Also includes the offering price of additional units that the underwriters have the option to purchase.
(2) Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) based on an estimate of the proposed maximum aggregate offering price of all securities being registered.
(3) Pursuant to Rule 416 under the Act, the securities being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of additional shares of common stock as may be issued after the date hereof as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.
(4) No separate fee is required pursuant to Rule 457(g) under the Act.
(5) No separate fee is required pursuant to Rule 457(i) under the Act.
(6) Of this amount, $996 was previously paid.

The Registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 


Table of Contents

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

Subject to completion, dated July 6, 2018

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

1,470,588 Class A Units consisting of one share of common stock and one common warrant

and

5,882,352 Class B Units consisting of one share of Series D Convertible Preferred Stock and one common warrant

We are offering 1,470,588 Class A Units and 5,882,352 Class B Units, with each Class A Unit consisting of one share of common stock, par value $0.001 per share and a warrant to purchase one share of our common stock (together with the shares of common stock underlying such warrants, the “Class A Units”) at an assumed public offering price of $1.36 per Class A Unit. Warrants included in the Class A Units have an exercise price of $                per share.

We are also offering Class B Units to purchasers who prefer not to beneficially own more than 4.99% (or, at the election of the purchaser, 9.99%) of our outstanding common stock following the consummation of this offering or who elect in their sole discretion to purchase Class B Units. Each Class B Unit will consist of one share of Series D Convertible Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Series D Preferred Stock”), convertible at any time at the holder’s option into one share of common stock and a warrant to purchase one share of our common stock (together with the shares of common stock underlying such shares of Series D Preferred Stock and such warrants, the “Class B Units” and, together with the Class A Units, the “Units”) at an assumed public offering price of $1.36 per Class B Unit. Each warrant included in the Class B Units entitles its holder to purchase one share of common stock at an exercise price of $                per share.

The Class A Units and Class B Units have no stand alone rights and will not be certificated and the shares of common stock, Series D Preferred Stock and warrants comprising such units are immediately separable and will be issued separately in this offering.

The price of our common stock on the NYSE American during recent periods was only one of many factors in determining the public offering price. Other factors we considered in determining the public offering price included our history, our prospects, the industry in which we operate, our past and present operating results, the previous experience of our executive officers and the general condition of the securities markets at the time of this offering. All share numbers included in this prospectus are based upon an assumed public offering price of $1.36 per share (the last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE American on July 3, 2018).

Our common stock is listed on the NYSE American under the symbol “OGEN.” On July 3, 2018 the last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE American was $1.36 per share. See “Prospectus Summary—Recent Developments” in this prospectus for important information about the listing of our common stock on the NYSE American. We do not intend to list the warrants or preferred stock to be sold in this offering on any securities exchange or trading system.

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 12 of this prospectus and elsewhere in this prospectus for a discussion of information that should be considered in connection with an investment in our securities.

 

     Per
Class A Unit
     Per
Class B Unit
     Total  

Public offering price(1)

   $                       $                       $                   

Underwriting discounts and commissions(2)

   $      $      $  

Proceeds, before expenses, to us

   $      $      $  

 

(1) The public offering price and underwriting discount corresponds to (x) in respect of the Class A Units (i) a public offering price per share of common stock of $    and (ii) a public offering price per warrant of $                and (y) in respect of the Class B Units (i) a public offering price per share of Series D Preferred Stock of $                and (ii) a public offering price per warrant of $                .
(2) See “Underwriting” beginning on page 72 of this prospectus for additional information regarding compensation payable to the underwriters.

Neither the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of the common stock that may be offered under this prospectus, nor have any of these regulatory authorities determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The underwriters have the option to purchase up to (i) 1,102,941 additional shares of common stock, and/or (ii) additional warrants to purchase up to 1,102,941 additional shares of common stock solely to cover over-allotments, if any, at the public offering price per share of common stock and the public offering price per warrant set forth above less the underwriting discounts and commissions. The over-allotment option may be used to purchase shares of common stock and/or warrants, in any combination thereof, as determined by the underwriters, but such purchases cannot exceed an aggregate of 15% of the number of shares of common stock (including the number of shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of shares of Series D Preferred Stock) and/or 15% of the warrants sold in the primary offering. The over-allotment option is exercisable for 45 days from the date of this prospectus.

The underwriters expect to deliver the securities to purchasers on or about                , 2018.

 

 

Ladenburg Thalmann

The date of this prospectus is                , 2018

 


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

Prospectus Summary

     1  

Risk Factors

     12  

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

     47  

Use of Proceeds

     49  

Capitalization

     50  

Dilution

     52  

Market Price of our Common Stock and Related Stockholder Matters

     54  

Dividend Policy

     54  

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management

     55  

Description of Securities

     58  

Underwriting

     72  

Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations

     76  

Legal Matters

     81  

Experts

     81  

Where You Can Find Additional Information

     81  

Incorporation of Documents by Reference

     81  

 

 

You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus and any free-writing prospectus that we authorize to be distributed to you. We have not, and the underwriters have not, authorized anyone to provide you with information different from or in addition to that contained in this prospectus or any related free-writing prospectus. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are offering to sell, and are seeking offers to buy, the Class A Units and the Class B Units only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or of any sale of the Class A Units and the Class B Units. Our business, financial conditions, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.

The registration statement we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, includes exhibits that provide more detail of the matters discussed in this prospectus. You should read this prospectus and the related exhibits filed with the SEC, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find Additional Information,” before making your investment decision. You should rely only on the information provided in this prospectus or any amendment thereto. We have not, and the underwriters have not, authorized anyone to provide any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. The information contained in this prospectus or in any applicable free writing prospectus is current only as of its date, regardless of its time of delivery or any sale of our securities. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.

This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, and only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. We are not, and the underwriters are not, making an offer to sell these securities in any state or jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. For investors outside the United States: We have not, and the underwriters have not, done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the securities and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States.

Unless otherwise indicated, information contained in this prospectus concerning our industry and the markets in which we operate, including our general expectations and market position, market opportunity and market size, is based on information from various sources, including independent industry publications. In presenting this information, we have also made assumptions based on such data and other similar sources, and on our knowledge of, and our experience to date in, the markets for our products. This information involves a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. We believe that the information from these industry publications that is included in this prospectus is reliable. The industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in “Risk Factors.” These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by the independent parties and by us.

Unless the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to “Oragenics,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” or similar terms refer to Oragenics, Inc. and ORAGENICS ® is a registered trademarks of the Company. All other product and company names are trademarks of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus, including logos, artwork and other visual displays, may appear without the ® or TM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names or trademarks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. Because it is a summary, it does not contain all of the information that you should consider in making your investment decision. Before investing in our securities, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, including our financial statements and the related notes and the information set forth under the sections “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Business.” Some of the statements in this prospectus constitute forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. See information set forth under the section “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

Overview

We are focused on becoming a leader in developing novel antibiotics against infectious disease and on developing effective treatments for oral mucositis.

Our Oral Mucositis Product Candidate-Clinical

In June of 2015, we entered into a worldwide Exclusive Channel Collaboration Agreement (“Oral Mucositis ECC”) with Intrexon Corporation (“Intrexon”) and Intrexon Actobiotics NV, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Intrexon, pursuant to which we obtained certain exclusive rights to AG013 as a potential treatment of oral mucositis, or OM for cancer patients, which we intend to continue to develop. AG013, is an oral rinsing solution designed to deliver human Trefoil Factor 1 (hTFF1) to protect and regenerate damaged mucosal lining of the oral cavity.

OM results in a painful inflammation and mucosal ulceration in the lining of the oral cavity, throat and esophagus and is one of the most commonly reported adverse events associated with cancer chemotherapy. Approximately 770,000 patients annually in the US are at an increased risk of developing OM according to cancer statistics provided by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) in 2017. OM has a negative effect on patient well-being and if severe, negatively affects adherence to a patient’s cancer treatment regimen. At present, we are not aware of any drug that is approved to prevent the condition broadly and current therapies are primarily palliative in nature, only addressing symptom relief but not treating the underlying causes of the condition.

In a Phase 1b clinical trial in 25 cancer patients with OM, AG013 was safe and well tolerated. Data published in the journal Cancer showed a 35% reduction of the duration of ulcerative OM in the AG013-treated patients versus the placebo-treated patients. Furthermore, close to 30% of the patients treated with AG013 were full responders while all placebo-treated patients developed ulcerative OM. Additionally, in a Phase 1 pharmacokinetic (PK) study in 10 healthy volunteers, AG013 bacteria adhered to the buccal mucosa and actively secrete protein locally, resulting in homogeneous exposure of the entire mucosal surface up to 24 hours after administration of the rinse. During the first quarter of 2016, we conducted a confirmatory animal study on AG013. AG013 has been granted Orphan Drug status in the European Union. In November of 2016, the United States Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”) granted Fast Track designation for AG013, and we believe it may be eligible for Biologic License Application exclusivity as well.

We have developed a Phase 2 protocol for AG013 with the FDA under the fast track designation. The study is a double blind, placebo controlled, evaluation of daily AG013, administered three times a day, oral rinse for the duration of the cancer treatment. The study is expected to enroll between 160-180 evaluable patients receiving chemoradiation for treatment of head and neck cancer for 7 to 9 weeks. The primary endpoint is a reduction, compared to the placebo, in the number of days of severe oral mucositis. In addition, a number of secondary endpoints are being evaluated . In August of 2016, we received feedback from the FDA in response to our Type C meeting and the pursuit of a Phase 2 trial on AG013 for the treatment of oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients. We filed an Investigational New Drug (“IND”) update in March 2017 and we initiated the Phase 2 study with AG013 in the United States in 2017 with the expectation that we will expand the trial into Europe in 2018 upon sufficient financing being available to us. The Phase 2 trial is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-arm, multi-center trial in which approximately 200 patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either a placebo or AG013. The clinical trial will be conducted at approximately 45 clinical sites across the United States and Europe. The purpose of the Phase 2 study (NCT03234465) is to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of topically administered AG013 compared to placebo for reducing the incidence and severity of OM in patients undergoing traditional chemoradiation for the treatment of head and neck cancer. Key efficacy measures include collection of data regarding the duration, time to development, and overall incidence of OM (World Health Organization scale used) during the active treatment phase, beginning from the start of chemoradiation therapy until 2 weeks following its completion.

We completed enrollment of the interim analysis cohort , which included 24 randomized patients in our Phase 2 clinical trial of AG013 for the treatment OM. Nineteen of those patients were included in the unblended safety evaluation, of which 10 received AG013. We recently announced positive results from our interim safety analysis, which was requested by the FDA on patients from our Phase 2 clinical trial of AG013 for the treatment of OM. The study provided information that, we believe, likely indicates that the overall incidence of severe OM is less than would be anticipated in the general population.

Safety was evaluated on the basis of treatment-emergent adverse events, vital signs, weight, physical examinations, clinical laboratory assessments and the presence of AG013 in whole blood. Tolerability measures (taste, consistency and smell) were collected from the patient diaries. In addition, the reasons for study treatment discontinuation were also summarized. Following review of the data by an independent Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB), it was concluded that the clinical trial can proceed with no changes to the study. The data analysis indicated that the distribution of adverse events were similar between AG013 and placebo. The serious adverse events reported were consistent with those commonly reported in a head and neck cancer population receiving traditional chemoradiation therapy treatments and included fevers, neutropenia, anemia, nausea and vomiting, infections and oral (mouth and throat) pain. There were no reports of bacteremia or sepsis. Of patients that discontinued participation in the clinical study, 4 patients experienced adverse events, including 3 patients who developed nausea and vomiting, 2 patients that were non-compliant with the study procedures and 3 patients developed severe OM.

Given the clearance by the DSMB, we expect to proceed with patient enrollment for our AGO13 clinical trial, which we hope to accelerate by the addition of clinical sites in the U.S. and Europe. We expect to report top-line results of the completed phase 2 trial in late 2019.



 

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Our Antibiotic Product Candidate-Preclinical

Members of our scientific team discovered that a certain bacterial strain produces MU1140, a molecule belonging to the novel class of antibiotics known as lantibiotics. Lantibiotics, such as MU1140, are highly modified peptide antibiotics made by a small group of Gram positive bacterial species. Approximately 60 lantibiotics have been discovered, to date. We believe lantibiotics are generally recognized by the scientific community to be potent antibiotic agents.

In nonclinical testing, MU1140 has shown activity against all Gram positive bacteria against which it has been tested, including those responsible for a number of healthcare associated infections, or HAIs. A high percentage of hospital-acquired infections are caused by highly resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. We believe the need for novel antibiotics is increasing as a result of the growing resistance of target pathogens to existing FDA approved antibiotics on the market.

Lantibiotics have been difficult to investigate for their clinical usefulness as therapeutic agents in the treatment of infectious diseases due to a general inability to produce or synthesize sufficient quantities of pure amounts of these molecules. Traditional fermentation methods can only produce minute amounts of the lantibiotic.

In June 2012, we entered into the Lantibiotic Exclusive Channel Collaboration agreement (“Lantibiotic ECC”) with Intrexon for the development and commercialization of the native strain of MU1140 and related homologs using Intrexon’s advanced transgene and cell engineering platforms. Through our work with Intrexon, we have been able to produce a significant increase in the fermentation titer of MU1140 compared to standard fermentation methods and have discovered a new purification process for MU1140. Our work with Intrexon generated a substantial number of homologs of MU1140, and we are continuing our research and development and collaboration efforts with Intrexon to develop potential derivatives of the MU1140 molecule using genetically modified bacteria.

In our pre-clinical studies to support a potential IND filing with the FDA, we tested a total of six homologs of MU1140 for certain compound characteristics, including but not limited to: drug activity (based on minimum inhibitory concentration or “MIC”) equal or better than “standard of care” drugs against certain drug-resistant bacteria, safety, toxicity, stability, and manufacturability. An animal study specifically evaluated homolog efficacy in relation to survival, measurable amounts of Clostridium difficile (“C. diff”) colony forming units, and toxin levels. Three homologs demonstrated promising results with one homolog, OG253 achieving a 100% survival rate throughout the entire study in contrast to an approximately 30% survival rate for the vancomycin positive control.

Based on these early results, we selected a lead candidate, OG253, for which we had a pre IND meeting with the FDA in November of 2015 regarding the pursuit of an IND for OG253. Following additional research and development on second generation lantibiotics, in August of 2016, we opted to select a second generation lantibiotic, OG716, for treatment of C. diff as our new lead candidate. OG716 is a new, orally-active homolog, that has exhibited positive results in an animal model for potential treatment of C. diff . Generated from our MU1140 platform, this new lantibiotic showed promising efficacy in reducing clinically relevant C. diff infections as measured by increased animal survival and decreased relapse as well as reduced production of toxins A & B and C. diff spores when compared to a vancomycin positive control.

The timing of the filing of an IND regarding OG716 is subject to our having sufficient available capital given all of our anticipated needs and expected requirements in connection with our ongoing research and development initiatives. While we were able to raise additional capital during the year ended December 31, 2017, we currently expect the IND for a first-in-human clinical study of OG716 to be filed with the FDA based on our ability to complete the requisite studies, contingent on sufficient funding.



 

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Other Product Candidates and Technologies.

In addition to our lantibiotics and oral mucositis product candidates, we also have other candidates and technologies in the oral care and weight loss areas. We do not intend to continue to develop these potential product candidates and technologies without partnering with a third party. We out-licensed the continued research and development of our weight loss product candidate in December 2013 to, LPThera LLC, and LPThera LLC continues to work to develop a product for commercial use. Our oral care product candidate SMaRT Replacement Therapy is positioned for out-licensing opportunities.

Recent Developments

The Company Reported Positive Interim Safety Analysis Results From our Phase 2 Clinical Trial of AG013 for Oral Mucositis. On May 30, 2018 the Company announced positive results from its interim safety analysis as requested by FDA on patients from its Phase 2 clinical trial of AG013 for the treatment of OM. Following review of the interim data by an independent Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB), it was concluded that the clinical trial can proceed with no changes to the study. The study also provided information that, we believe, likely indicates that the overall incidence of severe OM is less than would be anticipated in the general population. In addition, the DSMB concluded that the overall profile of adverse events were similar between AG013 and placebo and the serious adverse events reported were consistent with those commonly seen in a head and neck cancer population receiving traditional chemoradiation.

Completed Registered Direct Offering and Private Placement . On April 10, 2018, the Company entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement with certain investors (the “Investors”) pursuant to which the Company agreed to issue and sell, in a registered offering by the Company directly to the Investors (the “Registered Offering”), an aggregate of 900,000 shares (the “Shares”) of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, of the Company (the “Common Stock”), at an offering price of $2.00 per share. In a concurrent private placement (the “Private Placement”), the Company agreed to issue to the Investors who participated in the Registered Offering, warrants exercisable for one share of Common Stock for each Share purchased in the Registered Offering for an aggregate of Warrants to purchase 900,000 shares of Common Stock at an exercise price of $2.00 per share. Each Warrant will be exercisable beginning on the six-month anniversary of the date of its issuance and will expire five years from the date of issuance.

Completed Private Placement . On November 8, 2017, the Company completed a private placement of $3.3 million of Series B Non-Voting, Convertible Preferred Stock (the “Series B Preferred Stock”), including the issuance of warrants to acquire 1,064,518 shares of common stock, pursuant to a Securities Purchase Agreement with four existing shareholders who are accredited investors including, the Koski Family Limited Partnership, an entity affiliated with a director of the Company, (the “Series B Preferred Stock Financing”).

Completed Debt Conversion . On November 8, 2017, concurrently with the Series B Preferred Stock Financing, the Company also entered into a Debt Conversion Agreement (the “Intrexon Debt Conversion Agreement”) with Intrexon Corporation (“Intrexon”) pursuant to which Intrexon exchanged the $2.4 million unsecured, non-convertible, promissory note previously issued by the Company to Intrexon (the “Intrexon Note”), the accrued interest on the Intrexon Note and trade payables owed by the Company to Intrexon (collectively the “Debt”) in the aggregate amount of approximately $3.4 million for equity in the form of shares of Series C, Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock (the “Series C Preferred Stock”) issued by the Company to Intrexon. Each issued and outstanding share of Series C Preferred Stock entitles the holder of record to receive dividends at the annual rate of twelve percent (12%) (the “Initial Rate”) of its Stated Value, payable by issuing additional shares of Series C Preferred Stock within thirty days after the end of each calendar year and pro-rata for partial years. On January 25, 2018 we paid a dividend on our Series C Preferred Stock to Intrexon of 1.733 shares for the portion of the 2017 the Series C Preferred was outstanding. The Initial Rate shall be subject to increase to twenty percent (20%) automatically, after May 10, 2019, if the Series C Preferred Stock is not earlier redeemed by us.

Amended our Exclusive Channel Collaboration Agreements with Intrexon . In connection with the Series B Preferred Stock Financing and the Intrexon Debt Conversion Agreement, on November 8, 2017, we amended (i) our Lantibiotic ECC and the Lantibiotic Stock Issuance Agreement (together the “Lantibiotic Program”) and (ii) our Oral Mucositis ECC and Oral Mucositis Stock Issuance Agreement (together the “Oral Mucositis Program”).

 

    The Lantibiotic Program was revised as follows:

 

    Consolidated all historical, and yet to be achieved, research and development milestones into a single milestone payment of $25 million to Intrexon, payable within 6 months of first regulatory approval of a NDA or BLA and provides for a payment of $5.0 million to Intrexon within 6 months of regulatory approval of any subsequent supplemental NDA resulting in an expanded new indication or NDA of a subsequent lantibiotic from the lantibiotic library;

 

    Reduced the royalty rate from 25% of Product Profit to 10% of Net Sales;

 

    Reduced the sublicense revenue percentage from 50% to 25%;


 

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    Revised the form of milestone payments from being share based or cash at our election to only cash; and

 

    Committed that Diligent Efforts (as defined in the Lantibiotic ECC) in pursuing the Lantibiotic Program would be deemed satisfied in 2018 provided that at least $1,200,000 was expended for the advancement of the Lantibiotic Program.

 

    The Oral Mucositis Program was revised as follows:

 

    Consolidated all historical, and yet to be achieved, research and development milestones into a single milestone payment to Intrexon of $27.5 million payable within 6 months of first regulatory approval of a NDA or a BLA and provides for a payment of $5.0 million to Intrexon within 6 months of regulatory approval of any subsequent supplemental NDA resulting in an expanded new indication or NDA of a subsequent AG013 product;

 

    Reduced the sublicense revenue percentage from 50% to 25%.

 

    Revised the definition of “Field” in the Oral Mucositis ECC to reflect and clarify that Oragenics has the worldwide exclusive rights to the treatment of Oral Mucositis regardless of its cause.

Received NYSE Notification of Regained Listing Compliance . Following consummation of the Series B Preferred Stock Financing and Debt Conversion, on November 10, 2017, we received notification from NYSE American that the Company is back in compliance with all of the NYSE American continued listing standards. We cannot assure you that we will be able continue to meet the NYSE American listing standards. If do not continue to meet any of the NYSE American listing standards, our common stock may be subject to delisting from NYSE American.

Consummated a Reverse Stock Split. On January 19, 2018 we effected a one for ten reverse stock split of our authorized and outstanding common stock, by filing Articles of Amendment to our Articles of Incorporation. As a result of the reverse stock split (i) proportionate adjustments have been made to the per share exercise price and/or the number of shares issuable upon the exercise or vesting of all stock options and warrants issued by us and outstanding immediately prior to the effective time, which resulted in a proportionate decrease in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for issuance upon exercise or vesting of such stock options and warrants, and, in the case of stock options and warrants, a proportionate increase in the exercise price of all such stock options and warrants; (ii) proportionate adjustments have been made to the conversion price applicable to outstanding shares of Series A and Series B Convertible Preferred Stock; (iii) the number of shares authorized for future grant under our equity incentive/compensation plans immediately prior to the effective time have been reduced proportionately; and (iv) the number of authorized shares of common stock as recently increased have been reduced from 450,000,000 shares to 45,000,000 shares. All share and per share amounts in this registration statement have been retroactively adjusted to reflect the reverse stock split for all periods presented.

Amended our Articles of Incorporation . On June 22, 2018, our shareholders approved an amendment to our Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation to increase the number of authorized shares of our common stock from 45,000,000 shares to 200,000,000 and such amendment became effective on June 25, 2018. The purpose of the increase in the number of authorized shares of our common stock is to provide flexibility in connection with our future financing efforts.



 

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Our Products and Product Candidates

Overview

 

Product/Candidate   Description   Application   Status
 

 

 

 

 

 

AG013   Treatment of Oral Mucositis   Treatment of oral mucositis in cancer patients   Ongoing Phase 2 clinical trial
OG716   A homolog of MU1140: Member of lantibiotic class of antibiotics   Healthcare-associated infections   Nonclinical testing
LPT3-04   Naturally occurring chemical agent   Weight loss   Exclusively out-licensed
SMaRT Replacement Therapy   Genetically modified strain of S.  mutans that does not produce lactic acid   Dental carries-tooth decay   Positioned for partnership opportunities

Our Strategy and Competitive Strengths

We believe that the combination of our proprietary platform technologies and the expertise of our team in the areas of product development and commercialization, are the core elements driving our company. The key elements of our corporate strategy and the competitive advantages we believe these elements provide us include the following:

 

    patented and patent pending unique platform technologies;

 

    potentially shorter time to market for product introductions due to disruptive characteristics ;

 

    efficient advancement of early stage product candidates into late stage development;

 

    strategic partnerships, joint development and licensing; and

 

    ability to develop a diversified portfolio in a variety of medical conditions of unmet medical needs based on the expansion of underlying technologies

Strategic Alliance and Relationship

As part of our business strategy, we augment our internal and external development efforts by establishing strategic relationships and alliances with third parties that have technologies, patents, other know how or commercialization capabilities that we believe will be additive to our internal efforts. We have two separate ECC Agreements with Intrexon and its wholly owned subsidiaries Intrexon Actobiotics NV and ActoBio Therapeutics, Inc. as follows:

Our Oral Mucositis ECC

On June 9, 2015, we entered into our Oral Mucositis ECC with Intrexon and Actobiotics, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Intrexon, through which we intend to research, develop and commercialize products, including the continued development and commercialization of AG013, for use in the treatment of oral mucositis in humans through the administration of an effector via genetically modified bacteria, but, in any case, excluding the delivery of anti-cancer effectors for the purpose of treatment or prophylaxis of cancer (collectively, the “Program”). Contemporaneously with the ECC, we also entered into a Stock Issuance Agreement (the “SIA”) with Intrexon which provided for the payment of a technology access fee and the potential future issuance by us of our common stock to Intrexon upon the achievement of designated development milestones. We issued a Convertible Note in the amount of $5,000,000 as payment of the technology access fee associated with the Oral Mucositis ECC which was payable, at our option, in cash or shares of our common stock. The convertible note, including accrued interest, was repaid in December 2015 through the issuance of 338,101 shares of our common stock.

The Oral Mucositis ECC governs the “channel collaboration” arrangement in which we will use Intrexon’s proprietary technology relating to the identification, design and production of genetically modified bacteria for the purpose of developing the Program.



 

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The Oral Mucositis ECC provides for the establishment of committees comprised from us and Intrexon representatives that will govern activities in the areas of project establishment, chemistry, manufacturing and controls, clinical and regulatory matters, commercialization efforts, and intellectual property.

The Oral Mucositis ECC grants us an exclusive worldwide license to utilize Intrexon’s and Actobiotics’ intellectual property to develop and commercialize products, including the continued development and commercialization of AG013, for use in the treatment of oral mucositis in humans through the administration of an effector via genetically modified bacteria, but, in any case, excluding the delivery of anti-cancer effectors for the purpose of treatment or prophylaxis of cancer, but, in any case, excluding the delivery of anti-cancer effectors for the purpose of treatment or prophylaxis of cancer (the “Field”). It also grants us an exclusive license in the Field under all Information Controlled by Actobiotics (or otherwise by Intrexon) and existing as of the Effective Date relating to the regulatory approval of AG013, including regulatory filings, data, clinical trial reports, and rights thereunder.

In November of 2017 the Oral Mucositis ECC was amended to: (i) consolidate the development milestone payments into one payment of $27,500,000 being due six months after receiving FDA approval of a New Drug Application; (ii) reduce the sublicense revenue percentage we would have had to pay from 50% to 25% of sublicensing revenue; and (iii) revise the field in which we have exclusive rights to our Oral Mucositis product candidate for the treatment of Oral Mucositis to clarify that we have an exclusive right for the treatment of Oral Mucositis in humans regardless of etiology. The November amendment superseded an amendment to the Oral Mucositis ECC in May 2017. Effective January 1, 2018, Intrexon assigned its interest in the Oral Mucositis ECC and related SIA (excluding Intrexon’s standstill obligation) to its wholly owned subsidiary, ActoBio Therapeutics, Inc.

Our Lantibiotic ECC

On June 5, 2012, we entered into the Lantibiotic ECC with Intrexon that governs a “channel collaboration” arrangement in which we will use Intrexon’s advanced transgene and cell engineering platforms for the development and production of lantibiotics, a class of peptide antibiotics that are naturally produced in Gram-positive bacteria and contain the characteristic polycyclic thioether amino acids lanthionine and methyllanthonine (collectively, the “Lantibiotics Program”). The Lantibiotic ECC establishes committees comprised of our representatives and Intrexon representatives that will govern activities related to the Lantibiotics Program in the areas of project establishment, chemistry, manufacturing and controls matters, clinical and regulatory matters, commercialization efforts and intellectual property matters. Currently, the Joint Steering Committee has established projects for the Lantibiotics Program and established the priorities, as well as approved the budgets for such projects.

The Lantibiotic ECC grants us an exclusive worldwide license to use patents and other intellectual property of Intrexon in connection with the research, development, use, importing, exporting, manufacture, sale, and offer for sale of drug products involving the direct administration to humans or companion animals of a lantibiotic for the prevention or treatment of infectious disease (“Oragenics Products”). Such license is exclusive with respect to any clinical development, selling, offering for sale or other commercialization of Oragenics Products, and otherwise is non-exclusive. Subject to limited exceptions, we may not sublicense the rights described without Intrexon’s written consent.

In November of 2017 we amended the Lantibiotic ECC to: (i) consolidate the development milestone payments into one payment of $25,000,000, being due six months after receiving FDA approval of a New Drug Application, (ii) reduce the sublicense revenue percentage we would have had to pay from 50% to 25% of sublicensing revenue, (iii) reduce the royalty rate from 25% of Product Profit to 10% of Net Sales, (iv) revise the form of milestone payments from being share based or cash at our election to only cash, and (v) commit that Diligent Efforts (as defined in the Lantibiotic ECC) in pursuing the Lantibiotic Program would be deemed satisfied in 2018 provided that at least $1,200,000 was expended for the advancement of the Lantibiotic Program.



 

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Risks Associated with Our Business and this Offering

Since our inception, we have incurred substantial losses. Our business and our ability to execute our business strategy are subject to a number of risks of which you should be aware before making an investment decision. These risks are discussed more fully in the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus, and among these important risks are the following:

 

    Since inception, we have experienced recurring operating losses and negative cash flows and we expect to continue to generate operating losses and consume significant cash resources for the foreseeable future. As a result, our independent registered public accounting firm has expressed substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. We are unable to predict the extent of any future losses or if or when we will become profitable, if at all. Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. If we do not have sufficient funds to continue operations and satisfy our obligations and liabilities, we could be required to seek bankruptcy protection or other alternatives that would likely result in our stockholders losing some or all of their investment in us.

 

    We will require substantial additional financing and capital. To raise additional capital, we may in the future issue debt and equity securities or securities convertible into equity securities, any of which may be senior to our common stock as to distributions or in liquidation and may have other rights superior to existing stockholders. We may also issue these securities at prices that may not be the same as, and may be lower than, the price per share paid by other investors, and our stockholders could experience significant dilution.

 

    As a result of our operating losses in recent years and decline in stockholders’ equity, we may be unable to satisfy the continued listing requirements of NYSE American. In the event our common stock is delisted, our stockholders may experience decreased liquidity. On May 10, 2016, we received a deficiency notice from NYSE American stating we were not in compliance with the stockholders’ equity requirement. We have subsequently regained compliance, but there is no assurance we will be able to maintain compliance.

 

    Our operating results may fluctuate significantly, are difficult to predict and could fall below expectations due to a variety of other factors, including: our financial condition, delays in the commencement, enrollment and the timing of clinical testing for our product candidates; the timing and success or failure of clinical trials for our product candidates or competing product candidates; delays in regulatory review and approval of product candidates; the timing and level of investment in research and development activities; the cost of manufacturing; and our ability to obtain additional funding.

 

    Our business is dependent on the successful development and commercialization of our product candidates, in particular AG013, and OG716. We may never successfully commercialize any of our product candidates. Accordingly, we may not generate revenue through the sale of our product candidates or any future product candidates sufficient to continue operations.

 

    We have limited experience in the conduct of clinical trials, and may be unable to obtain, regulatory approval for early-stage product candidates. The FDA and foreign regulatory bodies have substantial discretion in the approval process, including the ability to delay, limit or deny approval of product candidates, any of which would adversely impact commercialization, our potential to generate revenue, our business and our operating results. We may also be subject to healthcare laws, regulation and enforcement and our failure to comply with those laws could adversely affect our business, operations and financial condition.

 

    We rely on a wide variety of third parties for consulting services, including clinical trial management and regulatory affairs. These third parties are selected based on their experience and expertise and our agreements with them are short term in nature and provide for limited liability for the third party. There can be no assurance that these third parties will perform as anticipated by our agreements with them or on a timely basis and we may be unable to secure service from other parties without an increase in costs, delays, or interruptions in the conduct of our clinical program.

 

    Under our ECCs with Intrexon and its wholly owned subsidiary ActoBio Therapeutics, Inc. we are responsible for, among other things, funding the further anticipated development of lantibiotics and AG013 toward the goal of commercialization, including conducting nonclinical and clinical development of product candidates. Intrexon may terminate such agreement if we do not perform certain specified requirements, including developing therapies identified to us and considered superior by Intrexon. There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully perform under the ECCs and if the ECCs are terminated it would prevent us from achieving our business objectives.


 

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    Our product candidates may cause serious or undesirable side effects or possess other unexpected properties that could delay or prevent their regulatory approval, limit the commercial profile of approved labeling or result in post-approval regulatory action.

 

    Even if our current product candidates or any future product candidates obtain regulatory approval, they may fail to achieve the broad degree of physician and patient adoption and use necessary for commercial success. Our product candidates, if approved, will also face significant competition and our failure to compete effectively may prevent us from achieving significant market penetration.

 

    We rely on a single, qualified supplier to manufacture our AG013 product and our OG716 product candidates and our manufacturing contracts are short-term in nature. If we cannot renew these agreements or cannot find replacement manufacturers, we cannot be certain that manufacturing sources will continue to be available or that we can continue to outsource the manufacturing of our products and product candidates on commercially reasonable or acceptable terms.

Corporate and Other Information

We were incorporated in November 1996 and commenced operations in 1999. We consummated our initial public offering in June 2003. We have devoted substantially all of our available resources to our discovery efforts comprising research and development, clinical trials for our product candidates, protection of our intellectual property and the general and administrative support of these operations. We have generated limited revenues from grants and from our former consumer ProBiora3 product business, and have principally funded our operations through the sale of debt and equity securities, including the exercise of warrants issued in connection with financing transactions. In June of 2016, we completed the sale of our consumer probiotics business to ProBiora Health, LLC and as a result, we will no longer generate revenue from sales of consumer probiotic products. Our net revenues were $0 and $464,048, for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

As of March 31, 2018 we had an accumulated deficit of $103,578,864 and as of December 31, 2017 we had an accumulated deficit of $101,400,797 and we have yet to achieve profitability. We incurred net losses of $2,119,397and $1,982,696 for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively and we incurred net losses of $6,731,525 and $7,013,304 for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. We expect to incur significant and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future as we seek to advance our product candidates through nonclinical testing and clinical trials to ultimately obtain regulatory approval and eventual commercialization. We need to raise additional capital. Adequate additional funding may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. We expect that research and development expenses will increase along with general and administrative costs, as we seek to grow and continue to operate our business. There can be no assurance that additional capital will be available to us on acceptable terms, if at all. The report of our independent registered public accounting firm with respect to our financial statements appearing in our Form 10-K contains an explanatory paragraph stating that our operating losses and negative cash flows from operations and our need to raise additional financing and/or financial support prior to July 2018 in order to continue to fund our operations, raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. We believe the working capital at March 31, 2018, together with the proceeds from our recent April 10, 2018 registered direct offering, will be sufficient to meet the business objectives, as presently structured, through August 2018.

Our executive office is located at, 4902 Eisenhower Boulevard, Suite 125 Tampa, Florida, 33634 and our research facilities are located at 13700 Progress Boulevard, Alachua, Florida 32615. Our telephone number is (813) 286-7900 and our website is http://www.oragenics.com. Information on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus and should not be relied on in connection with this offering.



 

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Available Information

We file electronically with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. We make available on our website at www.oragenics.com, free of charge, copies of these reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.

The public may read or copy any materials we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov .

The information in or accessible through the websites referred to above are not incorporated into, and are not considered part of, this filing. Further, our references to the URLs for these websites are intended to be inactive textual references only.



 

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The Offering

 

Issuer

   Oragenics, Inc.

Class A Units Offered

   We are offering 1,470,588 Class A Units. Each Class A Unit consists of one share of common stock and a warrant to purchase one share of our common stock (together with the shares of common stock underlying such warrants).

Offering Price per Class A Unit

   $1.36 price for each Class A Unit.

Class B Units Offered

   We are also offering 5,882,352 Class B Units to purchasers who prefer not to beneficially own more than 4.99% (or, at the election of the purchaser, 9.99%) of our outstanding common stock following the consummation of this offering or who elect in their sole discretion to purchase Class B Units. Each Class B Unit will consist of one share of Series D Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share, convertible into one share of common stock and a warrant to purchase one share of our common stock (together with the shares of common stock underlying such shares of Series D Preferred Stock and such warrants).

Offering Price per Class B Unit

   $1.36 price for each Class B Unit.

Description of warrants

   The warrants will be exercisable beginning on the closing date and expire on the seventh anniversary of the closing date and have an initial exercise price per share equal to $                per share, subject to appropriate adjustment in the event of recapitalization events, stock dividends, stock splits, stock combinations, reclassifications, reorganizations or similar events affecting our common stock.

Description of Series D Preferred Stock

   Each share of Series D Preferred Stock is convertible at any time at the holder’s option into one share of common stock. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we shall not effect any conversion of Series D Preferred Stock, with certain exceptions, to the extent that, after giving effect to an attempted conversion, the holder of shares of Series D Preferred Stock (together with such holder’s affiliates, and any persons acting as a group together with such holder or any of such holder’s affiliates) would beneficially own a number of shares of our common stock in excess of 4.99% (or, at the election of the purchaser prior to the date of issuance, 9.99%) of the shares of our common stock then outstanding after giving effect to such exercise. For additional information, see “Description of Securities—Preferred Stock” on page 40 of this prospectus.

Shares of common stock underlying the warrants

   7,352,940 shares.

Shares of common stock outstanding before this offering(1)

   6,102,635 shares as of July 3, 2018.

Shares of common stock to be outstanding after this offering(1)

   7,573,223 shares, (13,455,575 shares on an as-converted basis, assuming the conversion in full of the Series D Preferred Stock.)

Shares of Series D Preferred Stock outstanding before this offering

   None.


 

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Shares of Series D Preferred Stock to be outstanding after this offering

   5,882,352 shares.

Over-allotment option

   We have granted the underwriters an option to purchase additional shares of common stock equal to 15% of the shares (including shares of common stock underlying the Series D Preferred Stock) in the offering and/or additional warrants equal to 15% of the warrants in the offering, in any combination thereof, at the public offering price per share of common stock and the public offering price per warrant set forth on the cover page hereto less the underwriting discounts and commission. This option is exercisable, in whole or in part, for a period of 45 days from the date of this prospectus.

Market for the Common Stock

   Our common stock is listed on the NYSE American under the symbol “OGEN”.

No listing of warrants

   We do not intend to apply for listing of the warrants on any securities exchange or trading system.

No listing of Series D Preferred Stock

   We do not intend to apply for listing of the Series D Preferred Stock on any securities exchange or trading system.

Risk Factors

   See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 12 and other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors that you should consider carefully before deciding to invest this offering.

 

(1) The number of shares of our common stock that will be outstanding immediately before and after this offering is based on 6,102,635 shares outstanding as of July 3, 2018 and excludes:

 

    2,261,703 shares of common stock issuable upon the conversion of preferred stock outstanding;

 

    3,466,058 shares issuable upon the exercise of warrants and options outstanding at a weighted average exercise price of $3.20 per share;

 

    1,620,617 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our Stock Incentive Plan;

 

    7,352,940 shares of our common stock initially issuable upon the exercise of the warrants to be sold as part of this offering; and

 

    5,882,352 shares of our common stock issuable upon the conversion of the Series D Preferred Stock to be sold as part of this offering.

Unless otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus also reflects and assumes no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares of our common stock and/or warrants to purchase shares of our common stock to cover overallotments, if any.

 



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should consider the following risk factors, as well as other information contained in this prospectus, before deciding to invest in our securities. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known or which we consider immaterial as of the date hereof may also have an adverse effect on our business. If any of the matters discussed in the following risk factors were to occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or prospects could be materially adversely affected, the market price of our common stock could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment in our securities.

Risks Related to Our Business

We have incurred significant losses since our inception and expect to continue to experience losses for the foreseeable future.

We have incurred significant net losses and negative cash flow in each year since our inception, including net losses of approximately $2.2 million and $2.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively and $6.7 million and $7.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2017, and 2016, respectively. As of March 31, 2018 our accumulated deficit was approximately $103.6 million. We have devoted a significant amount of our financial resources to research and development, including our nonclinical development activities and clinical trials. We expect that the costs associated with our exclusive channel partnerships with Intrexon in the area of lantibiotics (“Lantibiotics Program”) and with Intrexon’s subsidiary ActoBio Therapeutics, Inc. in the area of Oral Mucositis (“Oral Mucositis Program”) and the development and commercialization of our product candidates under the Lantibiotics Program (which includes MU1140 homologs) using Intrexon’s advanced transgene and cell engineering platforms will continue to increase the level of our overall expenses significantly going forward. As a result, we expect to continue to incur substantial net losses and negative cash flow for the foreseeable future. These losses and negative cash flows have had, and will continue to have, an adverse effect on our shareholders’ equity and working capital. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with product development and commercialization, we are unable to accurately predict the timing or amount of substantial expenses or when, or if, we will be able to generate the revenue necessary to achieve or maintain profitability.

We will need to raise additional capital in the future to complete the development and commercialization of our product candidates and operate our business.

Developing and commercializing biopharmaceutical products, including conducting nonclinical studies and clinical trials and establishing manufacturing capabilities, is expensive. We anticipate that our cash resources as of March 31, 2018 will be sufficient to fund our operations as presently structured through August 2018. However, changes may occur that would consume our existing capital prior to that time, including the scope and progress of our efforts to develop and commercialize our product candidates. Our actual costs may ultimately vary from our current expectations, which could materially impact our use of capital and our forecast of the period of time through which our financial resources will be adequate to support our operations. Our current cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments are not sufficient to fully implement our business strategy and sustain our operations over a longer period of time. Accordingly, we will need to seek additional sources of financing and such additional financing may not be available on favorable terms, if at all. Until we can generate a sufficient amount of product revenue, if ever, we expect to finance future cash needs through public or private equity offerings, debt financings or corporate collaboration and licensing arrangements. If we do not succeed in raising additional funds on acceptable terms, we may be unable to complete existing nonclinical and planned clinical trials or obtain approval of our product candidates from the FDA and other regulatory authorities. We expect capital outlays and operating expenditures to increase over the next several years as we expand our infrastructure, and research and development activities. Specifically, we need to raise additional capital to, among other things:

 

    conduct Phase 2 clinical trial on our AG013 product candidate;

 

    expand our clinical laboratory operations;

 

    fund our clinical validation study activities;

 

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    expand our research and development activities; and

 

    finance our capital expenditures and general and administrative expenses.

Our present and future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including:

 

    the level of research and development investment required to develop our current and future product candidates;

 

    costs of filing, prosecuting, defending and enforcing patent claims and other intellectual property rights;

 

    our need or decision to acquire or license complementary technologies or acquire complementary businesses;

 

    changes in test development plans needed to address any difficulties in product candidate selection for commercialization;

 

    competing technological and market developments;

 

    our interaction and relationship with the FDA, or other, regulatory agencies; and

 

    changes in regulatory policies or laws that affect our operations.

Additional capital may not be available on satisfactory terms, or at all. Furthermore, if we raise additional funds by issuing equity securities, dilution to our existing stockholders could result. Any equity securities issued also may provide for rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock. If we raise additional funds by issuing debt securities, these debt securities would have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock, and the terms of the debt securities issued could impose significant restrictions on our operations. If we raise additional funds through collaborations and licensing arrangements, we might be required to relinquish significant rights to our technologies or our products under development, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us, which could lower the economic value of those programs to us. If adequate funds are not available, we may have to scale back our operations or limit our research and development activities, which may cause us to grow at a slower pace, or not at all, and our business could be adversely affected.

In addition, we could be forced to discontinue product development and commercialization of one or more of our product candidates, curtail or forego sales and marketing efforts, and/or forego licensing attractive business opportunities.

Our auditor has expressed substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern and absent additional financing we may be unable to remain a going concern.

In light of our recurring losses, accumulated deficit and negative cash flow as described in our notes to our audited financial statements, the report of our independent registered public accounting firm on our financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017 contains an explanatory paragraph raising substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. Our financial statements do not include any adjustments that may be necessary in the event we are unable to continue as a going concern. If we are unable to establish to the satisfaction of our independent registered public accounting firm that the net proceeds from our financing efforts will be sufficient to allow for the removal of this going concern explanatory paragraph, we may need to significantly modify our operational plans for us to continue as a going concern. We believe we can continue our current level of operations with the cash we have on hand without additional financing through August 2018. Absent sufficient additional financing, we may be unable to remain a going concern.

If we are unable to successfully develop our product candidates, our operating results and competitive position could be harmed. Research and development involves a lengthy and complex process, and we may not be successful in our efforts to develop and commercialize our product candidates. The further development and ultimate commercialization of product candidates for lantibiotics and oral mucositis are keys to our growth strategy.

A key element of our strategy is to discover, develop, validate and commercialize a portfolio of additional antibiotic product candidates to combat multi drug resistant organism, or MDRO, outbreaks and the associated costs to patients, inpatient facilities and the health care industry and to develop, validate and commercialize a product

 

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candidate to treat oral mucositis. We cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully complete development of, or commercialize any of our planned future product candidates, or that they will be clinically usable. The product development process involves a high degree of risk and may take up to several years or more. Our new product development efforts may fail for many reasons, including:

 

    failure of future tests at the research or development stages;

 

    lack of clinical validation data to support the effectiveness of the test;

 

    delays resulting from the failure of third-party suppliers or contractors to meet their obligations in a timely and cost-effective manner;

 

    regulatory delays at the FDA;

 

    failure to obtain or maintain necessary certifications, licenses, clearances or approvals to market or perform the test; or

 

    lack of commercial acceptance by the health care marketplace.

Few research and development projects result in commercial products, and success in early clinical studies often is not replicated in later studies. At any point, we may abandon development of new products, or we may be required to expend considerable resources repeating clinical studies or trials, which would adversely impact the timing for generating potential revenues from those new products. In addition, as we advance the development of new products through to the commercialization stage, we will have to make additional investments in our sales and marketing operations, which may be prematurely or unnecessarily incurred if the commercial launch of a product is abandoned or delayed.

We may be unable to find a method to produce MU1140 homologs in large-scale commercial quantities. If we cannot, we will be unable to generate significant revenues from sales of our MU1140 homologs product candidate.

Our antibiotic product candidates, all homologs of MU1140, are produced by our strain of S. mutans and variants thereof. In March 2005 we successfully developed a methodology for producing MU1140 in quantities sufficient to undertake its nonclinical testing. In June of 2012 we entered into an exclusive collaboration agreement with Intrexon Corporation to use its advanced transgene and cell engineering platforms to achieve sufficient production quantities of MU1140. In 2016 we were able to transition manufacturing of OG716 to a third party manufacturer capable of fermenting quantities sufficient to conduct nonclinical studies. If we are not able to further adequately scale up fermentation and purification methodologies for large-scale manufacture, we will be unable to partner and generate revenues from this product candidate and our business, financial condition and results of operations will be materially adversely affected. The manufacturing of MU1140 homologs, including OG716 or any other possible antibiotic product candidates based on lantibiotics, is a highly exacting and complex process. Manufacturing MU1140 homologs, including OG716, or any other antibiotic candidates derived from lantibiotics on a commercial scale has not yet been achieved to our knowledge, so there are additional risks that such efforts will not be successful. The Intrexon technology may not be feasible to efficiently develop methodologies to enable large scale manufacturing of a MU1140 homolog or other antibiotic product candidates. Third-party manufacturers must have additional technical skills and must take multiple steps to attempt to control the manufacturing processes. If we are unable to produce MU1140 homologs in large-scale commercial quantities, we will be unable to generate significant revenues from sales of our MU1140 product candidate and our financial condition and results of operations will be materially adversely affected.

We do not have any product revenue since we sold our consumer probiotics business in June of 2016.

We do not currently have any product revenue since we sold our consumer probiotics business in June of 2016. Prior to the sale, revenues from sales of our ProBiora3 products were our sole source of product revenue.

 

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Our success will depend on our ability to obtain regulatory approval of our product candidates under our Lantibiotics Program and our Oral Mucositis Program and their successful commercialization.

Our product candidates under our Lantibiotics Program and Oral Mucositis Program have not received regulatory approval in any jurisdiction and they may never receive approval or, if approvals are obtained, may never be commercialized successfully. We have incurred and will continue to incur significant costs relating to the nonclinical and clinical development of our antibiotic product candidates (including MU1140 homologs we may develop) and oral mucositis product candidate, respectively. We have performed extensive nonclinical testing using native MU1140 and have since entered into an Exclusive Channel Collaboration Agreement with Intrexon. We began nonclinical activities on homologs of MU1140 in the second half of 2014. Those activities include toxicity results, physicochemical characterizations, and efficacy studies in animals. This work will be done solely by us through the use of outside contractors. If our nonclinical work is successful, and subject to sufficient available capital, we would expect to file an Investigational New Drug application with the FDA by the second half of 2018 for OG716. We initiated a Phase 2 clinical trial on our AG013 product candidate in 2017. Even if we are able to conduct successful clinical trials or the required regulatory approvals are obtained, we may never be able to generate significant revenues from our product candidates. If our product candidates are unsuccessful, we may be unable to generate sufficient revenues to sustain and grow our business, and our business, financial condition and results of operations will be materially adversely affected.

Our exclusive channel collaboration agreements with Intrexon and its wholly owned subsidiaries are based on early stage technologies in their fields.

Our exclusive channel collaboration agreements with Intrexon and its wholly owned subsidiaries contemplate the use of Intrexon’s advanced transgene and cell engineering platforms for the development and production of lantibiotics and AG013. Such technologies have a limited history of use in the design and development of active pharmaceutical ingredients and drug products involving direct administration and may therefore involve unanticipated risks or delays.

We will incur additional expenses in connection with our exclusive channel collaboration arrangements with Intrexon.

Pursuant to our exclusive channel collaborations with Intrexon under our Lantibiotics Program and Oral Mucositis Program, we are responsible for future research and development expenses of product candidates developed under such collaborations, including those incurred by Intrexon for research on our behalf as provided in the ECC Agreements with Intrexon. As a result we expect the level of our overall research and development expenses going forward will increase. The timing and amount of expenses under our ECCs are difficult to predict. Although all manufacturing, nonclinical studies and human clinical trials are expensive and difficult to design and implement, costs associated with the manufacturing, research and development of biologic product candidates are generally greater in comparison to small molecule product candidates. We expect to add additional personnel to support our Lantibiotics Program and Oral Mucositis Program with Intrexon.

Because our collaborations with Intrexon are in the early stage, future development costs associated with this program may be difficult to anticipate and exceed our expectations. Our actual cash requirements may vary materially from our current expectations for a number of other factors that may include, but are not limited to, unanticipated technical challenges, changes in the focus and direction of our development activities or adjustments necessitated by changes in the competitive landscape in which we operate. If we are unable to continue to financially support such collaborations due to our own working capital constraints, we may be forced to delay our activities. If we are unable to obtain additional financing on terms acceptable to us or at all, we may be forced to seek licensing partners or discontinue development, which in turn could lead to the termination of our ECC Agreements with Intrexon.

 

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We may not be able to retain the exclusive rights licensed to us by Intrexon to develop and commercialize lantibiotic products and AG013 related products.

Under our ECCs with Intrexon we are responsible for, among other things, funding the further anticipated development of lantibiotics and AG013 toward the goal of commercialization, conducting nonclinical and clinical development of product candidates, as well as for other aspects of manufacturing and the commercialization of the product(s). Intrexon may terminate such agreements if we do not perform certain specified requirements, including developing therapies identified to us and considered superior by Intrexon. In addition, we must commit $1.2 million in development costs through the end of 2018 to retain our lantibiotic ECC. There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully perform under the Oral Mucositis ECC or Lantibiotic ECC and if either ECC is terminated it would prevent us from achieving our business objectives.

Our success will depend on our ability to partner or sub-license our product candidates and their subsequent successful commercialization.

Our MU1140 homologs and AG013 product candidate are in early stage development and are expected to require partners with substantial financial resources to continue the development of each of these products to commercialization. In addition, none of these product candidates have received regulatory approval in any jurisdiction and they may never receive approval or, if approvals are obtained, may never be commercialized successfully. In addition, we do not know whether any of our clinical trials will be successful or can be completed within our current expected budget. For our MU1140 homologs and other antibiotic product candidates, we have performed extensive nonclinical testing using native MU1140 and expect to continue to pursue the nonclinical testing of our MU1140 homologs and other antibiotic product candidates during 2017 toward the goal of filing and IND in 2018. Even if we are able to partner and conduct successful clinical trials or the required regulatory approvals are obtained, we may never be able to generate significant revenues from our MU1140 homologs or other antibiotic product candidates or other product candidates. If our MU1140 homologs product candidate or our other product candidates under the Lantibiotics Program and Oral Mucositis Program or otherwise are unsuccessful, we may be unable to generate sufficient revenues to sustain and grow our business, and our business, financial condition and results of operations will be materially adversely affected.

Our financial results could vary significantly from quarter to quarter and are difficult to predict.

Our operating results could vary significantly from quarter to quarter due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. As a result, comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. In addition, we may not be able to predict our future revenues or results of operations. We base our current and future expense levels on our internal operating plans and sales forecasts, and our operating costs vary to the extent of our research and development and the candidate of clinical trials. As a result, we may incur significant or unanticipated expenses associated with our research and development efforts of our product candidates under development. In addition to other risk factors discussed in this section, factors that may contribute to the variability of our quarterly results include:

 

    the timing of release of pre-clinical and clinical trial results and new products and services by our competitors, particularly those that may represent a significant portion of revenues in any given period;

 

    the popularity of new products, and products released in prior periods;

 

    changes in pricing policies by us or our competitors;

 

    our success in entering new geographic markets;

 

    decisions by us to incur additional expenses, such as commencing a clinical trial or increases in research and development;

 

    the level of expenses associated with our clinical trials; and

 

    the timing of compensation expense associated with equity compensation grants.

As a result of these and other factors, our quarterly and annual operating results could be materially adversely affected. Moreover, our operating results may not meet the expectations of research analysts or investors, in which case the price of our common stock could decrease significantly.

 

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If we fail to comply with our obligations in the agreements with the University of Florida Research Foundation, Inc., under which we license our rights to MU1140, our license to that product candidate may be terminated and we will be unable to commercialize that product candidate.

We hold our MU1140 product candidate under a license from the University of Florida Research Foundation, Inc., or UFRF. We are required to make minimum annual maintenance payments to the UFRF for the term of the amended license agreement in the amount of $10,000. The minimum annual payments are required to be paid in advance on a quarterly basis (i.e. $2,500 per quarter) for the license. We are also required to pay all patent costs and expenses incurred by the UFRF for the preparation, filing, prosecution, issuance and maintenance of the patents.

The UFRF may terminate our licenses to MU1140 if we breach our obligations to timely pay these amounts, to submit development reports as required under the license agreement or commit any other breach of any other covenants contained in the license agreement and we fail to remedy such breach within 90 days after written notice of such breach by UFRF. There is no assurance that we will be able to comply with these conditions in a timely manner or at all. If our license agreement is terminated, we will be unable to commercialize the product candidate. If we are able to commercialize any product candidates, we are obligated to pay 5% of the selling price of any products developed from the licensed technologies that we may sell as royalty to the UFRF. In addition, if we sublicense any rights granted by the amended license agreements, we are obligated to pay the UFRF 22% of all revenues received from the sublicenses, excluding monies received solely for development costs. We are also obligated to make the following payments to UFRF as follows: a one-time commercialization fee, post-commercialization minimum royalty payments, and a one-time cumulative royalty payment. The one-time commercialization fee would be due on the first anniversary of first commercial sale and is calculated at $5,000 per month between (1) April 1, 2013 (for the MU1140 license agreement) and (2) the month of the first anniversary of a commercial sale. The post-commercialization minimum royalty payments of $50,000 annually would be due following payment of a commercialization fee. The one-time additional royalty payment would be due when total cumulative royalties paid to UFRF exceed $2.0 million, upon which we would be obligated to make a one-time additional payment to UFRF of 10% of the total royalties due to UFRF in the calendar year in which cumulative royalties exceeded $2.0 million. Until commercial sale of any products developed from these licensed product candidates takes place, we will not earn any revenues from these product candidates and will, therefore, need additional financing to fund our required maintenance payments and development expenses, such as through, the sale of our debt or equity securities, or otherwise. There can be no assurance that we will be able to raise the capital necessary to meet our obligations under our licenses. If we are unable to meet our obligations under these licenses, we may lose the licenses to these product candidates and our business, financial condition and results of operations will be materially adversely affected.

If our manufacturers in general fail to meet our requirements and the requirements of regulatory authorities, our research and development may be materially adversely affected.

We do not have the internal capability to manufacture MU1140 homologs, AG013, or any other product candidates under GMPs, as required by the FDA and other regulatory agencies. In order to continue to develop and commercialize our product candidates, apply for regulatory approvals for our product candidates, we will need to contract with third parties that have, or otherwise develop, the necessary manufacturing capabilities in full compliance with applicable regulatory requirements.

There are a limited number of manufacturers that operate under GMPs that are capable of manufacturing MU1140 homologs and our AG013 product candidate. Manufacturing on a commercial scale has not yet been undertaken and there are additional technical skills needed for the manufacture of MU1140 homologs that will further limit the number of potential manufacturers. As such, if we are unable to enter into supply and processing contracts with any of these manufacturers or processors for our MU1140 product candidates, or our AG013 product candidate for the conduct of clinical trials on such product candidate we may incur additional costs and delays in development and commercialization.

Problems with these manufacturing processes such as equipment malfunctions, facility contamination, labor problems, raw material shortages or contamination, natural disasters, power outages, terrorist activities, or disruptions in the operations of our suppliers and even minor deviations from normal procedures, could result in product defects or manufacturing failures that result in lot failures, product recalls, product liability claims and insufficient inventory or supply of product for the conduct of clinical trials.

 

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If we are required to find an additional or alternative source of supply, there may be additional costs and delays in the development, clinical trial timing, or commercialization of our product candidates. Additionally, the FDA and other regulatory agencies routinely inspect manufacturing facilities before approving a New Drug Application, or NDA, or Biologic License Application, or BLA, for a drug or biologic manufactured at those sites. If any of our manufacturers or processors fails to satisfy regulatory requirements, the approval and eventual commercialization of our commercial products and product candidates may be delayed.

All of our contract manufacturers must comply with the applicable GMPs, which include quality control and quality assurance requirements as well as the corresponding maintenance of records and documentation. If our contract manufacturers do not comply with the applicable GMPs and other FDA regulatory requirements, we may be subject to product liability claims, the availability of marketed products for sale could be reduced, our product commercialization could be delayed or subject to restrictions, we may be unable to meet demand for our products and may lose potential revenues and we could suffer delays in the progress of nonclinical testing and clinical trials for products under development. We do not have control over our third-party manufacturers’ compliance with these regulations and standards. Moreover, while we may choose to manufacture our products ourselves in the future, we have no experience in the manufacture of pharmaceutical or biological products for clinical trials or commercial purposes. If we decide to manufacture products, we would be subject to the regulatory requirements described above. In addition, we would require substantial additional capital and would be subject to delays or difficulties encountered in manufacturing pharmaceutical or biological products. Regardless of the manufacturer of our products, we will be subject to continuing obligations regarding the submission of safety reports and other post-market information.

We rely on the significant experience and specialized expertise of our senior management and scientific team and the loss of any of our key personnel could harm our business.

Our performance is substantially dependent on the continued services and on the performance of our senior management and scientific team, who have extensive experience and specialized expertise in our business. Our performance also depends on our ability to retain and motivate our other key employees. In June 2016, we hired Dr. Alan Joslyn as President and Chief Executive Officer and in February 2012 we hired Mr. Michael Sullivan, Certified Public Accountant as our Chief Financial Officer, Mr. Sullivan also served as our Interim Principal Executive Officer from October of 2014 through June of 2016. The loss of the services of senior management or any key employees could harm our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates. We have no key man life insurance policies.

We need to hire and retain additional qualified scientists and other highly skilled personnel to maintain and grow our business.

Our future success depends on our ability to identify, attract, hire, train, retain and motivate highly skilled technical, managerial and research personnel in all areas within our organization. We plan to continue to grow our business and will need to hire additional personnel to support this growth. We believe that there are only a limited number of individuals with the requisite skills to serve in many of our key positions, and we compete for key personnel with other biotechnology companies, as well as universities and research institutions. It is often difficult to hire and retain these persons, and we may be unable to replace key persons if they leave or be unable to fill new positions requiring key persons with appropriate experience. If we fail to attract, integrate and retain the necessary personnel, our ability to maintain and grow our business could suffer significantly.

If any of our product candidates are shown to be ineffective or harmful in humans, we will be unable to generate revenues from these product candidates.

Before obtaining regulatory approvals for the commercial sale of our product candidates, we must demonstrate through nonclinical testing and clinical trials that our products are safe and effective for use in humans. To date the testing of the antibiotic substance MU1140 homologs has been undertaken solely in the laboratory and in animals. We have not yet conducted human studies with any MU1140 homolog. To date, available clinical data for our AG013 product candidate has been limited to a Phase 1b clinical study. It is possible that when future lantibiotic studies are conducted in humans, they will show that our antibiotic candidates are ineffective or harmful in humans. If MU1140 homologs are shown to be ineffective or harmful in humans, we will be unable to commercialize and generate revenues from sales of this compound. It is possible that further clinical testing of our AG013 product candidates could reveal that it is ineffective. If we are unable to generate revenues from the first generation of MU1140 and homologs, or any other product candidates, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be materially adversely affected.

 

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We intend to rely on third parties to cover a portion of the costs associated with obtaining regulatory approval for, and manufacturing and marketing of, our product candidates. If we are unable to obtain agreements with third parties to fund these costs, we will have to fund such costs ourselves or we may be unable to extract any value from these technologies.

As we continue our development of product candidates, we intend to either license these product candidates to, or partner with, one or more major pharmaceutical companies at the earliest possible time in their product development. If we do so, we intend for these licensees or partners to pay the costs associated with any remaining development work, regulatory submissions, clinical trials and the manufacturing and marketing of our product candidates. If we are unable to license our product candidates or otherwise partner with third parties, we will have to fund the costs of our clinical trials ourselves or we will be unable to extract any value from these technologies. We will also have to establish our own manufacturing facilities and find our own distribution channels. This would greatly increase our future capital requirements and we cannot assure you that we would be able to obtain the necessary financing to pay these costs. If we are unable to cover the associated costs or we cannot obtain financing on acceptable terms or at all, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be materially adversely affected.

Our dependence on collaborative arrangements with third parties subjects us to a number of risks. These collaborative arrangements may not be on terms favorable to us. Agreements with collaborative partners typically allow partners significant discretion in electing whether or not to pursue any of the planned activities. We cannot control the amount and timing of resources our collaborative partners may devote to products based on the collaboration, and our partners may choose to pursue alternative products. Our partners may not perform their obligations as expected. Business combinations or significant changes in a collaborative partner’s business strategy may adversely affect a partner’s willingness or ability to complete its obligations under the arrangement. Moreover, we could become involved in disputes with our partners, which could lead to delays or termination of the collaborations and time-consuming and expensive litigation or arbitration. Even if we fulfill our obligations under a collaborative agreement, our partner may be able to terminate the agreement under certain circumstances. If any collaborative partner were to terminate or breach our agreement with it, or otherwise fail to complete its obligations in a timely manner, our chances of successfully commercializing our product candidates would be materially and adversely affected.

If our intellectual property rights do not adequately protect our products or product candidates, or if third parties claim we are infringing their intellectual property rights, others could compete against us more directly or we could be subject to significant litigation. Such results could prevent us from marketing our products or product candidates and hurt our profitability.

Our product and product candidates are protected by patents and patent applications, including patents exclusively licensed from the University of Florida Research Foundation, Inc. (“UFRF”) and Texas A&M University. We are the exclusive worldwide licensee to the patents for MU1140, which are owned by the UFRF. Our success depends in part on our ability to obtain patents or rights to patents, protect trade secrets, operate without infringing upon the proprietary rights of others, and prevent others from infringing on our patents, trademarks and other intellectual property rights. We will be able to protect our intellectual property from unauthorized use by third parties only to the extent that it is covered by valid and enforceable patents, trademarks and licenses. Patent protection generally involves complex legal and factual questions and, therefore, enforceability of patent rights cannot be predicted with certainty. Patents, if issued, may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented. Thus, any patents that we own or license from others may not provide adequate protection against competitors. In addition, any future patent applications may fail to result in patents being issued. Also, those patents that are issued may not provide us with adequate proprietary protection or competitive advantages against competitors with similar product candidates. Moreover, the laws of certain foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws of the United States.

 

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In addition to patents and trademarks, we rely on trade secrets and proprietary know-how. We seek protection of these rights, in part, through confidentiality and proprietary information agreements. These agreements may not provide meaningful protection or adequate remedies for violation of our rights in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure of confidential and proprietary information. Failure to protect our proprietary rights could seriously impair our competitive position.

In the event of an infringement or violation, we may face litigation and may be prevented from pursuing product development or commercialization. We may receive in the future, notice of claims of infringement of other parties’ proprietary rights. We may not have the financial resources to defend against claims of infringement by other parties or to prosecute third parties for infringement of our intellectual property. Infringement or other claims could be asserted or prosecuted against us in the future and it is possible that past or future assertions or prosecutions could harm our business.

Our product candidates are subject to substantial government regulation, including the regulation of nonclinical testing and clinical trials. If we are unable to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates we will be unable to generate revenues.

The production and marketing of products which may be developed from our MU1140 homologs, from our Lantibiotics Program and Oral Mucositis Program or otherwise and our research and development, nonclinical testing and clinical trial activities are subject to extensive regulation and review by numerous governmental authorities. Most of the product candidates we are developing must undergo rigorous nonclinical testing and clinical trials and an extensive regulatory approval process before they can be marketed in the United States or internationally.

If we fail to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, we may have to cease further development. Clinical trials on our product candidates are expected to take several years to fully complete. The commencement or completion of nonclinical studies or clinical trials can be delayed or prevented for a number of reasons, including:

 

    an inability to raise sufficient capital to commence, conduct, or complete clinical trials;

 

    difficulties in finding a partner with the resources to support large and expensive clinical development and commercialization costs;

 

    findings in nonclinical studies;

 

    difficulties obtaining regulatory approval to commence a clinical trial or complying with conditions imposed by a regulatory authority regarding the scope or term of a clinical trial;

 

    delays in reaching or failing to reach agreement on acceptable terms with prospective contract research organizations, or CROs, and trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;

 

    insufficient or inadequate supply or quality of a product candidate or other materials necessary to conduct our clinical trials;

 

    difficulties obtaining institutional review board, or IRB, approval to conduct a clinical trial at a prospective site;

 

    challenges recruiting and enrolling patients to participate in clinical trials for a variety of reasons, including the size and nature of patient population, proximity of patients to clinical sites, eligibility criteria for the trial, nature of the trial protocol, the availability of approved effective treatments for the relevant condition and competition from other clinical trial programs for similar indications;

 

    severe or unexpected drug or biologic-related side effects experienced by patients in a clinical trial; and

 

    difficulties retaining patients who have enrolled in a clinical trial but may be prone to withdraw due to rigors of the trial, lack of efficacy, side effects, or personal issues, or who are lost to further follow up.

 

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Clinical trials also may be delayed or terminated as a result of ambiguous or negative interim results. In addition, a clinical trial may be suspended or terminated by us, the FDA, the IRBs at the sites where the IRBs are overseeing a trial, or a data safety monitoring board, or DSMB, overseeing the clinical trial at issue, or other regulatory authorities due to a number of factors, including:

 

    failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical protocols;

 

    inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial sites by the FDA or other regulatory authorities;

 

    inspection of manufacturing and drug packaging operations by regulatory authorities;

 

    unforeseen safety issues or lack of effectiveness; and

 

    lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial.

We cannot assure you that clinical trials will demonstrate the safety or effectiveness of any of our product candidates, or will otherwise satisfy regulatory requirements. Our nonclinical studies or clinical trials may produce negative or inconclusive results, there may be inconsistencies between early clinical trial results and results obtained in later clinical trials, and we may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional nonclinical studies or clinical trials. Moreover, nonclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses, and many companies that have believed their product candidates performed satisfactorily in nonclinical studies and clinical trials have nonetheless failed to obtain FDA approval for their products. If we are unable to resolve the FDA’s concerns, we will not be able to obtain regulatory approval for these product candidates.

The pre-marketing approval process can be particularly expensive, uncertain and lengthy, and a number of products for which FDA or other governmental regulatory approval has been sought by other companies have never been approved for marketing. In addition to testing and approval procedures, extensive regulations also govern marketing, manufacturing, distribution, labeling, and record-keeping procedures. If we do not comply with applicable regulatory requirements, such violations could result in warning letters, non-approval, suspensions of regulatory approvals or ongoing clinical trials, civil penalties and criminal fines, product seizures and recalls, operating restrictions, injunctions, and criminal prosecution.

We may encounter such delays and rejection of our product candidates by the FDA or other regulatory authority may also adversely affect our business. Such delays or rejection may be encountered due to, among other reasons, government or regulatory delays, lack of efficacy during clinical trials, unforeseen safety issues, or changes in regulatory policy during the period of product development. More stringent regulatory approval processes in product clearance and enforcement activities could result in our experiencing longer approval cycles, more uncertainty, greater risk, and higher expenses. Even if regulatory approval of a product is granted, this approval may entail limitations on uses for which the product may be labeled and promoted. It is possible, for example, that we may not receive FDA approval to market products based on our licensed, patented product candidates for different indications or to market updated products that represent extensions of our basic product candidates. In addition, we may not receive FDA approval to export our products based on our licensed, patented product candidates in the future, and countries to which products are to be exported may not approve them for import.

From time to time, legislative or regulatory proposals are introduced that could alter the review and approval process relating to our product candidates. It is possible that the applicable regulatory authority will issue additional regulations further restricting the sale of our product candidates. Any change in legislation or regulations that govern the review and approval process relating to our future product candidates could make it more difficult and costly to obtain approval for new products based on our product candidates, or to produce, market, and distribute such products if approved.

We may be unable to obtain regulatory approval for AG013 or other early-stage product candidates under applicable regulatory requirements. The FDA and foreign regulatory bodies have substantial discretion in the approval process, including the ability to delay, limit or deny approval of product candidates. The delay, limitation or denial of any regulatory approval would adversely impact commercialization, our potential to generate revenue, our business and our operating results.

We are not permitted to market any of our current product candidates in the United States until we receive approval of an NDA or BLA from the FDA. We are also not permitted to market any of our current product candidates in any foreign countries until we receive the requisite approval from the applicable regulatory authorities of such countries. Failure to obtain such regulatory approvals will delay or prevent us from commercializing any of our current or future product candidates.

 

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To gain approval to market a new drug such as OG716, or a new biological product such as AG013, we must provide the FDA and/or foreign regulatory authorities with, among other things, extensive preclinical and clinical data that adequately demonstrates the safety and efficacy of the drug in its intended indication and information to demonstrate the adequacy of the manufacturing methods to assure the drug’s identity, strength, quality and purity. The development and approval of new drug product candidates involves a long, expensive and uncertain process, and delay or failure can occur at any stage. A number of companies in the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries have suffered significant setbacks in clinical trials, including in Phase 3 clinical development, even after promising results in earlier preclinical studies or clinical trials. These setbacks have been caused by, among other things, observations during clinical trials regarding safety or efficacy, such as previously unreported adverse events. Success in preclinical testing and early clinical trials does not ensure success in later clinical trials, and the results of clinical trials by other parties may not be indicative of the results in trials we may conduct. Further, different results may be achieved depending upon whether the “per protocol”, or PP, analysis is used to report data results or whether the “modified intent-to-treat,” or MITT, approach is used. Accordingly, regardless of the outcome of any Phase 2 trials, our Phase 3 trials may not be successful.

In the case of our product candidate, AG013, because it is a biological product, in order to ensure product consistency, quality, and purity, we must ensure the manufacturing process remains substantially the same over time. The systems used to produce biological products can be sensitive to very minor changes in the manufacturing process. Small process differences can significantly affect the nature of the finished biological product, and more importantly, the way it functions in the body. We will have to tightly control the source and nature of starting materials, and consistently employ numerous process controls that assure predictable manufacturing outcomes. Our ability to ensure that the manufacturing process remains stable over time may be difficult to establish. In addition, for a novel biological product, there may be uncertainties regarding the size and design of our clinical trials to establish safety, efficacy, purity or potency, and there are no assurances that data generated in any clinical trials we might conduct will be acceptable to the FDA or foreign regulatory bodies to support marketing approval.

The FDA and foreign regulatory bodies have substantial discretion in the drug approval process, including the ability to delay, limit or deny approval of product candidates for many reasons. The FDA or the applicable foreign regulatory body may:

 

    disagree with the design or implementation of one or more clinical trials;

 

    decline to deem a product candidate safe and effective for its proposed indication, or deem a product candidate’s safety or other perceived risks to outweigh its clinical or other benefits.

 

    find the data from preclinical studies and clinical trials does not sufficiently support approval, or the results of clinical trials may not meet the level of statistical or clinical significance required for approval;

 

    disagree with our interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical trials performed by us or third parties;

 

    determine the data collected from clinical trials are insufficient to support the submission or approval of an NDA or other applicable regulatory filing.

 

    require additional preclinical studies or clinical trials;

 

    identify deficiencies in the formulation, quality control, labeling or specifications of our current or future product candidates;

 

    grant approval contingent on the performance of costly additional post-approval clinical trials;

 

    approve our current or any future product candidates for a more limited indication or a narrower patient population than we originally requested or with strong warnings that may affect marketability;

 

    decline to approve the labeling that we believe is necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of our product candidates;

 

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    require a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy, or REMS, with monitoring requirements or distribution limitations. For example, it is possible that the FDA could require distribution controls in the approval, if any, of our product candidates to prevent inadvertent exposure to pregnant women;

 

    decline to approve of the manufacturing processes, controls or facilities of third-party manufacturers or testing labs with whom we contract; or

 

    change its approval policies or adopt new regulations in a manner rendering our clinical data or regulatory filings insufficient for approval.

Any delay, limitation or denial of any regulatory approval would adversely impact commercialization, our potential to generate revenue, our business and our operating results.

Delays or difficulties in the enrollment of patients in clinical trials may result in additional costs and delays in our ability to generate significant revenues, and may delay or prevent our receipt of any regulatory approvals necessary to commercialize our planned and future products.

We may not be able to initiate or continue, or complete in a timely fashion clinical trials for AG013 or other product candidates if we are unable to locate and enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients to participate in these trials as required by the FDA or similar regulatory authorities outside the United States. In addition, some of our competitors are currently conducting clinical trials for product candidates that treat the same indications as AG013, and patients who are otherwise eligible for our clinical trials may instead enroll in clinical trials of our competitors’ product candidates.

Patient enrollment is affected by other factors including:

 

    the severity of the disease under investigation;

 

    the eligibility criteria for the study in question;

 

    the perceived risks and benefits of the product candidate under study;

 

    the efforts to facilitate timely enrollment in clinical trials;

 

    the patient referral practices of physicians;

 

    the ability to monitor patients adequately during and after treatment; and

 

    the proximity and availability of clinical trial sites for prospective patients.

Our inability to enroll a sufficient number of patients for our clinical trials would result in significant delays, could require us to abandon one or more clinical trials altogether and could delay or prevent our receipt of necessary regulatory approvals. Enrollment delays in our clinical trials may result in increased development costs for our product candidates, which would cause the value of our company to decline and impede our ability to obtain additional financing.

Use of Patient Reported Outcome (“PROs”) in our AG013 clinical trials may delay the development of AG013 or increase our development costs.

Due to the difficulty of objectively measuring the efficacy of AG013, PROs may have an important role in the development and regulatory approval of our AG013 product candidate. PROs involve patients’ subjective assessments of efficacy, and this subjectivity increases the uncertainty in determining clinical endpoints. Such assessments can be influenced by factors outside of our control, and can vary widely from day-to-day for a particular patient, and from patient-to-patient and site-to-site within a clinical trial. Furthermore, we intend to use PROs in our planned Phase 2 clinical program for AG013 and if the FDA does not accept or requires changes to the PRO, this could delay clinical development of AG013, increase our costs and necessitate additional clinical trials.

 

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We have limited experience in the conduct of clinical trials and have never obtained approval of any product candidates, and may be unable to do so successfully.

As a company, we have limited experience in conducting clinical trials or progressing a product candidate through to regulatory approval. In part because of this lack of experience, our clinical trials may require more time and incur greater costs than we anticipate. We cannot be certain that planned clinical trials will begin or conclude on time, if at all. Large-scale trials would require significant additional financial and management resources, and reliance on third-party clinical investigators, CROs and/or consultants. Any performance failure on the part of such third parties could delay clinical development or delay or prevent us from obtaining regulatory approval or commercializing our current or future product candidates, depriving us of potential product revenue and resulting in additional losses.

Any product candidates that we commercialize will be subject to ongoing and continued regulatory review.

Even after we achieve U.S. regulatory approval for a product candidate, if any, we will be subject to continued regulatory review and compliance obligations. For example, the FDA may impose significant restrictions on the approved indicated uses for which our product candidates may be marketed or on the conditions of approval. A product candidate’s approval may contain requirements for potentially costly post-approval studies and surveillance, including Phase 4 clinical trials or a REMS to monitor the safety and efficacy of the product. We will also be subject to ongoing FDA obligations and continued regulatory review with respect to, among other things, the manufacturing, processing, labeling, packaging, distribution, adverse event reporting, storage, advertising, promotion and recordkeeping for our product candidates. These requirements include submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration, continued compliance with the FDA’s good clinical practice, or GCP, requirements and good laboratory practice requirements, which are regulations and guidelines the FDA would apply to all of our product candidates in clinical and preclinical development, along with any clinical trials that we conduct post-approval, and continued compliance with the FDA’s cGMP requirements pursuant to which manufacturing facilities are subject to continual review and periodic inspections by the FDA. To the extent that a product candidate is approved for sale in other countries, we may be subject to similar restrictions and requirements imposed by laws and government regulators in those countries.

If we, our product candidates or the manufacturing facilities for our product candidates fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, a regulatory agency may:

 

    impose restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of the product, suspend or withdraw product approvals or revoke necessary licenses;

 

    issue warning letters, show cause notices or untitled letters describing alleged violations, which may be publicly available;

 

    mandate modifications to promotional materials or require us to provide corrective information to healthcare practitioners;

 

    require us to enter into a consent decree, which can include imposition of various fines, reimbursements for inspection costs, required due dates for specific actions and penalties for noncompliance; commence criminal investigations and prosecutions;

 

    impose injunctions;

 

    impose other civil or criminal penalties;

 

    suspend any ongoing clinical trials;

 

    delay or refuse to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications filed by us;

 

    refuse to permit drugs or active ingredients to be imported or exported to or from the United States;

 

    suspend or impose restrictions on operations, including costly new manufacturing requirements; or

 

    seize or detain products or require us to initiate a product recall.

 

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The regulations, policies or guidance of the FDA and other applicable government agencies may change and new or additional statutes or government regulations may prevent or delay regulatory approval of our product candidates or further restrict or regulate post-approval activities. We cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of adverse government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative action, either in the United States or abroad. If we are not able to achieve and maintain regulatory compliance, we may not be permitted to market our product candidates, which would materially and adversely affect our ability to generate revenue and achieve or maintain profitability.

Our product candidates may cause serious or undesirable side effects or possess other unexpected properties that could delay or prevent their regulatory approval, limit the commercial profile of approved labeling or result in post-approval regulatory action.

Unforeseen side effects from any of our product candidates could arise either during clinical development or, if approved, after marketing such product. Undesirable side effects caused by product candidates could cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, modify, delay or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restrictive label or the delay or denial of regulatory approval by the FDA or comparable foreign authorities. Results of clinical trials could reveal a high and unacceptable severity and prevalence of side effects. In such an event, trials could be suspended or terminated and the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities could order us to cease further development of or deny approval of product candidates for any or all targeted indications. The drug-related side effects could affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled patients to complete the trial or result in product liability claims. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.

Additionally, if we or others identify undesirable side effects, or other previously unknown problems, caused by our product candidates after obtaining U.S. or foreign regulatory approval or other products with the same or related active ingredients, a number of potentially negative consequences could result, including:

 

    regulatory authorities may withdraw their approval of the product;

 

    regulatory authorities may require a recall of the product or we may voluntarily recall a product;

 

    regulatory authorities may require the addition of warnings or contraindications in the product labeling, narrowing of the indication in the product label or issuance of field alerts to physicians and pharmacies;

 

    we may be required to create a medication guide outlining the risks of such side effects for distribution to patients or institute a REMS;

 

    we may be subject to limitations as to how we promote the product;

 

    we may be required to change the way the product is administered or modify the product in some other way;

 

    the FDA or applicable foreign regulatory authority may require additional clinical trials or costly post-marketing testing and surveillance to monitor the safety or efficacy of the product;

 

    sales of the product may decrease significantly;

 

    we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients; and

 

    our brand and reputation may suffer.

Any of the above events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the affected product candidate and could substantially increase the costs of commercializing our product candidates.

 

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If any of our product candidates are approved for marketing and we are found to have improperly promoted off-label uses, or if physicians misuse our products or use our products off-label, we may become subject to prohibitions on the sale or marketing of our products, product liability claims and significant fines, penalties and sanctions, and our brand and reputation could be harmed.

The FDA and other regulatory agencies strictly regulate the marketing and promotional claims that are made about drug products. In particular, a product may not be promoted for uses or indications that are not approved by the FDA or such other regulatory agencies as reflected in the product’s approved labeling. If we are found to have promoted off-label uses of any of our product candidates, we may receive warning or untitled letters and become subject to significant liability, which would materially harm our business. Both federal and state governments have levied large civil and criminal fines against companies for alleged improper promotion and have enjoined several companies from engaging in off-label promotion. If we become the target of such an investigation or prosecution based on our marketing and promotional practices, we could face similar sanctions, which would materially harm our business. In addition, management’s attention could be diverted from our business operations, significant legal expenses could be incurred and our brand and reputation could be damaged. The FDA has also requested that companies enter into consent decrees or permanent injunctions under which specified promotional conduct is changed or curtailed. If we are deemed by the FDA to have engaged in the promotion of our products for off-label use, we could be subject to FDA regulatory or enforcement actions, including the issuance of an untitled letter, a warning letter, injunction, seizure, civil fine or criminal penalties. It is also possible that other federal, state or foreign enforcement authorities might take action if they determine our business activities constitute promotion of an off-label use, which could result in significant penalties, including criminal, civil or administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations.

We cannot, however, prevent a physician from using our product candidates in ways that fall outside the scope of the approved indications, as he or she may deem appropriate in his or her medical judgment. Physicians may also misuse our product candidates or use improper techniques, which may lead to adverse results, side effects or injury and, potentially, subsequent product liability claims. Furthermore, the use of our product candidates for indications other than those cleared by the FDA and/or other regulatory agencies may not effectively treat such conditions, which could harm our brand and reputation among both physicians and patients.

We may also be subject to healthcare laws, regulation and enforcement and our failure to comply with those laws could adversely affect our business, operations and financial condition.

Certain federal and state healthcare laws and regulations pertaining to fraud and abuse and patients’ rights are and will be applicable to our business. We are subject to regulation by both the federal government and the states in which we conduct our business. The laws and regulations that may affect our ability to operate include:

 

    the federal healthcare program anti-kickback statute, which prohibits, among other things, any person or entity from knowingly and willfully offering, soliciting, receiving or providing any remuneration (including any kickback, bribe or rebate), directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, to induce either the referral of an individual or in return for the purchase, lease, or order of any good, facility item or service, for which payment may be made, in whole or in part, under federal healthcare programs such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs;

 

    federal civil and criminal false claims laws and civil monetary penalty laws, including, for example, the United States False Claims Act, which impose criminal and civil penalties, including civil whistleblower or qui tam actions, against individuals or entities for, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, to the federal government, including the Medicare and Medicaid programs, claims for payment that are false or fraudulent or making a false statement to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government;

 

   

the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, or HIPAA, which prohibits knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or obtain, by means of false or fraudulent pretenses, representations

 

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or promises, any of the money or property owned by, or under the custody or control of, any healthcare benefit program, regardless of the payor (i.e., public or private), knowingly and willfully embezzling or stealing from a health care benefit program, willfully obstructing a criminal investigation of a health care offense and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up by any trick or device a material fact or making any materially false statements in connection with the delivery of, or payment for, healthcare benefits, items or services relating to healthcare matters;

 

    HIPAA and related implementing regulations, which impose obligations on covered entities, including healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses, as well as their respective business associates that create, receive, maintain or transmit individually identifiable health information for or on behalf of a covered entity, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information;

 

    the federal physician sunshine requirements under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, or ACA, which require manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies to report annually to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services information related to payments and other transfers of value provided to physicians and teaching hospitals, and ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members, with such information published on a searchable website on an annual basis; and

 

    state law equivalents of each of the above federal laws, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws, which may apply to items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including commercial insurers; state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the applicable compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government, or otherwise restrict payments that may be provided to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources; state laws that require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to healthcare providers or marketing expenditures; and state laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts.

Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the statutory exceptions and safe harbors available, it is possible that some of our business activities could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws. In addition, recent health care reform legislation has strengthened these laws. For example, the recently enacted ACA, among other things, amended the intent requirement of the federal anti-kickback statute and certain criminal healthcare fraud statutes. A person or entity no longer needs to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it. In addition, the ACA provides that the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal anti-kickback statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the federal civil False Claims Act.

Achieving and sustaining compliance with these laws may prove costly. In addition, any action against us for violation of these laws, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any other governmental laws or regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to penalties, including administrative, civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, the exclusion from participation in federal and state healthcare programs, individual imprisonment or the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could materially and adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our financial results.

Our employees, independent contractors, principal investigators, consultants, vendors and CROs may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements.

We are exposed to the risk that our employees, independent contractors, principal investigators, consultants, vendors and CROs may engage in fraudulent or other illegal activity. Misconduct by these persons could include intentional, reckless or negligent conduct or unauthorized activity that violates: laws or regulations, including those laws requiring the reporting of true, complete and accurate information to the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities;

 

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manufacturing standards; federal, state and foreign healthcare fraud and abuse laws and data privacy; or laws that require the true, complete and accurate reporting of financial information or data. In particular, sales, marketing and other business arrangements in the healthcare industry are subject to extensive laws intended to prevent fraud, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws may restrict or prohibit a wide range of business activities, including research, manufacturing, distribution, pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. Activities subject to these laws also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of clinical trials, or illegal misappropriation of drug product, which could result in regulatory sanctions or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to comply with such laws or regulations, and serious harm to our reputation. In addition, federal procurement laws impose substantial penalties for misconduct in connection with government contracts and require certain contractors to maintain a code of business ethics and conduct. If any such actions are instituted against us, we may have to terminate employees or others involved and the impact of such termination can result in our experiencing delays and additional costs associated with replacing the services being provided. If we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, monetary fines, possible exclusion from participation in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs, FDA debarment, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, and curtailment of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our operating results.

Even if our current product candidates or any future product candidates obtain regulatory approval, they may fail to achieve the broad degree of physician and patient adoption and use necessary for commercial success.

The commercial success of any of our current or future product candidates, if approved, will depend significantly on the broad adoption and use of the resulting product by physicians and patients for approved indications, and may not be commercially successful. The degree and rate of physician and patient adoption of our current or future product candidates, if approved, will depend on a number of factors, including:

 

    the clinical indications for which the product is approved and patient demand for approved products that treat those indications;

 

    the effectiveness of our product as compared to other available therapies;

 

    the availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement from managed care plans and other healthcare payors for any of our product candidates that may be approved;

 

    the cost of treatment with our product candidates in relation to alternative treatments and willingness to pay for the product, if approved, on the part of patients;

 

    acceptance by physicians, major operators of clinics and patients of the product as a safe and effective treatment;

 

    physician and patient willingness to adopt a new therapy over other available therapies to treat approved indications;

 

    in the case of oral mucositis, patients’ perceptions of the condition as one for which medical treatment may be appropriate and a prescription therapy may be available;

 

    overcoming any biases physicians or patients may have toward particular therapies for the treatment of approved indications;

 

    proper training and administration of our product candidates by physicians and medical staff;

 

    patient satisfaction with the results and administration of our product candidates and overall treatment experience;

 

    the willingness of patients to pay for certain of our product candidates relative to other discretionary items, especially during economically challenging times;

 

    the revenue and profitability that our product candidate may offer a physician as compared to alternative therapies;

 

    the prevalence and severity of side effects;

 

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    limitations or warnings contained in the FDA-approved labeling for our product candidates;

 

    any FDA requirement to undertake a REMS;

 

    the effectiveness of our sales, marketing and distribution efforts;

 

    adverse publicity about our product candidates or favorable publicity about competitive products; and

 

    potential product liability claims.

If any of our current or future product candidates are approved for use but fail to achieve the broad degree of physician and patient adoption necessary for commercial success, our operating results and financial condition will be adversely affected, which may delay, prevent or limit our ability to generate revenue and continue our operations.

If we are unable to achieve and maintain coverage and adequate levels of reimbursement for any of our product candidates for which we receive regulatory approval, or any future products we may seek to commercialize, their commercial success may be severely hindered.

As to any of our product candidates that become available by prescription only, our success will depend on the availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement for our product from third-party payors. Patients who are prescribed medicine for the treatment of their conditions generally rely on third-party payors to reimburse all or part of the costs associated with their prescription drugs. The availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement from governmental healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, and private third-party payors is critical to new product acceptance. Coverage decisions may depend upon clinical and economic standards that disfavor new drug products when more established or lower cost therapeutic alternatives are already available or subsequently become available. If any of our product candidates fail to demonstrate attractive efficacy profiles, they may not qualify for coverage and reimbursement. Even if we obtain coverage for a given product, the resulting reimbursement payment rates might not be adequate or may require co-payments that patients find unacceptably high. Patients are unlikely to use our prescription-only products unless coverage is provided and reimbursement is adequate to cover a significant portion of the cost of our products.

In addition, the market for certain of our product candidates will depend significantly on access to third-party payors’ drug formularies, or lists of medications for which third-party payors provide coverage and reimbursement. The industry competition to be included in such formularies often leads to downward pricing pressures on pharmaceutical companies. Also, third-party payors may refuse to include a particular branded drug in their formularies or otherwise restrict patient access to a branded drug when a less costly generic equivalent or other alternative is available.

Further, third-party payors, whether foreign or domestic, or governmental or commercial, are developing increasingly sophisticated methods of controlling healthcare costs. In addition, in the United States, although private third-party payors tend to follow Medicare, no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement for drug products exists among third-party payors. Therefore, coverage and reimbursement for drug products can differ significantly from payor to payor. As a result, the coverage determination process is often a time-consuming and costly process that will require us to provide scientific and clinical support for the use of our product candidates to each payor separately, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be obtained.

Further, we believe that future coverage and reimbursement will likely be subject to increased restrictions in both the United States and in international markets. Third-party coverage and reimbursement for any of our product candidates for which we may receive regulatory approval may not be available or adequate in either the United States or international markets, which could harm our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.

Our product candidates, if approved, will face significant competition and our failure to compete effectively may prevent us from achieving significant market penetration.

The pharmaceutical industry is characterized by rapidly advancing technologies, intense competition and a strong emphasis on developing proprietary therapeutics. Numerous companies are engaged in the development, patenting, manufacturing and marketing of healthcare products competitive with those that we are developing. We face

 

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competition from a number of sources, such as pharmaceutical companies, including generic drug companies, biotechnology companies and academic and research institutions, many of which have greater financial resources, marketing capabilities, sales forces, manufacturing capabilities, research and development capabilities, clinical trial expertise, intellectual property portfolios, experience in obtaining patents and regulatory approvals for product candidates and other resources than us. Some of the companies that offer competing products also have a broad range of other product offerings, large direct sales forces and long-term customer relationships with our target physicians, which could inhibit our market penetration efforts. In addition, certain of our product candidates, if approved, may compete with other products, for a share of some patients’ discretionary budgets and for physicians’ attention within their clinical practices .

We anticipate that, if we obtain regulatory approval of our product candidates, we will face significant competition from other approved therapies and may need to compete with unregulated, unapproved and off-label treatments. Certain of our product candidates, if approved, will present novel therapeutic approaches for the approved indications and will have to compete with existing therapies, some of which are widely known and accepted by physicians and patients. To compete successfully in this market, we will have to demonstrate that the relative cost, safety and efficacy of our approved products, if any, provide an attractive alternative to existing and other new therapies. Such competition could lead to reduced market share for our product candidates and contribute to downward pressure on the pricing of our product candidates, which could harm our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.

Due to less stringent regulatory requirements in certain foreign countries, there are many more products and procedures available for use in those international markets than are approved for use in the United States. In certain international markets, there are also fewer limitations on the claims that our competitors can make about the effectiveness of their products and the manner in which they can market them. As a result, we expect to face more competition in these markets than in the United States.

We may face product liability exposure, and if successful claims are brought against us, we may incur substantial liability if our insurance coverage for those claims is inadequate.

We face an inherent risk of product liability as a result of the clinical testing of our product candidates and will face an even greater risk if we commercialize any products. This risk exists even if a product is approved for commercial sale by the FDA and manufactured in facilities regulated by the FDA or an applicable foreign regulatory authority. Our products and product candidates are designed to affect bodily functions and processes. Any side effects, manufacturing defects, misuse or abuse associated with our product candidates could result in injury and possibly death to a patient. An inability to obtain sufficient insurance coverage on commercially reasonable terms or otherwise to protect against potential product liability claims could inhibit our business.

In addition, a liability claim may be brought against us even if our product candidates merely appear to have caused an injury. Product liability claims may be brought against us by consumers, healthcare providers, pharmaceutical companies or others selling or otherwise coming into contact with our product candidates, among others. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against product liability claims we will incur substantial liabilities and reputational harm. In addition, regardless of merit or eventual outcome, product liability claims may result in:

 

    withdrawal of clinical trial participants;

 

    termination of clinical trial sites or entire trial programs;

 

    the inability to commercialize our product candidates;

 

    decreased demand for our product candidates;

 

    impairment of our brand and/or reputation;

 

    product recall or withdrawal from the market or labeling, marketing or promotional restrictions;

 

    substantial costs of any related litigation or similar disputes;

 

    distraction of management’s attention and other resources from our primary business;

 

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    substantial monetary awards to patients or other claimants against us that may not be covered by insurance; or

 

    loss of revenue.

Although we maintain product liability insurance coverage for clinical trials, our insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all of our product liability-related expenses or losses and may not cover us for any expenses or losses we suffer. Moreover, insurance coverage is becoming increasingly expensive, and, in the future, we may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost, in sufficient amounts or upon adequate terms to protect us against losses due to product liability, particularly if any of our product candidates receive regulatory approval. Further, a successful product liability claim or series of claims brought against us could cause our stock price to decline and, if judgments exceed our insurance coverage, could decrease our cash and harm our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.

We may choose not to continue developing or commercializing any of our product candidates at any time during development or after approval, which would reduce or eliminate our potential return on investment for those product candidates.

At any time, we may decide to discontinue the development or commercialization of any of our products or product candidates for a variety of reasons, including inadequate financial resources the appearance of new technologies that render our product obsolete, competition from a competing product or changes in or failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements. If we terminate a program in which we have invested significant resources, we will not receive any return on our investment and we will have missed the opportunity to allocate those resources to potentially more productive uses.

Failure to obtain marketing approval in international jurisdictions would prevent our product candidates from being marketed abroad.

In order to market and sell our products in the European Union and many other jurisdictions, we or our third-party collaborators must obtain separate marketing approvals and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements. The approval procedure varies among countries and can involve additional testing. The time required to obtain approval may differ substantially from that required to obtain FDA approval. The regulatory approval process outside the United States generally includes all of the risks associated with obtaining FDA approval. In addition, in many countries outside the United States, it is required that the product be approved for reimbursement before the product can be approved for sale in that country. We or these third parties may not obtain approvals from regulatory authorities outside the United States on a timely basis, if at all. Approval by the FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions, and approval by one regulatory authority outside the United States does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions or by the FDA. We may not be able to file for marketing approvals and may not receive necessary approvals to commercialize our products in any market.

We will need to further increase the size and complexity of our organization in the future, and we may experience difficulties in executing our growth strategy and managing our growth.

Our current management, personnel, systems and facilities are not adequate to support our future growth plans. We will need to further expand our scientific, sales and marketing, operational, financial and other resources to support our planned research, development, clinical trial work, and commercialization activities.

To manage our operations, growth and various projects effectively, we must:

 

    continue to improve our operational, financial, management and regulatory compliance controls and reporting systems and procedures;

 

    attract and retain sufficient numbers of talented employees;

 

    develop a marketing, sales, and distribution capability;

 

    manage our commercialization activities for our product candidates effectively;

 

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    establish and maintain relationships with development and commercialization partners;

 

    manage our preclinical and clinical trials effectively;

 

    manage our third-party supply and manufacturing operations effectively and in a cost-effective manner, while increasing production capabilities for our current product candidates to commercial levels; and

 

    manage our development efforts effectively while carrying out our contractual obligations to partners and other third parties.

In addition, we have utilized and continue to utilize the services of part-time outside consultants to perform a number of tasks for us, including tasks related to preclinical and clinical testing. Our growth strategy may also entail expanding our use of consultants to implement these and other tasks going forward. We rely on consultants for certain functions of our business and will need to effectively manage these consultants to ensure that they successfully carry out their contractual obligations and meet expected deadlines. There can be no assurance that we will be able to manage our existing consultants or find other competent outside consultants, as needed, on economically reasonable terms, or at all. If we are not able to manage our growth effectively and expand our organization by hiring new employees and expanding our use of consultants, we might be unable to implement successfully the tasks necessary to execute effectively on our planned research, development and commercialization activities and, accordingly, might fail to achieve our research, development and commercialization goals.

We may be adversely affected by natural disasters and other catastrophic events, and by man-made problems such as terrorism, that could disrupt our business operations and our business continuity and disaster recovery plans may not adequately protect us from a serious disaster.

Our corporate headquarters are located in Tampa, Florida, a hurricane zone. If a disaster, power outage or other event occurred that prevented us from using all or a significant portion of our headquarters, that damaged critical infrastructure, such as enterprise financial systems, manufacturing resource planning or enterprise quality systems, or that otherwise disrupted operations, it may be difficult or, in certain cases, impossible for us to continue our business for a substantial period of time. Our contract manufacturers’ and suppliers’ facilities are located in multiple locations, where other natural disasters or similar events, such as blizzards, tornadoes, fires, explosions or large-scale accidents or power outages, could severely disrupt our operations and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects. In addition, acts of terrorism and other geo-political unrest could cause disruptions in our business or the businesses of our partners, manufacturers or the economy as a whole. All of the aforementioned risks may be further increased if we do not implement a disaster recovery plan or our partners’ or manufacturers’ disaster recovery plans prove to be inadequate. To the extent that any of the above should result in delays in the regulatory approval, manufacture, distribution or commercialization of our product candidates, our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects would suffer.

Changes in patent law or patent jurisprudence could diminish the value of patents in general, thereby impairing our ability to protect our product candidates.

The United States has recently enacted and is currently implementing wide-ranging patent reform legislation. Further, recent United States Supreme Court rulings have either narrowed the scope of patent protection available in certain circumstances or weakened the rights of patent owners in certain situations. In addition to increasing uncertainty with regard to our ability to obtain patents in the future, this combination of events has created uncertainty with respect to the scope and value of patents, once obtained.

For our U.S. patent applications containing a priority claim after March 16, 2013, there is a greater level of uncertainty in the patent law. In September 2011, the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, also known as the America Invents Act, or AIA, was signed into law. The AIA includes a number of significant changes to U.S. patent law, including provisions that affect the way patent applications will be prosecuted and may also affect patent litigation. The United States Patent and Trademark Office (the “USPTO”) is currently developing regulations and procedures to govern administration of the AIA, and many of the substantive changes to patent law associated with the AIA. It is not clear what other, if any, impact(s) the AIA will have on the operation of our business. Moreover, the AIA and its implementation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications

 

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and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents, all of which could have an adverse effect on our business. One important change introduced by the AIA is that, as of March 16, 2013, the United States transitioned to a “first-to-file” system for deciding which party should be granted a patent when two or more patent applications are filed by different parties claiming the same invention. A third party who files a patent application with the USPTO after such date but prior to us may therefore be awarded a patent covering an invention of ours even if we were the first to invent. This “first-inventor-to-file” system will require us both to remain cognizant, going forward, of the timing between invention and filing of a patent application.

Among some of the other changes introduced by the AIA are those that (i) limit where a patentee may file a patent infringement suit and (ii) provide opportunities for third parties to challenge any issued patent in the USPTO. Such changes apply to all of our U.S. patents, even those issued prior to March 16, 2013. Because of a lower evidentiary standard in USPTO proceedings, as compared to the evidentiary standard applied in U.S. federal courts, necessary to invalidate a patent claim, a third party could potentially present evidence in a USPTO proceeding sufficient for the USPTO to find a claim invalid, notwithstanding that the same evidence would be insufficient to invalidate a claim first presented in a district court action. Accordingly, a third party may attempt opportunistically to use USPTO procedures to invalidate our patent claims.

Depending on decisions by the United States Congress, the U.S. federal courts, the USPTO or similar authorities in foreign jurisdictions, the laws and regulations governing patents could change in unpredictable ways that may weaken our and our licensors’ abilities to obtain new patents or to enforce existing patents we and our licensors or partners may obtain in the future.

If we are unable to protect our trademarks from infringement, our business prospects may be harmed.

We have applied for trademark protection for trademarks in the United States, the European Union and China. Although we take steps to monitor the possible infringement or misuse of our trademarks, it is possible that third parties may infringe, dilute or otherwise violate our trademark rights. Any unauthorized use of our trademarks could harm our reputation or commercial interests. In addition, our enforcement against third-party infringers or violators may be unduly expensive and time-consuming, and any remedy obtained may constitute insufficient redress relative to the damages we may suffer.

We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights throughout the world.

Filing, prosecuting and defending patents on our product candidates in all countries throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive. The requirements for patentability may differ in certain countries, particularly developing countries. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as laws in the United States. Consequently, we may not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our inventions in all countries outside the United States. Competitors may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection to develop their own products and, further, may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we have patent protection insufficient to guard against such infringement. These products may compete with our products, and our patents or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from competing.

The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents and other intellectual property protection, particularly those relating to pharmaceuticals. In such instances, we may be unable to enjoin or otherwise prevent infringement of our patents or marketing of competing products in violation of our proprietary rights, generally. Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could (i) result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, (ii) put our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and our patent applications at risk of not issuing and (iii) provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. In addition, certain countries in Europe and certain developing countries have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner may be compelled to grant licenses to third parties. In those countries, we may be unable to seek adequate remedies to address infringement and/or material diminishment of the value of our patents, which could limit our potential revenue opportunities in such jurisdictions. Accordingly, our efforts to establish or enforce our intellectual property rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from our intellectual property. Finally, our ability to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights may be adversely affected by unforeseen changes in foreign intellectual property laws.

 

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If we fail to comply with our obligations under our intellectual property license agreements with Intrexon, we could lose our license rights that are important to our business and development of our product candidates.

We are a party to two ECC agreements with Intrexon that impose various royalty and other obligations on us. If we fail to comply with these obligations, Intrexon may have the right to terminate the license, in which event we may not be able to develop or market the affected product candidate. Both ECC agreements may be terminated in the event of a breach. The loss of such rights could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.

If we are sued for infringing intellectual property rights of third parties, it will be costly and time-consuming and an unfavorable outcome in that litigation could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our commercial success depends upon our ability to develop, manufacture, market, and sell our product candidates and use our proprietary technologies without infringing the proprietary rights of third parties. We cannot guarantee that marketing and selling such candidates and using such technologies will not infringe existing or future patents. Numerous U.S. and foreign issued patents and pending patent applications owned by third parties exist in the fields relating to our product candidates. As the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries expand and more patents issue, the risk increases that others may assert that our product candidates, technologies or methods of delivery or use infringe their patent rights. Moreover, it is not always clear to industry participants, including us, which patents cover various drugs, biologics, drug delivery systems or their methods of use, and which of these patents may be valid and enforceable. Thus, due to the large number of patents issued and patent applications filed in our fields, third parties may allege they have patent rights encompassing our product candidates, technologies or methods.

In addition, our product candidates or proprietary technologies may infringe patents owned and/or filed by third parties, or third parties may allege such infringement. Because (i) some patent applications in the United States may be maintained in secrecy until the patents are issued, (ii) patent applications in the United States and many foreign jurisdictions are typically not published until 18 months after filing and (iii) publications in the scientific literature often lag behind actual discoveries, we cannot be certain that others have not filed patent applications for technology covered by our own and in-licensed issued patents or our pending applications. Our competitors may have filed, and may in the future file, patent applications covering our product candidates or technology similar to ours. Any such patent application may have priority over our own and in-licensed patent applications or patents, which could further require us to obtain rights to issued patents covering such technologies. If another party has filed a U.S. patent application on inventions similar to those owned or in-licensed to us, we or, in the case of in-licensed technology, the licensor may have to participate, in the United States, in an interference proceeding to determine priority of invention.

We may be exposed to, or threatened with, future litigation by third parties having patent or other intellectual property rights alleging that our product candidates or proprietary technologies infringe such third parties’ intellectual property rights, including litigation resulting from filing under Paragraph IV of the Hatch-Waxman Act. Such lawsuits can be costly and could adversely affect our operating results and divert the attention of managerial and technical personnel, even if we do not infringe such patents or the patents asserted against us are later invalidated. A court may, however, decide that we are infringing the third party’s patents and order us to cease the activities covered by the patents. In addition, there is a risk that a court will order us to pay to such third party damages for having violated the other party’s patents.

As a result of patent infringement claims, or to avoid potential claims, we may choose or be required to seek licenses from third parties. These licenses may not be available on commercially acceptable terms, or at all. Even if we are able to obtain a license, the license would likely obligate us to pay license fees or royalties or both, and the rights granted to us might be nonexclusive, which could result in our competitors gaining access to the same intellectual property, or such rights might be restrictive and limit our present and future activities. Ultimately, we or a licensee could be prevented from commercializing a product, or forced to cease some aspect of our business operations, if, as a result of actual or threatened patent infringement claims, we are unable to enter into licenses on acceptable terms.

 

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In addition to possible infringement claims against us, we may become a party to other patent litigation and other proceedings, including interference, derivation, re-examination or other post-grant proceedings declared or granted by the USPTO, and similar proceedings in foreign countries, regarding intellectual property rights with respect to our current or future products.

There is a substantial amount of litigation involving patent and other intellectual property rights in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, generally. To date, no litigation asserting infringement claims has ever been brought against us. If a third party claims that we infringe its intellectual property rights, we may face a number of issues, including:

 

    infringement and other intellectual property claims which, regardless of merit, may be expensive and time-consuming to litigate and may divert our management’s attention from our core business;

 

    substantial damages for infringement, which we may have to pay if a court decides that the product or technology at issue infringes or violates the third party’s rights, and if the court finds that the infringement was willful, we could be ordered to pay treble damages and the patent owner’s attorneys’ fees;

 

    a court prohibiting us from selling or licensing the product or using the technology unless the third party licenses its intellectual property rights to us, which it is not required to do;

 

    if a license is available from a third party, we may have to pay substantial royalties or upfront fees or grant cross-licenses to intellectual property rights for our products or technologies; and

 

    redesigning our products or processes so they do not infringe, which may not be possible or may require substantial monetary expenditures and time.

Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of complex patent litigation more effectively than we can because they have substantially greater resources. In addition, any uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of any litigation could harm our ability to raise additional funds or otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.

Because we rely on certain third-party licensors and partners, and will continue to do so in the future, if one of our licensors or partners is sued for infringing a third party’s intellectual property rights, our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects could suffer in the same manner as if we were sued directly. In addition to facing litigation risks, we have agreed to indemnify certain third-party licensors and partners against claims of infringement caused by our proprietary technologies, and we have entered or may enter into cost-sharing agreements with some our licensors and partners that could require us to pay some of the costs of patent litigation brought against those third parties whether or not the alleged infringement is caused by our proprietary technologies. In certain instances, these cost-sharing agreements could also require us to assume greater responsibility for infringement damages than our technology alone would otherwise suggest.

We may become involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents or other intellectual property or the patents of our licensors, which could be expensive and time-consuming.

Competitors may infringe our intellectual property, including our patent applications or the patents of our licensors. As a result, we may be required to file infringement claims to stop third-party infringement or unauthorized use. Such proceedings and/or litigation can be expensive – particularly for a company of our size – and time-consuming. In addition, in an infringement proceeding, a court may decide that a patent of ours is not valid or is unenforceable, or may refuse to enjoin the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our patent claims do not cover its technology or that the factors necessary to grant an injunction are not satisfied. An adverse determination in such case could put one or more of our patents at risk of being invalidated, interpreted narrowly or amended such that they fail to cover or otherwise protect our product candidates. Moreover, such adverse determinations could subject our patent applications to the risk that they will not issue, or issue with limited and potentially inadequate scope to cover our product candidates.

 

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Interference, derivation or other proceedings brought at the USPTO may be necessary to determine the priority or patentability of inventions with respect to our patent applications or those of our licensors or potential partners. Litigation or USPTO proceedings brought by us may fail or may be invoked against us by third parties. Even if we are successful, domestic or foreign litigation, or USPTO or foreign patent office proceedings may result in substantial costs and distraction to our management. We may not be able, alone or with our licensors or potential partners, to prevent misappropriation of our proprietary rights, particularly in countries where the laws may not protect such rights as fully as in the United States.

Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation or other proceedings, there is a risk that we may, intentionally or incidentally, disclose some of our confidential results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments or public access to related documents. If investors perceive these results to be negative, the market price for our common stock could be significantly harmed.

Our business and operations would suffer in the event of failures in our internal computer systems or those of our collaborators.

Despite the implementation of security measures, our internal computer systems and those of our current and any future partners, contractors and consultants are vulnerable to damage from computer viruses, unauthorized access, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures. While we have not experienced any such material system failure, accident or security breach to date, if such an event were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a material disruption of our development programs and our business operations. For example, the loss of manufacturing records or clinical trial data from completed or future clinical trials could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. To the extent that any disruption or security breach were to result in a loss of, or damage to, our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability and the further development of our product candidates could be delayed.

We cannot assure you that the market and consumers will accept our products or product candidates. If they do not, we will be unable to generate significant revenues from our products or product candidates and our business, financial condition and results of operations will be materially adversely affected.

The commercial success of our MU1140 and homologs antibiotic product candidates, and any of our other product candidates and technologies, will depend in part on market acceptance by consumers. Biopharmaceutical companies have received substantial support from the scientific community, regulatory agencies and many governmental officials in the United States and internationally. Future scientific developments, media coverage and political events may diminish such support. Public attitudes may be influenced by claims that health products are unsafe for consumption or pose unknown risks to the environment or to traditional social or economic practices. Securing governmental approvals for, and consumer confidence in, such products poses numerous challenges, particularly outside the United States. The market success of product candidates developed by biopharmaceutical companies could be delayed or impaired in certain geographical areas as a result. Products based on our product candidates may compete with a number of traditional dental therapies and drugs manufactured and marketed by major pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology companies. Market acceptance of products based on our product candidates will depend on a number of factors including potential advantage over alternative treatment methods. We can offer you no assurance that dentists, physicians, patients or the medical and dental communities in general will accept and utilize products developed from our product candidates. If they do not, we may be unable to generate significant revenues from our product candidates and our business, financial condition and results of operations will be materially adversely affected.

If our products do not receive favorable third-party reimbursement, or if new restrictive legislation is adopted, market acceptance of our products may be limited and we may not generate significant revenues.

Our ability to commercialize our products will depend in part on the extent to which appropriate reimbursement levels for the cost of our proposed formulations and products and related treatments are obtained by governmental authorities, private health insurers and other organizations, such as Health Maintenance Organizations, or HMOs. Reimbursement from third parties depends greatly on our ability to present data which demonstrate positive outcomes and reduced utilization of other products or services as well as cost data which show that treatment costs using the new product are equal to or less than what is currently covered for other products. If our products do not receive favorable third-party reimbursement and patients are unwilling or unable to pay for our products out-of-pocket, it could limit our revenues and harm our business.

 

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The continuing efforts of government and insurance companies, health maintenance organizations and other payers of healthcare costs to contain or reduce costs of health care may affect our future revenues and profitability, and the future revenues and profitability of our potential customers, suppliers and collaborative partners and the availability of capital. For example, in certain foreign markets, pricing or profitability of prescription pharmaceuticals is subject to government control. In the United States, recent federal and state government initiatives have been directed at lowering the total cost of health care. In March 2010, President Obama signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, a sweeping law intended to broaden access to health insurance, reduce or constrain the growth of healthcare spending, enhance remedies against fraud and abuse, add new transparency requirements for healthcare and health insurance industries, impose new taxes and fees on the health industry and impose additional health policy reforms. Federal and state legislatures will likely continue to focus on health care reform, controlling the cost of prescription pharmaceuticals and on the reform of the Medicare and Medicaid systems. While we cannot predict whether any such legislative or regulatory proposals will be adopted, the announcement or adoption of such proposals could materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud which could subject us to regulatory sanctions, harm our business and operating results and cause the trading price of our stock to decline.

Effective internal controls required under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Sarbanes-Oxley Act, are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and effectively prevent fraud. If we cannot provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, our business, reputation and operating results could be harmed. We have discovered, and may in the future discover, areas of our internal controls that need improvement. We cannot be certain that the measures we have taken or intend to take will ensure that we maintain adequate controls over our financial processes and reporting in the future. Any failure to implement required new or improved controls or difficulties encountered in their implementation could subject us to regulatory sanctions, harm our business and operating results or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. Inferior internal controls could also harm our reputation and cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative impact on the trading price of our stock.

The recently passed U.S. federal income tax reform could adversely affect us.

On December 22, 2017, U.S. federal tax legislation, commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA), was signed into law, significantly reforming the U.S. Internal Revenue Code. The TCJA, among other things, includes changes to U.S. federal tax rates, limitation of the deduction for net operating losses to 80% of current year taxable income and elimination of net operating loss carrybacks. We have evaluated the effect of the TCJA on our net operating losses for the quarter and the year ending December 31, 2017. The estimated impact of the TCJA is based on our management’s current knowledge and assumptions and recognized impacts could be materially different from current estimates based on our actual results and our further analysis of the new law. The impact of the TCJA on holders of common shares is uncertain and could be adverse. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, filed with the SEC on February 16, 2018, does not discuss any such tax legislation or the manner in which it might affect holders of our common stock. Investors should consult with their own tax advisors with respect to such legislation and the potential tax consequences of investing in our common stock.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

We had previously received a non-compliance letter from the NYSE American and we cannot assure you that our shares will continue to be listed on the NYSE American.

The listing of our common stock on the NYSE American is contingent on our compliance with the NYSE American’s continued listing standards. On May 10, 2016, we were notified by the NYSE American (formerly known as NYSE MKT) that we were no longer in compliance with the NYSE American continued listing standards

 

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because our last reported stockholders’ equity was below continued listing standards. Specifically, we are not in compliance with Section 1003(a)(iii) (requiring stockholders’ equity of $6.0 million or more if it has reported losses from continuing operations and/or net losses in its five most recent fiscal years). As of December 31, 2015, we had stockholders’ equity of $4.7 million. We were required to submit a plan to the NYSE American by June 10, 2016 advising of actions we have taken or will take to regain compliance with the continued listing standards by November 10, 2017.

We submitted a plan by the June 10, 2016 deadline and were notified that NYSE Regulation has accepted the Company’s plan to regain compliance with the NYSE American exchange’s continued listing standards set forth in Sections 1003(a)(ii) and 1003(a)(iii) of the NYSE American Company Guide (the “Company Guide”) by November 10, 2017, subject to periodic review by the NYSE American for compliance with the initiatives set forth in the plan. On November 9, 2017, the Company filed a Form 8-K report with the Securities and Exchange Commission announcing that its Stockholders’ Equity was $6,929,555 on a pro-forma basis. With this information provided, the NYSE American determined the Company had resolved the continued listing deficiency with respect to Section 1003(a)(i), Section 1003(a)(ii) and Section 1003(a)(iii) of the Guide. In a letter dated November 10, 2017, the NYSE American notified the Company that it had successfully regained compliance with the NYSE American continued listing standards.

Going forward, the Company will be subject to the NYSE American’s normal continued listing monitoring. In addition, in the event that the Company is again determined to be noncompliant with any of the NYSE American’s continued listing standards within twelve (12) months of the notice, the NYSE American will consider the relationship between the Company’s previous noncompliance and such new event of noncompliance and take appropriate action which may include implementing truncated compliance procedures or immediately initiating delisting proceedings.

A delisting of our common stock from the NYSE American could negatively affect the price and liquidity of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital in the future.

Our principal shareholders have the ability to affect all actions requiring shareholder approval and your interests as a shareholder may conflict with the interests of those persons.

As of July 3, 2018, the KFLP, together with members of the Koski family, beneficially owns approximately 27.9% of our outstanding shares of common stock (which could increase to 34.1% upon the KFLP’s conversion of Series B convertible preferred stock and exercise of outstanding warrants to acquire common stock) and Intrexon, together with its CEO, beneficially owns approximately 25.4% of our outstanding shares of common stock. Additionally, Robert C. Koski, serves on our Board of Directors. As a result, our principal shareholders have the ability to affect the outcome of all matters requiring shareholder approval, including the election and removal of directors, amending our charter or by-laws, and agreeing to or preventing mergers, consolidations or the sale of all or substantially all our assets. In particular, this concentration of ownership of our common stock could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control of us or otherwise discouraging or preventing a potential acquirer from attempting to obtain control of us. This, in turn, could have a negative effect on the market price of our common stock. It could also prevent our shareholders from realizing a premium over the market price for their shares of common stock. Moreover, the interests of this concentration of ownership may not always coincide with our interests or the interests of other shareholders, and, accordingly, our majority shareholders could cause us to enter into transactions or agreements that we would not otherwise consider. The significant concentration of stock ownership may also adversely affect the trading price of our common stock due to investors’ perception that conflicts of interest may exist or arise. However with respect to Intrexon, the Stock Issuance Agreement we entered into with Intrexon on June 9, 2015, contains a standstill provision pursuant to which, among other things, Intrexon has agreed that until June 9, 2018, subject to certain exceptions and unless invited in writing by the Company to do so, neither Intrexon nor its affiliates will, directly or indirectly: (i) effect or seek, initiate, offer or propose to effect, or cause or participate in any acquisition of securities or assets of the Company; any tender or exchange offer, merger, consolidation or other business combination involving the Company; any recapitalization, restructuring, liquidation, dissolution or other extraordinary transaction with respect to the Company; or any “solicitation” of “proxies” or consents to vote any voting securities of the Company, or in any way advise or, assist any other person in doing so; (ii) form, join or in any way participate in a “group” with respect to any securities of the Company; (iii) otherwise act to seek to control or influence the management, Board of Directors or policies of the Company;

 

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(iv) take any action reasonably expected to force the Company to make a public announcement regarding any such matters; or (v) enter into any agreements, discussions or arrangements with any third party with respect to any of the foregoing. This standstill provision could also have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control that our shareholders might consider to be in their best interests.

Our Series C preferred stock has a preference senior to all other classes of stock in distribution and liquidation and our Series A and Series B preferred stock, if not converted into common stock, will also have a distribution and liquidation preference senior to our common stock in liquidation either of which could negatively affect the value of our common stock and impair our ability to raise additional capital.

On November 8, 2017 we issued to Intrexon Corporation (“Intrexon”) approximately $3.4 million of equity in the form of 100 shares of Series C, Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock (the “Series C Preferred Stock”). The shares of Series C are entitled to (payment-in-kind (“PIK”) dividends thereon at the annual rate of twelve percent (12%) (the “Initial Rate”) of its Stated Value , payable by issuing additional shares of Series C Preferred Stock within thirty days after the end of each calendar year pro-rata for partial years. The Initial Rate is subject to increase to twenty percent (20%) automatically after May 10, 2019. Upon Liquidation of the Company, whether voluntary or involuntary, each holder of shares of Series C Preferred Stock is entitled to receive, in preference to the holders of Common Stock, Series A Preferred Stock, Series B Preferred Stock and to all other equity securities issued by the Company from time to time (the “Junior Securities”), an amount of cash equal to the product of the number of shares of Series C Non-Convertible Preferred Stock then held by such holder, multiplied by the Stated Value per share of Series C Non-Convertible Preferred Stock plus any accrued but unpaid dividends (the “Series C Liquidation Amount”) and no distributions or payments shall be made in respect of any Junior Securities unless all Series C Liquidation Amounts, if any, are first paid in full. The “Stated Value” shall mean $33,847.9874 per share. On January 25, 2018 we paid a dividend on our Series C Preferred Stock to Intrexon of 1.733 shares for the portion of the 2017 the Series C Preferred was outstanding.

On November 8, 2017, we issued $3.3 million of Series B Non-Voting, Convertible Preferred Stock (the “Series B Preferred Stock”) pursuant to which upon Liquidation each holder of shares of Series B Preferred Stock shall be entitled to receive, after payment to the Series C Preferred Stock, but on par with Series A Convertible Preferred Stock and in preference to the holders of Common Stock, an amount of cash equal to the greater of (i) the product of the number of shares of Series B Preferred Stock then held by such holder, multiplied by the Series B Original Issue Price; and (ii) the amount that would be payable to such holder in the Liquidation in respect of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of such shares of Series B Preferred Stock if all outstanding shares of Series B Preferred Stock were converted into Common Stock immediately prior to the Liquidation.

In May and July of 2017, we issued an aggregate of $3.0 million of Series A Non-Voting, Convertible Preferred Stock (the “Series A Preferred Stock”) pursuant to which upon Liquidation each holder of shares of Series A Preferred Stock shall be entitled to receive, after payment to the Series C Preferred Stock, but on par with Series B Convertible Preferred Stock and in preference to the holders of Common Stock, an amount of cash equal to the greater of (i) the product of the number of shares of Series A Preferred Stock then held by such holder, multiplied by the Series B Original Issue Price; and (ii) the amount that would be payable to such holder in the Liquidation in respect of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of such shares of Series A Preferred Stock if all outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock were converted into Common Stock immediately prior to the Liquidation.

As such, our Series C preferred stock is senior to all other classes of stock in distribution and liquidation and our Series A and Series B preferred stock, if not converted into common stock, will also be senior to our common stock in distribution and liquidation if such shares are not converted into common stock, which could negatively affect the value of our common stock and impair our ability to raise additional capital.

The conversion of our Series A Preferred Stock and Series B Preferred Stock and the exercise of currently outstanding warrants could result in significant dilution to the holders of our common stock.

The holders of our Series A Preferred Stock and Series B Preferred Stock may convert their shares of preferred stock into shares of common stock. As an example on March 9, 2018, an investor converted 2,583,000 shares of Series A Preferred stock into 258,300 shares of common stock. Following such conversion and as of April 17, 2018, on a post reverse split basis, we had outstanding: (i) 9,417,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock outstanding, which are

 

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convertible into 941,701 shares of common stock and (ii) 6,600,000 shares of Series B Preferred Stock, which are convertible into 1,320,002 shares of common stock. In addition to our outstanding shares of preferred stock, as of July 3, 2018, there were currently outstanding warrants to purchase 3,077,425 shares of our common stock. The conversion of our Series A Preferred Stock and Series B Preferred Stock, as well as the exercise of our outstanding warrants could result in significant dilution to existing common shareholders, adversely affect the market price of our common stock and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities.

The issuance of additional equity securities by us in the future would result in dilution to our existing common shareholders.

Our board of directors has authority, without action or vote of our shareholders, to issue all or a part of our authorized but unissued shares, except where shareholder approval is required by law. Any issuance of additional equity securities by us in the future could result in dilution to our existing common shareholders. Such issuances could be made at a price that reflects a discount or a premium to the then-current trading price of our common stock. In addition, our business strategy may include expansion through internal growth by acquiring complementary businesses, acquiring or licensing additional products or brands, or establishing strategic relationships with targeted customers and suppliers. In order to do so, or to finance the cost of our other activities, we may issue additional equity securities that could result in further dilution to our existing common shareholders. These issuances would dilute the percentage ownership interest of our existing common shareholders, which would have the effect of reducing their influence on matters on which our shareholders vote, and might dilute the book value of our common stock. For example, we have recently issued a significant number of shares of our common stock in connection with financings and establishing strategic relationships and as a result our outstanding shares of common stock have increased from 2,738,283 shares as of December 31, 2012 to 6,102,635 shares as of July 3, 2018.

In connection with the Oral Mucositis ECC we entered into on June 9, 2015 and which was amended in November of 2017, we will be required, at our option, to pay up to $37.5 million cash to Intrexon or issue up to $37.5 million of additional shares of our common stock to Intrexon upon meeting certain milestone events.

You may also incur additional dilution if performance awards are made pursuant to any long term incentive programs for executives and non-employee directors we may put into place or holders of stock options, whether currently outstanding or subsequently granted, exercise their options, or if warrant holders exercise their warrants to purchase shares of our common stock.

For example, during the year ended December 31, 2013 we issued an aggregate of 72,709 shares of our common stock to our executive officers and non-employee directors pursuant to performance awards under a long term incentive program which expired on December 31, 2014. During the quarters ended March 31, 2015, March 31, 2016 and March 2017, as part of our non-employee director compensation program we issued an aggregate of 20,000, 20,000, and 16,000 restricted shares of our common stock, respectively, to our non-employee directors under the Company’s 2012 Equity Incentive Plan.

Certain provisions of our articles of incorporation, bylaws, executive employment agreements and stock option plan may prevent a change of control of our company that a shareholder may consider favorable.

Provisions of our articles of incorporation, bylaws, executive employment agreements and stock option plan may discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of our company that a shareholder may consider favorable. These provisions include:

 

    authorization of the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock that could be issued by our Board of Directors without shareholder approval and that may be substantially dilutive or contain preferences or rights objectionable to an acquirer;

 

    the ability of our Board of Directors to amend the bylaws without shareholder approval;

 

    vacancies on our Board may only be filled by the remaining directors and not our shareholders;

 

    requirements that only our Board, our President or holders of more than 10% of our shares can call a special meeting of shareholders;

 

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    obligations to make certain payments under executive employment agreements in the event of a change of control and termination of employment; and

 

    immediate vesting of all outstanding stock options.

As a result, these provisions could discourage bids for our common stock at a premium and limit the price that investors are willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock. However, in our articles of incorporation we expressly elected not to be governed by Sections 607.0901 and 607.0902 of the Florida Business Corporation Act, which are statutory anti-takeover provisions relating to affiliated transactions and control share acquisitions, respectively. As such, we do not have the protection of these statutes in connection with any unwanted takeover attempts which could have the effect of encouraging an attempted change of control without first negotiating with our Board of Directors.

We cannot assure you that our listing on the NYSE American will increase the liquidity of our common stock or that our shares will continue to be listed on the NYSE American.

Our common stock commenced trading on the NYSE American (formerly the NYSE MKT) on April 10, 2013, and we are subject to certain NYSE American continued listing requirements and standards. Historically the daily trading volume of our shares is relatively low which has made our common stock significantly less liquid and there can be no assurance that liquidity will increase as a result of being listed on the NYSE American. We may also incur costs that we have not previously incurred for expenses for compliance with the rules and requirements of the NYSE American. We cannot provide any assurance that we will be able to continue to satisfy the requirements of the NYSE American’s continued listing standards. A delisting of our common stock could negatively affect the price and liquidity of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital in the future.

Our stock price has historically been volatile and the trading volume of our stock has been low.

The trading price of our common stock has historically been, and may in the future be, subject to wide fluctuations in response to a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control. These factors include:

 

    our level of, and expected future use of, working capital;

 

    quarter-to-quarter variations in our operating results;

 

    our perceived funding needs;

 

    the results of testing, technological innovations, or new commercial products by us or our competitors;

 

    governmental regulations, rules, and orders;

 

    general conditions in the healthcare, dentistry, or biopharmaceutical industries;

 

    comments, research reports and/or earnings estimates by securities analysts;

 

    developments concerning patents or other intellectual property rights;

 

    litigation or public concern about the safety of our products;

 

    announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;

 

    additions or departures of directors, officers and key personnel;

 

    release of transfer restrictions on our outstanding shares of common stock or sales of additional shares of common stock;

 

    potential litigation initiated against us; and

 

    the additional sale of common stock by us in capital raising transactions.

 

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Historically, the daily trading volume of our common stock has been relatively low and on some days our stock does not trade at all. An order for the purchase or sale of a large number of our shares could significantly affect the price at which the order is executed. We cannot guarantee that an active public market for our common stock will be sustained or that the average trading volume will increase. In addition, the stock market in general has experienced significant price and volume fluctuations. Volatility in the market price for particular companies has often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. Broad market factors may seriously harm the market price of our common stock, regardless of our operating performance. In addition, securities class action litigation has often been initiated following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities. A securities class action suit against us could result in substantial costs, potential liabilities, and the diversion of management’s attention and resources. To the extent our stock price fluctuates or remains low, it could impair our ability to raise capital through the offering of additional equity securities.

Future sales of our common stock may depress our stock price.

The market price of our common stock could decline as a result of sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur. In addition, these factors could make it more difficult for us to raise funds through future offerings of common stock. We have recently issued a significant number of shares of common stock and the number of outstanding shares has increased from 2,738,283 shares as of December 31, 2012 to 4,928,335 shares as of December 31, 2017. As of July 3, 2018 there were 6,102,635 shares of our common stock outstanding. In addition there were 16,017,000 shares of our Series A and Series B Convertible Preferred stock outstanding which are convertible into 2,261,703 shares of our common stock and warrants to purchase an additional 3,077,425 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants to investors. There were also 388,633 shares issuable upon exercise of options outstanding and an additional 1,620,617 shares available for option grants under our 2012 Equity Incentive Plan

The issuance of shares of our common stock under our 2012 Equity Incentive Plan are covered by Form S-8 registration statements we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, and upon exercise of the options, such shares may be resold into the market. We have also issued shares of common stock and warrants in connection with previous private placements. Such shares are available for resale as well as certain of the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants. We have also issued shares of our common stock in the private placement and financing transaction, which are deemed to be “restricted securities,” as that term is defined in Rule 144 promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or Securities Act, and such shares may be resold pursuant to the provisions of Rule 144. The resale of shares acquired from us in private transactions could cause our stock price to decline significantly. In addition, the conversion of outstanding shares of Series A and Series B convertible preferred stock issued in 2017 private placements into common stock and the subsequent sale of shares of common stock could also cause our stock price to decline significantly.

We have granted registration rights in connection with certain of our private placements including the 1,354,567 shares of common stock and up to 900,000 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants that we registered for resale pursuant to the Registration Statement on Form S-1 declared effective by the SEC on May 8, 2018. On April 10, 2018 we issued 900,000 shares of registered common stock pursuant to a shelf takedown under a Form S-3 registration statement. We also have registered for resale on Form S-1 943,784 of shares of our common stock which we issued in a 2012 private placement. To the extent that shareholders sell shares under these registration statements and shareholders continue to exercise outstanding registration rights it could result in sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, which could cause the price of our common stock to decline significantly.

In addition, from time to time, certain of our shareholders may be eligible to sell all or some of their restricted shares of common stock by means of ordinary brokerage transactions in the open market pursuant to Rule 144, subject to certain limitations. In general, pursuant to Rule 144, after satisfying a six-month holding period: (i) affiliated shareholders, or shareholders whose shares are aggregated, may, under certain circumstances, sell within any three-month period a number of securities which does not exceed the greater of 1% of the then-outstanding shares of common stock or the average weekly trading volume of the class during the four calendar weeks prior to such sale and (ii) non-affiliated shareholders may sell without such limitations, in each case provided we are current in our public reporting obligations. Rule 144 also permits the sale of securities by non-affiliates that have satisfied a one-year holding period without any limitation or restriction.

 

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We are unable to estimate the number of shares that may be sold because this will depend on the market price for our common stock, the personal or business circumstances of sellers and other factors.

The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources, divert management’s attention and affect our ability to attract and retain qualified members for our Board of Directors.

As a public company, we are already subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The requirements of these rules and regulations may increase our legal, accounting and financial compliance costs; may make some activities more difficult, time-consuming and costly; and may also place undue strain on our personnel, systems and resources. Our management and other personnel need to devote a substantial amount of time to comply with these requirements. Moreover, these rules and regulations increase our legal and financial compliance costs and make some activities more time-consuming and costly. These rules and regulations could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our Board of Directors and Board committees or as executive officers.

As a public company we are also required to assess our internal control over financial reporting under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and file periodic reports with the SEC. If we are unable to comply with these requirements in a timely manner, or if material weaknesses or significant deficiencies persist, the market price of our stock could decline and we could be subject to sanctions or regulatory investigations, which could harm our business. We must perform an assessment of our internal control over financial reporting to allow management to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Our compliance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that we incur substantial accounting expense and expend significant management efforts. If we are unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act or the SEC reporting requirements in a timely manner, or if we note or identify deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses, the market price of our stock could decline and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources. As a smaller reporting company, we do not have to have our independent registered public accounting firm report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. If in the future we no longer meet the requirements of a smaller reporting company, our independent registered public accounting firm will have to report on our internal controls over financial reporting. There can be no assurance that our independent registered public accounting firm will not identify material weaknesses which could have an adverse effect on our stock price.

We will continue to incur significant costs as a result of and devote substantial management time to operating as a public company listed on the NYSE American.

As a public company listed on the NYSE American, we incurred and will continue to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur before when trading on the OTCQB Marketplace. For example, we are subject to the rules and regulations required by the NYSE American, including changes in corporate governance practices and minimum listing requirements. These requirements have increased our legal and financial compliance costs and have and will continue to render some activities more time-consuming and costly. In addition, our management and other personnel have diverted and will continue to divert attention from operational and other business matters to devote substantial time to these listing requirements and failure to meet these requirements could lead to an adverse effect on the listing of our common stock on the NYSE American.

If securities or industry analysts publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock depends in part upon the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business from time to time. If one or more of the analysts who seek to cover us downgrades our stock or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage, once commenced, or fails to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our stock could decrease, which could cause our stock price and trading volume to decline.

 

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We may issue debt or debt securities convertible into equity securities, any of which may be senior to our common stock as to distributions and in liquidation, which could negatively affect the value of our common stock.

In the future, we may attempt to increase our capital resources by entering into debt or debt-like financing that is unsecured or secured by up to all of our assets, or by issuing additional debt or equity securities, which could include issuances of secured or unsecured commercial paper, medium-term notes, senior notes, subordinated notes, guarantees, preferred stock, hybrid securities, or securities convertible into or exchangeable for equity securities. In the event of our liquidation, our lenders and holders of our debt and securities would receive distributions of our available assets before distributions to the holders of our common stock. Because our decision to incur debt and issue securities in future offerings may be influenced by market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings or debt financings. Further, market conditions could require us to accept less favorable terms for the issuance of our securities in the future.

We are a “smaller reporting company” and, as a result of the reduced disclosure and governance requirements applicable to smaller reporting companies, our common stock may be less attractive to investors.

We are a “smaller reporting company,” meaning that we are not an investment company, an asset-backed issuer, or a majority-owned subsidiary of a parent company that is not a “smaller reporting company,” have a public float of less than $75 million and have annual revenues of less than $50 million during the most recently completed fiscal year. As a “smaller reporting company,” we are subject to lesser disclosure obligations in our SEC filings compared to other issuers. Specifically, “smaller reporting companies” are able to provide simplified executive compensation disclosures in their filings, are exempt from the provisions of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requiring that independent registered public accounting firms provide an attestation report on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting and have certain other decreased disclosure obligations in their SEC filings, including, among other things, only being required to provide two years of audited financial statements in annual reports. Decreased disclosures in our SEC filings due to our status a “smaller reporting company” may make it harder for investors to analyze our operating results and financial prospects.

We have never paid cash dividends on our common stock, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

We have never paid cash dividends on our common stock. We currently intend to retain any future earnings to finance the operation and expansion of our business, and we do not expect to declare or pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Consequently, stockholders must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investment.

We cannot assure you that we will realize the anticipated benefits from our recent reverse stock split.

On January 19, 2018, we effected a one-for-ten reverse split of our issued and outstanding shares of our common stock which we anticipated would result in benefits such as improving the perception of our common stock and increasing the appeal of our stock to a broader range of investors. Although we believe that a higher market price of our common stock may help generate greater or broader investor interest, we cannot assure you that the reverse stock split will result in a share price that will attract new investors, including institutional investors, as some investors’ analysts and other stock market participants have negative perceptions of reverse stock splits. In addition, there can be no assurance that the market price of our common stock will satisfy the investing requirements of those investors. As a result, the trading liquidity of our common stock may not necessarily improve. Also it is not uncommon for the market price of a company’s common stock to decline in the period following a reverse stock split. If the market price of our common stock declines, the percentage decline may be greater than would have occurred in the absence of a reverse stock split.

Risks Relating to this Offering

If you purchase Class A Units in this offering, you will incur immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value of your shares.

The public offering price of the Class A Unit is substantially higher than the net tangible book value per share of our common stock. Investors purchasing Class A Units in this offering will pay a price per share of common stock that substantially exceeds the book value of our tangible assets after subtracting our liabilities. As a result, investors purchasing Class A Units in this offering will incur immediate dilution of $0.25 per share of common stock, based on an assumed public offering price of $1.36 per Class A Unit. See “Dilution.”

 

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As a result of the dilution to investors purchasing shares in this offering, investors may receive significantly less than the purchase price paid in this offering, if anything, in the event of a liquidation of our company.

Because our management will have broad discretion and flexibility in how the net proceeds from this offering are used, our management may use the net proceeds in ways with which you disagree or which may not prove effective.

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering as discussed under “Use of Proceeds” in this prospectus. We have not allocated specific amounts of the net proceeds from this offering for any of the foregoing purposes. Accordingly, our management will have significant discretion and flexibility in applying the net proceeds of this offering. You will be relying on the judgment of our management with regard to the use of these net proceeds, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the net proceeds are being used appropriately. It is possible that the net proceeds will be invested in a way that does not yield a favorable, or any, return for us. The failure of our management to use such funds effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.

The Series D Preferred Stock and the warrants are unlisted securities and there is no public market for them.

There is no established public trading market for the Series D Preferred Stock or the warrants, and we do not expect a market to develop. In addition, neither the Series D Preferred Stock nor the warrants are listed, and we do not intend to apply for listing of the Series D Preferred Stock or the warrants on any securities exchange or trading system. Without an active market, the liquidity of the Series D Preferred Stock and the warrants is limited, and investors may be unable to liquidate their investments in the Series D Preferred Stock or the warrants.

The warrants may not have any value.

The warrants will be exercisable for seven years from the closing date at an initial exercise price of $                 per share. In the event that the price of a share of our common stock does not exceed the exercise price of the warrants during the period when the warrants are exercisable, the warrants may not have any value.

The warrants are subject to an issuer call.

If, after the date that is two years after the closing date, (i) the volume weighted average price for each of 30 consecutive trading days (the “Measurement Period”), which Measurement Period commences after the date that is two years after the closing date, exceeds 300% of the exercise price (subject to adjustment for forward and reverse stock splits, recapitalizations, stock dividends and the like after the initial exercise date), (ii) the average daily volume for such Measurement Period exceeds $330,000 per trading day and, (iii) the warrant holder is not in possession of any material non-public information which was provided by the Company, then the Company may, within 1 trading day of the end of such Measurement Period, call for cancellation of all or any portion of the warrants for which an exercise notice has not yet been delivered for consideration equal to $0.001 per warrant share. The Company’s right to call the warrants shall be exercised ratably among the holders based on the then outstanding warrants. You may be unable to reinvest your proceeds from the call in an investment with a return that is as high as the return on the warrants would have been if they had not been called.

The warrants purchased in this offering do not entitle the holder to any rights as common stockholders until the holder exercises the warrant for shares of our common stock.

Until you acquire shares of our common stock upon exercise of your warrants purchased in this offering, such warrants will not provide you any rights as a common stockholder, except as set forth in the warrants. Upon exercise of your warrants purchased in this offering, you will be entitled to exercise the rights of a common stockholder only as to matters for which the record date occurs on or after the exercise date.

 

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Because our management will have broad discretion and flexibility in how the net proceeds from this offering are used, our management may use the net proceeds in ways with which you disagree or which may not prove effective.

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering as discussed under “Use of Proceeds” in this prospectus. We have not allocated specific amounts of the net proceeds from this offering for any of the foregoing purposes. Accordingly, our management will have significant discretion and flexibility in applying the net proceeds of this offering. You will be relying on the judgment of our management with regard to the use of these net proceeds, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the net proceeds are being used appropriately. It is possible that the net proceeds will be invested in a way that does not yield a favorable, or any, return for us. The failure of our management to use such funds effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

When used in this prospectus, the words “expects,” “believes,” “hopes,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “may,” “could,” “intends,” “exploring,” “evaluating,” “progressing,” “proceeding,” “will,” “expects,” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements include statements in this prospectus under the headings “Our Company,” “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Business.” These forward-looking statements do not constitute guarantees of future performance. Investors are cautioned that statements which are not strictly historical statements, include, without limitation, statements regarding:

 

    our financial performance and condition;

 

    our need to raise significant additional capital and our ability to do so and to continue as a going concern;

 

    an inability to obtain the capital necessary to fund our operations and research and development activities;

 

    if we raise additional capital it may be on terms that result in substantial dilution to our existing shareholders;

 

    success, timing and expenses of our collaboration efforts with Intrexon and expected clinical trials;

 

    a failure to expand our research activities with Intrexon relating to lantibiotics for infectious diseases or for oral mucositis;

 

    our inability to achieve success in our identification of homologs or the nonclinical testing of our lantibiotic product candidates;

 

    our ability to maintain our listing on the NYSE American;

 

    our expectations and estimates regarding future expenses and expenditures, including our expected use of the net proceeds from this offering, revenue and capital requirements;

 

    our ability to achieve and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act;

 

    present and future clinical trials and results of such trials, including with respect to AG013;

 

    our ability to successfully complete preclinical and clinical development of, and obtain regulatory approval of our product candidates and commercialize any approved products on our expected timeframes or at all;

 

    the safety, efficacy and benefits of our product candidates;

 

    the content and timing of submissions to and decisions made by the FDA and other regulatory agencies;

 

    the effects of government regulation and regulatory developments, and our ability and the ability of the third parties with whom we engage to comply with applicable regulatory requirements;

 

    the capacities and performance of our suppliers and manufacturers and other third parties over whom we have limited control;

 

    a lack of acceptance of our product candidates in the marketplace;

 

    we may be unable to achieve commercial viability and acceptance of our proposed product candidates;

 

    we may be unable to improve upon, protect and/or enforce our intellectual property;

 

    we may be unable to enter into strategic collaborations or partnerships for the development, commercialization, manufacturing and distribution of our proposed product candidates or maintain strategic collaborations or partnerships;

 

    a failure by us to become or remain profitable;

 

    a loss of any of our key scientists or management personnel;

 

    we may be adversely impacted by any significant broad-based financial crises and its impact on consumers, retailers and equity and debt markets as well as our inability to obtain required additional funding to conduct our business;

 

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    as a public company, we must implement additional and expensive finance and accounting systems, procedures and controls as we grow our business and organization to satisfy reporting requirements, which add to our costs and require additional management time and resources.

 

    the size and potential growth of, or our ability to capture market share in, the markets for any of our product candidates;

 

    market and industry trends;

 

    our competition;

 

    intellectual property; and

 

    our liquidity.

These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those risks discussed in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date made. We assume no obligation or undertaking to update any forward-looking statements to reflect any changes in expectations with regard thereto or any change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based. You should, however, review additional disclosures we make in our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that the net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $8,835,000, based on an assumed offering price of $1.36 per Class A Unit and Class B Unit which is the last reported sales price per share of our common stock on the NYSE American Market on July 3, 2018, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. If the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full, we estimate that our net proceeds will be approximately $10,215,000, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We will not receive any additional proceeds from any future conversions of the Series D Preferred Stock. We will only receive additional proceeds from the exercise of the warrants issuable in connection with this offering if the warrants are exercised and the holders of such warrants pay the exercise price in cash upon such exercise and do not utilize the cashless exercise provision of the warrants.

We currently expect to use the net proceeds from this offering primarily to continue funding development of AG013, our ongoing Phase II clinical trial for the treatment of Oral Mucositis, our pre-clinical development of our lantibiotics program and for general corporate purposes, including research and development activities, capital expenditures and working capital. We have not yet determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for any of the foregoing purposes, and we cannot predict with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to be received upon the completion of this offering, or the amounts that we will actually spend on the uses set forth above. Accordingly, our management will have broad discretion and flexibility in applying the net proceeds from the sale of securities sold pursuant to this prospectus.

In addition, our existing resources, together with the proceeds from this offering, will not be adequate to permit us to complete such clinical development or fund our operations over the longer term. We will need to secure significant additional resources to complete such development and to support our continued operations. Pending the application of the net proceeds, we may invest the proceeds in marketable securities and short-term interest-bearing investments.

 

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CAPITALIZATION

The following table sets forth our actual cash and cash equivalents and our capitalization as of March 31, 2018 adjusted to give effect to the sale of the securities offered hereby and the use of proceeds, as described in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds:”

 

    on an actual basis; and

 

    on an as adjusted basis to give effect to (i) the sale of 900,000 shares on April 10, 2018 in a registered direct offering, and (ii) the sale of 1,470,588 Class A Units and 5,882,352 Class B Units in this offering, at an assumed public offering price of $1.36, the application of the net proceeds of this offering and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

The pro forma as adjusted information set forth in the table below is illustrative only and will be adjusted based on the actual public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.

You should read this information in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our financial statements and related notes appearing in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017 and our Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2018, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

     As of March 31, 2018  
     Actual     Pro
Forma
     Pro Forma
As Adjusted
 
    

(in thousands)

(unaudited)

 

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 4,758       10,635        15,393  

Shareholders’ equity

     4,315     10,635        14,950  

Preferred stock, no par value; 50,000,000 shares authorized; 9,417,000 Series A shares, 6,600,000 Series B shares, 101.733 Series C shares, and 1,600,000 shares Series D shares issued and outstanding on a pro forma as adjusted basis

     6,100     8,000        14,100  

Common stock, $0.001 par value, 45,000,000 shares authorized; 5,186,635 shares issued and outstanding, and 14,086,635 shares issued and outstanding on a pro forma as adjusted basis

     5       3        8  

Additional paid-in capital

     101,789       2,632        104,421  

Accumulated deficit

     (103,579     —            (103,579

Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity

     5,494       10,635        16,129  

 

The information in the table above is based on 5,186,635 shares of common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2018, and excludes, as of such date:

 

  260,633 shares of our common stock subject to outstanding options having a weighted average exercise price of $9.01 per share;

 

  264,617 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance pursuant to our existing stock incentive plan;

 

  2,177,425 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants outstanding, having a weighted average exercise price of $3.10 per share;

 

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  941,701 shares of our common stock issuable upon conversion of convertible Series A Preferred stock outstanding.

 

  1,320,002 shares of our common stock issuable upon conversion of convertible Series B Preferred stock outstanding.

 

  any shares issued upon the exercise by the underwriters of the option to purchase additional shares of common stock and/or warrants from us to cover overallotments, if any.

 

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DILUTION

Our net tangible book value as of March 31, 2018 was approximately $4.32 million, or $0.83 per share, based on 5,186,635 shares of our common stock outstanding on that date. Net tangible book value (deficit) per share is determined by dividing our total tangible assets (total assets less intangible assets), less total liabilities, by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding.

After giving effect to our (i) April 10, 2018 registered direct offering, and (ii) sale in this offering of 7,352,940 shares of common stock, inclusive of the 5,882,352 shares of common stock that the Series D Preferred Stock to be issued is convertible into, at an assumed public offering price of $1.36 per Unit and after excluding shares that may be issued upon exercise of the underwriters’ overallotment option and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our net tangible book value as of March 31, 2018 would have been $14.95 million, or $1.11 per share of our common stock. This amount represents an immediate increase of net tangible book value to our existing shareholders of $0.28 per share and an immediate dilution of $0.25 per share to the new investors purchasing securities in this offering. The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis assuming that Class A Units are sold and no Class B Units are sold:

 

Assumed public offering price per Class A Unit

         $ 1.36  

Net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2018, before this offering

           0.83  

Increase in pro forma net tangible book value per share attributable to investors purchasing securities in this offering, after giving effect to the registered direct offering

           0.28  
        

 

 

 

Net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2018, after giving effect to the registered direct offering and this offering

           1.11  
        

 

 

 

Dilution per share to investors in this offering

         $ 0.25  
        

 

 

 

The dilution information above is illustrative only and will change based on the actual public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing. The foregoing discussion and table does not take into account further dilution to investors in this offering that could occur upon the exercise of outstanding options and warrants, including the warrants offered in this offering, having a per share exercise price less than the public offering price per share in this offering. To the extent that options or warrants outstanding as of March 31, 2018 have been or may be exercised or other shares issued, investors purchasing securities in this offering may experience further dilution. In addition, we may seek to raise additional capital in the future through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.

The information in the table above is based on 5,186,635 shares of common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2018, and excludes, as of such date:

 

  260,633 shares of our common stock subject to outstanding options having a weighted average exercise price of $9.01 per share;

 

  264,617 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance pursuant to our existing stock incentive plan;

 

  2,177,425 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants outstanding, having a weighted average exercise price of $3.10 per share;

 

  941,701 shares of our common stock issuable upon conversion of convertible Series A Preferred stock outstanding.

 

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  1,320,002 shares of our common stock issuable upon conversion of convertible Series B Preferred stock outstanding.

 

  any shares issued upon the exercise by the underwriters of the option to purchase additional shares of common stock and/or warrants from us to cover overallotments, if any.

 

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MARKET PRICE OF OUR COMMON STOCK AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

Our common stock is quoted on the NYSE American under the ticker symbol “OGEN”. The following table sets forth the high and low bid quotations of our common stock reflected on the NYSE American. These quotations represent inter-dealer prices, without retail mark-up, markdown, or commission, and may not represent actual transactions. The last price of our common stock as reported on the NYSE American on July 3, 2018 was $1.36 per share. As of June 21, 2018, there were approximately 84 stockholders of record of our common stock. This number does not include beneficial owners from whom shares are held by nominees in street name such as banks and brokerage firms.

 

     2018      2017      2016  

Period

   High      Low      High      Low      High      Low  

First quarter

   $ 3.17      $ 1.60      $ 8.50      $ 4.20      $ 15.40      $ 7.50  

Second quarter

   $ 2.00      $ 1.16      $ 5.80      $ 3.10      $ 10.40      $ 5.00  

Third quarter

     —          —        $ 6.80      $ 2.80      $ 10.60      $ 4.30  

Fourth quarter

     —          —        $ 4.70      $ 2.10      $ 11.00      $ 3.30  

DIVIDEND POLICY

To date, we have neither declared nor paid any dividends on our common stock nor do we anticipate that such dividends will be paid in the foreseeable future. Rather, we intend to retain any earnings to finance the growth and development of our business. Any payment of cash dividends on our common stock in the future will be dependent, among other things, upon our earnings, financial condition, capital requirements and other factors which the board of directors deems relevant. In addition, restrictive covenants contained in any financing agreements entered into in the future may preclude us from paying any dividends.

We issued 100 shares of Series C, Non-Voting, Non-Convertible, Preferred Stock (“Series C Preferred Stock”) with a stated value of $33,847 per share to Intrexon in exchange for obligations we owed to Intrexon. These shares have an accruing dividend of 12% per year payable in additional shares of Series C Preferred stock. On January 25, 2018 we paid a dividend on our Series C Preferred Stock to Intrexon of 1.733 shares for the portion of the 2017 fiscal year the Series C Preferred was outstanding. The accruing dividend increases to 20% per year after May 10, 2019.

 

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SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT

The following table sets forth information about beneficial ownership of our Common Stock as of July 3, 2018 (unless otherwise noted) by (i) each shareholder that has indicated in public filings that the shareholder beneficially owns more than five percent of the Common Stock, (ii) each of the Company’s directors and named officers and (iii) all directors and officers as a group. Except as otherwise noted, each person listed below, either alone or together with members of the person’s family sharing the same household, had, to our knowledge, sole voting and investment power with respect to the shares listed next to the person’s name. With respect to the Series A and Series B Preferred Stock Financings (except as to the KFLP) the foregoing table specifically excludes all of the common stock issuable on conversion of the preferred shares and the exercise of the warrants as a result of there being a 4.99% equity blocker which prevents the holders of the preferred shares and the warrants from converting the preferred shares into common stock or exercising the warrants for common stock if such conversion or exercise would result in such holder’s ownership at any given time exceeding 4.99% of the Company’s outstanding common stock (which blocker may be waived by the holder upon 60 days’ prior notice to the Company).

 

Name and address(1)

   Number of shares
beneficially owned
     Percentage of
ownership (2)
 

5% shareholders

     

Koski Family Limited Partnership (3)

     2,269,648        34.0%  

Randall J. Kirk (4)

     1,548,165        25.4%  

Sabby Volatility Warrant Master Fund, Ltd. (5)

     450,000        7.4%  

Directors and officers

     

Alan Joslyn (6)

     27,667        *     

Robert C. Koski (3)(7)

     2,017,627        30.2%  

Charles L. Pope (8)

     58,608        *     

Dr. Alan Dunton (8)

     51,761        *     

Dr. Frederick W. Telling (8)

     170,038        2.8%  

Michael Sullivan (9)

     51,089        *     

(All Directors and officers as a group 6 persons) (10)

     2,376,790        34.9%  

 

* Beneficial ownership percentage is less than 1%.
(1) Except as indicated, the address of the person named in the table is c/o Oragenics, Inc., 4902 Eisenhower Blvd., Suite 125, Tampa, Florida 33634.
(2) Percentage ownership of our common stock is based on 6,102,635 shares of common stock outstanding as of July 3, 2018. The following table is based upon information supplied by officers, directors and principal stockholders and a review of Schedules 13D and 13G, if any, and other documents filed with the SEC. We have determined beneficial ownership in accordance with the rules of the SEC. Unless otherwise indicated below, to our knowledge, the persons and entities named in the table below have sole voting and sole investment power with respect to all shares that they beneficially owned, subject to community property laws where applicable. In addition, we have deemed shares to be beneficially owned by a person if the person has the right to acquire shares (for example, upon exercise of an option or warrant) within 60 days of July 3, 2018 to be outstanding and to be beneficially owned by such person for the purpose of computing the percentage ownership of that person but have not treated them as outstanding for the purpose of computing the percentage ownership of any other person. As a result, the percentage of outstanding shares of any person as shown in the following table does not necessarily reflect the person’s actual voting power at any particular date. The inclusion in the table above of any shares deemed beneficially owned does not constitute an admission of beneficial ownership of those shares.

 

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(3) Based upon information provided by the Koski Family Limited Partnership, or KFLP, in the amendment to its Schedule 13D filing with the SEC on February 14, 2018 and Form 4 filing of November 13, 2017, includes (i) 1,286,483 shares held directly by the KFLP, and (ii) 157,254 shares held directly by KFLP partner Christine Koski, (iii) 104,789 shares held directly by KFLP partner Robert Koski, (iv) 2,800 shares held directly by KFLP partner Koski Management, Inc. (solely owned by Beverly Koski), (v) 91,967 shares held directly by KFLP partner, Thomas Koski, and (vi) 53,086 shares held in trusts which Robert Koski serves as sole trustee (See Note 6 below), (vii) 27,333 option shares able to be acquired upon the exercise of currently exercisable stock options granted pursuant to our Director Compensation program to Robert Koski through August 31, 2018, (viii) 300,000 shares able to be acquired by the KFLP upon conversion of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock, (ix) 241,936 shares able to be acquired by the KFLP upon exercise of warrants and (x) excludes 14,000 shares subject to options that vest thereafter. Christine L. Koski, Robert C. Koski, Thomas L. Koski and Beverly Koski (as sole owner of Koski Management, Inc.) share voting and investment powers as general partners of the KFLP. The address for the KFLP is 3525 Turtle Creek Boulevard, Unit 19-B, Dallas, Texas 75219.
(4) Based upon information provided by Schedule 13D filings with the SEC, dated June 12, 2012, August 3, 2012, October 2, 2013, November 2, 2013, December 26, 2013 and November 13, 2017 and Form 4 dated July 5, 2016 the number of shares includes (i) 1,448,109 shares owned directly by Intrexon Corporation (“Intrexon”) that is controlled by Mr. Randal J. Kirk, and (ii) 100,056 shares owned directly by NRM VII Holdings, I, LLC, a Virginia Limited Liability Company that is also controlled by Mr. Kirk. Mr. Kirk is the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Intrexon and over which Mr. Kirk, directly and through certain affiliates, has voting and dispositive power of a majority of the outstanding capital stock. Mr. Kirk may therefore be deemed to have voting and dispositive power over the 100,056 shares of common stock owned by NRM Holdings and the 1,448,109 shares of common stock owned by Intrexon. Mr. Kirk disclaims beneficial ownership of such shares, except to the extent of any pecuniary interest therein. Mr. Kirk’s principal business office is The Governor Tyler, 1881 Grove Avenue, Radford, Virginia 24141. Intrexon’s address as reflected in Schedule 13D is 20358 Seneca Meadows Parkway, Germantown, Maryland 20876.
(5) The information is based upon that certain Securities Purchase Agreement entered into by and between the Company and two accredited investors on April 10, 2018 (the “Purchase Agreement), including Sabby Volatility Warrant Master Fund, Ltd. and the Schedule 13G filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 10, 2018. Pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, Sabby Volatility Warrant Master Fund, Ltd. acquired 450,000 shares of our common stock in a registered direct offering which the table reflects as of such date. In addition to the acquisition of common stock, Sabby Volatility Warrant Master Fund, Ltd. also acquired in a separate private placement a warrant to purchase 450,000 shares of our common stock which is not exercisable for six months from the date of issuance and therefore excluded from the table. The warrant is also subject to a 4.99% ownership blocker, pursuant to which shares of our common stock may not be issued to the extent such issuance would cause Sabby Volatility Warrant Master Fund, Ltd. to beneficially own more than 4.99% of our outstanding common stock. Sabby Management, LLC serves as the investment manager of Sabby Volatility Warrant Master Fund, Ltd. Hal Mintz is the manager of Sabby Management, LLC and has voting and investment control of the securities held by Sabby Volatility Warrant Master Fund, Ltd. Each of Sabby Management, LLC and Hal Mintz disclaims beneficial ownership over the securities beneficially owned by Sabby Volatility Warrant Master Fund, Ltd., except to the extent of their respective pecuniary interest therein.
(6) Includes 24,667 shares able to be acquired pursuant to currently exercisable stock options and excludes 47,334 shares subject to options that vest thereafter.
(7) In addition to the shares reflected as directly owned by the KFLP, described in Note 3, the share amounts also includes: (i) 108,789 shares owned directly by Mr. Koski, and (ii) 53,086 shares owned directly by trusts for which Mr. Koski serves as sole trustee as follows: the Robert Clayton Koski Trust for the benefit of Anthony James Hunter (10,760 shares); The Robert Clayton Koski Trust for the benefit of Hunter Buchanan Koski (10,760 shares); The Robert Clayton Koski Trust for the benefit of Clayton Ward Bennett (10,000 shares); and The Robert Clayton Koski Trust for the benefit of Robert Edward Koski (10,760 shares) and the Robert Clayton Koski Trust for the benefit of Elyse Margaux Koski (10,806 shares) and excludes 14,000 shares subject to options that vest thereafter.

 

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(8) Includes: (i) 30,500 option shares able to be acquired upon the exercise of currently exercisable stock options granted pursuant to our Director Compensation program and excludes 14,000 shares subject to options that vest thereafter.
(9) Includes 36,834 shares able to be acquired pursuant to currently exercisable stock options through August 31, 2018 and excludes 29,667 shares subject to options that vest thereafter.
(10) Excludes 157,254 shares owned directly by Christine Koski, 2,800 shares owned directly by Koski Management, Inc. (solely owned by Beverly Koski), and 91,967 shares owned directly by Thomas Koski, which are not directors or employees of the Company, but are general partners of the KFLP. If such shares were included the beneficial ownership percentage of the group would be 38.6%.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES

Description of Units

We are offering 1,470,588 Class A Units, with each Class A Unit consisting of one share of common stock and a warrant to purchase one share of our common stock (together with the shares of common stock underlying such warrants) at an assumed public offering price of $1.36 per Class A Unit, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE American Market on July 3, 2018. Each warrant included in the Class A Units entitles its holder to purchase one share of Common Stock at an exercise price of $                .

We are also offering Class B Units to purchasers who prefer not to beneficially own more than 4.99% (or, at the election of the purchaser, 9.99%) of our outstanding common stock following the consummation of this offering, or who elect in their sole discretion to purchase Class B Units, with each Class B Unit consisting of one share of Series D Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share, convertible into one share of common stock and a warrant to purchase one share of common stock (together with the shares of common stock underlying such warrants) at an assumed public offering price of $1.36 per Class B Unit. Each warrant included in the Class B Units entitles its holder to purchase a number of shares of Common Stock equal to 100% of the shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the Series D Convertible Preferred Stock included in such units at an exercise price of $                per share.

The securities of which the units are composed (the “underlying securities”) are being sold in this offering only as part of the units. However, the Class A Units and Class B Units will not be certificated and the underlying securities comprising such units are immediately separable and issued separately. Each underlying security purchased in this offering will be issued independent of each other underlying security and not as part of a unit. Upon issuance, each underlying security may be transferred independent of any other underlying security, subject to applicable law and transfer restrictions.

Description of Series D Preferred Stock.

Our board of directors has designated 10,000,000 shares of our preferred stock as Series D Convertible Preferred Stock (“Series D Preferred Stock”), none of which are currently issued and outstanding. The preferences and rights of the Series D Preferred Stock will be as set forth in a Certificate of Designation (the “Series D Certificate of Designation”) filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

Pursuant to a transfer agency agreement between us and Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as transfer agent, the Series D Preferred Stock will be issued in book-entry form and shall initially be represented only by one or more global certificates deposited with The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, and registered in the name of Cede & Co., a nominee of DTC, or as otherwise directed by DTC.

In the event of a liquidation, the holders of Series D Preferred Shares are entitled to participate on an as-converted-to-Common Stock basis with holders of the Common Stock in any distribution of assets of the Company to the holders of the Common Stock. The Series D Certificate of Designation provides, among other things, that we shall not pay any dividends on shares of Common Stock (other than dividends in the form of Common Stock) unless and until such time as we pay dividends on each Series D Preferred Share on an as-converted basis. Other than as set forth in the previous sentence, the Series D Certificate of Designation provides that no other dividends shall be paid on Series D Preferred Shares and that we shall pay no dividends (other than dividends in the form of common stock) on shares of common stock unless we simultaneously comply with the previous sentence. The Series D Certificate of Designation does not provide for any restriction on the repurchase of Series D Preferred Shares by us while there is any arrearage in the payment of dividends on the Series D Preferred Shares. There are no sinking fund provisions applicable to the Series D Preferred Shares.

In addition, in the event we consummate a merger or consolidation with or into another person or other reorganization event in which our common shares are converted or exchanged for securities, cash or other property, or we sell, lease, license, assign, transfer, convey or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets or we

 

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or another person acquire 50% or more of our outstanding shares of common stock, then following such event, the holders of the Series D Preferred Shares will be entitled to receive upon conversion of the Series D Preferred Shares the same kind and amount of securities, cash or property which the holders would have received had they converted the Series D Preferred immediately prior to such fundamental transaction. Any successor to us or surviving entity shall assume the obligations under the Series D Preferred Shares.

With certain exceptions, as described in the Series D Certificate of Designation, the Series D Preferred Shares have no voting rights. However, as long as any shares of Series D Preferred Shares remain outstanding, the Series D Certificate of Designation provides that we shall not, without the affirmative vote of holders of a majority of the then-outstanding Series D Preferred Shares, (a) alter or change adversely the powers, preferences or rights given to the Series D Preferred Shares or alter or amend the Series D Certificate of Designation, (b) increase the number of authorized shares of Series D Preferred Shares or (c) amend our Certificate of Incorporation or other charter documents in any manner that adversely affects any rights of holders of Series D Preferred Shares.

Each Series D Preferred Share is convertible at any time at the holder’s option into one share of common stock (based on a stated value of $1.36 per share of Series D Preferred Stock and a conversion price of $1.36) which conversion ratio will be subject to adjustment for stock splits, stock dividends, distributions, subdivisions and combinations. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Series D Certificate of Designation further provides that we shall not effect any conversion of Series D Preferred Shares, with certain exceptions, to the extent that, after giving effect to an attempted conversion, the holder of Series D Preferred Shares (together with such holder’s affiliates, and any persons acting as a group together with such holder or any of such holder’s affiliates) would beneficially own a number of shares of Common Stock in excess of 4.99% (or, at the election of the holder prior to the issuance date, 9.99%) of the shares of our Common Stock then outstanding after giving effect to such exercise (the “Preferred Stock Beneficial Ownership Limitation”); provided, however, that upon notice to the Company, the holder may increase or decrease the Preferred Stock Beneficial Ownership Limitation, provided that in no event shall the Preferred Stock Beneficial Ownership Limitation exceed 9.99% and any increase in the Preferred Stock Beneficial Ownership Limitation will not be effective until 61 days following notice of such increase from the holder to us.

Additionally, subject to certain exceptions, at any time after the issuance of the Series D Preferred Stock, subject to the Preferred Stock Beneficial Ownership Limitation, we will have the right to cause each holder of the Series D Preferred Stock to convert all or part of such holder’s Series D Preferred Stock in the event that (i) the volume weighted average price of our common stock for 30 consecutive trading days (the “Measurement Period”) exceeds 300% of the initial conversion price of the Series D Preferred Stock (subject to adjustment for forward and reverse stock splits, recapitalizations, stock dividends and similar transactions), (ii) the average daily trading volume for such Measurement Period exceeds $175,000 per trading day and (iii) the holder is not in possession of any information that constitutes or might constitute, material non-public information which was provided by the Company and subject to the Preferred Stock Beneficial Ownership Limitation. Our right to cause each holder of the Series D Preferred Stock to convert all or part of such holder’s Series D Preferred Stock shall be exercised ratably among the holders of the then outstanding preferred stock.

We do not intend to apply for listing of the Series D Preferred Shares on any securities exchange or other trading system.

Description of Warrants Included in the Units

The material terms and provisions of the warrants being offered pursuant to this prospectus are summarized below. This summary of some provisions of the warrants is not complete. For the complete terms of the warrants, you should refer to the form of warrant filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

Pursuant to a warrant agency agreement between us and Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as warrant agent, the warrants will be issued in book-entry form and shall initially be represented only by one or more global warrants deposited with the warrant agent, as custodian on behalf of The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, and registered in the name of Cede & Co., a nominee of DTC, or as otherwise directed by DTC.

 

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Each Class A Unit includes a warrant to purchase one share of our common stock at an exercise price of $                per share at any time for up to seven years after the date of the closing of this offering. Each Class B Unit issued in this offering includes a warrant to purchase one share of common stock at a price per share equal to $                at any time for up to seven years after the date of the closing of this offering. The warrants issued in this offering will be governed by the terms of a global warrant held in book-entry form. The holder of a warrant will not be deemed a holder of our underlying Common Stock until the warrant is exercised, except as set forth in the warrants.

Subject to limited exceptions, a holder of warrants will not have the right to exercise any portion of its warrants if the holder (together with such holder’s affiliates, and any persons acting as a group together with such holder or any of such holder’s affiliates) would beneficially own a number of shares of common stock in excess of 4.99% (or, at the election of the holder prior to the issuance date, 9.99%) of the shares of our common stock then outstanding after giving effect to such exercise (the “Beneficial Ownership Limitation”); provided, however, that upon notice to the Company, the holder may increase or decrease the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, provided that in no event shall the Beneficial Ownership Limitation exceed 9.99% and any increase in the Beneficial Ownership Limitation will not be effective until 61 days following notice of such increase from the holder to us.

The exercise price and the number of shares issuable upon exercise of the warrants is subject to appropriate adjustment in the event of recapitalization events, stock dividends, stock splits, stock combinations, reclassifications, reorganizations or similar events affecting our common stock. The warrant holders must pay the exercise price in cash upon exercise of the warrants, unless such warrant holders are utilizing the cashless exercise provision of the warrants, which is only available in certain circumstances such as if the underlying shares are not registered with the SEC pursuant to an effective registration statement. We intend to use commercially reasonable efforts to have the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, effective when the warrants are exercised.

In addition, in the event we consummate a merger or consolidation with or into another person or other reorganization event in which our common stock is converted or exchanged for securities, cash or other property, or we sell, lease, license, assign, transfer, convey or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets or we or another person acquire 50% or more of our outstanding shares of common stock (a “fundamental transaction”), then following such event, the holders of the warrants will be entitled to receive upon exercise of the warrants the same kind and amount of securities, cash or property which the holders would have received had they exercised the warrants immediately prior to such fundamental transaction. Any successor to us or surviving entity is required to assume the obligations under the warrants. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in the event of a fundamental transaction, the holders will have the option, which may be exercised within 30 days after the consummation of the fundamental transaction, to require the company or the successor entity purchase the warrant from the holder by paying to the holder an amount of cash equal to the Black Scholes value of the remaining unexercised portion of the warrant on the date of the consummation of the fundamental transaction. However, if the fundamental transaction is not within the company’s control, including not approved by the company’s Board of Directors or the consideration is not in all stock of the successor entity, the holder will only be entitled to receive from the company or any successor entity, as of the date of consummation of such fundamental transaction, the same type or form of consideration (and in the same proportion), at the Black Scholes value of the unexercised portion of the warrant, that is being offered and paid to the holders of common stock of the company in connection with the fundamental transaction, whether that consideration be in the form of cash, stock or any combination thereof, or whether the holders of common stock are given the choice to receive from among alternative forms of consideration in connection with the fundamental transaction.

Upon the holder’s exercise of a warrant, we will issue the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrant within two trading days following our receipt of a notice of exercise, provided that payment of the exercise price has been made (unless exercised via the “cashless” exercise provision).

Prior to the exercise of any warrants to purchase common stock, holders of the warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the common stock purchasable upon exercise, including the right to vote, except as set forth therein.

 

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Warrant holders may exercise warrants only if the issuance of the shares of common stock upon exercise of the warrants is covered by an effective registration statement, or an exemption from registration is available under the Securities Act and the securities laws of the state in which the holder resides. We intend to use commercially reasonable efforts to have the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part effective when the warrants are exercised. The warrant holders must pay the exercise price in cash upon exercise of the warrants unless there is not an effective registration statement or, if required, there is not an effective state law registration or exemption covering the issuance of the shares underlying the warrants (in which case, the warrants may only be exercised via a “cashless” exercise provision).

If a warrant is exercised via the “cashless” exercise provision, the holder will receive the number of shares equal to the quotient obtained by dividing (i) the difference between the VWAP (as determined pursuant to the terms of the warrants) and the exercise price of the warrant multiplied by the number of shares issuable under the warrant by (ii) the VWAP.

The warrants are callable by us in certain circumstances. Subject to certain exceptions, the warrants are outstanding, following the date that is two years after the Initial Exercise Date (as defined in the warrant) in the event that, (i) the volume weighted average price of our common stock for each of 30 consecutive trading days (the “Measurement Period”), exceeds 300% of the initial exercise price (subject to adjustment for forward and reverse stock splits, recapitalizations, stock dividends and similar transactions), (ii) the average daily trading volume for such Measurement Period exceeds $330,000 per trading day and (iii) the holder is not in possession of any information that constitutes or might constitute, material non-public information which was provided by the Company, and subject to the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, then we may, within one trading day of the end of such Measurement Period, upon notice (a “Call Notice”), call for cancellation of all or any portion of the warrants for which a notice of exercise has not yet been delivered (a “Call”) for consideration equal to $0.001 per share. Any portion of a warrant subject to such Call Notice for which a notice of exercise shall not have been received by the Call Date (as hereinafter defined) will be canceled at 6:30 p.m. (New York City time) on the tenth trading day after the date the Call Notice is sent by the Company (such date and time, the “Call Date”). Our right to call the warrants shall be exercised ratably among the holders based on the outstanding warrants.

We do not intend to apply for listing of the warrants on any securities exchange or other trading system.

Description of Capital Stock

The following descriptions are summaries of the material terms that are included in our amended and restated articles of incorporation (as amended) and our bylaws (as amended) as well as the specific agreements such descriptions relate to. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the specific terms and provisions contained in our restated articles of incorporation, bylaws and the specific agreements described herein, copies of which we have filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and by the provisions of applicable law.

Overview

Authorized Capital Stock

As of July 3, 2018, our authorized capital stock consisted of 200,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001, and 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, without par value and there were 6,102,635 shares of our common stock issued and outstanding and 9,417,000 shares of Series A Preferred, 6,600,000 shares of Series B Preferred and 101.733 shares of Series C Preferred stock issued and outstanding.

Authorized but Unissued Capital Stock

Florida law does not require shareholder approval for any issuance of authorized shares other than in connection with certain mergers to which we may be a party. These additional shares may be used for a variety of corporate purposes, including future public offerings to raise additional capital or to facilitate corporate acquisitions.

 

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Common Stock

Voting

The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of the shareholders. Approval of an amendment of our articles of incorporation, a merger, a share exchange, a sale of all our property or dissolution must be approved by a majority of all votes entitled to be cast. Such votes may be cast in person or by proxy as provided in Article I Section 8 of our bylaws.

Distributions

Our Board of Directors, subject to any restrictions contained in (i) the Florida Business Corporation Act, or FBCA; or (ii) our amended and restated articles of incorporation, as amended, or Articles of Incorporation, may make distributions upon our securities. Distributions may be paid in cash, in property, or in our securities.

We have not declared or paid any distributions on our common stock. We presently intend to retain our future earnings, if any, to fund the development and growth of our business and, therefore, do not have plans to pay any dividends in the foreseeable future.

Other Rights

Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, after payment in full of our liabilities and the amounts required to be paid to holders of any outstanding shares of preferred stock, if any, all holders of our common stock will be entitled to receive a pro rata distribution of all of our assets and funds legally available for distribution.

No shares of our common stock are subject to redemption or have preemptive rights to purchase additional shares of our common stock or any of our other securities.

Fully Paid and Nonassessable

All of our outstanding shares of common stock are, and the shares of common stock to be issued in this offering will be, fully paid and nonassessable.

 

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Preferred Stock

Our Board of Directors has the authority, without action by our shareholders, to designate and issue up to 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series or classes and to designate the rights, preferences and privileges of each series or class, which may be greater than the rights of our common stock. These rights, preferences and privileges could include dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, redemption rights, liquidation preferences, the number of shares constituting any class or series and the designation of the class or series. Terms selected by our board of directors in the future could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to holders of shares of common stock or adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of the holders of shares of common stock without any further vote or action by the stockholders. As a result, the rights of holders of our common stock will be subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, Series B Convertible Preferred Stock and Series C Non-Convertible Preferred Stock and any other preferred stock that may be issued by us in the future, which could have the effect of decreasing the market price of our common stock. As of July 3, 2018 we have 9,417,000 shares of Series A Preferred, 6,600,000 shares of Series B Preferred and 101.733 shares of Series C Preferred issued and outstanding.

Series A Convertible Preferred Stock

As of July 25, 2017, we issued 12,000,000 shares of convertible preferred stock, designated as the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock pursuant to the certificate of designation and rights filed by us with the Secretary of State of the State of Florida, with an aggregate original purchase price and initial liquidation preference of $3.0 million. Each share of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock was issued for an amount equal to $0.25 per share, which we refer to as the original purchase price. On March 9, 2018, an investor converted a portion of its Series A Preferred to common stock and as a result of the conversion 9,417,000 shares of Series A Preferred are issued and outstanding as of July 3, 2018.

The following description is a summary of the material provisions of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock and the certificate of designation and rights and does not purport to be complete. This summary is subject to and is qualified by reference to all the provisions of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock and certificate of designation and rights of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, including the definitions of certain terms used in the certificate of designation and rights. We urge you to read this document because it, and not this description, defines the rights of a holder of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock. A copy of the form of certificate of designation and rights that we filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Florida effective May 10, 2017 as amended and restated effective November 8, 2017 has been incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

No Mandatory Redemption Date or Sinking Fund

The shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock do not have a mandatory redemption date and are not subject to any sinking fund. The shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock will remain outstanding indefinitely unless we elect to redeem them under the circumstances described below in “Redemption” or we otherwise repurchase them or they are converted into shares of our common stock as described below under “Conversion Rights.”

Dividends

The shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock are entitled to participate in all dividends declared and paid on shares of company common stock on an “as if” converted basis.

Liquidation Preference

Upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of the Company, whether voluntary or involuntary that is not a Fundamental Transaction (as defined in the certificate of designation), the holders of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock shall be entitled to receive out of the assets, the greater of (i) the product of the number of shares of Series A Preferred Stock then held by such holder, multiplied by the Original Issue Price; and (ii) the amount that would be

 

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payable to such holder in the liquidation in respect of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of such shares of Series A Preferred Stock if all outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock were converted into Common Stock immediately prior to the Liquidation.

Ranking

The Series A Convertible Preferred Stock ranks (i) on par with the Common Stock and Series B Convertible Preferred Stock and junior to Series C Non-Convertible Preferred Stock as to dividend rights and (ii) senior to Common Stock and on par with Series B Convertible Preferred Stock, junior to Series C Non-Convertible Preferred Stock and senior to Common Stock as to rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company, whether voluntarily or involuntarily.

See “Voting Rights—Matters Requiring Approval of Holders of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock” for a description of the types of issuances of equity securities and other securities of our company requiring approval of holders of a majority of shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock then outstanding, voting together as a class.

Redemption

To the extent we have funds legally available therefor, at any time after the fifth anniversary of the original issue date of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, we have the right to redeem all or any portion of the outstanding shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock at the original issue price by providing at least seventy five (75) days written notice of such redemption to all holders of the then outstanding shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock.

Conversion Rights

The holders of shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock will, at any time, be entitled to convert some or all of their Series A Convertible Preferred Stock into the number of shares of our common stock obtained by dividing the aggregate original purchase price of the shares to be converted by the aggregate original purchase price of the shares to be converted, which amount we refer to as the conversion price.

The conversion price will be adjustable upon the occurrence of certain events and transactions to prevent dilution as described under “Adjustments to Conversion Price to Prevent Dilution.” Any shares of our common stock issued upon conversion of the shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock shall be validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable. The Company shall either pay cash in lieu of fractional shares or round up to the next whole share.

Adjustments to Conversion Price to Prevent Dilution

The Series A Convertible Preferred Stock is subject to provisions that protect the holders against dilution by adjustment of the conversion price and/or number of shares of common stock issuable upon conversion in certain events such as a subdivision, combination or reclassification of our outstanding common stock.

Voting Rights—Matters Requiring Approval of Holders of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock

Except as otherwise required by law, the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock shall have no voting rights. However, as long as any shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock are outstanding, we shall not, without the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the then outstanding shares of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, (a) alter or change adversely the powers, preferences or rights given to the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock or alter or amend the certificate of designation, (b) amend its articles of incorporation or other charter documents in any manner that adversely affects any rights of the holders of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, (c) increase the number of authorized shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, or (d) enter into any agreement with respect to any of the foregoing.

 

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Registration Rights

The holders of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock were granted certain demand registration rights and piggyback registration rights with respect to the shares of our Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the Series A Preferred Stock and exercise of their associated warrants, subject to customary cutbacks, blackout periods and other exceptions.

Series B Convertible Preferred Stock

On November 8, 2017, we issued 6,600,000 shares of convertible preferred stock, designated as the Series B Convertible Preferred Stock pursuant to the certificate of designation and rights filed by us with the Secretary of State of the State of Florida, with an aggregate original purchase price and initial liquidation preference of $3.3 million. Each share of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock was issued for an amount equal to $0.50 per share, which we refer to as the original purchase price.

The following description is a summary of the material provisions of the Series B Convertible Preferred Stock and the certificate of designation and rights and does not purport to be complete. This summary is subject to and is qualified by reference to all the provisions of the Series B Convertible Preferred Stock and certificate of designation and rights of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock, including the definitions of certain terms used in the certificate of designation and rights. We urge you to read this document because it, and not this description, defines the rights of a holder of the Series B Convertible Preferred Stock. A copy of the form of certificate of designation and rights that we filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Florida effective November 8, 2017 has been incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

No Mandatory Redemption Date or Sinking Fund

The shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock do not have a mandatory redemption date and are not subject to any sinking fund. The shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock will remain outstanding indefinitely unless we elect to redeem them under the circumstances described below in “Redemption” or we otherwise repurchase them or they are converted into shares of our common stock as described below under “Conversion Rights.”

Dividends

The shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock are entitled to participate in all dividends declared and paid on shares of company common stock on an “as if” converted basis.

Liquidation Preference

Upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of the Company (any such event, a “Liquidation”), whether voluntary or involuntary, each holder of shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock shall be entitled to receive, after payment to the Series C Non-Convertible Preferred Stock as provided in the Certificate of Designation of Series C Non-Convertible Preferred Stock, but on par with Series A Convertible Preferred Stock and in preference to the holders of Common Stock, an amount of cash equal to the greater of (i) the product of the number of shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock then held by such holder, multiplied by the original issue price; and (ii) the amount that would be payable to such holder in the Liquidation in respect of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of such shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock if all outstanding shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock were converted into Common Stock immediately prior to the Liquidation (disregarding for this purpose any and all limitations of any kind on such conversion).

Ranking

The Series B Convertible Preferred Stock ranks (i) on par with the Common Stock and Series A Convertible Preferred Stock and junior to Series C Non-Convertible Preferred Stock as to dividend rights and (ii) junior to Series C Non-Convertible Preferred Stock, on par with Series A Convertible Preferred Stock and senior to the Common Stock as to distributions of assets upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Corporation, whether voluntarily or involuntarily.

 

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See “Voting Rights—Matters Requiring Approval of Holders of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock” for a description of the types of issuances of equity securities and other securities of our company requiring approval of holders of a majority of shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock then outstanding, voting together as a class.

Redemption

To the extent we have funds legally available therefor, at any time after the fifth anniversary of the original issue date of the Series B Convertible Preferred Stock, we have the right to redeem all or any portion of the outstanding shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock at the original issue price by providing at least seventy five (75) days written notice of such redemption to all holders of the then outstanding shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock.

Conversion Rights

The holders of shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock will, at any time, be entitled to convert some or all of their Series B Convertible Preferred Stock into the number of shares of our common stock obtained by dividing the aggregate original purchase price of the shares to be converted by the aggregate original purchase price of the shares to be converted, which amount we refer to as the conversion price and then multiplying such product by two (2).

The conversion price will be adjustable upon the occurrence of certain events and transactions to prevent dilution as described under “Adjustments to Conversion Price to Prevent Dilution.” Any shares of our common stock issued upon conversion of the shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock shall be validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable. The Company shall either pay cash in lieu of fractional shares or round up to the next whole share.

Adjustments to Conversion Price to Prevent Dilution

The Series B Convertible Preferred Stock is subject to provisions that protect the holders against dilution by adjustment of the conversion price and/or number of shares of common stock issuable upon conversion in certain events such as a subdivision, combination or reclassification of our outstanding common stock.

Voting Rights—Matters Requiring Approval of Holders of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock

Except as otherwise required by law, the Series B Convertible Preferred Stock shall have no voting rights. However, as long as any shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock are outstanding, we shall not, without the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the then outstanding shares of the Series B Convertible Preferred Stock, (a) amend, alter, repeal, restate or supplement (in each case, whether by reclassification, merger, consolidation, reorganization or otherwise) the certificate of designation in any manner that would adversely affect the holders of the Series B Convertible Preferred Stock, (b) authorize or agree to authorize any increase in the number of shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock or issue any additional shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock, (c) amend, alter or repeal any provision of the Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws of the Company which would adversely affect any right, preference, privilege or voting power of the Series B Convertible Preferred Stock or the holders thereof or (d) agree to take any of the foregoing actions.

Registration Rights

The holders of the Series B Convertible Preferred Stock were granted certain demand registration rights and piggyback registration rights with respect to the shares of our Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the Series B Preferred Stock and exercise of their associated warrants, subject to customary cutbacks, blackout periods and other exceptions.

 

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Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock

On November 8, 2017, we issued 100 shares of non-convertible preferred stock, designated as the Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock pursuant to the certificate of designation and rights filed by us with the Secretary of State of the State of Florida, with a stated value and liquidation preference equal to $33,847.9874 per share, which we refer to as the Stated Value. The shares of Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock are entitled to (payment-in-kind (“PIK”) dividends thereon at the annual rate of twelve percent (12%) (the “Initial Rate”) of its Stated Value, payable by issuing additional shares of Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock within thirty days after the end of each calendar year, pro-rata for partial years. On January 25, 2018 we paid a dividend on our Series C Preferred Stock to Intrexon of 1.733 shares for the portion of the 2017 fiscal year the Series C Preferred was outstanding.

The following description is a summary of the material provisions of the Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock and the certificate of designation and rights and does not purport to be complete. This summary is subject to and is qualified by reference to all the provisions of the Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock and certificate of designation and rights of Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock, including the definitions of certain terms used in the certificate of designation and rights. We urge you to read this document because it, and not this description, defines the rights of a holder of the Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock. A copy of the form of certificate of designation and rights that we filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Florida effective November 8, 2017 has been incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

No Mandatory Redemption Date or Sinking Fund

The shares of Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock do not have a mandatory redemption date and are not subject to any sinking fund. The shares of Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock will remain outstanding indefinitely unless we elect to redeem them under the circumstances described below in “Redemption” or we otherwise repurchase them.

Dividends

The shares of Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock are entitled to receive dividends thereon at the annual rate of twelve percent (12%) (the “Initial Rate”) of its Stated Value, payable by issuing additional shares of Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock within thirty days after the end of each calendar year pro-rata for partial years. The Initial Rate shall be subject to increase to twenty percent (20%) automatically after May 10, 2019. On January 25, 2018 we paid a dividend on our Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock to Intrexon of 1.733 shares for the portion of the 2017 fiscal year the Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock was outstanding.

Liquidation Preference

Upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of the Company (any such event, a “Liquidation”), whether voluntary or involuntary, each holder of shares of Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock shall be entitled to receive, in preference to the holders of Common Stock, Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, Series B Convertible Preferred Stock and to all other equity securities issued by the Corporation from time to time (the “Junior Securities”), an amount of cash equal to the product of (i) the sum of (a) the number of shares of Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock then held by such holder plus (b) the number of shares of Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock issuable to such holder in connection with any accrued but unpaid dividends, multiplied by (ii) the Stated Value per share of Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock (the “Series C Liquidation Amount”) and no distributions or payments shall be made in respect of any Junior Securities unless all Series C Liquidation Amounts, if any, are first paid in full.

 

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Ranking

The Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock ranks (i) senior to the Junior Securities as to dividend rights and (ii) senior to the Junior Securities as to rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Corporation, whether voluntarily or involuntarily.

See “Voting Rights—Matters Requiring Approval of Holders of Series C Non-Convertible Preferred Stock” for a description of the types of issuances of equity securities and other securities of our company requiring approval of holders of a majority of shares of Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock then outstanding, voting together as a class.

Redemption

To the extent we have funds legally available therefor, at any time after November 8, 2017, we have the right to redeem all or any portion of the outstanding shares of Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock at the Stated Value by providing at least thirty (30) days written notice of such redemption to all holders of the then outstanding shares of Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock.

No Conversion Rights

The shares of Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock do not have any conversion rights and are not convertible into or exchangeable for any other property or securities of the Company.

Voting Rights—Matters Requiring Approval of Holders of Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock

Except as otherwise required by law, the Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock shall have no voting rights. However, as long as any shares of Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock are outstanding, we shall not, without the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the then outstanding shares of the Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock, (a) amend, alter, repeal, restate or supplement (in each case, whether by reclassification, merger, consolidation, reorganization or otherwise) the certificate of designation in any manner that would adversely affect the holders of the Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock, (b) authorize or agree to authorize any increase in the number of shares of Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock or issue any additional shares of Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock, (c) amend, alter or repeal any provision of the Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws of the Company which would adversely affect any right, preference, or privilege of the Series C Non-Voting, Non-Convertible Preferred Stock or the holders thereof or (d) agree to take any of the foregoing actions.

Options and Warrants

As of the date of this prospectus there were 3,077,425 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants to investors at a weighted exercise price per share of $2.78, 388,633 shares issuable upon exercise of options outstanding at a weighted average exercise price of $6.55 per share, and an additional 1,620,617 shares available for option grants under our 2012 Equity Incentive Plan. The issuance of shares of our common stock under our 2012 Equity Incentive Plan is covered by Form S-8 registration statements we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, and upon exercise of the options, such shares may be resold into the market. We have also issued warrants in connection with previous private placements and certain of the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants are available for resale.

Contingent Share Issuance-Intrexon

On June 9, 2015, we entered into an Oral Mucositis ECC with Intrexon and Actobiotics, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Intrexon, through which we intend to research, develop and commercialize products, including the continued development and commercialization of AG013, for use in the treatment of oral mucositis in humans through the administration of an effector via genetically modified bacteria, but, in any case, excluding the delivery of anti-cancer effectors for the purpose of treatment or prophylaxis of cancer (collectively, the “Program”). Contemporaneously with the Oral Mucositis ECC, we and Intrexon also entered into a Stock Issuance Agreement (the “SIA”) which

 

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authorized the issuance of the Technology Access Fee and the future stock issuance of our Common Stock to Intrexon upon the achievement of designated milestones. We issued a Convertible Note in the amount of $5,000,000 as payment of the technology access fee associated with the Oral Mucositis ECC which was payable, at our option, in cash or shares of our common stock. The convertible note, including accrued interest, was repaid in December 2015 through the issuance of 338,101 shares of our common stock. Effective January 1, 2018, Intrexon assigned its interest in the Oral Mucositis ECC and related SIA (excluding Intrexon’s standstill obligation) to its wholly owned subsidiary, ActoBio Therapeutics, Inc.

In November of 2017, the Stock Issuance Agreement and the Oral Mucositis ECC were amended. Under the terms of the amendment, the Company has agreed to make certain payments to Intrexon upon our achievement of designated milestones in the form of shares of our Common Stock (based upon the fair market value of the shares otherwise required to be issued) unless the issuance of such shares would reasonably likely cause Intrexon to consolidate our financial statements with Intrexon’s financial statements, or at our option make a cash payment to Intrexon. The milestone events and amounts payable are as follows:

 

    a one-time payment of twenty seven million five hundred thousand United States dollars ($27,500,000) within six (6) months of the achievement of the Regulatory Approval Milestone Event meaning receiving approval from the FDA of a New Product Application for an Oragenics Product (or equivalent regulatory action in a foreign jurisdiction);

 

    a one-time payment of five million United States dollars ($5,000,000) within six (6) months of the achievement of the New Indication Milestone Event meaning receiving approval from the FDA of a Supplemental FDA Application (or an equivalent filing with another equivalent regulatory agency) which Supplemental FDA Application sought approval of an indication for use of the Oragenics Product other than the current regulatory-approved indication; and

 

    a one-time payment of five million United States dollars ($5,000,000) within six (6) months of the achievement of the New Product Milestone Event meaning receiving approval from the FDA of a New Product that is deemed to be a different drug product that the first Oragenics Product that was clinically pursued under the Lantibiotics Program.

Effective January 1, 2018, Intrexon assigned its interest in the Oral Mucositis ECC and Stock Issuance Agreement (excluding Intrexon’s standstill obligation) to its wholly owned subsidiary, ActoBio Therapeutics, Inc.

Equity Participation Right-Intrexon

Pursuant to the Stock Issuance Agreement, Intrexon was also entitled, at its election, to participate in future securities offerings by us that constitute “qualified financings” and purchase securities equal to 30% of the number of shares of common stock or other securities sold in such offering (exclusive of Intrexon’s purchase). For this purpose, a “qualified financing” means a sale of common stock or equity securities convertible into common stock in a public or private offering, raising gross proceeds of at least $1,000,000, where the sale of shares is either registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, at the time of issuance or we agree to register the resale of such shares. Intrexon waived their right to participate in the July 2012, June 2016, May 2017 and November 2017 Private Placements and did not elect to participate in the April 10, 2018 registered direct offering.

Registration Rights

Intrexon Corporation. Pursuant to the Stock Issuance Agreements with Intrexon dated June 5, 2012 and June 9, 2015, we granted certain registration rights to Intrexon. The registration rights consisted of “piggyback registration” rights which permit Intrexon to participate in any firm commitment underwritten offering of securities by us, subject to underwriter cutbacks and lockups. In addition, we are precluded from granting registration rights in connection with a private placement unless (i) all shares held by Intrexon are, at the time of such private placement, included on a registration statement, or (ii) we agree, in connection with such private placement, to grant Intrexon the right to include on the registration statement a number of Intrexon’s Company shares equal to one half of the number of shares to be registered on behalf of the other holders or prospective holders. Intrexon waived its registration rights in connection with the Company’s July 2012, June 2016, May 2017, November 2017 private placements and has elected to exercise registration rights under the Stock Issuance Agreements with respect to the resale registration statement are filed after our April 2018 private

 

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placement. Of the aggregate of 777,344 shares of common stock we issued to Intrexon under the Stock Issuance Agreements, we registered for resale pursuant to a resale registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on Form S-1 and declared effective on May 8, 2018, all of the 439,243 shares we issued to Intrexon under the June 5, 2012 Stock Issuance Agreement and 10,757 of the shares we issued to Intrexon under the June 9, 2015 Stock Issuance Agreement. The balance of the 327,344 shares we issued to Intrexon under the June 9, 2015 Stock Issuance Agreement remains subject to the registration rights set forth therein.

Koski Family Limited Partnership, Intrexon Corporation and Dr.  Frederick Telling . Pursuant to the June 30, 2016 Stock Purchase Agreement, we granted certain registration rights to the Koski Family Limited Partnership, Intrexon Corporation, and our Chairman, Dr. Frederick Telling. The registration rights consisted of “piggyback registration” rights which permit such shareholders to participate in any firm commitment underwritten offering of securities by us, subject to underwriter cutbacks and lockups. In addition, we are precluded from granting registration rights in connection with a private placement unless (i) all shares held by such shareholders are, at the time of such private placement, included on a registration statement, or (ii) we agree, in connection with such private placement, to grant such shareholders the right to include on the registration statement such number of shares equal to one half of the number of shares to be registered on behalf of the other holders or prospective holders. The Koski Family Limited Partnership and Dr. Telling waived their registration rights in connection with the Company’s May 2017, November 2017 Private Placements. The shares issued in connection with the June 30, 2016 Private Placements were all included in the resale registration statement filed on Form S-1 by us and declared effective on May 8, 2018 by the SEC.

Series A Preferred Stock Private Placement . Pursuant to the May 10, 2017 Registration Rights Agreement, we granted certain demand registration rights and piggyback registration rights with respect to the shares of our Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the Series A Preferred Stock and exercise of the Warrants.

Services B Preferred Stock Private Placement . Pursuant to the November 8, 2017 Amended and Restated Registration Right Agreement, we granted certain demand registration rights and piggyback registration rights with respect to the shares of our Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the Series B Preferred Stock and exercise of the Warrants. The Amended and Restated Registration Rights Agreement amended the previous registration rights agreement entered into in connection with our Series A Preferred Stock Financing in May 2017.

Listing

Our common stock is currently listed on the NYSE American under the trading symbol “OGEN.”

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar of our common stock is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, 1 State Street 30th Floor, New York, NY 10004-1561, telephone: (212) 509-4000.

Certain Anti-Takeover Provisions

Florida Law

We are not subject to the statutory anti-takeover provisions under Florida law because in our articles of incorporation we have specifically elected to opt out of both the “control-share acquisitions” (F.S. 607.0902) and the “affiliated transactions” (F.S. 607.0901) statutes. Since these anti-takeover statutes do not apply to a corporation that has specifically elected to opt out of such provisions we would not be able to invoke the protection of such statutes in the event of a hostile takeover attempt.

Articles of Incorporation and Bylaw Provisions

Our articles of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could have an anti-takeover effect. These provisions include

 

    authorization of the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock that could be issued by our Board of Directors without shareholder approval and that may be substantially dilutive or contain preferences or rights objectionable to an acquiror;

 

    the ability of the Board of Directors to amend the bylaws without shareholder approval;

 

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    vacancies on our board may only be filled by the remaining Directors and not our shareholders; and

 

    requirements that only our Board, our President or holders of more than 10% of our shares can call a special meeting of shareholders.

These provisions in our articles of incorporation and bylaws could delay or discourage transactions involving an actual or potential change in control of us, including transactions in which shareholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares over their current prices. Such provisions could also limit the ability of shareholders to approve transactions that shareholders may deem to be in their best interests and could adversely affect the price of our common stock.

Disclosure of SEC Position on Indemnification for Securities Act Liabilities

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted for directors, officers and persons controlling our company, we understand that it is the SEC’s opinion that such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and may therefore be unenforceable.

 

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UNDERWRITING

We have entered into an underwriting agreement dated                 , 2018 with Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc., as the representative of the underwriters (the “representative”) named below and the sole book-running manager of this offering. Subject to the terms and conditions of the underwriting agreement, the underwriters have agreed to purchase the number of our securities set forth opposite its name below.

 

Underwriter

   Class A Units      Class B Units  

Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc.

     
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

A copy of the underwriting agreement will be filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is part.

We have been advised by the underwriters that they propose to offer the units directly to the public at the public offering price set forth on the cover page of this prospectus. The underwriters may sell Class A Units or Class B Units separately to purchasers or may sell a combination of Class A Units and Class B Units to purchasers in any proportion. Any securities sold by the underwriters to securities dealers will be sold at the public offering price less a selling concession not in excess of $                per share and $                per warrant.

The underwriting agreement provides that subject to the satisfaction or waiver by the representative of the conditions contained in the underwriting agreement, the underwriters are obligated to purchase and pay for all of the units offered by this prospectus. No action has been taken by us or the underwriters that would permit a public offering of the units, or the shares, of common stock, shares of preferred stock and warrants included in the units, in any jurisdiction outside the United States where action for that purpose is required. None of our securities included in this offering may be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, nor may this prospectus or any other offering material or advertisements in connection with the offer and sales of any of the securities offering hereby be distributed or published in any jurisdiction except under circumstances that will result in compliance with the applicable rules and regulations of that jurisdiction. Persons who receive this prospectus are advised to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to this offering of securities and the distribution of this prospectus. This prospectus is neither an offer to sell nor a solicitation of any offer to buy the securities in any jurisdiction where that would not be permitted or legal.

The underwriters have advised us that they do not intend to confirm sales to any account over which they exercise discretionary authority.

Underwriting Discount and Expenses

The following table summarizes the underwriting discount and commission to be paid to the underwriters by us.

 

     Per Class A Unit (1)      Per Class B Unit (1)      Total  

Public offering price

   $      $      $                   

Underwriting discount to be paid to the underwriters by us (8.0%) (2)

        

Proceeds to us (before expenses)

   $      $      $  

 

(1) The public offering price and underwriting discount corresponds to (x) in respect of the Class A Units (i) a public offering price per share of common stock of $                and (ii) a public offering price per warrant of $         and (y) in respect of the Class B Units (i) a public offering price per share of Series D Preferred Stock of $                and (ii) a public offering price per warrant of                         .

 

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(2) We have granted a 45 day option to the underwriters to purchase up to                additional shares of common stock (up to 15% of the shares of common stock plus the number of shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of shares of Series D Preferred Stock) and/or additional warrants exercisable to purchase up to an additional                 shares of common stock (up to 15% of the warrants sold in this offering) at the public offering price per share of common stock and the public offering price per warrant set forth above less the underwriting discounts and commissions solely to cover over-allotments, if any.

We estimate the total expenses payable by us for this offering to be approximately $1,165,000 which amount includes (i) the underwriting discount of $800,000 ($920,000 if the underwriters’ over-allotment option is exercised in full) and (ii) reimbursement of the accountable expenses of the representative equal to $95,000 including the legal fees of the representative being paid by us, and (iii) other estimated company expenses of approximately $270,000 which includes legal, accounting and printing costs and various fees associated with the registration and listing of our shares.

The securities we are offering are being offered by the underwriters subject to certain conditions specified in the underwriting agreement.

Over-allotment Option

We have granted to the underwriters an option exercisable not later than 45 days after the date of this prospectus to purchase up to a number of additional shares of common stock and/or warrants equal to 15% of the number of shares of common stock sold in the primary offering (including the number of shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of shares of Series D Preferred Stock but excluding any shares of common stock underlying the warrants issued in this offering and any shares of common stock issued upon any exercise of the underwriters’ over-allotment option) and/or 15% of the warrants sold in the primary offering at the public offering price per share of common stock and the public offering price per warrant set forth on the cover page hereto less the underwriting discounts and commissions. The underwriters may exercise the option solely to cover overallotments, if any, made in connection with this offering. If any additional shares of common stock and/or warrants are purchased, the underwriters will offer these shares of common stock and/or warrants on the same terms as those on which the other securities are being offered.

Determination of Offering Price

Our Common stock is currently traded on the NYSE American under the symbol “OGEN.” On July 3, 2018 the closing price of our common stock was $1.36 per share. We do not intend to apply for listing of the Series D Preferred Stock or the warrants on any securities exchange or other trading system.

The public offering price of the securities offered by this prospectus will be determined by negotiation between us and the underwriters among the factors considered in determining the public offering price of the shares were;

 

    our history and our prospects;

 

    the industry in which we operate;

 

    our past and present operating results;

 

    the previous experience of our executive officers; and

 

    the general condition of the securities markets at the time of this offering.

The offering price stated on the cover page of this prospectus should not be considered an indication of the actual value of the shares of common stock sold in this offering. That price is subject to change as a result of market conditions and other factors and we cannot assure you that the shares of common stock sold in this offering can be resold at or above the public offering price.

 

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Lock-up Agreements

Our officers, directors, each of their respective affiliates and associated partners, and certain existing shareholders have agreed with the underwriters to be subject to a lock-up period of 90 days following the date of this prospectus. This means that, during the applicable lock-up period, such persons may not offer for sale, contract to sell, sell, distribute, grant any option, right or warrant to purchase, pledge, hypothecate or otherwise dispose of, directly or indirectly, any shares of our common stock or any securities convertible into, or exercisable or exchangeable for, shares of our common stock. Certain limited transfers are permitted during the lock-up period if the transferee agrees to these lock-up restrictions. We have also agreed, in the underwriting agreement, to similar lock-up restrictions on the issuance and sale of our securities for 90 days following the closing of this offering, although we will be permitted to issue stock options or stock awards to directors, officers and employees under our existing plans. The lock-up period is subject to an additional extension to accommodate for our reports of financial results or material news releases. The representative may, in its sole discretion and without notice, waive the terms of any of these lock-up agreements.

Other Relationships

Upon completion of this offering, we have granted the representative a right of first refusal to act as sole bookrunner or exclusive placement agent in connection with any subsequent public or private offering of equity securities or other capital markets financing by us. This right of first refusal extends from the closing date of this offering until March 1, 2019. The terms of any such engagement of the representative will be determined by separate agreement.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company.

Stabilization, Short Positions and Penalty Bids

The underwriters may engage in syndicate covering transactions stabilizing transactions and penalty bids or purchases for the purpose of pegging, fixing or maintaining the price of our common stock;

 

    Syndicate covering transactions involve purchases of securities in the open market after the distribution has been completed in order to cover syndicate short positions. Such a naked short position would be closed out by buying securities in the open market. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriters are concerned that there could be downward pressure on the price of the securities in the open market after pricing that could adversely affect investors who purchase in the offering.

 

    Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specific maximum.

 

    Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a syndicate member when the securities originally sold by the syndicate member are purchased in a stabilizing or syndicate covering transaction to cover syndicate short positions.

These syndicate covering transactions, stabilizing transactions, and penalty bids may have the effect of raising or maintaining the market prices of our securities or preventing or retarding a decline in the market prices of our securities. As a result the price of our common stock may be higher than the price that might otherwise exist in the open market. Neither we nor the underwriters make any representation or prediction as to the effect that the transactions described above may have on the price of our common stock. These transactions may be effected on the NYSE American, in the over-the-counter market or on any other trading market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.

In connection with this offering, the underwriters also may engage in passive market making transactions in our common stock in accordance with Regulation M during a period before the commencement of offers or sales of hares of our common stock in this offering and extending through the completion of the distribution. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for that security.

 

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However, if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid that bid must then be lowered when specific purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may stabilize the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.

Neither we, nor the underwriters make any representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above may have on the prices of our securities. In addition, neither we nor the underwriters make any representation that the underwriters will engage in these transactions or that any transactions, once commenced will not be discontinued without notice.

Indemnification

We have agreed to indemnify the underwriters against certain liabilities, including certain liabilities arising under the Securities Act or to contribute to payments that the underwriters may be required to make for these liabilities.

 

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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

The following is a general discussion of material U.S. federal income considerations relating to the purchase, ownership and disposition of our common stock, Series D Preferred Stock or warrants. This discussion is based on current provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (the “Internal Revenue Code”), existing and proposed U.S. Treasury Regulations promulgated or proposed thereunder and current administrative and judicial interpretations thereof, all as in effect as of the date of this prospectus and all of which are subject to change or to differing interpretation, possibly with retroactive effect. We have not sought and will not seek any rulings from the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) regarding the matters discussed below. There can be no assurance that the IRS or a court will not take a contrary position.

This discussion is limited to U.S. holders and non-U.S. holders who hold our common stock, Series D Preferred Stock or warrants as capital assets within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Internal Revenue Code (generally, as property held for investment). This discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation, such as the U.S. alternative minimum income tax and the additional tax on net investment income, nor does it address any aspect of state, local or non-U.S. taxes, or U.S. federal taxes other than income taxes, such as federal estate taxes. This discussion does not consider any specific facts or circumstances that may apply to a holder and does not address the special tax considerations that may be applicable to particular holders, such as:

 

    insurance companies;

 

    tax-exempt organizations;

 

    financial institutions;

 

    brokers or dealers in securities;

 

    regulated investment companies;

 

    pension plans;

 

    controlled foreign corporations;

 

    passive foreign investment companies;

 

    corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

 

    certain U.S. expatriates;

 

    persons that have a “functional currency” other than the U.S. dollar;

 

    persons that acquire our common stock as compensation for services;

 

    owners that hold our common stock, Series D Preferred Stock or warrants as part of a straddle, hedge, conversion transaction, synthetic security or other integrated investment; and

 

    partnerships or other entities treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

If any entity taxable as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our common stock, Series D Preferred Stock or warrants, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a partner in the partnership generally will depend on the status of the partner, the activities of the partnership and certain determinations made at the partner level. A partner in a partnership or other transparent entity that holds our common stock, Series D Preferred Stock or warrants should consult his, her or its own tax advisor regarding the applicable tax consequences.

For purposes of this discussion, the term “U.S. holder” means a beneficial owner of our common stock, Series D Preferred Stock or warrants that is, for U.S. federal income tax purposes:

 

    an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

    a corporation created or organized in or under the laws of the United States or of any political subdivision of the United States;

 

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    an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

 

    a trust, if (1) a U.S. court is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust and one or more U.S. persons have authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (2) the trust has a valid election to be treated as a U.S. person under applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations.

A “non-U.S. holder” is a beneficial owner of our common stock, Series D Preferred Stock or warrants that is not a U.S. holder.

Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. income and other tax considerations of purchasing, holding and disposing of our common stock, Series D Preferred Stock or warrants.

U.S. Holders

Exercise of Warrants

A U.S. holder generally will not recognize gain or loss on the exercise of a warrant and related receipt of shares of our common stock (unless cash is received in lieu of the issuance of a fractional share of our common stock). A U.S. holder’s initial tax basis in the shares of our common stock received upon the exercise of a warrant will be equal to the sum of (a) such U.S. holder’s tax basis in such warrant plus (b) the exercise price paid by such U.S. holder on the exercise of such warrant. A U.S. holder’s holding period for the shares of our common stock received upon the exercise of a warrant will begin on the day after the date that the warrant is exercised.

In certain limited circumstances, a U.S. holder may be permitted to undertake a cashless exercise of warrants into shares of our common stock. The U.S. federal income tax treatment of a cashless exercise of warrants into shares of common stock is unclear, and the tax consequences of a cashless exercise could differ from the consequences upon the exercise of a warrant described in the preceding paragraph. U.S. holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of a cashless exercise of warrants.

Certain Adjustments to the Warrants or Series D Preferred Stock

An adjustment to the number of shares of our common stock that will be issued upon the exercise of a warrant or conversion of a share of Series D Preferred Stock, or an adjustment to the exercise price of a warrant, may be treated as a constructive distribution to a U.S. holder of the warrant or share depending on the circumstances of such adjustment (for example, if such adjustment is to compensate for a distribution of cash or other property to our shareholders). Adjustments to the exercise price of warrants or conversion price of Series D Preferred Stock made pursuant to a bona fide reasonable adjustment formula that has the effect of preventing dilution of the interest of the holders thereof generally should not be considered to result in a constructive distribution. Any such constructive distribution would be taxable whether or not there is an actual distribution of cash or other property. See the more detailed discussion of the rules applicable to distributions made by us under the heading “Distributions on Common Stock or Series D Preferred Stock” below.

Expiration of the Warrants without Exercise

Upon the lapse or expiration of a warrant, a U.S. holder will recognize a loss in an amount equal to such U.S. holder’s tax basis in the warrant. Any such loss generally will be a capital loss and will be long-term capital loss if the warrant is held for more than one year. Deductions for capital losses are subject to significant limitations.

Conversion of Series D Preferred Stock

A U.S. holder generally will not recognize gain or loss upon the conversion of a share of Series D Preferred Stock into common stock. A U.S. holder’s initial tax basis in the shares of our common stock received upon the conversion of a share of Series D Preferred Stock will be equal to such U.S. holder’s tax basis in the share of Series D Preferred Stock. A U.S. holder’s holding period for the shares of our common stock received upon the conversion of a share of Series D Preferred Stock will include the U.S. holder’s holding period in such share of Series D Preferred Stock.

 

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Distributions on Common Stock or Series D Preferred Stock

If we pay distributions of cash or property with respect to our common stock or Series D Preferred Stock (including constructive distributions as described above under the heading “Certain Adjustments to the Warrants or Series D Preferred Stock”), those distributions generally will constitute dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent paid from our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles. If a distribution exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits, the excess will be treated as a tax-free return of the U.S. holder’s investment, up to such holder’s tax basis in its shares of our common stock or Series D Preferred Stock. Any remaining excess will be treated as capital gain, subject to the tax treatment described below under the heading “—Gain on Sale, Exchange or Other Taxable Disposition.”

Gain on Sale, Exchange or Other Taxable Disposition

Upon the sale or other taxable disposition of common shares, Series D Preferred Stock or warrants, a U.S. holder generally will recognize capital gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between (a) the amount of cash plus the fair market value of any property received and (b) such U.S. holder’s tax basis in such common shares, Series D Preferred Stock or warrants sold or otherwise disposed of. Such gain or loss generally will be long-term capital gain or loss if, at the time of the sale or other disposition, the common shares, Series D Preferred Stock or warrants have been held by the U.S. holder for more than one year. Preferential tax rates may apply to long-term capital gain of a U.S. holder that is an individual, estate, or trust. Deductions for capital losses are subject to significant limitations.

Non-U.S. Holders

Distributions on Common Stock or Series D Preferred Stock

If we pay distributions of cash or property with respect to our common stock or Series D Preferred Stock (including constructive distributions as described above under the heading “Certain Adjustments to the Warrants or Series D Preferred Stock”), those distributions generally will constitute dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent paid from our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles. If a distribution exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits, the excess will be treated as a tax-free return of the non-U.S. holder’s investment, up to such holder’s tax basis in its shares of our common stock or Series D Preferred Stock. Any remaining excess will be treated as capital gain, subject to the tax treatment described below under the heading “—Gain on Sale, Exchange or Other Taxable Disposition.” Dividends paid to a non-U.S. holder generally will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence. In the case of any constructive distribution, it is possible that this tax would be withheld from any amount owed to the non-U.S. holder, including, but not limited to, distributions of cash, common stock or sales proceeds subsequently paid or credited to that holder. If we are unable to determine, at the time of payment of a distribution, whether the distribution will constitute a dividend, we may nonetheless choose to withhold any U.S. federal income tax on the distribution as permitted by U.S. Treasury Regulations.

Distributions that are treated as effectively connected with a trade or business conducted by a non-U.S. holder within the United States are generally not subject to the 30% withholding tax if the non-U.S. holder provides a properly executed IRS Form W-8ECI stating that the distributions are not subject to withholding because they are effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business in the United States. If a non-U.S. holder is engaged in a trade or business in the United States and the distribution is effectively connected with the conduct of that trade or business, the distribution will generally have the consequences described above for a U.S. holder (subject to any modification provided under an applicable income tax treaty). Any U.S. effectively connected income received by a non-U.S. holder that is treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes may also, under certain circumstances, be subject to an additional “branch profits tax” at a 30% rate (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty).

 

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A non-U.S. holder who claims the benefit of an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence generally will be required to provide a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E, as applicable, and satisfy applicable certification and other requirements. A non-U.S. holder that is eligible for a reduced rate of U.S. withholding tax under an income tax treaty generally may obtain a refund or credit of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim with the IRS. Non-U.S. holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under a relevant income tax treaty.

Gain on Sale, Exchange or Other Taxable Disposition

Subject to the discussion below in “—Information Reporting and Backup Withholding” and “—Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act,” a non-U.S. holder generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on gain recognized on a sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our common stock, Series D Preferred Stock or warrants unless:

 

    the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business in the United States and, if an applicable income tax treaty so provides, the gain is attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by the non-U.S. holder in the United States; in these cases, the non-U.S. holder will be taxed on a net income basis at the regular graduated rates and in the manner applicable to a U.S. holder, and, if the non-U.S. holder is a corporation, an additional branch profits tax at a rate of 30%, or a lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty, may also apply;

 

    the non-U.S. holder is an individual present in the United States for 183 days or more in the taxable year of the disposition and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to a 30% tax (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on the amount by which such non-U.S. holder’s capital gains allocable to U.S. sources exceed capital losses allocable to U.S. sources during the taxable year of the disposition; or

 

    we are or were a “U.S. real property holding corporation” during the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the disposition or the period that the non-U.S. holder held our common stock. Generally, a corporation is a “U.S. real property holding corporation” if the fair market value of its “U.S. real property interests” (within the meaning of the Internal Revenue Code) equals or exceeds 50% of the sum of the fair market value of its worldwide real property interests plus its other assets used or held for use in a trade or business. We believe that we are not currently, and we do not anticipate becoming, a “U.S. real property holding corporation” for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding

Distributions on, and the payment of the proceeds of a disposition of, our common stock, Series D Preferred Stock or warrants generally will be subject to information reporting if made within the United States or through certain U.S.-related financial intermediaries. Information returns are required to be filed with the IRS and copies of information returns may be made available to the tax authorities of the country in which a holder resides or is incorporated under the provisions of a specific treaty or agreement.

Backup withholding may also apply if the holder fails to provide certification of exempt status or a correct U.S. taxpayer identification number and otherwise comply with the applicable backup withholding requirements. Generally, a holder will not be subject to backup withholding if it provides a properly completed and executed IRS Form W-9 or appropriate IRS Form W-8, as applicable. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be refunded or credited against the holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, if any, provided certain information is timely filed with the IRS.

Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act

Legislation commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA, generally imposes a U.S. federal withholding tax of 30% on payments to certain non-U.S. entities (including certain intermediaries) unless such persons comply with FATCA’s information reporting and withholding regime. This regime and its requirements are different from, and in addition to, the certification requirements described elsewhere in this discussion. The FATCA withholding rules apply to dividend payments and, in the case of certain sales or other dispositions occurring after December 31, 2018 (including a distribution to the extent it is treated as a return of capital or capital gain), the gross proceeds of such disposition.

 

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The United States has entered into, and continues to negotiate, intergovernmental agreements (each, an “IGA”) with a number of other jurisdictions to facilitate the implementation of FATCA. An IGA may significantly alter the application of FATCA and its information reporting and withholding requirements with respect to any particular investor. FATCA is particularly complex and its application remains uncertain. Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors regarding how these rules may apply in their particular circumstances.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Shumaker, Loop & Kendrick, LLP will issue a legal opinion as to the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus. Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP, New York, New York, is acting as counsel for the underwriters in connection with certain legal matters in connection with this offering.

EXPERTS

The audited financial statements of Oragenics, Inc. as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, and for the two-year period ended December 31, 2017, included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, incorporated by reference in this prospectus have been audited by Mayer Hoffman McCann P.C., an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report dated February 16, 2018, which includes an explanatory paragraph related to Oragenics, Inc.’s ability to continue as a going concern, which is incorporated by reference herein, and has been so incorporated in reliance upon the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

We have filed a registration statement on Form S-1 with the SEC under the Securities Act. This prospectus is part of the registration statement but the registration statement includes additional information and exhibits. Statements contained in this prospectus as to the contents of any contract or any other document referred to are not necessarily complete, and in each instance, we refer you to the copy of the contract or other document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement. Each of these statements is qualified in all respects by this reference. You may read and copy the registration statement and any document we file with the SEC at the public reference room maintained by the SEC at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the public reference room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains a web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding companies, such as ours, that file documents electronically with the SEC. The website address is www.sec.gov. The information on the SEC’s website is not part of this prospectus, and any references to this website or any other website are inactive textual references only.

Our Internet address is www.oragenics.com . There we make available free of charge, on or through the investor relations section of our website, annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The information found on our website is not part of this prospectus and investors should not rely on any such information in deciding whether to invest.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference the information we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document that we have filed separately with the SEC. You should read the information incorporated by reference because it is an important part of this prospectus. We incorporate by reference the following information or documents that we have filed with the SEC, excluding any portions of any Current Report on Form 8-K that are not deemed “filed” pursuant to the General Instructions of Form 8-K:

 

    Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, filed with the SEC on February 16, 2018;

 

    Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on May 15, 2018; and

 

    Our definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on May 17, 2018.

 

    Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 8, 2018, January 19, 2018, April 10, 2018, May 25, 2018, May 30, 2018, June 11, 2018 and June 26, 2018.

 

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Any information in any of the foregoing documents will automatically be deemed to be modified or superseded to the extent that information in this prospectus or in a later filed document that is incorporated or deemed to be incorporated herein by reference modifies or replaces such information.

We also incorporate by reference any future filings (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items) made with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, including those made after the date of filing of the initial registration statement and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, until we file a post-effective amendment that indicates the termination of the offering of the securities made by this prospectus. Information in such future filings updates and supplements the information provided in this prospectus. Any statements in any such future filings will automatically be deemed to modify and supersede any information in any document we previously filed with the SEC that is incorporated or deemed to be incorporated herein by reference to the extent that statements in the later filed document modify or replace such earlier statements.

We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered, without charge upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus, including exhibits which are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. You may request a copy of these filings at no cost, by writing to or telephoning us at the following address:

Oragenics, Inc.

4902 Eisenhower Boulevard, Suite 125

Tampa, Florida 33634

Attention: Investor Relations

Phone: (813) 276-7900

You may also access filed documents by accessing the Investors section of our website at www.oragenics.com.

 

 

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LOGO

1,470,588 Class A Units consisting of one share of common stock and one common warrant

and

5,882,352 Class B Units consisting of one share of Series D convertible preferred stock and one common warrant

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

Ladenburg Thalmann

            , 2018

 


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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 13. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

The following sets forth estimated expenses in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered, other than the underwriting discounts and commissions. All expenses incurred with respect to the registration of the common stock will be borne by us. All amounts are estimates except the SEC registration fee and the FINRA filing fee.

 

     Amount
to be Paid
 

SEC registration fee

   $ 2,864  

FINRA filing fee

   $ 3,950  

Legal fees and expenses

   $ 295,000  

Accountants’ fees and expenses

   $ 20,000  

Other expenses

   $ 43,186  
  

 

 

 

Total

   $ 365,000  
  

 

 

 

 

* To be filed by amendment.

 

Item 14. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

As provided in our bylaws and under Florida law, our Directors shall not be personally liable to our company or any other person for monetary damages for breach of duty of care or any other duty owed to our company as a Director, unless the breach of or failure to perform those duties constitutes:

 

    a violation of criminal law, unless the Director had reasonable cause to believe his conduct was lawful, or had no reasonable cause to believe his conduct was unlawful;

 

    a transaction from which the Director received an improper personal benefit, directly or indirectly;

 

    in a proceeding by or in the right of our company or a shareholder, an act or omission which involves a conscious disregard for the best interests of our company or which involves willful misconduct;

 

    in a proceeding by or in the right of someone other than our company or a shareholder, an act of recklessness or an act or omission which was committed in bad faith or with malicious purpose or in a manner exhibiting wanton and willful disregard of human rights, safety, or property; or

 

    a distribution made in violation of Florida law.

Our bylaws provide that we are required to indemnify any Director, officer, employee or agent made a party to a proceeding because he is or was our Director, officer, employee or agent against liability incurred in the proceeding if he acted in good faith and in a manner the Director reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to our best interests and, in the case of any criminal proceeding, he had no reasonable cause to believe his conduct was unlawful.

 

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Our bylaws and Florida law also provide that we shall indemnify a Director, officer, employee or agent who has been successful on the merits or otherwise in the defense of any proceeding to which he was a party, or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, because he is or was a Director, officer, employee or agent of

At the present time, there is no pending litigation or proceeding involving a director, officer, employee or other agent of the Registrant in which indemnification would be required or permitted. The Registrant is not aware of any threatened litigation or proceeding which may result in a claim for such indemnification.

The Registrant has entered into an insurance policy in place that covers its officers and directors with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act or otherwise.

The Registrant plans to enter into an underwriting agreement which provides that the underwriters are obligated, under some circumstances, to indemnify the Registrant’s directors, officers and controlling persons against specified liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

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Item 16. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules .

 

Exhibit
Number

  

Description of Document

1.1*    Form of Underwriting Agreement.
3.1    Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation as amended prior to December  29, 2017 (including certificates of designation of Series A, B and C Preferred Stock). (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on December  29, 2017 (File No. 001-32188).
3.2    Articles of Amendment to Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation dated effective December  29, 2017(Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on December 29, 2017 (File No. 001-32188).
3.3    Articles of Amendment to Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation effective January 19, 2018 (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on January 19, 2018 (File No. 001-32188).
3.4    Articles of Amendment to Amended and Restated Articles (Incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.4 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 26, 2018).
3.5    Bylaws (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form SB-2 filed on October 16, 2002 (File No. 333-100568.)
3.6    First Amendment to Bylaws (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 9, 2010 (File No. 001-32188).
3.7    Second Amendment to Bylaws (Incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on August 24, 2010 (File No. 001-32188).
4.1*    Form of Certificate of Designation of Series D Preferred Stock.
4.2*    Form of Warrant to purchase shares of Common Stock.
5.1*    Opinion of Shumaker, Loop & Kendrick, LLP.
23.1*    Consent of Mayer Hoffman McCann P.C., Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.
23.2*    Consent of Shumaker, Loop & Kendrick, LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).
24.1    Power of Attorney (included in the signature pages to the Registration Statement filed on May 15, 2018).

 

* Filed herewith.

 

Item 17. Undertakings .

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

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The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that:

 

(i) For purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of this registration statement as of the time it was declared effective.

 

(ii) For the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

II-4


Table of Contents

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-1 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Tampa, State of Florida on July 6, 2018.

 

ORAGENICS, INC.
By:   /s/ Alan Joslyn
  Alan Joslyn,
  Chief Executive Officer, and Principal Executive Officer

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this registration statement has been signed below by the following persons in the capacities and on July 6, 2018.

 

Signature

  

Title

   

/s/ Alan Joslyn

Alan Joslyn

  

Principal Executive Officer, Chief Executive

Officer and Director

 

/s/ Michael Sullivan

Michael Sullivan

  

Principal Financial Officer, Chief Financial Officer

(Principal Accounting Officer)

 

*

Frederick W. Telling

  

Chairman and Director

 

*

Robert C. Koski

  

Director

 

*

Charles L. Pope

  

Director

 

*

Alan W. Dunton

  

Director

 

 

*By:  

/s/ Alan Joslyn

 

Alan Joslyn

Attorney-in-fact

 

II-5

Exhibit 1.1

                 SHARES OF COMMON STOCK

                 SHARES OF SERIES A CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK

(CONVERTIBLE INTO                  SHARES OF COMMON STOCK) AND

                 WARRANTS OF

ORAGENICS, INC.

UNDERWRITING AGREEMENT

            , 2018

Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc.

As the Representative of the

Several underwriters, if any, named in Schedule I hereto

4400 Biscayne Boulevard, 14th Floor

Miami, Florida 33137

Ladies and Gentlemen:

The undersigned, Oragenics, Inc., a company incorporated under the laws of Florida (collectively with its subsidiaries and affiliates, including, without limitation, all entities disclosed or described in the Registration Statement as being subsidiaries or affiliates of Oragenics, Inc., the “ Company ”), hereby confirms its agreement (this “ Agreement ”) with the several underwriters (such underwriters, including the Representative (as defined below), the “ Underwriters ” and each an “ Underwriter ”) named in Schedule I hereto for which Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc. is acting as representative to the several Underwriters (the “ Representative ” and if there are no Underwriters other than the Representative, references to multiple Underwriters shall be disregarded and the term Representative as used herein shall have the same meaning as Underwriter) on the terms and conditions set forth herein.

It is understood that the several Underwriters are to make a public offering of the Public Securities as soon as the Representative deems it advisable to do so. The Public Securities are to be initially offered to the public at the initial public offering price set forth in the Prospectus. The Representative may from time to time thereafter change the public offering price and other selling terms.

It is further understood that you will act as the Representative for the Underwriters in the offering and sale of the Closing Securities and, if any, the Option Securities in accordance with this Agreement.


ARTICLE I.

DEFINITIONS

1.1     Definitions . In addition to the terms defined elsewhere in this Agreement, (a) capitalized terms that are not otherwise defined herein have the meanings given to such terms in the Certificate of Designation (as defined herein) and (b) the following terms have the meanings set forth in this Section 1.1:

Action ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(k).

Affiliate ” means with respect to any Person, any other Person that, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is controlled by or is under common control with such Person as such terms are used in and construed under Rule 405 under the Securities Act.

Board of Directors ” means the board of directors of the Company.

Business Day ” means any day except any Saturday, any Sunday, any day which is a federal legal holiday in the United States or any day on which banking institutions in the State of New York are authorized or required by law or other governmental action to close.

Certificate of Designation ” means the Certificate of Designation to be filed prior to the Closing by the Company with the Secretary of State of Florida in the form of Exhibit F attached hereto.

Closing ” means the closing of the purchase and sale of the Closing Securities pursuant to Section 2.1.

Closing Date ” means the hour and the date on the Trading Day on which all conditions precedent to (i) the Underwriters’ obligations to pay the Closing Purchase Price and (ii) the Company’s obligations to deliver the Closing Securities, in each case, have been satisfied or waived, but in no event later than 10:00 a.m. (New York City time) on the second (2 nd ) Trading Day following the date hereof or at such earlier time as shall be agreed upon by the Representative and the Company.

Closing Preferred Shares ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(a)(ii).

Closing Purchase Price ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(b), which aggregate purchase price shall be net of the underwriting discounts and commissions.

Closing Securities ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(a)(ii).

Closing Shares ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(a)(i).

Closing Warrants ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(a)(ii).

 

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Combined Purchase Price ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(b).

Commission ” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.

Common Stock ” means the common stock of the Company, par value $0.001 per share, and any other class of securities into which such securities may hereafter be reclassified or changed.

Common Stock Equivalents ” means any securities of the Company or the Subsidiaries which would entitle the holder thereof to acquire at any time Common Stock, including, without limitation, any debt, preferred stock, right, option, warrant or other instrument that is at any time convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or otherwise entitles the holder thereof to receive, Common Stock.

Company Auditor ” means Mayer Hoffman McCann P.C., with offices located at 13577 Feather Sound Dr., Suite 400, Clearwater, FL 33762.

Company Counsel ” means Shumaker, Loop & Kendrick, LLP, with offices located at Bank of America Plaza, 101 E. Kennedy Blvd., Suite 2800, Tampa, FL 33602.

Conversion Price ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in the Certificate of Designation.

Conversion Shares ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in the Certificate of Designation.

Disclosure Schedules ” means the Disclosure Schedules of the Company delivered concurrently herewith.

Effective Date ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(f).

EGS ” means Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP, with offices located at 1345 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10105.

Exchange Act ” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Execution Date ” shall mean the date on which the parties execute and enter into this Agreement.

Exempt Issuance ” means the issuance of (a) shares of Common Stock or options to employees, officers or directors of the Company pursuant to any stock or option plan duly adopted for such purpose by a majority of the non-employee members of the Board of Directors or a majority of the members of a committee of non-employee directors established for such purpose, (b) securities upon the exercise or exchange of or conversion of any Securities issued hereunder and/or other securities exercisable or exchangeable for or convertible into shares of Common Stock issued and outstanding on

 

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the date of this Agreement, provided that such securities have not been amended since the date of this Agreement to increase the number of such securities or to decrease the exercise price, exchange price or conversion price of such securities or to extend the term of such securities, and (c) securities issued pursuant to acquisitions or strategic transactions approved by a majority of the disinterested directors of the Company, provided that such securities are issued as “restricted securities” (as defined in Rule 144) and carry no registration rights that require or permit the filing of any registration statement in connection therewith within ninety (90) days following the Closing Date, and provided that any such issuance shall only be to a Person (or to the equity holders of a Person) which is, itself or through its subsidiaries, an operating company or an owner of an asset in a business synergistic with the business of the Company and shall provide to the Company additional benefits in addition to the investment of funds, but shall not include a transaction in which the Company is issuing securities primarily for the purpose of raising capital or to an entity whose primary business is investing in securities.

FCPA ” means the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended.

FINRA ” means the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority.

GAAP ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(i).

Indebtedness ” means (a) any liabilities for borrowed money or amounts owed in excess of $50,000 (other than trade accounts payable incurred in the ordinary course of business), (b) all guaranties, endorsements and other contingent obligations in respect of indebtedness of others, whether or not the same are or should be reflected in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet (or the notes thereto), except guaranties by endorsement of negotiable instruments for deposit or collection or similar transactions in the ordinary course of business; and (c) the present value of any lease payments in excess of $50,000 due under leases required to be capitalized in accordance with GAAP.

Liens ” means a lien, charge, pledge, security interest, encumbrance, right of first refusal, preemptive right or other restriction.

Lock-Up Agreements ” means the lock-up agreements that are delivered on the date hereof by each of the Company’s officers and directors and each holder of Common Stock and Common Stock Equivalents set forth on Schedule II hereto , in the form of Exhibit E attached hereto.

Material Adverse Effect ” means (i) a material adverse effect on the legality, validity or enforceability of any Transaction Document, (ii) a material adverse effect on the results of operations, assets, business, prospects or condition (financial or otherwise) of the Company and the Subsidiaries, taken as a whole or (iii) a material adverse effect on the Company’s ability to perform in any material respect on a timely basis its obligations under any Transaction Document.

 

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Offering ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(c).

Option Closing Date ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2(c).

Option Closing Purchase Price ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2(b), which aggregate purchase price shall be net of the underwriting discounts and commissions.

Option Securities ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2(a)(ii).

Option Shares ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2(a)(i).

Option Warrants ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2(a).

Over-Allotment Option ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.2.

Person ” means an individual or corporation, partnership, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, limited liability company, joint stock company, government (or an agency or subdivision thereof) or other entity of any kind.

Preferred Stock ” means up to              shares of the Company’s Series A Convertible Preferred Stock issued or issuable pursuant to Section 2.1(a)(ii) and having the rights, preferences and privileges set forth in the Certificate of Designation.

Preferred Stock Agency Agreement ” means the addendum to the Company’s Transfer Agency and Registrar Services Agreement with the Transfer Agent, pursuant to which the Transfer Agent agrees to act as transfer agent and conversion agent for the Preferred Stock, in the form of Exhibit G attached hereto.

Preliminary Prospectus ” means, if any, any preliminary prospectus relating to the Securities included in the Registration Statement or filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b).

Proceeding ” means an action, claim, suit, investigation or proceeding (including, without limitation, an informal investigation or partial proceeding, such as a deposition), whether commenced or threatened.

Prospectus ” means the final prospectus filed for the Registration Statement.

Prospectus Supplement ” means, if any, any supplement to the Prospectus complying with Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act that is filed with the Commission.

Public Securities ” means, collectively, the Closing Securities and, if any, the Option Securities.

 

5


Registration Statement ” means, collectively, the various parts of the registration statement prepared by the Company on Form S-1 (File No. 333-224950) with respect to the Securities, each as amended as of the date hereof, including the Prospectus and Prospectus Supplement, if any, the Preliminary Prospectus, if any, and all exhibits filed with or incorporated by reference into such registration statement.

Required Approvals ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(e).

Required Minimum ” means, as of any date, the maximum aggregate number of shares of Common Stock then issued or potentially issuable in the future pursuant to the Transaction Documents, including any Underlying Shares issuable upon exercise in full of all Warrants or conversion in full of all shares of Preferred Stock, ignoring any conversion or exercise limits set forth therein.

Rule 424 ” means Rule 424 promulgated by the Commission pursuant to the Securities Act, as such Rule may be amended or interpreted from time to time, or any similar rule or regulation hereafter adopted by the Commission having substantially the same purpose and effect as such Rule.

SEC Reports ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 3.1(i).

Securities ” means the Closing Securities, the Option Securities and the Underlying Shares.

Securities Act ” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Share Purchase Price ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(b).

Shares ” means, collectively, the shares of Common Stock delivered to the Underwriters in accordance with Section 2.1(a)(i) and Section 2.2(a).

Subsidiary ” means any subsidiary of the Company and shall, where applicable, also include any direct or indirect subsidiary of the Company formed or acquired after the date hereof.

Trading Day ” means a day on which the principal Trading Market is open for trading.

Trading Market ” means any of the following markets or exchanges on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted for trading on the date in question: the NYSE American, the Nasdaq Capital Market, the Nasdaq Global Market, the Nasdaq Global Select Market, or the New York Stock Exchange (or any successors to any of the foregoing).

 

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Transaction Documents ” means this Agreement, the Warrants, the Warrant Agency Agreement, the Certificate of Designation, the Preferred Stock Agency Agreement, the Lock-Up Agreements, and any other documents or agreements executed in connection with the transactions contemplated hereunder.

Transfer Agent ” means Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, with offices located at 1 State Street, 30th Floor, New York, NY 10004-1561, and any successor transfer agent of the Company.

Underlying Shares ” means, collectively, the Conversion Shares and the Warrant Shares.

Warrant Agency Agreement ” means the warrant agency agreement dated on or about the date hereof, among the Company and the current Transfer Agent in the form of Exhibit D attached hereto.

Warrant Purchase Price ” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term in Section 2.1(b).

Warrant Shares ” means the shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the Warrants.

Warrants ” means, collectively, the Common Stock purchase warrants delivered to the Underwriters in accordance with Section 2.1(a)(iii) and Section 2.2, which Warrants shall be exercisable immediately and have a term of exercise equal to              years, in the form of Exhibit D attached hereto.

ARTICLE II.

PURCHASE AND SALE

2.1     Closing .

(a)    Upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, the Company agrees to sell in the aggregate                  shares of Common Stock,                  shares of Preferred Stock, and                  Warrants, and each Underwriter agrees to purchase, severally and not jointly, at the Closing, the following securities of the Company:

(i)    the number of shares of Common Stock (the “ Closing Shares ”) set forth opposite the name of such Underwriter on Schedule I hereof;

(ii)    the number of shares of Preferred Stock (the “ Closing Preferred Shares ”) set forth opposite the name of such Underwriter on Schedule I hereof; and

(iii)    Warrants to purchase up to     % of the sum of the number of Closing Shares set forth opposite the name of such Underwriter on Schedule I hereof plus the aggregate number of Conversion Shares underlying the Closing

 

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Preferred Shares set forth opposite the name of such Underwriter on Schedule I hereof (the “ Closing Warrants ” and, collectively with the Closing Shares and the Closing Preferred Shares, the “ Closing Securities ”), which Warrants shall have an exercise price of $        , subject to adjustment as provided therein, in the form of Exhibit D attached hereto.

(b)    The aggregate purchase price for the Closing Securities shall equal the amount set forth opposite the name of such Underwriter on Schedule I hereto (the “ Closing Purchase Price ”). The combined purchase price for one Share and a Warrant to purchase              Warrant Share shall be $         (the “ Combined Purchase Price ”) which shall be allocated as $         per Share (the “ Share Purchase Price ”) and $         per Warrant (the “ Warrant Purchase Price ”); The combined purchase price for one Closing Preferred Share and Warrants to purchase                  Warrant Shares shall be $         (the “ Combined Preferred Purchase Price ”) which shall be allocated as $         per Preferred Share and $         per Warrant; and

(c)    On the Closing Date, each Underwriter shall deliver or cause to be delivered to the Company, via wire transfer, immediately available funds equal to such Underwriter’s Closing Purchase Price and the Company shall deliver to, or as directed by, such Underwriter its respective Closing Securities and the Company shall deliver the other items required pursuant to Section 2.3 deliverable at the Closing. Upon satisfaction of the covenants and conditions set forth in Sections 2.3 and 2.4, the Closing shall occur at the offices of EGS or such other location as the Company and Representative shall mutually agree. The Public Securities are to be offered initially to the public at the offering price set forth on the cover page of the Prospectus (the “ Offering ”).

(d)    The Company acknowledges and agrees that, with respect to any Notice(s) of Conversion (as defined in the Certificate of Designation) delivered by a Holder (as defined in the Certificate of Designation) on or prior to 12:00 p.m. (New York City time) on the Closing Date, which Notice(s) of Conversion may be delivered at any time after the time of execution of this Agreement, the Company shall deliver the Conversion Shares (as defined in the Certificate of Designation) subject to such notice(s) to the Holder by 4:00 p.m. (New York City time) on the Closing Date. The Company acknowledges and agrees that the Holders are third-party beneficiaries of this covenant of the Company.

2.2     Over-Allotment Option .

(a)    For the purposes of covering any over-allotments in connection with the distribution and sale of the Closing Securities, the Representative is hereby granted an option (the “ Over-Allotment Option ”) to purchase, in the aggregate, up to                  shares of Common Stock (the “ Option Shares ”) and Warrants to purchase up to                  shares of Common Stock (the “ Option Warrants ” and, collectively with the Option Shares, the “ Option Securities ”) 1 which may be purchased in any combination of Option Shares and/or Option Warrants at the Share Purchase Price and/or Warrant Purchase Price, respectively.

 

1   15 % of the Closing Shares (and shares underling the Closing Preferred Shares) and the Closing Warrants.

 

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(b)    In connection with an exercise of the Over-Allotment Option, (a) the purchase price to be paid for the Option Shares is equal to the product of the Share Purchase Price multiplied by the number of Option Shares to be purchased and (b) the purchase price to be paid for the Option Warrants is equal to the product of the Warrant Purchase Price multiplied by the number of Option Warrants (the aggregate purchase price to be paid on an Option Closing Date, the “ Option Closing Purchase Price ”).

(c)    The Over-Allotment Option granted pursuant to this Section 2.2 may be exercised by the Representative as to all (at any time) or any part (from time to time) of the Option Securities within 45 days after the Execution Date. An Underwriter will not be under any obligation to purchase any Option Securities prior to the exercise of the Over-Allotment Option by the Representative. The Over-Allotment Option granted hereby may be exercised by the giving of oral notice to the Company from the Representative, which must be confirmed in writing by overnight mail or facsimile or other electronic transmission setting forth the number of Option Shares and/or Option Warrants to be purchased and the date and time for delivery of and payment for the Option Securities (each, an “ Option Closing Date ”), which will not be later than two (2) full Business Days after the date of the notice or such other time as shall be agreed upon by the Company and the Representative, at the offices of EGS or at such other place (including remotely by facsimile or other electronic transmission) as shall be agreed upon by the Company and the Representative. If such delivery and payment for the Option Securities does not occur on the Closing Date, each Option Closing Date will be as set forth in the notice. Upon exercise of the Over-Allotment Option, the Company will become obligated to convey to the Underwriters, and, subject to the terms and conditions set forth herein, the Underwriters will become obligated to purchase, the number of Option Shares and/or Option Warrants specified in such notice. The Representative may cancel the Over-Allotment Option at any time prior to the expiration of the Over-Allotment Option by written notice to the Company.

2.3     Deliveries . The Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to each Underwriter (if applicable) the following:

(i)    At the Closing Date, the Closing Shares and, as to each Option Closing Date, if any, the applicable Option Shares, which shares shall be delivered via The Depository Trust Company Deposit or Withdrawal at Custodian system for the accounts of the several Underwriters;

(ii)    At the Closing Date, the Closing Preferred Shares shall be delivered via The Depository Trust Company Deposit or Withdrawal at Custodian system for the accounts of the several Underwriters;

(iii)    At the Closing Date, the Closing Warrants and, as to each Option Closing Date, if any, the applicable Option Warrants via The Depository Trust Company Deposit or Withdrawal at Custodian system for the accounts of the several Underwriters;

 

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(iv)     At the Closing Date, the Warrant Agency Agreement duly executed by the parties thereto;

(v)    At the Closing Date, the Preferred Stock Agency Agreement duly executed by the parties thereto;

(vi)    At the Closing Date, evidence of the filing and acceptance of the Certificate of Designation from the Secretary of State of Florida;

(vii)    At the Closing Date, a legal opinion of Company Counsel addressed to the Underwriters, including, without limitation, a negative assurance letter, substantially in the form of Exhibit A attached hereto and as to the Closing Date and as to each Option Closing Date, if any, a bring-down opinion from Company Counsel in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Representative to the Company, including, without limitation, a negative assurance letter, addressed to the Underwriters and in form and substance satisfactory to the Representative;

(viii)    Contemporaneously herewith, a cold comfort letter, addressed to the Underwriters and in form and substance satisfactory in all respects to the Representative from the Company Auditor dated, respectively, as of the date of this Agreement and a bring-down letter dated as of the Closing Date and each Option Closing Date, if any;

(ix)    On the Closing Date and on each Option Closing Date, the duly executed and delivered Officer’s Certificate, substantially in the form of Exhibit B attached hereto;

(x)    On the Closing Date and on each Option Closing Date, the duly executed and delivered Secretary’s Certificate, substantially in the form of Exhibit C attached hereto; and

(xi)    Contemporaneously herewith, the duly executed and delivered Lock-Up Agreements.

2.4     Closing Conditions . The respective obligations of each Underwriter hereunder in connection with the Closing and each Option Closing Date are subject to the following conditions being met:

(i)    the accuracy in all material respects when made and on the date in question (other than representations and warranties of the Company already qualified by materiality, which shall be true and correct in all respects) of the representations and warranties of the Company contained herein (unless as of a specific date therein);

(ii)    all obligations, covenants and agreements of the Company required to be performed at or prior to the date in question shall have been performed;

(iii)    the delivery by the Company of the items set forth in Section 2.3 of this Agreement;

 

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(iv)    the Registration Statement shall be effective on the date of this Agreement and at each of the Closing Date and each Option Closing Date, if any, no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement shall have been issued and no proceedings for that purpose shall have been instituted or shall be pending or contemplated by the Commission and any request on the part of the Commission for additional information shall have been complied with to the reasonable satisfaction of the Representative;

(v)    by the Execution Date, if required by FINRA, the Underwriters shall have received clearance from FINRA as to the amount of compensation allowable or payable to the Underwriters as described in the Registration Statement;

(vi)    the Closing Shares, the Option Shares and the Underlying Shares have been approved for listing on the Trading Market; and

(vii)    prior to and on each of the Closing Date and each Option Closing Date, if any: (i) there shall have been no material adverse change or development involving a prospective material adverse change in the condition or prospects or the business activities, financial or otherwise, of the Company from the latest dates as of which such condition is set forth in the Registration Statement and Prospectus; (ii) no action suit or proceeding, at law or in equity, shall have been pending or threatened against the Company or any Affiliate of the Company before or by any court or federal or state commission, board or other administrative agency wherein an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding may materially adversely affect the business, operations, prospects or financial condition or income of the Company, except as set forth in the Registration Statement and Prospectus; (iii) no stop order shall have been issued under the Securities Act and no proceedings therefor shall have been initiated or threatened by the Commission; and (iv) the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto shall contain all material statements which are required to be stated therein in accordance with the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder and shall conform in all material respects to the requirements of the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, and neither the Registration Statement nor the Prospectus nor any amendment or supplement thereto shall contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

ARTICLE III.

REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES

3.1     Representations and Warranties of the Company . Except as set forth in the Disclosure Schedules, which Disclosure Schedules shall be deemed a part hereof and shall qualify any representation or warranty otherwise made herein to the extent of the disclosure contained in the corresponding section of the Disclosure Schedules, the Company hereby makes the following representations and warranties as of the date hereof and as of the Closing Date to

 

11


each Underwriter as follows (unless as of a specific date therein, in which case they shall be accurate as of such date):

(a)     Subsidiaries . All of the direct and indirect Subsidiaries of the Company are set forth in the SEC Reports. The Company owns, directly or indirectly, all of the capital stock or other equity interests of each Subsidiary free and clear of any Liens, and all of the issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of each Subsidiary are validly issued and are fully paid, non-assessable and free of preemptive and similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities. If the Company has no Subsidiaries, all other references to the Subsidiaries or any of them in the Transaction Documents shall be disregarded.

(b)     Organization and Qualification . The Company and each of the Subsidiaries is an entity duly incorporated or otherwise organized, validly existing and in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its incorporation or organization, with the requisite power and authority to own and use its properties and assets and to carry on its business as currently conducted. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary is in violation nor default of any of the provisions of its respective certificate or articles of incorporation, bylaws or other organizational or charter documents. Each of the Company and the Subsidiaries is duly qualified to conduct business and is in good standing as a foreign corporation or other entity in each jurisdiction in which the nature of the business conducted or property owned by it makes such qualification necessary, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing, as the case may be, could not have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect and no Proceeding has been instituted in any such jurisdiction revoking, limiting or curtailing or seeking to revoke, limit or curtail such power and authority or qualification.

(c)     Authorization; Enforcement . The Company has the requisite corporate power and authority to enter into and to consummate the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and each of the other Transaction Documents to which it is a party and otherwise to carry out its obligations hereunder and thereunder. The execution and delivery of this Agreement and each of the other Transaction Documents by the Company and the consummation by it of the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby have been duly authorized by all necessary action on the part of the Company and no further action is required by the Company, the Board of Directors or the Company’s stockholders in connection herewith or therewith other than in connection with the Required Approvals. This Agreement and each other Transaction Document to which the Company is a party has been (or upon delivery will have been) duly executed by the Company and, when delivered in accordance with the terms hereof and thereof, will constitute the valid and binding obligation of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms, except (i) as limited by general equitable principles and applicable bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium and other laws of general application affecting enforcement of creditors’ rights generally, (ii) as limited by laws relating to the availability of specific performance, injunctive relief or other equitable remedies and (iii) insofar as indemnification and contribution provisions may be limited by applicable law.

 

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(d)     No Conflicts . The execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement and the other Transaction Documents to which it is a party, the issuance and sale of the Securities and the consummation by it of the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby do not and will not (i) conflict with or violate any provision of the Company’s or any Subsidiary’s certificate or articles of incorporation, bylaws or other organizational or charter documents, or (ii) conflict with, or constitute a default (or an event that with notice or lapse of time or both would become a default) under, result in the creation of any Lien upon any of the properties or assets of the Company or any Subsidiary, or give to others any rights of termination, amendment, acceleration or cancellation (with or without notice, lapse of time or both) of, any agreement, credit facility, debt or other instrument (evidencing a Company or Subsidiary debt or otherwise) or other understanding to which the Company or any Subsidiary is a party or by which any property or asset of the Company or any Subsidiary is bound or affected, or (iii) subject to the Required Approvals, conflict with or result in a violation of any law, rule, regulation, order, judgment, injunction, decree or other restriction of any court or governmental authority to which the Company or a Subsidiary is subject (including federal and state securities laws and regulations), or by which any property or asset of the Company or a Subsidiary is bound or affected; except in the case of each of clauses (ii) and (iii), such as could not have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(e)     Filings, Consents and Approvals . The Company is not required to obtain any consent, waiver, authorization or order of, give any notice to, or make any filing or registration with, any court or other federal, state, local or other governmental authority or other Person in connection with the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of the Transaction Documents, other than: (i) the filing with the Commission of the Prospectus, (ii) application(s) to each applicable Trading Market for the listing of the Shares, Warrant Shares and Conversion Shares for trading thereon in the time and manner required thereby, and (iii) such filings as are required to be made under applicable state securities laws (collectively, the “ Required Approvals ”).

(f)     Registration Statement . The Company has filed with the Commission the Registration Statement, including any related Prospectus or Prospectuses, for the registration of the Securities under the Securities Act, which Registration Statement has been prepared by the Company in all material respects in conformity with the requirements of the Securities Act and the rules and regulations of the Commission under the Securities Act. The Registration Statement has been declared effective by the Commission on             , 2018 (the “ Effective Date ”). The Company has advised the Representative of all further information (financial and other) with respect to the Company required to be set forth therein in the Registration Statement and Prospectus. Any reference in this Agreement to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Prospectus Supplement shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein; and any reference in this Agreement to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Prospectus Supplement shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing of any document under the Exchange Act after the date of this Agreement, or the issue date of the Prospectus as the case may be, deemed to be incorporated therein by

 

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reference. All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information which is “contained,” “included,” “described,” “referenced,” “set forth” or “stated” in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information which is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, or the Prospectus, as the case may be. No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the use of the Prospectus has been issued, and no proceeding for any such purpose is pending or has been initiated or, to the Company’s knowledge, is threatened by the Commission. For purposes of this Agreement, “ free writing prospectus ” has the meaning set forth in Rule 405 under the Securities Act.    The Company will not, without the prior consent of the Representative, prepare, use or refer to, any free writing prospectus.

(g)     Issuance of Securities . The Securities are duly authorized and, when issued and paid for in accordance with the applicable Transaction Documents, will be duly and validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of all Liens imposed by the Company. The Warrant Shares, when issued in accordance with the terms of the Warrants, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of all Liens imposed by the Company. The Company has reserved from its duly authorized capital stock the maximum number of shares of Common Stock issuable pursuant to this Agreement and the Warrants. The holder of the Securities will not be subject to personal liability by reason of being such holders. The Securities are not and will not be subject to the preemptive rights of any holders of any security of the Company or similar contractual rights granted by the Company. All corporate action required to be taken for the authorization, issuance and sale of the Securities has been duly and validly taken. The Securities conform in all material respects to all statements with respect thereto contained in the Registration Statement.

(h)     Capitalization . The capitalization of the Company is as set forth in the SEC Reports. The Company has not issued any capital stock since its most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act, other than pursuant to the exercise of employee stock options under the Company’s stock option plans, the issuance of shares of Common Stock to employees pursuant to the Company’s employee stock purchase plans and pursuant to the conversion and/or exercise of Common Stock Equivalents outstanding as of the date of the most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act. Except for the participation rights of Intrexon Corporation described in the SEC Reports, no Person has any right of first refusal, preemptive right, right of participation, or any similar right to participate in the transactions contemplated by the Transaction Documents. Except as a result of the purchase and sale of the Securities, there are no outstanding options, warrants, scrip rights to subscribe to, calls or commitments of any character whatsoever relating to, or securities, rights or obligations convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or giving any Person any right to subscribe for or acquire, any shares of Common Stock, or contracts, commitments, understandings or arrangements by which the Company or any Subsidiary is or may become bound to issue additional shares of Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents. The issuance and sale of the Securities will not obligate the Company to issue shares of Common Stock or other securities to any Person (other than the Underwriters) and will not result in a right of any holder of

 

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Company securities to adjust the exercise, conversion, exchange or reset price under any of such securities. All of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company are duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, have been issued in compliance with all federal and state securities laws, and none of such outstanding shares was issued in violation of any preemptive rights or similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities. The authorized shares of the Company conform in all material respects to all statements relating thereto contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. No further approval or authorization of any stockholder, the Board of Directors or others is required for the issuance and sale of the Securities. There are no stockholders agreements, voting agreements or other similar agreements with respect to the Company’s capital stock to which the Company is a party or, to the knowledge of the Company, between or among any of the Company’s stockholders.

(i)     SEC Reports; Financial Statements . The Company has filed all reports, schedules, forms, statements and other documents required to be filed by the Company under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, including pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) thereof, for the two years preceding the date hereof (or such shorter period as the Company was required by law or regulation to file such material) (the foregoing materials, including the exhibits thereto and documents incorporated by reference therein, together with the Prospectus and the Prospectus Supplement, being collectively referred to herein as the “ SEC Reports ”) on a timely basis or has received a valid extension of such time of filing and has filed any such SEC Reports prior to the expiration of any such extension. As of their respective dates, the SEC Reports complied in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable, and none of the SEC Reports, when filed, contained any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The financial statements of the Company included in the SEC Reports comply in all material respects with applicable accounting requirements and the rules and regulations of the Commission with respect thereto as in effect at the time of filing. Such financial statements have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles applied on a consistent basis during the periods involved (“ GAAP ”), except as may be otherwise specified in such financial statements or the notes thereto and except that unaudited financial statements may not contain all footnotes required by GAAP, and fairly present in all material respects the financial position of the Company and its consolidated Subsidiaries as of and for the dates thereof and the results of operations and cash flows for the periods then ended, subject, in the case of unaudited statements, to normal, immaterial, year-end audit adjustments. The agreements and documents described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement and the SEC Reports conform to the descriptions thereof contained therein and there are no agreements or other documents required by the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder to be described in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement or the SEC Reports or to be filed with the Commission as exhibits to the Registration Statement, that have not been so described or filed. Each agreement or other instrument (however characterized or described) to which the Company is a party or by which it is or may be bound or affected and (i) that is

 

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referred to in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement or the SEC Reports, or (ii) is material to the Company’s business, has been duly authorized and validly executed by the Company, is in full force and effect in all material respects and is enforceable against the Company and, to the Company’s knowledge, the other parties thereto, in accordance with its terms, except (x) as such enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally, (y) as enforceability of any indemnification or contribution provision may be limited under the federal and state securities laws, and (z) that the remedy of specific performance and injunctive and other forms of equitable relief may be subject to the equitable defenses and to the discretion of the court before which any proceeding therefore may be brought. None of such agreements or instruments has been assigned by the Company, and neither the Company nor, to the best of the Company’s knowledge, any other party is in default thereunder and, to the best of the Company’s knowledge, no event has occurred that, with the lapse of time or the giving of notice, or both, would constitute a default thereunder. To the best of the Company’s knowledge, performance by the Company of the material provisions of such agreements or instruments will not result in a violation of any existing applicable law, rule, regulation, judgment, order or decree of any governmental agency or court, domestic or foreign, having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its assets or businesses, including, without limitation, those relating to environmental laws and regulations.

(j)     Material Changes; Undisclosed Events, Liabilities or Developments . Since the date of the latest audited financial statements included within the SEC Reports, except as specifically disclosed in a subsequent SEC Report filed prior to the date hereof, (i) there has been no event, occurrence or development that has had or that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, (ii) the Company has not incurred any liabilities (contingent or otherwise) other than (A) trade payables and accrued expenses incurred in the ordinary course of business consistent with past practice and (B) liabilities not required to be reflected in the Company’s financial statements pursuant to GAAP or disclosed in filings made with the Commission, (iii) the Company has not altered its method of accounting, (iv) the Company has not declared or made any dividend or distribution of cash or other property to its stockholders or purchased, redeemed or made any agreements to purchase or redeem any shares of its capital stock, (v) the Company has not issued any equity securities to any officer, director or Affiliate, except pursuant to existing Company stock option plans and (vi) no officer or director of the Company has resigned from any position with the Company. The Company does not have pending before the Commission any request for confidential treatment of information. Except for the issuance of the Securities contemplated by this Agreement, no event, liability, fact, circumstance, occurrence or development has occurred or exists or is reasonably expected to occur or exist with respect to the Company or its Subsidiaries or their respective businesses, prospects, properties, operations, assets or financial condition that would be required to be disclosed by the Company under applicable securities laws at the time this representation is made or deemed made that has not been publicly disclosed at least 1 Trading Day prior to the date that this representation is made. Unless otherwise disclosed in an SEC Report filed prior to the date hereof, the Company has not: (i) issued any securities or incurred any liability or obligation, direct or contingent, for borrowed money; or (ii) declared or paid any dividend or made any other distribution on or in respect to its capital stock.

 

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(k)     Litigation . There is no action, suit, inquiry, notice of violation, proceeding or investigation pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened against or affecting the Company, any Subsidiary or any of their respective properties before or by any court, arbitrator, governmental or administrative agency or regulatory authority (federal, state, county, local or foreign) (collectively, an “ Action ”) which (i) adversely affects or challenges the legality, validity or enforceability of any of the Transaction Documents or the Securities or (ii) could, if there were an unfavorable decision, have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary, nor any director or officer thereof, is or has been the subject of any Action involving a claim of violation of or liability under federal or state securities laws or a claim of breach of fiduciary duty. There has not been, and to the knowledge of the Company, there is not pending or contemplated, any investigation by the Commission involving the Company or any current or former director or officer of the Company. The Commission has not issued any stop order or other order suspending the effectiveness of any registration statement filed by the Company or any Subsidiary under the Exchange Act or the Securities Act.

(l)     Labor Relations . No labor dispute exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is imminent with respect to any of the employees of the Company, which could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. None of the Company’s or its Subsidiaries’ employees is a member of a union that relates to such employee’s relationship with the Company or such Subsidiary, and neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is a party to a collective bargaining agreement, and the Company and its Subsidiaries believe that their relationships with their employees are good. To the knowledge of the Company, no executive officer of the Company or any Subsidiary, is, or is now expected to be, in violation of any material term of any employment contract, confidentiality, disclosure or proprietary information agreement or non-competition agreement, or any other contract or agreement or any restrictive covenant in favor of any third party, and the continued employment of each such executive officer does not subject the Company or any of its Subsidiaries to any liability with respect to any of the foregoing matters. The Company and its Subsidiaries are in compliance with all U.S. federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations relating to employment and employment practices, terms and conditions of employment and wages and hours, except where the failure to be in compliance could not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(m)     Compliance . Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary: (i) is in default under or in violation of (and no event has occurred that has not been waived that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would result in a default by the Company or any Subsidiary under), nor has the Company or any Subsidiary received notice of a claim that it is in default under or that it is in violation of, any indenture, loan or credit agreement or any other agreement or instrument to which it is a party or by which it or any of its properties is bound (whether or not such default or violation has been waived), (ii) is in violation of any judgment, decree or order of any court, arbitrator or other governmental

 

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authority or (iii) is or has been in violation of any statute, rule, ordinance or regulation of any governmental authority, including without limitation all foreign, federal, state and local laws relating to taxes, environmental protection, occupational health and safety, product quality and safety and employment and labor matters, except in each case as could not have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(n)     Regulatory Permits . The Company and the Subsidiaries possess all certificates, authorizations and permits issued by the appropriate federal, state, local or foreign regulatory authorities necessary to conduct their respective businesses as described in the SEC Reports, except where the failure to possess such permits could not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect (each, a “ Material Permit ”), and neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any Material Permit. The disclosures in the Registration Statement concerning the effects of Federal, State, local and all foreign regulation on the Company’s business as currently contemplated are correct in all material respects.

(o)     Title to Assets . The Company and the Subsidiaries have good and marketable title in fee simple to, or have valid and marketable rights to lease or otherwise use, all real property and all personal property that is material to the business of the Company and the Subsidiaries, in each case free and clear of all Liens, except for (i) Liens as do not materially affect the value of such property and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and the Subsidiaries and (ii) Liens for the payment of federal, state or other taxes, for which appropriate reserves have been made in accordance with GAAP, and the payment of which is neither delinquent nor subject to penalties. Any real property and facilities held under lease by the Company and the Subsidiaries are held by them under valid, subsisting and enforceable leases with which the Company and the Subsidiaries are in compliance.

(p)     Intellectual Property . The Company and the Subsidiaries have, or have rights to use, all patents, patent applications, trademarks, trademark applications, service marks, trade names, trade secrets, inventions, copyrights, licenses and other intellectual property rights and similar rights necessary or required for use in connection with their respective businesses as described in the SEC Reports and which the failure to do so could have a Material Adverse Effect (collectively, the “ Intellectual Property Rights ”). None of, and neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received a notice (written or otherwise) that any of, the Intellectual Property Rights has expired, terminated or been abandoned, or is expected to expire or terminate or be abandoned, within two (2) years from the date of this Agreement. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received, since the date of the latest audited financial statements included within the SEC Reports, a written notice of a claim or otherwise has any knowledge that the Intellectual Property Rights violate or infringe upon the rights of any Person. To the knowledge of the Company, all such Intellectual Property Rights are enforceable and there is no existing infringement by another Person of any of the Intellectual Property Rights. The Company and its Subsidiaries have taken reasonable security measures to protect the secrecy, confidentiality and value of all of their intellectual properties, except where failure to do so could not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(q)     Insurance . The Company and the Subsidiaries are insured by insurers of recognized financial responsibility against such losses and risks and in such amounts as are prudent and customary in the businesses in which the Company and the Subsidiaries are engaged, including, but not limited to, directors and officers insurance coverage. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business without a significant increase in cost.

(r)     Transactions With Affiliates and Employees . Except as set forth in the SEC Reports, none of the officers or directors of the Company or any Subsidiary and, to the knowledge of the Company, none of the employees of the Company or any Subsidiary is presently a party to any transaction with the Company or any Subsidiary (other than for services as employees, officers and directors), including any contract, agreement or other arrangement providing for the furnishing of services to or by, providing for rental of real or personal property to or from, providing for the borrowing of money from or lending of money to or otherwise requiring payments to or from, any officer, director or such employee or, to the knowledge of the Company, any entity in which any officer, director, or any such employee has a substantial interest or is an officer, director, trustee, stockholder, member or partner, in each case in excess of $120,000 other than for (i) payment of salary or consulting fees for services rendered, (ii) reimbursement for expenses incurred on behalf of the Company and (iii) other employee benefits, including stock option agreements under any stock option plan of the Company.

(s)     Sarbanes-Oxley; Internal Accounting Controls . The Company and the Subsidiaries are in compliance with any and all applicable requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 that are effective as of the date hereof, and any and all applicable rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission thereunder that are effective as of the date hereof and as of the Closing Date. The Company and the Subsidiaries maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that: (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations, (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain asset accountability, (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization, and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. The Company and the Subsidiaries have established disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e)) for the Company and the Subsidiaries and designed such disclosure controls and procedures to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms. The Company’s certifying officers have evaluated the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures of the Company and the Subsidiaries as of the end of the period covered by the most recently

 

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filed periodic report under the Exchange Act (such date, the “ Evaluation Date ”). The Company presented in its most recently filed periodic report under the Exchange Act the conclusions of the certifying officers about the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures based on their evaluations as of the Evaluation Date. Since the Evaluation Date, there have been no changes in the internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in the Exchange Act) of the Company and its Subsidiaries that have materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the internal control over financial reporting of the Company and its Subsidiaries.

(t)     Certain Fees . Except as set forth in the Prospectus Supplement, no brokerage or finder’s fees or commissions are or will be payable by the Company, any Subsidiary or Affiliate of the Company to any broker, financial advisor or consultant, finder, placement agent, investment banker, bank or other Person with respect to the transactions contemplated by the Transaction Documents. To the Company’s knowledge, there are no other arrangements, agreements or understandings of the Company or, to the Company’s knowledge, any of its stockholders that may affect the Underwriters’ compensation, as determined by FINRA. The Company has not made any direct or indirect payments (in cash, securities or otherwise) to: (i) any person, as a finder’s fee, consulting fee or otherwise, in consideration of such person raising capital for the Company or introducing to the Company persons who raised or provided capital to the Company; (ii) any FINRA member; or (iii) any person or entity that has any direct or indirect affiliation or association with any FINRA member, within the twelve months prior to the Execution Date, other than the prior payment of $          to the Representative as provided hereunder in connection with the Offering. None of the net proceeds of the Offering will be paid by the Company to any participating FINRA member or its affiliates, except as specifically authorized herein.

(u)     Investment Company . The Company is not, and is not an Affiliate of, and immediately after receipt of payment for the Securities will not be or be an Affiliate of, an “investment company” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended. The Company shall conduct its business in a manner so that it will not become an “investment company” subject to registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.

(v)     Registration Rights . Other than as disclosed in the SEC Reports, no Person has any right to cause the Company or any Subsidiary to effect the registration under the Securities Act of any securities of the Company or any Subsidiary.

(w)     Listing and Maintenance Requirements . The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or which to its knowledge is likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission is contemplating terminating such registration. Except as disclosed in the SEC Reports, the Company has not, in the 12 months preceding the date hereof, received notice from any Trading Market on which the Common Stock is or has been listed or quoted to the effect that the Company is not in compliance with the listing or maintenance requirements of such Trading Market. The

 

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Company is, and has no reason to believe that it will not in the foreseeable future continue to be, in compliance with all such listing and maintenance requirements. The Common Stock is currently eligible for electronic transfer through the Depository Trust Company or another established clearing corporation and the Company is current in payment of the fees of the Depository Trust Company (or such other established clearing corporation) in connection with such electronic transfer.

(x)     Application of Takeover Protections . The Company and the Board of Directors have taken all necessary action, if any, in order to render inapplicable any control share acquisition, business combination, poison pill (including any distribution under a rights agreement) or other similar anti-takeover provision under the Company’s certificate of incorporation (or similar charter documents) or the laws of its state of incorporation that is or could become applicable as a result of the Underwriters and the Company fulfilling their obligations or exercising their rights under the Transaction Documents.

(y)     Disclosure; 10b-5 . The Registration Statement (and any further documents to be filed with the Commission) contains all exhibits and schedules as required by the Securities Act. Each of the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, if any, at the time it became effective, complied in all material respects with the Securities Act and the Exchange Act and the applicable rules and regulations under the Securities Act and did not and, as amended or supplemented, if applicable, will not, contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The Prospectus and the Prospectus Supplement, each as of its respective date, comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and the Exchange Act and the applicable rules and regulations. Each of the Prospectus and the Prospectus Supplement, as amended or supplemented, did not and will not contain as of the date thereof any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The SEC Reports, when they were filed with the Commission, conformed in all material respects to the requirements of the Exchange Act and the applicable rules and regulations, and none of such documents, when they were filed with the Commission, contained any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein (with respect to the SEC Reports incorporated by reference in the Prospectus or Prospectus Supplement), in light of the circumstances under which they were made not misleading; and any further documents so filed and incorporated by reference in the Prospectus or Prospectus Supplement, when such documents are filed with the Commission, will conform in all material respects to the requirements of the Exchange Act and the applicable rules and regulations, as applicable, and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made not misleading. No post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement reflecting any facts or events arising after the date thereof which represent, individually or in the aggregate, a fundamental change in the information set forth therein is required to be filed with the Commission. There are no documents required to be filed with the Commission in connection with the transaction contemplated hereby that (x) have not

 

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been filed as required pursuant to the Securities Act or (y) will not be filed within the requisite time period. There are no contracts or other documents required to be described in the Prospectus or Prospectus Supplement, or to be filed as exhibits or schedules to the Registration Statement, which have not been described or filed as required. The press releases disseminated by the Company during the twelve months preceding the date of this Agreement taken as a whole do not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made and when made, not misleading.

(z)     No Integrated Offering . Neither the Company, nor any of its Affiliates, nor any Person acting on its or their behalf has, directly or indirectly, made any offers or sales of any security or solicited any offers to buy any security, under circumstances that would cause this offering of the Securities to be integrated with prior offerings by the Company for purposes of any applicable shareholder approval provisions of any Trading Market on which any of the securities of the Company are listed or designated.

(aa)     Solvency . Based on the consolidated financial condition of the Company as of the Closing Date, after giving effect to the receipt by the Company of the proceeds from the sale of the Securities hereunder, (i) the fair saleable value of the Company’s assets exceeds the amount that will be required to be paid on or in respect of the Company’s existing debts and other liabilities (including known contingent liabilities) as they mature, (ii) the Company’s assets do not constitute unreasonably small capital to carry on its business as now conducted and as proposed to be conducted including its capital needs taking into account the particular capital requirements of the business conducted by the Company, consolidated and projected capital requirements and capital availability thereof, and (iii) the current cash flow of the Company, together with the proceeds the Company would receive, were it to liquidate all of its assets, after taking into account all anticipated uses of the cash, would be sufficient to pay all amounts on or in respect of its liabilities when such amounts are required to be paid. The Company does not intend to incur debts beyond its ability to pay such debts as they mature (taking into account the timing and amounts of cash to be payable on or in respect of its debt). The Company has no knowledge of any facts or circumstances which lead it to believe that it will file for reorganization or liquidation under the bankruptcy or reorganization laws of any jurisdiction within one year from the Closing Date. The SEC Reports sets forth as of the date hereof all outstanding secured and unsecured Indebtedness of the Company or any Subsidiary, or for which the Company or any Subsidiary has commitments.

(bb)     Tax Status . Except for matters that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have or reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, the Company and its Subsidiaries each (i) has made or filed all United States federal, state and local income and all foreign income and franchise tax returns, reports and declarations required by any jurisdiction to which it is subject, (ii) has paid all taxes and other governmental assessments and charges that are material in amount, shown or determined to be due on such returns, reports and declarations and (iii) has set aside on its books provision reasonably adequate for the payment of all material taxes for periods

 

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subsequent to the periods to which such returns, reports or declarations apply. There are no unpaid taxes in any material amount claimed to be due by the taxing authority of any jurisdiction, and the officers of the Company or of any Subsidiary know of no basis for any such claim. The provisions for taxes payable, if any, shown on the financial statements filed with or as part of the Registration Statement are sufficient for all accrued and unpaid taxes, whether or not disputed, and for all periods to and including the dates of such consolidated financial statements. The term “taxes” mean all federal, state, local, foreign, and other net income, gross income, gross receipts, sales, use, ad valorem, transfer, franchise, profits, license, lease, service, service use, withholding, payroll, employment, excise, severance, stamp, occupation, premium, property, windfall profits, customs, duties or other taxes, fees, assessments, or charges of any kind whatsoever, together with any interest and any penalties, additions to tax, or additional amounts with respect thereto. The term “returns” means all returns, declarations, reports, statements, and other documents required to be filed in respect to taxes.

(cc)     Foreign Corrupt Practices . Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary, nor to the knowledge of the Company or any Subsidiary, any agent or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any Subsidiary, has (i) directly or indirectly, used any funds for unlawful contributions, gifts, entertainment or other unlawful expenses related to foreign or domestic political activity, (ii) made any unlawful payment to foreign or domestic government officials or employees or to any foreign or domestic political parties or campaigns from corporate funds, (iii) failed to disclose fully any contribution made by the Company or any Subsidiary (or made by any person acting on its behalf of which the Company is aware) which is in violation of law, or (iv) violated in any material respect any provision of FCPA. The Company has taken reasonable steps to ensure that its accounting controls and procedures are sufficient to cause the Company to comply in all material respects with the FCPA.

(dd)     Accountants . To the knowledge and belief of the Company, the Company Auditor (i) is an independent registered public accounting firm as required by the Exchange Act and (ii) expressed its opinion with respect to the financial statements to be included in the Company’s Annual Report for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2017. The Company Auditor has not, during the periods covered by the financial statements included in the Prospectus, provided to the Company any non-audit services, as such term is used in Section 10A(g) of the Exchange Act.

(ee)     FDA . As to each product subject to the jurisdiction of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“ FDA ”) under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, as amended, and the regulations thereunder (“ FDCA ”) that is manufactured, packaged, labeled, tested, distributed, sold, and/or marketed by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries (each such product, a “ Pharmaceutical Product ”), such Pharmaceutical Product is being manufactured, packaged, labeled, tested, distributed, sold and/or marketed by the Company in compliance with all applicable requirements under FDCA and similar laws, rules and regulations relating to registration, investigational use, premarket clearance, licensure, or application approval, good manufacturing practices, good laboratory practices, good clinical practices, product listing, quotas, labeling, advertising, record keeping and filing of reports, except where the failure to be in

 

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compliance would not have a Material Adverse Effect. There is no pending, completed or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened, action (including any lawsuit, arbitration, or legal or administrative or regulatory proceeding, charge, complaint, or investigation) against the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, and none of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries has received any notice, warning letter or other communication from the FDA or any other governmental entity, which (i) contests the premarket clearance, licensure, registration, or approval of, the uses of, the distribution of, the manufacturing or packaging of, the testing of, the sale of, or the labeling and promotion of any Pharmaceutical Product, (ii) withdraws its approval of, requests the recall, suspension, or seizure of, or withdraws or orders the withdrawal of advertising or sales promotional materials relating to, any Pharmaceutical Product, (iii) imposes a clinical hold on any clinical investigation by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, (iv) enjoins production at any facility of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, (v) enters or proposes to enter into a consent decree of permanent injunction with the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, or (vi) otherwise alleges any violation of any laws, rules or regulations by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, and which, either individually or in the aggregate, would have a Material Adverse Effect. The properties, business and operations of the Company have been and are being conducted in all material respects in accordance with all applicable laws, rules and regulations of the FDA. The Company has not been informed by the FDA that the FDA will prohibit the marketing, sale, license or use in the United States of any product proposed to be developed, produced or marketed by the Company nor has the FDA expressed any concern as to approving or clearing for marketing any product being developed or proposed to be developed by the Company.

(ff)     Office of Foreign Assets Control . Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any director, officer, agent, employee or affiliate of the Company or any Subsidiary is currently subject to any U.S. sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Treasury Department.

(gg)     U.S. Real Property Holding Corporation . The Company is not and has never been a U.S. real property holding corporation within the meaning of Section 897 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the Company shall so certify upon the Representative’s request.

(hh)     Bank Holding Company Act . Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries or Affiliates is subject to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the “ BHCA ”) and to regulation by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “ Federal Reserve ”). Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries or Affiliates owns or controls, directly or indirectly, five percent (5%) or more of the outstanding shares of any class of voting securities or twenty-five percent (25%) or more of the total equity of a bank or any entity that is subject to the BHCA and to regulation by the Federal Reserve. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries or Affiliates exercises a controlling influence over the management or policies of a bank or any entity that is subject to the BHCA and to regulation by the Federal Reserve.

 

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(ii)     Money Laundering . The operations of the Company and its Subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with applicable financial record-keeping and reporting requirements of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, applicable money laundering statutes and applicable rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “ Money Laundering Laws ”), and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any Subsidiary with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company or any Subsidiary, threatened.

(jj)     D&O Questionnaires . To the Company’s knowledge, all information contained in the questionnaires completed by each of the Company’s directors and officers immediately prior to the Offering as well as in the Lock-Up Agreement provided to the Underwriters is true and correct in all material respects and the Company has not become aware of any information which would cause the information disclosed in such questionnaires become inaccurate and incorrect.

(kk)     FINRA Affiliation . To the Company’s knowledge, no officer, director or any beneficial owner of 5% or more of the Company’s unregistered securities has any direct or indirect affiliation or association with any FINRA member (as determined in accordance with the rules and regulations of FINRA) that is participating in the Offering. The Company will advise the Representative and EGS if it learns that any officer, director or owner of 5% or more of the Company’s outstanding shares of Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents is or becomes an affiliate or associated person of a FINRA member firm.

(ll)     Officers’ Certificate . Any certificate signed by any duly authorized officer of the Company and delivered to the Representative or EGS shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company to the Underwriters as to the matters covered thereby.

(mm)     Board of Directors . The Board of Directors is comprised of the persons set forth under the heading of the Prospectus captioned “Management.” The qualifications of the persons serving as board members and the overall composition of the Board of Directors comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules promulgated thereunder applicable to the Company and the rules of the Trading Market. At least one member of the Board of Directors qualifies as a “financial expert” as such term is defined under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules promulgated thereunder and the rules of the Trading Market. In addition, at least a majority of the persons serving on the Board of Directors qualify as “independent” as defined under the rules of the Trading Market.

ARTICLE IV.

OTHER AGREEMENTS OF THE PARTIES

4.1     Amendments to Registration Statement .    The Company has delivered, or will as promptly as practicable deliver, to the Underwriters complete conformed copies of the Registration Statement and of each consent and certificate of experts, as applicable, filed as a part thereof, and conformed copies of the Registration Statement (without exhibits), the Prospectus and the Prospectus Supplement, as amended or supplemented, in such quantities and

 

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at such places as an Underwriter reasonably requests. Neither the Company nor any of its directors and officers has distributed and none of them will distribute, prior to the Closing Date, any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Securities other than the Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement, the Registration Statement, and copies of the documents incorporated by reference therein. The Company shall not file any such amendment or supplement to which the Representative shall reasonably object in writing.

4.2     Federal Securities Laws .

(a)     Compliance . During the time when a Prospectus is required to be delivered under the Securities Act, the Company will use its best efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder and the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the continuance of sales of or dealings in the Securities in accordance with the provisions hereof and the Prospectus. If at any time when a Prospectus relating to the Securities is required to be delivered under the Securities Act, any event shall have occurred as a result of which, in the opinion of counsel for the Company or counsel for the Underwriters, the Prospectus, as then amended or supplemented, includes an untrue statement of a material fact or omits to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, or if it is necessary at any time to amend the Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will notify the Underwriters promptly and prepare and file with the Commission, subject to Section 4.1 hereof, an appropriate amendment or supplement in accordance with Section 10 of the Securities Act.

(b)     Filing of Final Prospectus Supplement . The Company will file the Prospectus Supplement (in form and substance satisfactory to the Representative) with the Commission pursuant to the requirements of Rule 424.

(c)     Exchange Act Registration . For a period of three years from the Execution Date, the Company will use its best efforts to maintain the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act. The Company will not deregister the Common Stock under the Exchange Act without the prior written consent of the Representative.

(d)     Free Writing Prospectuses . The Company represents and agrees that it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Securities that would constitute an issuer free writing prospectus, as defined in Rule 433 of the rules and regulations under the Securities Act, without the prior written consent of the Representative. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Representative is herein referred to as a Permitted Free Writing Prospectus .” The Company represents that it will treat each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an “issuer free writing prospectus” as defined in rule and regulations under the Securities Act, and has complied and will comply with the applicable requirements of Rule 433 of the Securities Act, including timely Commission filing where required, legending and record keeping.

 

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4.3     Delivery to the Underwriters of Prospectuses . The Company will deliver to the Underwriters, without charge, from time to time during the period when the Prospectus is required to be delivered under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act such number of copies of each Prospectus as the Underwriters may reasonably request and, as soon as the Registration Statement or any amendment or supplement thereto becomes effective, deliver to you two original executed Registration Statements, including exhibits, and all post-effective amendments thereto and copies of all exhibits filed therewith or incorporated therein by reference and all original executed consents of certified experts.

4.4     Effectiveness and Events Requiring Notice to the Underwriters . The Company will use its reasonable best efforts to cause the Registration Statement to remain effective with a current prospectus until the later of nine (9) months from the Execution Date and the date on which the Warrants are no longer outstanding, and will notify the Underwriters and holders of the Warrants immediately and confirm the notice in writing: (i) of the effectiveness of the Registration Statement and any amendment thereto; (ii) of the issuance by the Commission of any stop order or of the initiation, or the threatening, of any proceeding for that purpose; (iii) of the issuance by any state securities commission of any proceedings for the suspension of the qualification of the Securities for offering or sale in any jurisdiction or of the initiation, or the threatening, of any proceeding for that purpose; (iv) of the mailing and delivery to the Commission for filing of any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus; (v) of the receipt of any comments or request for any additional information from the Commission; and (vi) of the happening of any event during the period described in this Section 4.4 that, in the judgment of the Company, makes any statement of a material fact made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus untrue or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. If the Commission or any state securities commission shall enter a stop order or suspend such qualification at any time, the Company will make every reasonable effort to obtain promptly the lifting of such order.

4.5     [Reserved].

4.6     Expenses of the Offering .

(a)     General Expenses Related to the Offering . The Company hereby agrees to pay on each of the Closing Date and each Option Closing Date, if any, to the extent not paid at the Closing Date, all expenses incident to the performance of the obligations of the Company under this Agreement, including, but not limited to: (a) all filing fees and communication expenses relating to the registration of the Securities to be sold in the Offering (including the Option Securities) with the Commission; (b) all FINRA Public Offering Filing System fees associated with the review of the Offering by FINRA; all fees and expenses relating to the listing of such Closing Shares, Option Shares, Underlying Shares and Warrants on the Trading Market and such other stock exchanges as the Company and the Representative together determine; (c) all fees, expenses and disbursements relating to the registration or qualification of such Securities under the “blue sky” securities laws of such states and other foreign jurisdictions as the Representative may reasonably designate; (d) the costs of all mailing and printing of the

 

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underwriting documents (including, without limitation, the Underwriting Agreement, and, if appropriate, any Agreement Among Underwriters, Selected Dealers’ Agreement, Underwriters’ Questionnaire and Power of Attorney), Registration Statements, Prospectuses and all amendments, supplements and exhibits thereto and as many preliminary and final Prospectuses as the Representative may reasonably deem necessary; (e) the costs and expenses of the Company’s public relations firm; (f) the costs of preparing, printing and delivering the Securities; (g) fees and expenses of the Transfer Agent for the Securities (including, without limitation, any fees required for same-day processing of any instruction letter delivered by the Company), including, without limitation, fees and expenses pursuant to the Warrant Agency Agreement and the Preferred Stock Agency Agreement; (h) stock transfer and/or stamp taxes, if any, payable upon the transfer of securities from the Company to the Underwriters; (i) the fees and expenses of the Company’s accountants; (j) the fees and expenses of the Company’s legal counsel and other agents and representatives; (k) the Underwriters’ costs of mailing prospectuses to prospective investors; (l) the Underwriters’ use of i-Deal’s book-building, prospectus tracking and compliance software (or other similar software) for the Offering; and (m) the Underwriters’ actual “road show” expenses for the Offering. The Underwriters may also deduct from the net proceeds of the Offering payable to the Company on the Closing Date, or each Option Closing Date, if any, the expenses set forth herein to be paid by the Company to the Underwriters.

(b)     Expenses of the Representative . The Company further agrees that, in addition to the expenses payable pursuant to Section 4.6(a), on the Closing Date, the Company will reimburse the Representative for its out-of-pocket expenses related to the Offering up to an aggregate of $95,000 (which shall include any expenses incurred under clauses (l) and (m) of Section 4.6(a) herein), which shall be paid by deduction from the proceeds of the Offering contemplated herein.

4.7     Application of Net Proceeds . The Company will apply the net proceeds from the Offering received by it in a manner consistent with the application described under the caption “Use of Proceeds” in the Prospectus.

4.8     Delivery of Earnings Statements to Security Holders . The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but not later than the first day of the fifteenth full calendar month following the Execution Date, an earnings statement (which need not be certified by independent public or independent certified public accountants unless required by the Securities Act or the Rules and Regulations under the Securities Act, but which shall satisfy the provisions of Rule 158(a) under Section 11(a) of the Securities Act) covering a period of at least twelve consecutive months beginning after the Execution Date.

4.9     Stabilization . Neither the Company, nor, to its knowledge, any of its employees, directors or shareholders (without the consent of the Representative) has taken or will take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that has constituted or that might reasonably be expected to cause or result in, under the Exchange Act, or otherwise, stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Securities.

 

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4.10     Internal Controls . The Company will maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurances that: (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary in order to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP and to maintain accountability for assets; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences.

4.11     Accountants . The Company shall continue to retain a nationally recognized independent certified public accounting firm for a period of at least three years after the Execution Date. The Underwriters acknowledge that the Company Auditor is acceptable to the Underwriters.

4.12     FINRA . The Company shall advise the Underwriters (who shall make an appropriate filing with FINRA) if it is aware that any 5% or greater shareholder of the Company becomes an affiliate or associated person of an Underwriter.

4.13     No Fiduciary Duties . The Company acknowledges and agrees that the Underwriters’ responsibility to the Company is solely contractual and commercial in nature, based on arms-length negotiations and that neither the Underwriters nor their affiliates or any selected dealer shall be deemed to be acting in a fiduciary capacity, or otherwise owes any fiduciary duty to the Company or any of its affiliates in connection with the Offering and the other transactions contemplated by this Agreement. Notwithstanding anything in this Agreement to the contrary, the Company acknowledges that the Underwriters may have financial interests in the success of the Offering that are not limited to the difference between the price to the public and the purchase price paid to the Company by the Underwriters for the shares and the Underwriters have no obligation to disclose, or account to the Company for, any of such additional financial interests. The Company hereby waives and releases, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims that the Company may have against the Underwriters with respect to any breach or alleged breach of fiduciary duty.

4.14     Underlying Shares . The shares of Common Stock underlying the Preferred Stock shall be issued free of legends. If all or any portion of a Warrant is exercised at a time when there is an effective registration statement to cover the issuance of the Warrant Shares or if the Warrant is exercised via cashless exercise, the Warrant Shares issued pursuant to any such exercise shall be issued free of all restrictive legends. If at any time following the date hereof the Registration Statement (or any subsequent registration statement registering the sale or resale of the Warrant Shares) is not effective or is not otherwise available for the sale of the Warrant Shares, the Company shall immediately notify the holders of the Warrants in writing that such registration statement is not then effective and thereafter shall promptly notify such holders when the registration statement is effective again and available for the sale of the Warrant Shares (it being understood and agreed that the foregoing shall not limit the ability of the Company to issue, or any holder thereof to sell, any of the Warrant Shares in compliance with applicable federal and state securities laws).

 

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4.15     Board Composition and Board Designations . The Company shall use its reasonable best efforts to ensure that: (i) the qualifications of the persons serving as board members and the overall composition of the Board of Directors comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules promulgated thereunder and with the listing requirements of the Trading Market and (ii) if applicable, at least one member of the Board of Directors qualifies as a “financial expert” as such term is defined under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules promulgated thereunder.

4.16     Securities Laws Disclosure; Publicity . At the request of the Representative, by 9:00 a.m. (New York City time) on the date hereof, the Company shall issue a press release disclosing the material terms of the Offering. The Company and the Representative shall consult with each other in issuing any other press releases with respect to the Offering, and neither the Company nor any Underwriter shall issue any such press release nor otherwise make any such public statement without the prior consent of the Company, with respect to any press release of such Underwriter, or without the prior consent of such Underwriter, with respect to any press release of the Company, which consent shall not unreasonably be withheld or delayed, except if such disclosure is required by law, in which case the disclosing party shall promptly provide the other party with prior notice of such public statement or communication. The Company will not issue press releases or engage in any other publicity, without the Representative’s prior written consent, for a period ending at 5:00 p.m. (New York City time) on the first business day following the 40th day following the Closing Date, other than normal and customary releases issued in the ordinary course of the Company’s business.

4.17     Shareholder Rights Plan . No claim will be made or enforced by the Company or, with the consent of the Company, any other Person, that any Underwriter of the Securities is an “Acquiring Person” under any control share acquisition, business combination, poison pill (including any distribution under a rights agreement) or similar anti-takeover plan or arrangement in effect or hereafter adopted by the Company, or that any Underwriter of Securities could be deemed to trigger the provisions of any such plan or arrangement, by virtue of receiving Securities.

4.18     Reservation of Common Stock . As of the date hereof, the Company has reserved and the Company shall continue to reserve and keep available at all times, free of preemptive rights, a sufficient number of shares of Common Stock for the purpose of enabling the Company to issue Option Shares pursuant to the Over-Allotment Option and Underling Shares pursuant to the Warrants and Certificate of Designation.

4.19     L isting of Common Stock . The Company hereby agrees to use best efforts to maintain the listing or quotation of the Common Stock on the Trading Market on which it is currently listed, and concurrently with the Closing, the Company shall apply to list or quote all of the Closing Shares, Conversion Shares Option Shares and Warrant Shares on such Trading Market and promptly secure the listing of all of the Closing Shares, Conversion Shares, Option Shares and Warrant Shares on such Trading Market. The Company further agrees, if the Company applies to have the Common Stock traded on any other Trading Market, it will then include in such application all of the Closing Shares, Conversion Shares, Option Shares and Warrant Shares, and will take such other action as is necessary to cause all of the Closing Shares, Conversion Shares, Option Shares and Warrant Shares to be listed or quoted on such other

 

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Trading Market as promptly as possible. The Company will then take all action reasonably necessary to continue the listing and trading of its Common Stock on a Trading Market and will comply in all respects with the Company’s reporting, filing and other obligations under the bylaws or rules of the Trading Market. The Company agrees to maintain the eligibility of the Common Stock for electronic transfer through the Depository Trust Company or another established clearing corporation, including, without limitation, by timely payment of fees to the Depository Trust Company or such other established clearing corporation in connection with such electronic transfer.

4.20     Subsequent Equity Sales .

(a)    From the date hereof until 90 days following the Closing Date, neither the Company nor any Subsidiary shall issue, enter into any agreement to issue or announce the issuance or proposed issuance of any shares of Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents.

(b)    From the date hereof until one year following the Closing Date, the Company shall be prohibited from effecting or entering into an agreement to effect any issuance by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries of Common Stock or Common Stock Equivalents (or a combination of units thereof) involving a Variable Rate Transaction. “ Variable Rate Transaction ” means a transaction in which the Company (i) issues or sells any debt or equity securities that are convertible into, exchangeable or exercisable for, or include the right to receive, additional shares of Common Stock either (A) at a conversion price, exercise price or exchange rate or other price that is based upon, and/or varies with, the trading prices of or quotations for the shares of Common Stock at any time after the initial issuance of such debt or equity securities or (B) with a conversion, exercise or exchange price that is subject to being reset at some future date after the initial issuance of such debt or equity security or upon the occurrence of specified or contingent events directly or indirectly related to the business of the Company or the market for the Common Stock or (ii) enters into, or effects a transaction under, any agreement, including, but not limited to, an equity line of credit, whereby the Company may issue securities at a future determined price. Any Underwriter shall be entitled to obtain injunctive relief against the Company to preclude any such issuance, which remedy shall be in addition to any right to collect damages.

(c)    Notwithstanding the foregoing, this Section 4.20 shall not apply in respect of an Exempt Issuance, except that no Variable Rate Transaction shall be an Exempt Issuance.

4.21     Research Independence . The Company acknowledges that each Underwriter’s research analysts and research departments, if any, are required to be independent from their respective investment banking divisions and are subject to certain regulations and internal policies, and that such Underwriter’s research analysts may hold and make statements or investment recommendations and/or publish research reports with respect to the Company and/or the offering that differ from the views of its investment bankers. The Company hereby waives and releases, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims that the Company may have against such Underwriter with respect to any conflict of interest that may arise from the fact that

 

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the views expressed by their independent research analysts and research departments may be different from or inconsistent with the views or advice communicated to the Company by such Underwriter’s investment banking divisions. The Company acknowledges that the Representative is a full service securities firm and as such from time to time, subject to applicable securities laws, may effect transactions for its own account or the account of its customers and hold long or short position in debt or equity securities of the Company.

ARTICLE V.

DEFAULT BY UNDERWRITERS

If on the Closing Date or any Option Closing Date, if any, any Underwriter shall fail to purchase and pay for the portion of the Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, which such Underwriter has agreed to purchase and pay for on such date (otherwise than by reason of any default on the part of the Company), the Representative, or if the Representative is the defaulting Underwriter, the non-defaulting Underwriters, shall use their reasonable efforts to procure within 36 hours thereafter one or more of the other Underwriters, or any others, to purchase from the Company such amounts as may be agreed upon and upon the terms set forth herein, the Closing Securities or Option Securities , as the case may be, which the defaulting Underwriter or Underwriters failed to purchase. If during such 36 hours the Representative shall not have procured such other Underwriters, or any others, to purchase the Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, agreed to be purchased by the defaulting Underwriter or Underwriters, then (a) if the aggregate number of Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, with respect to which such default shall occur does not exceed 10% of the Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, covered hereby, the other Underwriters shall be obligated, severally, in proportion to the respective numbers of Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, which they are obligated to purchase hereunder, to purchase the Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, which such defaulting Underwriter or Underwriters failed to purchase, or (b) if the aggregate number of Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, with respect to which such default shall occur exceeds 10% of the Closing Securities or Option Securities, as the case may be, covered hereby, the Company or the Representative will have the right to terminate this Agreement without liability on the part of the non-defaulting Underwriters or of the Company except to the extent provided in Article VI hereof. In the event of a default by any Underwriter or Underwriters, as set forth in this Article V, the applicable Closing Date may be postponed for such period, not exceeding seven days, as the Representative, or if the Representative is the defaulting Underwriter, the non-defaulting Underwriters, may determine in order that the required changes in the Prospectus or in any other documents or arrangements may be effected. The term “Underwriter” includes any person substituted for a defaulting Underwriter. Any action taken under this Section shall not relieve any defaulting Underwriter from liability in respect of any default of such Underwriter under this Agreement.

 

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ARTICLE VI.

INDEMNIFICATION

6.1     Indemnification of the Underwriters . Subject to the conditions set forth below, the Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Underwriters, and each dealer selected by each Underwriter that participates in the offer and sale of the Securities (each a “ Selected Dealer ”) and each of their respective directors, officers and employees and each Person, if any, who controls such Underwriter or any Selected Dealer (“ Controlling Person ”) within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever (including but not limited to any and all legal or other expenses reasonably incurred in investigating, preparing or defending against any litigation, commenced or threatened, or any claim whatsoever, whether arising out of any action between such Underwriter and the Company or between such Underwriter and any third party or otherwise) to which they or any of them may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or any other statute or at common law or otherwise or under the laws of foreign countries, arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in (i) any Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (as from time to time each may be amended and supplemented); (ii) any materials or information provided to investors by, or with the approval of, the Company in connection with the marketing of the offering of the Securities, including any “road show” or investor presentations made to investors by the Company (whether in person or electronically); or (iii) any application or other document or written communication (in this Article VI, collectively called “ application ”) executed by the Company or based upon written information furnished by the Company in any jurisdiction in order to qualify the Securities under the securities laws thereof or filed with the Commission, any state securities commission or agency, Trading Market or any securities exchange; or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, unless such statement or omission was made in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company with respect to the applicable Underwriter by or on behalf of such Underwriter expressly for use in any Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, or in any application, as the case may be. With respect to any untrue statement or omission or alleged untrue statement or omission made in the Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the indemnity agreement contained in this Section 6.1 shall not inure to the benefit of an Underwriter to the extent that any loss, liability, claim, damage or expense of such Underwriter results from the fact that a copy of the Prospectus was not given or sent to the Person asserting any such loss, liability, claim or damage at or prior to the written confirmation of sale of the Securities to such Person as required by the Securities Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, and if the untrue statement or omission has been corrected in the Prospectus, unless such failure to deliver the Prospectus was a result of non-compliance by the Company with its obligations under this Agreement. The Company agrees promptly to notify each Underwriter of the commencement of any litigation or proceedings against the Company or any of its officers, directors or Controlling Persons in connection with the issue and sale of the Public Securities or in connection with the Registration Statement or Prospectus.

6.2     Procedure . If any action is brought against an Underwriter, a Selected Dealer or a Controlling Person in respect of which indemnity may be sought against the Company pursuant to Section 6.1, such Underwriter, such Selected Dealer or Controlling Person, as the case may be, shall promptly notify the Company in writing of the institution of such action and the Company

 

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shall assume the defense of such action, including the employment and fees of counsel (subject to the reasonable approval of such Underwriter or such Selected Dealer, as the case may be) and payment of actual expenses. Such Underwriter, such Selected Dealer or Controlling Person shall have the right to employ its or their own counsel in any such case, but the fees and expenses of such counsel shall be at the expense of such Underwriter, such Selected Dealer or Controlling Person unless (i) the employment of such counsel at the expense of the Company shall have been authorized in writing by the Company in connection with the defense of such action, or (ii) the Company shall not have employed counsel to have charge of the defense of such action, or (iii) such indemnified party or parties shall have reasonably concluded that there may be defenses available to it or them which are different from or additional to those available to the Company (in which case the Company shall not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party or parties), in any of which events the reasonable fees and expenses of not more than one additional firm of attorneys selected by such Underwriter (in addition to local counsel), Selected Dealer and/or Controlling Person shall be borne by the Company. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, if any Underwriter, Selected Dealer or Controlling Person shall assume the defense of such action as provided above, the Company shall have the right to approve the terms of any settlement of such action which approval shall not be unreasonably withheld.

6.3     Indemnification of the Company . Each Underwriter severally and not jointly agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company, its directors, officers and employees and agents who control the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the foregoing indemnity from the Company to such Underwriter, as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions made in any Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the Registration Statement or Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto or in any application, in reliance upon, and in strict conformity with, written information furnished to the Company with respect to such Underwriter by or on behalf of such Underwriter expressly for use in such Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the Registration Statement or Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto or in any such application. In case any action shall be brought against the Company or any other Person so indemnified based on any Preliminary Prospectus, if any, the Registration Statement or Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto or any application, and in respect of which indemnity may be sought against such Underwriter, such Underwriter shall have the rights and duties given to the Company, and the Company and each other Person so indemnified shall have the rights and duties given to such Underwriter by the provisions of this Article VI. Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 6.3, no Underwriter shall be required to indemnify the Company for any amount in excess of the underwriting discounts and commissions applicable to the Securities purchased by such Underwriter. The Underwriters’ obligations in this Section 6.3 to indemnify the Company are several in proportion to their respective underwriting obligations and not joint.

6.4     Contribution .

(a)     Contribution Rights . In order to provide for just and equitable contribution under the Securities Act in any case in which (i) any Person entitled to indemnification under this Article VI makes a claim for indemnification pursuant hereto

 

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but it is judicially determined (by the entry of a final judgment or decree by a court of competent jurisdiction and the expiration of time to appeal or the denial of the last right of appeal) that such indemnification may not be enforced in such case notwithstanding the fact that this Article VI provides for indemnification in such case, or (ii) contribution under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or otherwise may be required on the part of any such Person in circumstances for which indemnification is provided under this Article VI, then, and in each such case, the Company and each Underwriter, severally and not jointly, shall contribute to the aggregate losses, liabilities, claims, damages and expenses of the nature contemplated by said indemnity agreement incurred by the Company and such Underwriter, as incurred, in such proportions that such Underwriter is responsible for that portion represented by the percentage that the underwriting discount appearing on the cover page of the Prospectus bears to the initial offering price appearing thereon and the Company is responsible for the balance; provided, that, no Person guilty of a fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) shall be entitled to contribution from any Person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section, each director, officer and employee of such Underwriter or the Company, as applicable, and each Person, if any, who controls such Underwriter or the Company, as applicable, within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act shall have the same rights to contribution as such Underwriter or the Company, as applicable. Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 6.4, no Underwriter shall be required to contribute any amount in excess of the underwriting discounts and commissions applicable to the Securities purchased by such Underwriter. The Underwriters’ obligations in this Section 6.4 to contribute are several in proportion to their respective underwriting obligations and not joint.

(b)     Contribution Procedure . Within fifteen days after receipt by any party to this Agreement (or its representative) of notice of the commencement of any action, suit or proceeding, such party will, if a claim for contribution in respect thereof is to be made against another party (“ contributing party ”), notify the contributing party of the commencement thereof, but the failure to so notify the contributing party will not relieve it from any liability which it may have to any other party other than for contribution hereunder. In case any such action, suit or proceeding is brought against any party, and such party notifies a contributing party or its representative of the commencement thereof within the aforesaid fifteen days, the contributing party will be entitled to participate therein with the notifying party and any other contributing party similarly notified. Any such contributing party shall not be liable to any party seeking contribution on account of any settlement of any claim, action or proceeding affected by such party seeking contribution without the written consent of such contributing party. The contribution provisions contained in this Section 6.4 are intended to supersede, to the extent permitted by law, any right to contribution under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or otherwise available.

 

35


ARTICLE VII.

MISCELLANEOUS

7.1     Termination .

(a)     Termination Right . The Representative shall have the right to terminate this Agreement at any time prior to any Closing Date, (i) if any domestic or international event or act or occurrence has materially disrupted, or in its opinion will in the immediate future materially disrupt, general securities markets in the United States; or (ii) if trading on any Trading Market shall have been suspended or materially limited, or minimum or maximum prices for trading shall have been fixed, or maximum ranges for prices for securities shall have been required by FINRA or by order of the Commission or any other government authority having jurisdiction, or (iii) if the United States shall have become involved in a new war or an increase in major hostilities, or (iv) if a banking moratorium has been declared by a New York State or federal authority, or (v) if a moratorium on foreign exchange trading has been declared which materially adversely impacts the United States securities markets, or (vi) if the Company shall have sustained a material loss by fire, flood, accident, hurricane, earthquake, theft, sabotage or other calamity or malicious act which, whether or not such loss shall have been insured, will, in the Representative’s opinion, make it inadvisable to proceed with the delivery of the Securities, or (vii) if the Company is in material breach of any of its representations, warranties or covenants hereunder, or (viii) if the Representative shall have become aware after the date hereof of such a material adverse change in the conditions or prospects of the Company, or such adverse material change in general market conditions as in the Representative’s judgment would make it impracticable to proceed with the offering, sale and/or delivery of the Securities or to enforce contracts made by the Underwriters for the sale of the Securities.

(b)     Expenses . In the event this Agreement shall be terminated pursuant to Section 7.1(a), within the time specified herein or any extensions thereof pursuant to the terms herein, the Company shall be obligated to pay to the Representative its actual and accountable out of pocket expenses related to the transactions contemplated herein then due and payable, not to exceed $25,000 ( provided , however , that such expense cap in no way limits or impairs the indemnification and contribution provisions of this Agreement).

(c)     Indemnification . Notwithstanding any contrary provision contained in this Agreement, any election hereunder or any termination of this Agreement, and whether or not this Agreement is otherwise carried out, the provisions of Article VI shall not be in any way effected by such election or termination or failure to carry out the terms of this Agreement or any part hereof.

7.2     Entire Agreement . The Transaction Documents, together with the exhibits and schedules thereto, the Prospectus and the Prospectus Supplement, contain the entire understanding of the parties with respect to the subject matter hereof and thereof and supersede all prior agreements and understandings, oral or written, with respect to such matters, which the parties acknowledge have been merged into such documents, exhibits and schedules. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, the Investment Banking Agreement, dated February 6, 2018 (the “ Investment Banking Agreement ”), by and between the Company and the Representative shall continue to be effective during its term pursuant to its terms, including, without limitation, Section 4(b) and Section 5 therein, which shall continue to survive any termination of the Investment Banking Agreement and be enforceable by the Representative in accordance with its terms, provided that, in the event of a conflict between the terms of the Investment Banking Agreement and this Agreement, the terms of this Agreement shall prevail.

 

36


7.3     Notices . Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries required or permitted to be provided hereunder shall be in writing and shall be deemed given and effective on the earliest of: (a) the date of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number or e-mail attachment at the email address set forth on the signature pages attached hereto at or prior to 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on a Trading Day, (b) the next Trading Day after the date of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number or e-mail attachment at the e-mail address as set forth on the signature pages attached hereto on a day that is not a Trading Day or later than 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any Trading Day, (c) the second (2 nd ) Trading Day following the date of mailing, if sent by U.S. nationally recognized overnight courier service or (d) upon actual receipt by the party to whom such notice is required to be given. The address for such notices and communications shall be as set forth on the signature pages attached hereto.

7.4     Amendments; Waivers . No provision of this Agreement may be waived, modified, supplemented or amended except in a written instrument signed, in the case of an amendment, by the Company and the Representative. No waiver of any default with respect to any provision, condition or requirement of this Agreement shall be deemed to be a continuing waiver in the future or a waiver of any subsequent default or a waiver of any other provision, condition or requirement hereof, nor shall any delay or omission of any party to exercise any right hereunder in any manner impair the exercise of any such right.

7.5     Headings . The headings herein are for convenience only, do not constitute a part of this Agreement and shall not be deemed to limit or affect any of the provisions hereof.

7.6     Successors and Assigns . This Agreement shall be binding upon and inure to the benefit of the parties and their successors and permitted assigns.

7.7     Governing Law . All questions concerning the construction, validity, enforcement and interpretation of the Transaction Documents shall be governed by and construed and enforced in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, without regard to the principles of conflicts of law thereof. Each party agrees that all legal proceedings concerning the interpretations, enforcement and defense of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and any other Transaction Documents (whether brought against a party hereto or its respective affiliates, directors, officers, shareholders, partners, members, employees or agents) shall be commenced exclusively in the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, Borough of Manhattan for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection herewith or with any transaction contemplated hereby or discussed herein (including with respect to the enforcement of any of the Transaction Documents), and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any action, suit or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is improper or is an inconvenient venue for such proceeding. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof via registered or certified mail or overnight

 

37


delivery (with evidence of delivery) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any other manner permitted by law. If either party shall commence an action or proceeding to enforce any provisions of the Transaction Documents, then, in addition to the obligations of the Company under Article VI, the prevailing party in such action, suit or proceeding shall be reimbursed by the other party for its reasonable attorneys’ fees and other costs and expenses incurred with the investigation, preparation and prosecution of such action or proceeding.

7.8     Survival . The representations and warranties contained herein shall survive the Closing and the Option Closing, if any, and the delivery of the Securities.

7.9     Execution . This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, all of which when taken together shall be considered one and the same agreement and shall become effective when counterparts have been signed by each party and delivered to each other party, it being understood that the parties need not sign the same counterpart. In the event that any signature is delivered by facsimile transmission or by e-mail delivery of a “.pdf” format data file, such signature shall create a valid and binding obligation of the party executing (or on whose behalf such signature is executed) with the same force and effect as if such facsimile or “.pdf” signature page were an original thereof.

7.10     Severability . If any term, provision, covenant or restriction of this Agreement is held by a court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid, illegal, void or unenforceable, the remainder of the terms, provisions, covenants and restrictions set forth herein shall remain in full force and effect and shall in no way be affected, impaired or invalidated, and the parties hereto shall use their commercially reasonable efforts to find and employ an alternative means to achieve the same or substantially the same result as that contemplated by such term, provision, covenant or restriction. It is hereby stipulated and declared to be the intention of the parties that they would have executed the remaining terms, provisions, covenants and restrictions without including any of such that may be hereafter declared invalid, illegal, void or unenforceable.

7.11     Remedies . In addition to being entitled to exercise all rights provided herein or granted by law, including recovery of damages, the Underwriters and the Company will be entitled to specific performance under the Transaction Documents. The parties agree that monetary damages may not be adequate compensation for any loss incurred by reason of any breach of obligations contained in the Transaction Documents and hereby agree to waive and not to assert in any action for specific performance of any such obligation the defense that a remedy at law would be adequate.

7.12     Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays, etc . If the last or appointed day for the taking of any action or the expiration of any right required or granted herein shall not be a Business Day, then such action may be taken or such right may be exercised on the next succeeding Business Day.

 

38


7.13     Construction . The parties agree that each of them and/or their respective counsel have reviewed and had an opportunity to revise the Transaction Documents and, therefore, the normal rule of construction to the effect that any ambiguities are to be resolved against the drafting party shall not be employed in the interpretation of the Transaction Documents or any amendments thereto. In addition, each and every reference to share prices and shares of Common Stock in any Transaction Document shall be subject to adjustment for reverse and forward stock splits, stock dividends, stock combinations and other similar transactions of the Common Stock that occur after the date of this Agreement.

7.14     WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL . IN ANY ACTION, SUIT, OR PROCEEDING IN ANY JURISDICTION BROUGHT BY ANY PARTY AGAINST ANY OTHER PARTY ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY, THE PARTIES EACH KNOWINGLY AND INTENTIONALLY, TO THE GREATEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, HEREBY ABSOLUTELY, UNCONDITIONALLY, IRREVOCABLY AND EXPRESSLY WAIVE FOREVER ANY RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY.

(Signature Pages Follow)

 

39


If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Underwriters and the Company, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement among the Company and the several Underwriters in accordance with its terms.

 

Very truly yours,
ORAGENICS, INC.
By:  

 

Name:   Alan Joslyn
Title:   Chief Executive Officer & President

Address for Notice:

4902 Eisenhower Boulevard, Suite 125

Tampa, Florida 33634

Attn: Chief Financial Officer

Copy to:

Shumaker, Loop & Kendrick, LLP

101 E. Kennedy Blvd., Suite 2800

Tampa, Florida 33602

Facsimile: (813) 229-1660

Attention: Mark Catchur

Accepted on the date first above written.

LADENBURG THALMANN & CO. INC.

As the Representative of the several

Underwriters listed on Schedule I

 

By:  

 

Name:  
Title:  

Address for Notice:

4400 Biscayne Blvd., 14th Floor

Miami, Florida 33137

Attention: General Counsel

 

40


Copy to:

Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP

1345 Avenue of the Americas

New York, New York 10105

Facsimile: (212) 401-4741

Attention: Michael Nertney

 

41


SCHEDULE I

 

Underwriters

   Closing
Shares
     Closing
Preferred
Shares
     Closing
Warrants
     Closing
Purchase Price
 

Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc.

            $               

Total:

            $               

 

42


SCHEDULE II

PARTIES SUBJECT TO LOCK-UP AGREEMENTS

 

43

Exhibit 4.1

ARTICLES OF AMENDMENT

TO

AMENDED AND RESTATED

ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION

OF

ORAGENICS, INC.

CERTIFICATE OF DESIGNATION AND RIGHTS OF

SERIES D CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK

Pursuant to Section 607.0602 of the Florida Business Corporation Act

Oragenics, Inc., a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the State of Florida (the “ Corporation ”), does hereby certify:

FIRST: That pursuant to authority conferred upon the Board of Directors of the Corporation (the “ Board ”) by the Articles of Incorporation of the Corporation, as amended, the Board adopted the following resolutions on June 22, 2018 pursuant to the Corporation’s Articles of Incorporation, as amended and Sections 607.0602, 607.1002 and 607.1006 of the Florida Business Corporation Act, authorizing a new series of the Corporation’s previously authorized Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value per share designated as Series D Convertible Preferred Stock. Shareholder action was not required.

SECOND: The Series D Convertible Preferred Stock shall have the following designation, number of shares, rights, qualifications, limitations and other terms and conditions:

Section  1 .      Definitions . For the purposes hereof, the following terms shall have the following meanings:

Affiliate ” means any Person that, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is controlled by or is under common control with a Person, as such terms are used in and construed under Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Alternate Consideration ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 7(d).

Beneficial Ownership Limitation ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(d).

Business Day ” means any day except any Saturday, any Sunday, any day which is a federal legal holiday in the United States or any day on which banking institutions in the State of New York are authorized or required by law or other governmental action to close.

Buy-In ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(c)(iv).

 

1


Commission ” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.

Common Stock ” means the Corporation’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and stock of any other class of securities into which such securities may hereafter be reclassified or changed.

Common Stock Equivalents ” means any securities of the Corporation or the Subsidiaries which would entitle the holder thereof to acquire at any time Common Stock, including, without limitation, any debt, preferred stock, rights, options, warrants or other instrument that is at any time convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or otherwise entitles the holder thereof to receive, Common Stock.

Conversion Amount ” means the sum of the Stated Value at issue.

Conversion Date ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(a).

Conversion Price ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(b).

Conversion Shares ” means, collectively, the shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the shares of Preferred Stock in accordance with the terms hereof.

Exchange Act ” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

“Forced Conversion Date ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(e).

Forced Conversion Notice ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(e).

Forced Conversion Notice Date ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(e).

Fundamental Transaction ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 7(d).

GAAP ” means United States generally accepted accounting principles.

Holder ” shall have the meaning given such term in Section 2.

Liquidation ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 5.

New York Courts ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 8(d).

Notice of Conversion ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(a).

Original Issue Date ” means the date of the first issuance of any shares of the Preferred Stock regardless of the number of transfers of any particular shares of Preferred Stock and regardless of the number of certificates which may be issued to evidence such Preferred Stock.

 

2


Person ” means an individual or corporation, partnership, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, limited liability company, joint stock company, government (or an agency or subdivision thereof) or other entity of any kind.

Preferred Stock ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 2.

Representative ” means Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc.

Securities Act ” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Share Delivery Date ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 6(c).

Stated Value ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 2, as the same may be increased pursuant to Section 3.

Successor Entity ” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 7(d).

Trading Day ” means a day on which the principal Trading Market is open for business.

Trading Market ” means any of the following markets or exchanges on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted for trading on the date in question: the NYSE American, the Nasdaq Capital Market, the Nasdaq Global Market, the Nasdaq Global Select Market, or the New York Stock Exchange (or any successors to any of the foregoing).

Transfer Agent ” means Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, the current transfer agent of the Corporation, with a mailing address of 1 State Street, 30th Floor, New York, NY 10004-1561 and a facsimile number of (212) 616-7619, and any successor transfer agent of the Corporation.

Underwriting Agreement ” means the underwriting agreement, dated as of             , 2018, among the Corporation and the Representative, as representative of the underwriters named therein, as amended, modified or supplemented from time to time in accordance with its terms.

Section  2 .      Designation, Amount and Par Value . The series of preferred stock shall be designated as its Series D Convertible Preferred Stock (the “ Preferred Stock ”) and the number of shares so designated shall be up to                      (which shall not be subject to increase without the written consent of all of the holders of the Preferred Stock (each, a “ Holder ” and collectively, the “ Holders ”)). Each share of Preferred Stock shall have a par value of $0.001 per

 

3


share and a stated value equal to $            , 1 subject to increase set forth in Section 3 below (the “ Stated Value ”). The Preferred Stock will initially be issued in book-entry form and shall initially be represented only by one or more global certificates deposited with the Depository Trust Company (“ DTC ”) and registered in the name of Cede & Co., a nominee of DTC, or as otherwise directed by DTC. As between the Corporation and a beneficial owner of Preferred Stock shall have all of the rights and remedies of a Holder hereunder. In addition, a beneficial owner of Preferred Stock has the right, upon written notice by such beneficial owner to the Corporation, to request the exchange of some or all of such beneficial owner’s interest in Preferred Stock represented by one or more global Preferred Stock certificates deposited with Cede & Co. (or its successor) for a physical Preferred Stock certificate (a “ Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice ” and the date of delivery of such Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice by a beneficial owner, the “ Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice Date ” and the deemed surrender upon delivery by the beneficial owner of a number of global shares of Preferred Stock for the same number of shares of Preferred Stock represented by a physical stock certificate, a “ Preferred Stock Exchange ”, and such physical certificate(s), a “ Preferred Stock Certificate ”). Upon delivery of a Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice, the Corporation shall promptly effect the Preferred Stock Exchange and shall promptly issue and deliver to the beneficial owner a physical Preferred Stock Certificate for such number of shares of Preferred Stock represented by its interest in such global certificates in the name of the beneficial owner. Such Preferred Stock Certificate shall be dated the original issue date and shall be executed by an authorized signatory of the Corporation. In connection with a Preferred Stock Exchange, the Corporation agrees to deliver the Preferred Stock Certificate to the Holder within two (2) Business Days of the delivery of a properly completed and executed Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice pursuant to the delivery instructions in the Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice. The Corporation covenants and agrees that, upon the date of delivery of the properly completed and executed Preferred Stock Certificate Request Notice, the Holder shall be deemed to be the holder of the Preferred Stock Certificate and, notwithstanding anything to the contrary set forth herein, the Preferred Stock Certificate shall be deemed for all purposes to represent all of the terms and conditions of the Preferred Stock evidenced by such global Preferred Stock certificates and the terms hereof.

Section  3 .      Dividends . Except for stock dividends or distributions for which adjustments are to be made pursuant to Section 7, Holders shall be entitled to receive, and the Corporation shall pay, dividends on shares of Preferred Stock equal (on an as-if-converted-to-Common-Stock basis, disregarding for such purpose any conversion limitations hereunder) to and in the same form as dividends actually paid on shares of the Common Stock when, as and if such dividends are paid on shares of the Common Stock. No other dividends shall be paid on shares of Preferred Stock. The Corporation shall not pay any dividends on the Common Stock unless the Corporation simultaneously complies with this provision.

Section  4 .      Voting Rights . Except as otherwise provided herein or as otherwise required by law, the Preferred Stock shall have no voting rights. However, as long as any shares of Preferred Stock are outstanding, the Corporation shall not, without the affirmative vote of the Holders of a majority of the then outstanding shares of the Preferred Stock, (a) alter or change

 

1   The Class A Unit purchase price.

 

4


adversely the powers, preferences or rights given to the Preferred Stock or alter or amend this Certificate of Designation, (b) amend its certificate of incorporation or other charter documents in any manner that adversely affects any rights of the Holders, (c) increase the number of authorized shares of Preferred Stock, or (d) enter into any agreement with respect to any of the foregoing.

Section 5.      Liquidation . Upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of the Corporation, whether voluntary or involuntary (a “Liquidation”), the Holders shall be entitled to receive out of the assets, whether capital or surplus, of the Corporation the same amount that a holder of Common Stock would receive if the Preferred Stock were fully converted (disregarding for such purposes any conversion limitations hereunder) to Common Stock which amounts shall be paid pari passu with all holders of Common Stock. The Corporation shall mail written notice of any such Liquidation, not less than 45 days prior to the payment date stated therein, to each Holder.

Section  6 .      Conversion .

a)     Conversions at Option of Holder . Each share of Preferred Stock shall be convertible, at any time and from time to time from and after the Original Issue Date at the option of the Holder thereof, into that number of shares of Common Stock (subject to the limitations set forth in Section 6(d)) determined by dividing the Stated Value of such share of Preferred Stock by the Conversion Price. Holders shall effect conversions by providing the Corporation with the form of conversion notice attached hereto as Annex A (a “ Notice of Conversion ”). Each Notice of Conversion shall specify the number of shares of Preferred Stock to be converted, the number of shares of Preferred Stock owned prior to the conversion at issue, the number of shares of Preferred Stock owned subsequent to the conversion at issue and the date on which such conversion is to be effected, which date may not be prior to the date the applicable Holder delivers by facsimile or e-mail such Notice of Conversion to the Corporation (such date, the “ Conversion Date ”). If no Conversion Date is specified in a Notice of Conversion, the Conversion Date shall be the date that such Notice of Conversion to the Corporation is deemed delivered hereunder. No ink-original Notice of Conversion shall be required, nor shall any medallion guarantee (or other type of guarantee or notarization) of any Notice of Conversion form be required. The calculations and entries set forth in the Notice of Conversion shall control in the absence of manifest or mathematical error. To effect conversions of shares of Preferred Stock, a Holder shall not be required to surrender the certificate(s) representing the shares of Preferred Stock to the Corporation unless all of the shares of Preferred Stock represented thereby are so converted, in which case such Holder shall deliver the certificate representing such shares of Preferred Stock promptly following the Conversion Date at issue. Shares of Preferred Stock converted into Common Stock or redeemed in accordance with the terms hereof shall be canceled and shall not be reissued. Notwithstanding the foregoing in this Section 6(a), a holder whose interest in the Preferred Stock is a beneficial interest in certificate(s) representing the Preferred Stock held in book-entry form through DTC (or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions), shall effect conversions made pursuant to this

 

5


Section 6(a) by delivering to DTC (or such other clearing corporation, as applicable) the appropriate instruction form for conversion, complying with the procedures to effect conversions that are required by DTC (or such other clearing corporation, as applicable), subject to a Holder’s right to elect to receive Preferred Stock in certificated form pursuant to Section 2, in which case this sentence shall not apply.

b)     Conversion Price . The conversion price for the Preferred Stock shall equal $             2 , subject to adjustment herein (the “ Conversion Price ”).

c)     Mechanics of Conversion

i.     Delivery of Conversion Shares Upon Conversion . Not later than the earlier of (i) two (2) Trading Days and (ii) the number of Trading Days comprising the Standard Settlement Period (as defined below) after each Conversion Date (the “ Share Delivery Date ”), the Corporation shall deliver, or cause to be delivered, to the converting Holder (A) the number of Conversion Shares being acquired upon the conversion of the Preferred Stock, which Conversion Shares shall be free of restrictive legends and trading restrictions, and (B) a bank check in the amount of accrued and unpaid dividends, if any. The Corporation shall use its best efforts to deliver the Conversion Shares required to be delivered by the Corporation under this Section 6 electronically through the Depository Trust Company or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions. As used herein, “ Standard Settlement Period ” means the standard settlement period, expressed in a number of Trading Days, on the Corporation’s primary Trading Market with respect to the Common Stock as in effect on the date of delivery of the Notice of Conversion. Notwithstanding the foregoing, with respect to any Notice(s) of Conversion delivered by 12:00 p.m. (New York City time) on the Original Issue Date, the Corporation agrees to deliver the Conversion Shares subject to such notice(s) by 4:00 p.m. (New York City time) on the Original Issue Date.

ii.     Failure to Deliver Conversion Shares . If, in the case of any Notice of Conversion, such Conversion Shares are not delivered to or as directed by the applicable Holder by the Share Delivery Date, the Holder shall be entitled to elect by written notice to the Corporation at any time on or before its receipt of such Conversion Shares, to rescind such Conversion, in which event the Corporation shall promptly return to the Holder any original Preferred Stock certificate delivered to the Corporation and the Holder shall promptly return to the Corporation the Conversion Shares issued to such Holder pursuant to the rescinded Notice of Conversion.

iii.     Obligation Absolute; Partial Liquidated Damages . The Corporation’s obligation to issue and deliver the Conversion Shares upon conversion of Preferred Stock in accordance with the terms hereof are absolute

 

2   The Class A Unit purchase price

 

6


and unconditional, irrespective of any action or inaction by a Holder to enforce the same, any waiver or consent with respect to any provision hereof, the recovery of any judgment against any Person or any action to enforce the same, or any setoff, counterclaim, recoupment, limitation or termination, or any breach or alleged breach by such Holder or any other Person of any obligation to the Corporation or any violation or alleged violation of law by such Holder or any other person, and irrespective of any other circumstance which might otherwise limit such obligation of the Corporation to such Holder in connection with the issuance of such Conversion Shares; provided , however , that such delivery shall not operate as a waiver by the Corporation of any such action that the Corporation may have against such Holder. In the event a Holder shall elect to convert any or all of the Stated Value of its Preferred Stock, the Corporation may not refuse conversion based on any claim that such Holder or any one associated or affiliated with such Holder has been engaged in any violation of law, agreement or for any other reason, unless an injunction from a court, on notice to Holder, restraining and/or enjoining conversion of all or part of the Preferred Stock of such Holder shall have been sought and obtained, and the Corporation posts a surety bond for the benefit of such Holder in the amount of 150% of the Stated Value of Preferred Stock which is subject to the injunction, which bond shall remain in effect until the completion of arbitration/litigation of the underlying dispute and the proceeds of which shall be payable to such Holder to the extent it obtains judgment. In the absence of such injunction, the Corporation shall issue Conversion Shares and, if applicable, cash, upon a properly noticed conversion. If the Corporation fails to deliver to a Holder such Conversion Shares pursuant to Section 6(c)(i) by the Share Delivery Date applicable to such conversion, the Corporation shall pay to such Holder, in cash, as liquidated damages and not as a penalty, for each $5,000 of Stated Value of Preferred Stock being converted, $50 per Trading Day (increasing to $100 per Trading Day on the third Trading Day and increasing to $200 per Trading Day on the sixth Trading Day after such damages begin to accrue) for each Trading Day after the Share Delivery Date until such Conversion Shares are delivered or Holder rescinds such conversion. Nothing herein shall limit a Holder’s right to pursue actual damages for the Corporation’s failure to deliver Conversion Shares within the period specified herein and such Holder shall have the right to pursue all remedies available to it hereunder, at law or in equity including, without limitation, a decree of specific performance and/or injunctive relief. The exercise of any such rights shall not prohibit a Holder from seeking to enforce damages pursuant to any other Section hereof or under applicable law.

iv.     Compensation for Buy-In on Failure to Timely Deliver Conversion Shares Upon Conversion . In addition to any other rights available to the Holder, if the Corporation fails for any reason to deliver to a Holder the applicable Conversion Shares by the Share Delivery Date pursuant to Section 6(c)(i), and if after such Share Delivery Date such Holder is required by its brokerage firm to purchase (in an open market transaction or otherwise), or the Holder’s brokerage

 

7


firm otherwise purchases, shares of Common Stock to deliver in satisfaction of a sale by such Holder of the Conversion Shares which such Holder was entitled to receive upon the conversion relating to such Share Delivery Date (a “ Buy-In ”), then the Corporation shall (A) pay in cash to such Holder (in addition to any other remedies available to or elected by such Holder) the amount, if any, by which (x) such Holder’s total purchase price (including any brokerage commissions) for the Common Stock so purchased exceeds (y) the product of (1) the aggregate number of shares of Common Stock that such Holder was entitled to receive from the conversion at issue multiplied by (2) the actual sale price at which the sell order giving rise to such purchase obligation was executed (including any brokerage commissions) and (B) at the option of such Holder, either reissue (if surrendered) the shares of Preferred Stock equal to the number of shares of Preferred Stock submitted for conversion (in which case, such conversion shall be deemed rescinded) or deliver to such Holder the number of shares of Common Stock that would have been issued if the Corporation had timely complied with its delivery requirements under Section 6(c)(i). For example, if a Holder purchases shares of Common Stock having a total purchase price of $11,000 to cover a Buy-In with respect to an attempted conversion of shares of Preferred Stock with respect to which the actual sale price of the Conversion Shares (including any brokerage commissions) giving rise to such purchase obligation was a total of $10,000 under clause (A) of the immediately preceding sentence, the Corporation shall be required to pay such Holder $1,000. The Holder shall provide the Corporation written notice indicating the amounts payable to such Holder in respect of the Buy-In and, upon request of the Corporation, evidence of the amount of such loss. Nothing herein shall limit a Holder’s right to pursue any other remedies available to it hereunder, at law or in equity including, without limitation, a decree of specific performance and/or injunctive relief with respect to the Corporation’s failure to timely deliver the Conversion Shares upon conversion of the shares of Preferred Stock as required pursuant to the terms hereof.

v.     Reservation of Shares Issuable Upon Conversion . The Corporation covenants that it will at all times reserve and keep available out of its authorized and unissued shares of Common Stock for the sole purpose of issuance upon conversion of the Preferred Stock as herein provided, free from preemptive rights or any other actual contingent purchase rights of Persons other than the Holder (and the other holders of the Preferred Stock), not less than such aggregate number of shares of the Common Stock as shall be issuable (taking into account the adjustments and restrictions of Section 7) upon the conversion of the then outstanding shares of Preferred Stock. The Corporation covenants that all shares of Common Stock that shall be so issuable shall, upon issue, be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

vi.     Fractional Shares . No fractional shares or scrip representing fractional shares shall be issued upon the conversion of the Preferred Stock.    As to any fraction of a share which the Holder would otherwise be entitled to

 

8


purchase upon such conversion, the Corporation shall at its election, either pay a cash adjustment in respect of such final fraction in an amount equal to such fraction multiplied by the Conversion Price or round up to the next whole share. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, but consistent with the provisions of this subsection with respect to fractional Conversion Shares, nothing shall prevent any Holder from converting fractional shares of Preferred Stock.

vii.     Transfer Taxes and Expenses . The issuance of Conversion Shares on conversion of this Preferred Stock shall be made without charge to any Holder for any documentary stamp or similar taxes that may be payable in respect of the issue or delivery of such Conversion Shares, provided that the Corporation shall not be required to pay any tax that may be payable in respect of any transfer involved in the issuance and delivery of any such Conversion Shares upon conversion in a name other than that of the Holders of such shares of Preferred Stock and the Corporation shall not be required to issue or deliver such Conversion Shares unless or until the Person or Persons requesting the issuance thereof shall have paid to the Corporation the amount of such tax or shall have established to the satisfaction of the Corporation that such tax has been paid. The Corporation shall pay all Transfer Agent fees required for same-day processing of any Notice of Conversion and all fees to the Depository Trust Company (or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions) required for same-day electronic delivery of the Conversion Shares.

d)     Beneficial Ownership Limitation . The Corporation shall not effect any conversion of the Preferred Stock, and a Holder shall not have the right to convert any portion of the Preferred Stock, to the extent that, after giving effect to the conversion set forth on the applicable Notice of Conversion, such Holder (together with such Holder’s Affiliates, and any Persons acting as a group together with such Holder or any of such Holder’s Affiliates (such Persons, “ Attribution Parties ”)) would beneficially own in excess of the Beneficial Ownership Limitation (as defined below). For purposes of the foregoing sentence, the number of shares of Common Stock beneficially owned by such Holder and its Affiliates and Attribution Parties shall include the number of shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the Preferred Stock with respect to which such determination is being made, but shall exclude the number of shares of Common Stock which are issuable upon (i) conversion of the remaining, unconverted Stated Value of Preferred Stock beneficially owned by such Holder or any of its Affiliates or Attribution Parties and (ii) exercise or conversion of the unexercised or unconverted portion of any other securities of the Corporation subject to a limitation on conversion or exercise analogous to the limitation contained herein (including, without limitation, the Preferred Stock) beneficially owned by such Holder or any of its Affiliates or Attribution Parties. Except as set forth in the preceding sentence, for purposes of this Section 6(d), beneficial ownership shall be calculated in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. To the extent that the limitation contained in this Section 6(d) applies, the determination of whether the Preferred Stock is convertible (in relation to other securities owned by such Holder

 

9


together with any Affiliates and Attribution Parties) and of how many shares of Preferred Stock are convertible shall be in the sole discretion of such Holder, and the submission of a Notice of Conversion shall be deemed to be such Holder’s determination of whether the shares of Preferred Stock may be converted (in relation to other securities owned by such Holder together with any Affiliates and Attribution Parties) and how many shares of the Preferred Stock are convertible, in each case subject to the Beneficial Ownership Limitation. To ensure compliance with this restriction, each Holder will be deemed to represent to the Corporation each time it delivers a Notice of Conversion that such Notice of Conversion has not violated the restrictions set forth in this paragraph and the Corporation shall have no obligation to verify or confirm the accuracy of such determination. In addition, a determination as to any group status as contemplated above shall be determined in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. For purposes of this Section 6(d), in determining the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock, a Holder may rely on the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock as stated in the most recent of the following: (i) the Corporation’s most recent periodic or annual report filed with the Commission, as the case may be, (ii) a more recent public announcement by the Corporation or (iii) a more recent written notice by the Corporation or the Transfer Agent setting forth the number of shares of Common Stock outstanding. Upon the written or oral request (which may be via email) of a Holder, the Corporation shall within one Trading Day confirm orally and in writing to such Holder the number of shares of Common Stock then outstanding. In any case, the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock shall be determined after giving effect to the conversion or exercise of securities of the Corporation, including the Preferred Stock, by such Holder or its Affiliates or Attribution Parties since the date as of which such number of outstanding shares of Common Stock was reported. The “ Beneficial Ownership Limitation ” shall be 4.99% (or, upon election by a Holder prior to the issuance of any shares of Preferred Stock, 9.99%) of the number of shares of the Common Stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the issuance of shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of Preferred Stock held by the applicable Holder. A Holder, upon notice to the Corporation, may increase or decrease the Beneficial Ownership Limitation provisions of this Section 6(d) applicable to its Preferred Stock provided that the Beneficial Ownership Limitation in no event exceeds 9.99% of the number of shares of the Common Stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon conversion of this Preferred Stock held by the Holder and the provisions of this Section 6(d) shall continue to apply. Any such increase in the Beneficial Ownership Limitation will not be effective until the 61 st day after such notice is delivered to the Corporation and shall only apply to such Holder and no other Holder. The provisions of this paragraph shall be construed and implemented in a manner otherwise than in strict conformity with the terms of this Section 6(d) to correct this paragraph (or any portion hereof) which may be defective or inconsistent with the intended Beneficial Ownership Limitation contained herein or to make changes or supplements necessary or desirable to properly give effect to such limitation. The limitations contained in this paragraph shall apply to a successor holder of Preferred Stock.

 

10


e)     Forced Conversion . Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, if after the Original Issue Date, the VWAP during any 30 consecutive Trading Day period, which thirty (30) consecutive Trading Day period shall have commenced only after the Original Issue Date (the “ Threshold Period ”), exceeds $[            ] 1 (subject to adjustment for forward and reverse stock splits, recapitalizations, stock dividends and the like after the Original Issue Date) and (ii) the daily dollar trading volume for such Threshold Period exceeds $175,000 per Trading Day, the Corporation may, within one (1) Trading Day after the end of any such Threshold Period, deliver a written notice to all Holders (a “ Forced Conversion Notice ” and the date such notice is delivered to all Holders, the “ Forced Conversion Notice Date ”) to cause each Holder to convert all or part of such Holder’s Preferred Stock (as specified in such Forced Conversion Notice) pursuant to Section 6, it being agreed that the “Conversion Date” for purposes of Section 6 shall be deemed to occur on the third Trading Day following the Forced Conversion Notice Date (such third Trading Day, the “ Forced Conversion Date ”). The Corporation may not deliver a Forced Conversion Notice, and any Forced Conversion Notice delivered by the Corporation shall not be effective, unless all of the Equity Conditions have been met on each Trading Day during the applicable Threshold Period through and including the later of the Forced Conversion Date and the Trading Day after the date that the Conversion Shares issuable pursuant to such conversion are actually delivered to the Holders pursuant to the Forced Conversion Notice. Any Forced Conversion Notices shall be applied ratably to all of the Holders based on the then outstanding shares of Preferred Stock. For purposes of clarification, a Forced Conversion shall be subject to all of the provisions of Section 6, including, without limitation, the provisions requiring payment of liquidated damages and limitations on conversions.

Section  7 .      Certain Adjustments .

a)     Stock Dividends and Stock Splits . If the Corporation, at any time while this Preferred Stock is outstanding: (i) pays a stock dividend or otherwise makes a distribution or distributions payable in shares of Common Stock on shares of Common Stock or any other Common Stock Equivalents (which, for avoidance of doubt, shall not include any shares of Common Stock issued by the Corporation upon conversion of, or payment of a dividend on, this Preferred Stock), (ii) subdivides outstanding shares of Common Stock into a larger number of shares, (iii) combines (including by way of a reverse stock split) outstanding shares of Common Stock into a smaller number of shares, or (iv) issues, in the event of a reclassification of shares of the Common Stock, any shares of capital stock of the Corporation, then the Conversion Price shall be multiplied by a fraction of which the numerator shall be the number of shares of Common Stock (excluding any treasury shares of the Corporation) outstanding immediately before such event, and of which the denominator shall be the number of shares of Common Stock outstanding immediately after such event. Any adjustment made pursuant to this Section 7(a) shall become effective immediately after the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to receive such dividend or distribution and shall become effective immediately after the effective date in the case of a subdivision, combination or re-classification.

 

 

1   300% of Conversion Price

 

11


b)     Subsequent Rights Offerings . In addition to any adjustments pursuant to Section 7(a) above, if at any time the Corporation grants, issues or sells any Common Stock Equivalents or rights to purchase stock, warrants, securities or other property pro rata to the record holders of any class of shares of Common Stock (the “ Purchase Rights ”), then the Holder of will be entitled to acquire, upon the terms applicable to such Purchase Rights, the aggregate Purchase Rights which the Holder could have acquired if the Holder had held the number of shares of Common Stock acquirable upon complete conversion of such Holder’s Preferred Stock (without regard to any limitations on exercise hereof, including without limitation, the Beneficial Ownership Limitation) immediately before the date on which a record is taken for the grant, issuance or sale of such Purchase Rights, or, if no such record is taken, the date as of which the record holders of shares of Common Stock are to be determined for the grant, issue or sale of such Purchase Rights (provided, however, to the extent that the Holder’s right to participate in any such Purchase Right would result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, then the Holder shall not be entitled to participate in such Purchase Right to such extent (or beneficial ownership of such shares of Common Stock as a result of such Purchase Right to such extent) and such Purchase Right to such extent shall be held in abeyance for the Holder until such time, if ever, as its right thereto would not result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation).

c)     Pro Rata Distributions . During such time as this Preferred Stock is outstanding, if the Corporation declares or makes any dividend or other distribution of its assets (or rights to acquire its assets) to holders of shares of Common Stock, by way of return of capital or otherwise (including, without limitation, any distribution of cash, stock or other securities, property or options by way of a dividend, spin off, reclassification, corporate rearrangement, scheme of arrangement or other similar transaction) (a “ Distribution ”), at any time after the issuance of this Preferred Stock, then, in each such case, the Holder shall be entitled to participate in such Distribution to the same extent that the Holder would have participated therein if the Holder had held the number of shares of Common Stock acquirable upon complete conversion of this Preferred Stock (without regard to any limitations on conversion hereof, including without limitation, the Beneficial Ownership Limitation) immediately before the date of which a record is taken for such Distribution, or, if no such record is taken, the date as of which the record holders of shares of Common Stock are to be determined for the participation in such Distribution ( provided , however , to the extent that the Holder’s right to participate in any such Distribution would result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, then the Holder shall not be entitled to participate in such Distribution to such extent (or in the beneficial ownership of any shares of Common Stock as a result of such Distribution to such extent) and the portion of such Distribution shall be held in abeyance for the benefit of the Holder until such time, if ever, as its right thereto would not result in the Holder exceeding the Beneficial Ownership Limitation).

 

12


d)     Fundamental Transaction . If, at any time while this Preferred Stock is outstanding, (i) the Corporation, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions effects any merger or consolidation of the Corporation with or into another Person, (ii) the Corporation, directly or indirectly, effects any sale, lease, license, assignment, transfer, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of its assets in one or a series of related transactions, (iii) any, direct or indirect, purchase offer, tender offer or exchange offer (whether by the Corporation or another Person) is completed pursuant to which holders of Common Stock are permitted to sell, tender or exchange their shares for other securities, cash or property and has been accepted by the holders of 50% or more of the outstanding Common Stock, (iv) the Corporation, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions effects any reclassification, reorganization or recapitalization of the Common Stock or any compulsory share exchange pursuant to which the Common Stock is effectively converted into or exchanged for other securities, cash or property, or (v) the Corporation, directly or indirectly, in one or more related transactions consummates a stock or share purchase agreement or other business combination (including, without limitation, a reorganization, recapitalization, spin-off or scheme of arrangement) with another Person whereby such other Person acquires more than 50% of the outstanding shares of Common Stock (not including any shares of Common Stock held by the other Person or other Persons making or party to, or associated or affiliated with the other Persons making or party to, such stock or share purchase agreement or other business combination) (each a “ Fundamental Transaction ”), then, upon any subsequent conversion of this Preferred Stock, the Holder shall have the right to receive, for each Conversion Share that would have been issuable upon such conversion immediately prior to the occurrence of such Fundamental Transaction (without regard to any limitation in Section 6(d) on the conversion of this Preferred Stock), the number of shares of Common Stock of the successor or acquiring corporation or of the Corporation, if it is the surviving corporation, and any additional consideration (the “ Alternate Consideration ”) receivable as a result of such Fundamental Transaction by a holder of the number of shares of Common Stock for which this Preferred Stock is convertible immediately prior to such Fundamental Transaction (without regard to any limitation in Section 6(d) on the conversion of this Preferred Stock). For purposes of any such conversion, the determination of the Conversion Price shall be appropriately adjusted to apply to such Alternate Consideration based on the amount of Alternate Consideration issuable in respect of one share of Common Stock in such Fundamental Transaction, and the Corporation shall apportion the Conversion Price among the Alternate Consideration in a reasonable manner reflecting the relative value of any different components of the Alternate Consideration. If holders of Common Stock are given any choice as to the securities, cash or property to be received in a Fundamental Transaction, then the Holder shall be given the same choice as to the Alternate Consideration it receives upon any conversion of this Preferred Stock following such Fundamental Transaction. To the extent necessary to effectuate the foregoing provisions, any successor to the Corporation or surviving entity in such Fundamental Transaction shall file a new Certificate of Designation with the same terms and conditions and issue to the Holders new preferred stock consistent with the foregoing provisions and evidencing the Holders’ right to convert such preferred stock into Alternate Consideration. The Corporation shall cause any successor entity in a Fundamental Transaction in which the Corporation is not the survivor (the “ Successor Entity ”) to assume in writing all of the obligations of the

 

13


Corporation under this Certificate of Designation in accordance with the provisions of this Section 7(d) pursuant to written agreements in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Holder and approved by the Holder (without unreasonable delay) prior to such Fundamental Transaction and shall, at the option of the Holder, deliver to the Holder in exchange for this Preferred Stock a security of the Successor Entity evidenced by a written instrument substantially similar in form and substance to this Preferred Stock which is convertible for a corresponding number of shares of capital stock of such Successor Entity (or its parent entity) equivalent to the shares of Common Stock acquirable and receivable upon conversion of this Preferred Stock (without regard to any limitations on the conversion of this Preferred Stock) prior to such Fundamental Transaction, and with a conversion price which applies the conversion price hereunder to such shares of capital stock (but taking into account the relative value of the shares of Common Stock pursuant to such Fundamental Transaction and the value of such shares of capital stock, such number of shares of capital stock and such conversion price being for the purpose of protecting the economic value of this Preferred Stock immediately prior to the consummation of such Fundamental Transaction), and which is reasonably satisfactory in form and substance to the Holder. Upon the occurrence of any such Fundamental Transaction, the Successor Entity shall succeed to, and be substituted for (so that from and after the date of such Fundamental Transaction, the provisions of this Certificate of Designation referring to the “Corporation” shall refer instead to the Successor Entity), and may exercise every right and power of the Corporation and shall assume all of the obligations of the Corporation under this Certificate of Designation with the same effect as if such Successor Entity had been named as the Corporation herein.

e)     Calculations . All calculations under this Section 7 shall be made to the nearest cent or the nearest 1/100th of a share, as the case may be. For purposes of this Section 7, the number of shares of Common Stock deemed to be issued and outstanding as of a given date shall be the sum of the number of shares of Common Stock (excluding any treasury shares of the Corporation) issued and outstanding.

f)     Notice to the Holders .

i.     Adjustment to Conversion Price . Whenever the Conversion Price is adjusted pursuant to any provision of this Section 7, the Corporation shall promptly deliver to each Holder by facsimile or email a notice setting forth the Conversion Price after such adjustment and setting forth a brief statement of the facts requiring such adjustment.

ii.     Notice to Allow Conversion by Holder . If (A) the Corporation shall declare a dividend (or any other distribution in whatever form) on the Common Stock, (B) the Corporation shall declare a special nonrecurring cash dividend on or a redemption of the Common Stock, (C) the Corporation shall authorize the granting to all holders of the Common Stock of rights or warrants to subscribe for or purchase any shares of capital stock of any class or of any rights, (D) the approval of any stockholders of the Corporation shall be required in connection with any reclassification of the Common Stock, any consolidation or

 

14


merger to which the Corporation is a party, any sale or transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of the Corporation, or any compulsory share exchange whereby the Common Stock is converted into other securities, cash or property or (E) the Corporation shall authorize the voluntary or involuntary dissolution, liquidation or winding up of the affairs of the Corporation, then, in each case, the Corporation shall cause to be filed at each office or agency maintained for the purpose of conversion of this Preferred Stock, and shall cause to be delivered by facsimile or email to each Holder at its last facsimile number or email address as it shall appear upon the stock books of the Corporation, at least twenty (20) calendar days prior to the applicable record or effective date hereinafter specified, a notice stating (x) the date on which a record is to be taken for the purpose of such dividend, distribution, redemption, rights or warrants, or if a record is not to be taken, the date as of which the holders of the Common Stock of record to be entitled to such dividend, distributions, redemption, rights or warrants are to be determined or (y) the date on which such reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer or share exchange is expected to become effective or close, and the date as of which it is expected that holders of the Common Stock of record shall be entitled to exchange their shares of the Common Stock for securities, cash or other property deliverable upon such reclassification, consolidation, merger, sale, transfer or share exchange, provided that the failure to deliver such notice or any defect therein or in the delivery thereof shall not affect the validity of the corporate action required to be specified in such notice. To the extent that any notice provided hereunder constitutes, or contains, material, non-public information regarding the Corporation or any of the Subsidiaries, the Corporation shall simultaneously file such notice with the Commission pursuant to a Current Report on Form 8-K. The Holder shall remain entitled to convert the Conversion Amount of this Preferred Stock (or any part hereof) during the 20-day period commencing on the date of such notice through the effective date of the event triggering such notice except as may otherwise be expressly set forth herein.

Section  8 .     Miscellaneous .

a)     Notices . Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries to be provided by the Holders hereunder including, without limitation, any Notice of Conversion, shall be in writing and delivered personally, by facsimile or e-mail, or sent by a nationally recognized overnight courier service, addressed to the Corporation, at the address set forth above Attention: Michael Sullivan, Chief Financial Officer, facsimile number (813) 286-7904, e-mail address msullivan@oragenics.com, or such other facsimile number, e-mail address or address as the Corporation may specify for such purposes by notice to the Holders delivered in accordance with this Section 8. Any and all notices or other communications or deliveries to be provided by the Corporation hereunder shall be in writing and delivered personally, by facsimile, e-mail, or sent by a nationally recognized overnight courier service addressed to each Holder at the facsimile number, e-mail address or address of such Holder appearing on the books of the

 

15


Corporation. Any notice or other communication or deliveries hereunder shall be deemed given and effective on the earliest of (i) the date of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number or e-mail at the e-mail address set forth in this Section 8 prior to 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any date, (ii) the next Trading Day after the date of transmission, if such notice or communication is delivered via facsimile at the facsimile number or e-mail at the e-mail address set forth in this Section on a day that is not a Trading Day or later than 5:30 p.m. (New York City time) on any Trading Day, (iii) the second Trading Day following the date of mailing, if sent by U.S. nationally recognized overnight courier service, or (iv) upon actual receipt by the party to whom such notice is required to be given.

b)     Absolute Obligation . Except as expressly provided herein, no provision of this Certificate of Designation shall alter or impair the obligation of the Corporation, which is absolute and unconditional, to pay liquidated damages, and accrued dividends, as applicable, on the shares of Preferred Stock at the time, place, and rate, and in the coin or currency, herein prescribed.

c)     Lost or Mutilated Preferred Stock Certificate . If a Holder’s Preferred Stock certificate shall be mutilated, lost, stolen or destroyed, the Corporation shall execute and deliver, in exchange and substitution for and upon cancellation of a mutilated certificate, or in lieu of or in substitution for a lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, a new certificate for the shares of Preferred Stock so mutilated, lost, stolen or destroyed, but only upon receipt of evidence of such loss, theft or destruction of such certificate, and of the ownership hereof reasonably satisfactory to the Corporation.

d)     Governing Law . All questions concerning the construction, validity, enforcement and interpretation of this Certificate of Designation shall be governed by and construed and enforced in accordance with the internal laws of the State of Florida without regard to the principles of conflict of laws thereof. All legal proceedings concerning the interpretation, enforcement and defense of the transactions contemplated by this Certificate of Designation (whether brought against a party hereto or its respective Affiliates, directors, officers, shareholders, employees or agents) shall be commenced in the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, Borough of Manhattan (the “ New York Courts ”). The Corporation and each Holder hereby irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction of the New York Courts for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection herewith or with any transaction contemplated hereby or discussed herein, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of such New York Courts, or such New York Courts are improper or inconvenient venue for such proceeding. The Corporation and each Holder hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof via registered or certified mail or overnight delivery (with evidence of delivery) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Certificate of Designation and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be

 

16


deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any other manner permitted by applicable law. The Corporation and each Holder hereto hereby irrevocably waives, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to this Certificate of Designation or the transactions contemplated hereby. If the Corporation or any Holder shall commence an action or proceeding to enforce any provisions of this Certificate of Designation, then the prevailing party in such action or proceeding shall be reimbursed by the other party for its attorneys’ fees and other costs and expenses incurred in the investigation, preparation and prosecution of such action or proceeding.

e)     Waiver . Any waiver by the Corporation or a Holder of a breach of any provision of this Certificate of Designation shall not operate as or be construed to be a waiver of any other breach of such provision or of any breach of any other provision of this Certificate of Designation or a waiver by any other Holders. The failure of the Corporation or a Holder to insist upon strict adherence to any term of this Certificate of Designation on one or more occasions shall not be considered a waiver or deprive that party (or any other Holder) of the right thereafter to insist upon strict adherence to that term or any other term of this Certificate of Designation on any other occasion. Any waiver by the Corporation or a Holder must be in writing.

f)     Severability . If any provision of this Certificate of Designation is invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the balance of this Certificate of Designation shall remain in effect, and if any provision is inapplicable to any Person or circumstance, it shall nevertheless remain applicable to all other Persons and circumstances. If it shall be found that any interest or other amount deemed interest due hereunder violates the applicable law governing usury, the applicable rate of interest due hereunder shall automatically be lowered to equal the maximum rate of interest permitted under applicable law.

g)     Next Business Day . Whenever any payment or other obligation hereunder shall be due on a day other than a Business Day, such payment shall be made on the next succeeding Business Day.

h)     Headings . The headings contained herein are for convenience only, do not constitute a part of this Certificate of Designation and shall not be deemed to limit or affect any of the provisions hereof.

i)     Status of Converted or Redeemed Preferred Stock . If any shares of Preferred Stock shall be converted, redeemed or reacquired by the Corporation, such shares shall resume the status of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock and shall no longer be designated as Series D Convertible Preferred Stock.

THIRD: The effective date of these Articles of Amendment shall be             , 2018.

 

17


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned has executed and subscribed these Articles of Amendment this      day of             , 2018.

 

ORAGENICS, INC.

 

Alan Joslyn
President and Chief Executive Officer

 

18


ANNEX A

NOTICE OF CONVERSION

(TO BE EXECUTED BY THE REGISTERED HOLDER IN ORDER TO CONVERT SHARES OF PREFERRED STOCK)

The undersigned hereby elects to convert the number of shares of Series D Convertible Preferred Stock indicated below into shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “ Common Stock ”), of Oragenics, Inc., a Florida corporation (the “ Corporation ”), according to the conditions hereof, as of the date written below. If shares of Common Stock are to be issued in the name of a Person other than the undersigned, the undersigned will pay all transfer taxes payable with respect thereto. No fee will be charged to the Holders for any conversion, except for any such transfer taxes.

Conversion calculations:

 

Date to Effect Conversion: _____________________________________________

Number of shares of Preferred Stock owned prior to Conversion: _______________

Number of shares of Preferred Stock to be Converted: ________________________

Stated Value of shares of Preferred Stock to be Converted: ____________________

Number of shares of Common Stock to be Issued: ___________________________

Applicable Conversion Price: ___________________________________________

Number of shares of Preferred Stock subsequent to Conversion: ________________

Address for Delivery: ______________________

or

DWAC Instructions:

Broker no: _________

Account no: ___________

 

HOLDER
By:  

 

Name:  
Title:  

 

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Exhibit 4.2

COMMON STOCK PURCHASE WARRANT

ORAGENICS, INC.

 

Warrant Shares:                

    Initial Exercise Date:            , 2018

THIS COMMON STOCK PURCHASE WARRANT (the “ Warrant ”) certifies that, for value received,                  or its assigns (the “ Holder ”) is entitled, upon the terms and subject to the limitations on exercise and the conditions hereinafter set forth, at any time on or after             , 2018 (the “ Initial Exercise Date ”) and on or prior to 5:00 p.m. (New York City time) on                 , 2025 (the “ Termination Date ”) but not thereafter, to subscribe for and purchase from Oragenics, Inc., a Florida corporation (the “ Company ”), up to              shares (as subject to adjustment hereunder, the “ Warrant Shares ”) of Common Stock. The purchase price of one share of Common Stock under this Warrant shall be equal to the Exercise Price, as defined in Section 2(b). This Warrant shall initially be issued and maintained in the form of a security held in book-entry form and the Depository Trust Company or its nominee (“ DTC ”) shall initially be the sole registered holder of this Warrant, subject to a Holder’s right to elect to receive a Warrant in certificated form pursuant to the terms of the Warrant Agency Agreement, in which case this sentence shall not apply.

Section  1 .     Definitions . In addition to the terms defined elsewhere in this Warrant, the following terms have the meanings indicated in this Section 1:

Affiliate ” means any Person that, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or is controlled by or is under common control with a Person, as such terms are used in and construed under Rule 405 under the Securities Act.

Bid Price ” means, for any date, the price determined by the first of the following clauses that applies: (a) if the Common Stock is then listed or quoted on a Trading Market, the bid price of the Common Stock for the time in question (or the nearest preceding date) on the Trading Market on which the Common Stock is then listed or quoted as reported by Bloomberg L.P. (based on a Trading Day from 9:30 a.m. (New York City time) to 4:02 p.m. (New York City time)), (b) if OTCQB or OTCQX is not a Trading Market, the volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on OTCQB or OTCQX as applicable, (c) if the Common Stock is not then listed or quoted for trading on OTCQB or OTCQX and if prices for the Common Stock are then reported in the “Pink Sheets” published by OTC Markets Group, Inc. (or a similar organization or agency succeeding to its functions of reporting prices), the most recent bid price per share of the Common Stock so reported, or (d) in all other cases, the fair market value of a share of Common Stock as determined by an independent appraiser selected in good faith by the Holders of a majority in interest of the Warrants then outstanding and reasonably acceptable to the Company, the fees and expenses of which shall be paid by the Company.

 

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Board of Directors ” means the board of directors of the Company.

Business Day ” means any day except any Saturday, any Sunday, any day which is a federal legal holiday in the United States or any day on which banking institutions in the State of New York are authorized or required by law or other governmental action to close.

Commission ” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.

Common Stock ” means the common stock of the Company, par value $0.001 per share, and any other class of securities into which such securities may hereafter be reclassified or changed.

Common Stock Equivalents ” means any securities of the Company or the Subsidiaries which would entitle the holder thereof to acquire at any time Common Stock, including, without limitation, any debt, preferred stock, right, option, warrant or other instrument that is at any time convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for, or otherwise entitles the holder thereof to receive, Common Stock.

Exchange Act ” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Person ” means an individual or corporation, partnership, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, limited liability company, joint stock company, government (or an agency or subdivision thereof) or other entity of any kind.

Registration Statement ” means the Company’s registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-224950).

Securities Act ” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Trading Day ” means a day on which the Common Stock is traded on a Trading Market.

Trading Market ” means any of the following markets or exchanges on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted for trading on the date in question: the NYSE American, the Nasdaq Capital Market, the Nasdaq Global Market, the Nasdaq Global Select Market, the New York Stock Exchange, OTCQB or OTCQX (or any successors to any of the foregoing.

Transfer Agent ” means Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, the current transfer agent of the Company, with a mailing address of 1 State Street, 30th Floor, New York, NY 10004-1561 and a facsimile number of (212) 616-7619, and any successor transfer agent of the Company.

 

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VWAP ” means, for any date, the price determined by the first of the following clauses that applies: (a) if the Common Stock is then listed or quoted on a Trading Market, the daily volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on the Trading Market on which the Common Stock is then listed or quoted as reported by Bloomberg L.P. (based on a Trading Day from 9:30 a.m. (New York City time) to 4:02 p.m. (New York City time)), (b) if OTCQB or OTCQX is not a Trading Market, the volume weighted average price of the Common Stock for such date (or the nearest preceding date) on OTCQB or OTCQX as applicable, (c) if the Common Stock is not then listed or quoted for trading on OTCQB or OTCQX and if prices for the Common Stock are then reported in the “Pink Sheets” published by OTC Markets Group, Inc. (or a similar organization or agency succeeding to its functions of reporting prices), the most recent bid price per share of the Common Stock so reported, or (d) in all other cases, the fair market value of a share of Common Stock as determined by an independent appraiser selected in good faith by the holders of a majority in interest of the Warrants then outstanding and reasonably acceptable to the Company, the fees and expenses of which shall be paid by the Company.

Warrant Agency Agreement ” means that certain warrant agency agreement, dated on or about the Initial Exercise Date, between the Company and the Warrant Agent.

Warrant Agent ” means the Transfer Agent and any successor warrant agent of the Company.

Warrants ” means this Warrant and other Common Stock purchase warrants issued by the Company pursuant to the Registration Statement.

Section  2 .     Exercise .

a)     Exercise of Warrant . Exercise of the purchase rights represented by this Warrant may be made, in whole or in part, at any time or times on or after the Initial Exercise Date and on or before the Termination Date by delivery to the Company of a duly executed facsimile copy or PDF copy submitted by e-mail (or e-mail attachment) of the Notice of Exercise in the form annexed hereto (the “ Notice of Exercise ”). Within the earlier of (i) two (2) Trading Days and (ii) the number of Trading Days comprising the Standard Settlement Period (as defined in Section 2(d)(i) herein) following the date of exercise as aforesaid, the Holder shall deliver the aggregate Exercise Price for the shares specified in the applicable Notice of Exercise by wire transfer or cashier’s check drawn on a United States bank unless the cashless exercise procedure specified in Section 2(c) below is specified in the applicable Notice of Exercise. No ink-original Notice of Exercise shall be required, nor shall any medallion guarantee (or other type of guarantee or notarization) of any Notice of Exercise be required. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, the Holder shall not be required to physically surrender this Warrant to the Company until the Holder has purchased all of the Warrant Shares available hereunder and the Warrant has been exercised in full, in which case, the Holder shall surrender this Warrant to the Company for cancellation within three (3) Trading Days of the date on which the final Notice of Exercise is delivered to the Company. Partial exercises of this Warrant resulting in purchases of a portion of the total number of

 

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Warrant Shares available hereunder shall have the effect of lowering the outstanding number of Warrant Shares purchasable hereunder in an amount equal to the applicable number of Warrant Shares purchased. The Holder and the Company shall maintain records showing the number of Warrant Shares purchased and the date of such purchases. The Company shall deliver any objection to any Notice of Exercise within one (1) Business Day of receipt of such notice. The Holder and any assignee, by acceptance of this Warrant, acknowledge and agree that, by reason of the provisions of this paragraph, following the purchase of a portion of the Warrant Shares hereunder, the number of Warrant Shares available for purchase hereunder at any given time may be less than the amount stated on the face hereof.

Notwithstanding the foregoing in this Section 2(a), a holder whose interest in this Warrant is a beneficial interest in certificate(s) representing this Warrant held in book-entry form through DTC (or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions), shall effect exercises made pursuant to this Section 2(a) by delivering to DTC (or such other clearing corporation, as applicable) the appropriate instruction form for exercise, complying with the procedures to effect exercise that are required by DTC (or such other clearing corporation, as applicable), subject to a Holder’s right to elect to receive a Warrant in certificated form pursuant to the terms of the Warrant Agency Agreement, in which case this sentence shall not apply, provided, however, a beneficial holder shall have all of the rights and remedies of a “Holder” hereunder.

b)     Exercise Price . The exercise price per share of the Common Stock under this Warrant shall be $         , subject to adjustment hereunder (the “ Exercise Price ”).

c)     Cashless Exercise . If at any time after the date hereof, there is no effective registration statement registering, or no current prospectus available for, the resale of the Warrant Shares by the Holder, then this Warrant may only be exercised, in whole or in part, at such time by means of a “cashless exercise” in which the Holder shall be entitled to receive a number of Warrant Shares equal to the quotient obtained by dividing [(A-B) (X)] by (A), where:

 

  (A) =

as applicable: (i) the VWAP on the Trading Day immediately preceding the date of the applicable Notice of Exercise if such Notice of Exercise is (1) both executed and delivered pursuant to Section 2(a) hereof on a day that is not a Trading Day or (2) both executed and delivered pursuant to Section 2(a) hereof on a Trading Day prior to the opening of “regular trading hours” (as defined in Rule 600(b)(64) of Regulation NMS promulgated under the federal securities laws) on such Trading Day, (ii) at the option of the Holder, either (y) the VWAP on the Trading Day immediately preceding the date of the applicable Notice of Exercise or (z) the Bid Price of the Common Stock on the principal Trading Market as reported by Bloomberg L.P. as of the time of the Holder’s execution of the applicable Notice of Exercise if such Notice of Exercise is executed during “regular trading hours” on a Trading Day and is delivered within two (2) hours thereafter (including until two (2) hours after the close of “regular trading hours” on a Trading Day) pursuant to Section 2(a) hereof or (iii) the VWAP on the date of the applicable Notice

 

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  of Exercise if the date of such Notice of Exercise is a Trading Day and such Notice of Exercise is both executed and delivered pursuant to Section 2(a) hereof after the close of “regular trading hours” on such Trading Day;

 

  (B) = the Exercise Price of this Warrant, as adjusted hereunder; and

 

  (X) = the number of Warrant Shares that would be issuable upon exercise of this Warrant in accordance with the terms of this Warrant if such exercise were by means of a cash exercise rather than a cashless exercise.

If Warrant Shares are issued in such a cashless exercise, the parties acknowledge and agree that in accordance with Section 3(a)(9) of the Securities Act, the Warrant Shares shall take on the registered characteristics of the Warrants being exercised. The Company agrees not to take any position contrary to this Section 2(c).

Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, on the Termination Date, this Warrant shall be automatically exercised via cashless exercise pursuant to this Section 2(c).

d)     Mechanics of Exercise .

i.     Delivery of Warrant Shares Upon Exercise . The Company shall cause the Warrant Shares purchased hereunder to be transmitted by the Transfer Agent to the Holder by crediting the account of the Holder’s or its designee’s balance account with The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit or Withdrawal at Custodian system (“ DWAC ”) if the Company is then a participant in such system and either (A) there is an effective registration statement permitting the issuance of the Warrant Shares to or resale of the Warrant Shares by Holder or (B) this Warrant is being exercised via cashless exercise, and otherwise by physical delivery of a certificate, registered in the Company’s share register in the name of the Holder or its designee, for the number of Warrant Shares to which the Holder is entitled pursuant to such exercise to the address specified by the Holder in the Notice of Exercise by the date that is the earliest of (i) two (2) Trading Days after the delivery to the Company of the Notice of Exercise, (ii) one (1) Trading Day after delivery of the aggregate Exercise Price to the Company and (iii) the number of Trading Days comprising the Standard Settlement Period after the delivery to the Company of the Notice of Exercise (such date, the “ Warrant Share Delivery Date ”). Upon delivery of the Notice of Exercise, the Holder shall be deemed for all corporate purposes to have become the holder of record of the Warrant Shares with respect to which this Warrant has been exercised, irrespective of the date of delivery of the Warrant Shares, provided that payment of the aggregate Exercise Price (other than in the case of a cashless exercise) is received within the earlier of (i) two (2) Trading

 

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Days and (ii) the number of Trading Days comprising the Standard Settlement Period following delivery of the Notice of Exercise. If the Company fails for any reason to deliver to the Holder the Warrant Shares subject to a Notice of Exercise by the Warrant Share Delivery Date, the Company shall pay to the Holder, in cash, as liquidated damages and not as a penalty, for each $1,000 of Warrant Shares subject to such exercise (based on the VWAP of the Common Stock on the date of the applicable Notice of Exercise), $10 per Trading Day (increasing to $20 per Trading Day on the fifth Trading Day after such liquidated damages begin to accrue) for each Trading Day after such Warrant Share Delivery Date until such Warrant Shares are delivered or Holder rescinds such exercise. The Company agrees to maintain a transfer agent that is a participant in the FAST program so long as this Warrant remains outstanding and exercisable. As used herein, “ Standard Settlement Period ” means the standard settlement period, expressed in a number of Trading Days, on the Company’s primary Trading Market with respect to the Common Stock as in effect on the date of delivery of the Notice of Exercise.

ii.     Delivery of New Warrants Upon Exercise . If this Warrant shall have been exercised in part, the Company shall, at the request of a Holder and upon surrender of this Warrant certificate, at the time of delivery of the Warrant Shares, deliver to the Holder a new Warrant evidencing the rights of the Holder to purchase the unpurchased Warrant Shares called for by this Warrant, which new Warrant shall in all other respects be identical with this Warrant.

iii.     Rescission Rights . If the Company fails to cause the Transfer Agent to transmit to the Holder the Warrant Shares pursuant to Section 2(d)(i) by the Warrant Share Delivery Date, then the Holder will have the right to rescind such exercise.

iv.     Compensation for Buy-In on Failure to Timely Deliver Warrant Shares Upon Exercise . In addition to any other rights available to the Holder, if the Company fails to cause the Transfer Agent to transmit to the Holder the Warrant Shares in accordance with the provisions of Section 2(d)(i) above pursuant to an exercise on or before the Warrant Share Delivery Date, and if after such date the Holder is required by its broker to purchase (in an open market transaction or otherwise) or the Holder’s brokerage firm otherwise purchases, shares of Common Stock to deliver in satisfaction of a sale by the Holder of the Warrant Shares which the Holder anticipated receiving upon such exercise (a “ Buy-In ”), then the Company shall (A) pay in cash to the Holder the amount, if any, by which (x) the Holder’s total purchase price (including brokerage commissions, if any) for the shares of Common Stock so purchased exceeds (y) the amount obtained by multiplying (1) the number of Warrant Shares that the Company was required to deliver

 

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to the Holder in connection with the exercise at issue times (2) the price at which the sell order giving rise to such purchase obligation was executed, and (B) at the option of the Holder, either reinstate the portion of the Warrant and equivalent number of Warrant Shares for which such exercise was not honored (in which case such exercise shall be deemed rescinded) or deliver to the Holder the number of shares of Common Stock that would have been issued had the Company timely complied with its exercise and delivery obligations hereunder. For example, if the Holder purchases Common Stock having a total purchase price of $11,000 to cover a Buy-In with respect to an attempted exercise of shares of Common Stock with an aggregate sale price giving rise to such purchase obligation of $10,000, under clause (A) of the immediately preceding sentence the Company shall be required to pay the Holder $1,000. The Holder shall provide the Company written notice indicating the amounts payable to the Holder in respect of the Buy-In and, upon request of the Company, evidence of the amount of such loss. Nothing herein shall limit a Holder’s right to pursue any other remedies available to it hereunder, at law or in equity including, without limitation, a decree of specific performance and/or injunctive relief with respect to the Company’s failure to timely deliver shares of Common Stock upon exercise of the Warrant as required pursuant to the terms hereof.

v.     No Fractional Shares or Scrip . No fractional shares or scrip representing fractional shares shall be issued upon the exercise of this Warrant. As to any fraction of a share which the Holder would otherwise be entitled to purchase upon such exercise, the Company shall, at its election, either pay a cash adjustment in respect of such final fraction in an amount equal to such fraction multiplied by the Exercise Price or round up to the next whole share.

vi.     Charges, Taxes and Expenses . Issuance of Warrant Shares shall be made without charge to the Holder for any issue or transfer tax or other incidental expense in respect of the issuance of such Warrant Shares, all of which taxes and expenses shall be paid by the Company, and such Warrant Shares shall be issued in the name of the Holder or in such name or names as may be directed by the Holder; provided , however , that in the event that Warrant Shares are to be issued in a name other than the name of the Holder, this Warrant when surrendered for exercise shall be accompanied by the Assignment Form attached hereto duly executed by the Holder and the Company may require, as a condition thereto, the payment of a sum sufficient to reimburse it for any transfer tax incidental thereto. The Company shall pay all Transfer Agent fees required for same-day processing of any Notice of Exercise and all fees to the Depository Trust Company (or another established clearing corporation performing similar functions) required for same-day electronic delivery of the Warrant Shares.

 

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vii.     Closing of Books . The Company will not close its stockholder books or records in any manner which prevents the timely exercise of this Warrant, pursuant to the terms hereof.

e)     Holder’s Exercise Limitations . The Company shall not effect any exercise of this Warrant, and a Holder shall not have the right to exercise any portion of this Warrant, pursuant to Section 2 or otherwise, to the extent that after giving effect to such issuance after exercise as set forth on the applicable Notice of Exercise, the Holder (together with the Holder’s Affiliates, and any other Persons acting as a group together with the Holder or any of the Holder’s Affiliates (such Persons, “ Attribution Parties ”)), would beneficially own in excess of the Beneficial Ownership Limitation (as defined below). For purposes of the foregoing sentence, the number of shares of Common Stock beneficially owned by the Holder and its Affiliates and Attribution Parties shall include the number of shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of this Warrant with respect to which such determination is being made, but shall exclude the number of shares of Common Stock which would be issuable upon (i) exercise of the remaining, nonexercised portion of this Warrant beneficially owned by the Holder or any of its Affiliates or Attribution Parties and (ii) exercise or conversion of the unexercised or nonconverted portion of any other securities of the Company (including, without limitation, any other Common Stock Equivalents) subject to a limitation on conversion or exercise analogous to the limitation contained herein beneficially owned by the Holder or any of its Affiliates or Attribution Parties. Except as set forth in the preceding sentence, for purposes of this Section 2(e), beneficial ownership shall be calculated in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, it being acknowledged by the Holder that the Company is not representing to the Holder that such calculation is in compliance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the Holder is solely responsible for any schedules required to be filed in accordance therewith.    To the extent that the limitation contained in this Section 2(e) applies, the determination of whether this Warrant is exercisable (in relation to other securities owned by the Holder together with any Affiliates and Attribution Parties) and of which portion of this Warrant is exercisable shall be in the sole discretion of the Holder, and the submission of a Notice of Exercise shall be deemed to be the Holder’s determination of whether this Warrant is exercisable (in relation to other securities owned by the Holder together with any Affiliates and Attribution Parties) and of which portion of this Warrant is exercisable, in each case subject to the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, and the Company shall have no obligation to verify or confirm the accuracy of such determination.    In addition, a determination as to any group status as contemplated above shall be determined in accordance with Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. For purposes of this Section 2(e), in determining the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock, a Holder may rely on the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock as reflected in (A) the Company’s most recent periodic or annual report filed with the Commission, as the case may be, (B) a more recent public announcement by the Company or (C) a more recent written notice by the Company or the Transfer Agent setting forth the

 

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number of shares of Common Stock outstanding. Upon the written or oral request of a Holder, the Company shall within one Trading Day confirm orally and in writing to the Holder the number of shares of Common Stock then outstanding. In any case, the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock shall be determined after giving effect to the conversion or exercise of securities of the Company, including this Warrant, by the Holder or its Affiliates or Attribution Parties since the date as of which such number of outstanding shares of Common Stock was reported. The “ Beneficial Ownership Limitation ” shall be 4.99% (or, at the election of a Holder prior to the Initial Exercise Date, 9.99%) of the number of shares of the Common Stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the issuance of shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of this Warrant. The Holder, upon notice to the Company, may increase or decrease the Beneficial Ownership Limitation provisions of this Section 2(e), provided that the Beneficial Ownership Limitation in no event exceeds 9.99% of the number of shares of the Common Stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon exercise of this Warrant held by the Holder and the provisions of this Section 2(e) shall continue to apply. Any increase in the Beneficial Ownership Limitation will not be effective until the 61 st day after such notice is delivered to the Company. The provisions of this paragraph shall be construed and implemented in a manner otherwise than in strict conformity with the terms of this Section 2(e) to correct this paragraph (or any portion hereof) which may be defective or inconsistent with the intended Beneficial Ownership Limitation herein contained or to make changes or supplements necessary or desirable to properly give effect to such limitation. The limitations contained in this paragraph shall apply to a successor holder of this Warrant.

f)     Call Provision.  Subject to the provisions of Section 2(e) and this Section 2(f), if, after the two year anniversary of the Initial Exercise Date (i) the VWAP for each of 30 consecutive Trading Days (the “ Measurement Period ,” exceeds $[        ] 1  (subject to adjustment for forward and reverse stock splits, recapitalizations, stock dividends and the like after the Initial Exercise Date), (ii) the daily dollar volume for such Measurement Period exceeds $330,000 per Trading Day, (iii) the Holder is not in possession of any information that constitutes, or might constitute, material non-public information which was provided by the Company, any of its Subsidiaries, or any of their officers, directors, employees, agents or Affiliates and (iv) there is an effective registration statement and current prospectus thereunder to permit the issuance of all of the Warrant Shares to the Holder, then the Company may, within one Trading Day of the end of such Measurement Period, call for cancellation of all or any portion of this Warrant for which a Notice of Exercise has not yet been delivered (such right, a “ Call ”) for consideration equal to $0.001 per Warrant Share. To exercise this right, the Company must deliver to the Holder an irrevocable written notice (a “ Call Notice ”), indicating therein the portion of unexercised portion of this Warrant to which such notice applies. If the conditions set forth below for such Call are satisfied from the period from the date of the Call Notice through and

 

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300% of Exercise Price.

 

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including the Call Date (as defined below), then any portion of this Warrant subject to such Call Notice for which a Notice of Exercise shall not have been received by the Call Date will be cancelled at 6:30 p.m. (New York City time) on the tenth Trading Day after the date the Call Notice is received by the Holder (such date and time, the “ Call Date ”). Any unexercised portion of this Warrant to which the Call Notice does not pertain will be unaffected by such Call Notice. In furtherance thereof, the Company covenants and agrees that it will honor all Notices of Exercise with respect to Warrant Shares subject to a Call Notice that are tendered through 6:30 p.m. (New York City time) on the Call Date. The parties agree that any Notice of Exercise delivered following a Call Notice which calls less than all of the Warrants shall first reduce to zero the number of Warrant Shares subject to such Call Notice prior to reducing the remaining Warrant Shares available for purchase under this Warrant. For example, if (A) this Warrant then permits the Holder to acquire 100 Warrant Shares, (B) a Call Notice pertains to 75 Warrant Shares, and (C) prior to 6:30 p.m. (New York City time) on the Call Date the Holder tenders a Notice of Exercise in respect of 50 Warrant Shares, then (x) on the Call Date the right under this Warrant to acquire 25 Warrant Shares will be automatically cancelled, (y) the Company, in the time and manner required under this Warrant, will have issued and delivered to the Holder 50 Warrant Shares in respect of the exercises following receipt of the Call Notice, and (z) the Holder may, until the Termination Date, exercise this Warrant for 25 Warrant Shares (subject to adjustment as herein provided and subject to subsequent Call Notices). Subject again to the provisions of this Section 2(f), the Company may deliver subsequent Call Notices for any portion of this Warrant for which the Holder shall not have delivered a Notice of Exercise. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary set forth in this Warrant, the Company may not deliver a Call Notice or require the cancellation of this Warrant (and any such Call Notice shall be void), unless, from the beginning of the Measurement Period through the Call Date, (1) the Company shall have honored in accordance with the terms of this Warrant all Notices of Exercise delivered by 6:30 p.m. (New York City time) on the Call Date, and (2) the Registration Statement shall be effective as to all Warrant Shares and the prospectus thereunder available for use by the Holder for the issuance of all such Warrant Shares, (3) the Common Stock shall be listed or quoted for trading on the Trading Market, (4) there shall be a sufficient number of authorized shares of Common Stock for issuance of all Warrant Shares and all shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the Company’s preferred stock issued pursuant to the Registration Statement, and (5) the issuance of the shares shall not cause a breach of any provision of Section 2(e) herein. The Company’s right to call the Warrants under this Section 2(f) shall be exercised ratably among the Holders based on each Ho