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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 1, 2019

Registration Statement No. 333-          

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

ANNALY CAPITAL MANAGEMENT, INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 

 

 

Maryland   22-3479661

(State or Other Jurisdiction of

Incorporation or Organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

1211 Avenue of the Americas

New York, New York 10036

(212) 696-0100

(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)

 

 

Kevin G. Keyes

Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President

Annaly Capital Management, Inc.

1211 Avenue of the Americas

New York, New York 10036

(212) 696-0100

(Name, Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, including Area Code, of Agent for Service)

 

 

Copies to:

 

Anthony C. Green, Esq.

Annaly Capital Management, Inc.

1211 Avenue of the Americas

New York, New York 10036

(212) 696-0100

 

Robert K. Smith, Esq.

James V. Davidson, Esq.

Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP

2200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW

Washington, DC 20037

(202) 955-1611

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time or at one time after the effective date of the Registration Statement as the Registrant shall determine.

If the only securities being registered on this form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act.  ☐

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of Securities

to be Registered

 

Amounts to be

Registered/Proposed

Maximum Offering Price
Per Unit/Proposed

Maximum Aggregate

Offering Price

  Amount of
Registration Fee

Common Stock, Preferred Stock,

  (1)(2)   (3)

Warrants, Stockholder Rights,

       

Debt Securities, Purchase

       

Contracts, Units

       

 

 

(1)

Omitted pursuant to Form S-3 General Instruction II.E.

(2)

An unspecified number or amount of the securities of each identified class of securities is being registered as may be issued from time to time at indeterminate prices. There is also being registered hereunder an indeterminate number of securities as may be issuable upon exercise, conversion or exchange for, as the case may be, any other securities registered hereby. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable upon exercise, conversion, or exchange of convertible or exchangeable securities or that are issued in units.

(3)

In reliance on and in accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r), the registrant is deferring payment of the registration fee.

 

 

 


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PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

Annaly Capital Management, Inc.

Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Warrants, Stockholder Rights, Debt Securities, Purchase Contracts and Units

By this prospectus, we may offer, from time to time,

 

   

shares of our common stock or preferred stock;

 

   

warrants to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock;

 

   

rights issuable to our stockholders to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock, to purchase warrants exercisable for shares of our common stock or preferred stock, or to purchase units consisting of two or more of the foregoing;

 

   

debt securities, which may consist of debentures, notes, or other types of debt;

 

   

purchase contracts obligating holders to purchase from or sell to us, or us to sell to or purchase from holders, at a future date, certain securities described in this prospectus; and

 

   

units consisting of two or more of the foregoing.

We will provide specific terms of each issuance of these securities in supplements to this prospectus. In addition, selling security holders may sell these securities, from time to time, on terms described in the applicable prospectus supplement. You should read this prospectus and any supplement carefully before you decide to invest.

The New York Stock Exchange lists our common stock under the symbol “NLY”, our 7.625% Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock under the symbol “NLY PrC”, our 7.50% Series D Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock under the symbol “NLY PrD”, our 6.95% Series F Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock under the symbol “NLY PrF”, our 6.50% Series G Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock under the symbol “NLY PrG” and our 8.125% Series H Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock under the symbol “NLY PrH”.

To assist us in qualifying as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) for federal income tax purposes, no person may own more than 9.8%, in number of shares or value, of the outstanding shares of any class of our common stock or our preferred stock, unless our Board of Directors (the “Board”) waives this limitation.

Investing in these securities involves risks. You should carefully consider the information referred to under the heading “ Risk Factors ” beginning on page 5 of this prospectus.

We, or the selling security holders, may sell these securities to or through underwriters, dealers or agents, or directly to investors.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is February 1, 2019.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

A WARNING ABOUT FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     2  

ABOUT ANNALY CAPITAL MANAGEMENT, INC.

     3  

RISK FACTORS

     5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     5  

DESCRIPTION OF EQUITY SECURITIES

     6  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     9  

DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS TO PURCHASE OUR SECURITIES

     10  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     11  

DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS

     26  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     27  

RESTRICTIONS ON OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER

     28  

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

     30  

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     35  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     62  

EXPERTS

     64  

LEGAL MATTERS

     64  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION ABOUT US

     64  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

     65  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC” or “Commission”) using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer to sell securities, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. It is important for you to consider the information contained in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information About Us.”

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference into or set forth in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement. We have not authorized any other person to provide you with additional or different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are not making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. The information in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement or any other offering material is accurate only as of the date such information is presented. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since such dates.

 

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A WARNING ABOUT FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Certain statements contained in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement and any other offering material, and the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, any prospectus supplement and/or any other offering material, and certain statements contained in our future filings with the SEC, in our press releases or in our other public or stockholder communications may not be based on historical facts and are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (“Exchange Act”). Forward-looking statements, which are based on various assumptions (some of which are beyond our control), may be identified by reference to a future period or periods or by the use of forward-looking terminology, such as “may,” “will,” “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “continue,” “should,” “intend,” “estimate,” “plan,” or similar terms, variations on those terms or the negative of those terms. Actual results could differ materially from those set forth in forward-looking statements due to a variety of factors, including, but not limited to:

 

   

changes in interest rates;

 

   

changes in the yield curve;

 

   

changes in prepayment rates;

 

   

the availability of mortgage-backed securities and other securities for purchase;

 

   

the availability of financing and, if available, the terms of any financings;

 

   

changes in the market value of our assets;

 

   

changes in business conditions and the general economy;

 

   

our ability to grow our commercial real estate business;

 

   

our ability to grow our residential credit business;

 

   

our ability to grow our middle market lending business;

 

   

credit risks related to our investments in credit risk transfer (“CRT”) securities, residential mortgage-backed securities (“RMBSs”) and related residential mortgage credit assets, commercial real estate assets and corporate debt;

 

   

risks related to investments in mortgage servicing rights (“MSRs”);

 

   

our ability to consummate any contemplated investment opportunities;

 

   

changes in government regulations or policy affecting our business;

 

   

our ability to maintain our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and

 

   

our ability to maintain our exemption from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (“Investment Company Act”).

No forward-looking statement can be guaranteed, actual future results may vary materially, and we caution you not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. For a discussion of the risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ from those contained in the forward-looking statements, please see the information under the caption “Risk Factors” described in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and any other report incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We do not undertake, and specifically disclaim any obligation, to publicly release the result of any revisions that may be made to any forward-looking statements to reflect the occurrence of anticipated or unanticipated events or circumstances after the date of such statements, except as may be required by law.

 

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ABOUT ANNALY CAPITAL MANAGEMENT, INC.

We are a leading diversified capital manager that invests in and finances residential and commercial assets. Our principal business objective is to generate net income for distribution to our stockholders and to preserve capital through prudent selection of investments and continuous management of our portfolio. We are a Maryland corporation that has elected to be taxed as a REIT. We are externally managed by Annaly Management Company LLC (“Manager”).

We use our capital coupled with borrowed funds to invest primarily in real estate related investments, earning the spread between the yield on our assets and the cost of our borrowings and hedging activities. Our investment groups are comprised of the following:

 

Investment Groups

  

Description

Annaly Agency Group    Invests in Agency mortgage-backed securities (“MBS”) collateralized by residential mortgages which are guaranteed by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or Ginnie Mae.
Annaly Residential Credit Group    Invests in non-Agency residential mortgage assets within the securitized product and residential mortgage loan markets.
Annaly Commercial Real Estate Group    Originates and invests in commercial mortgage loans, securities, and other commercial real estate debt and equity investments.
Annaly Middle Market Lending Group    Provides financing to private equity-backed middle market businesses across the capital structure.

Our activities focus on capital preservation and income generation through proactive portfolio management, supported by a conservative liquidity and leverage posture. We have made significant investments in our business as part of the diversification of our investment strategy. Our operating platform has expanded in support of our diversification strategy, and has included investments in systems, infrastructure and personnel. Our operating platform supports our investments in MBS issued or guaranteed by a federally chartered corporation, or Agency, such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”), or an agency of the U.S. Government, such as the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”), (collectively, “Agency MBS”), and residential credit assets, commercial real estate, residential mortgage loans, mortgage servicing rights and corporate debt. We believe the diversity of our investment alternatives provides us the flexibility to adapt to changes in market conditions and to take advantage of potential resulting opportunities.

To ensure we qualify as a REIT, no person may own more than 9.8%, in number of shares or value, of the outstanding shares of any class of our common stock or our preferred stock, unless our Board waives this limitation.

Stock Listing

The New York Stock Exchange lists our common stock under the symbol “NLY”, our 7.625% Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock under the symbol “NLY PrC”, our 7.50% Series D Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock under the symbol “NLY PrD”, our 6.95% Series F Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock under the symbol “NLY PrF”, our 6.50% Series G Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock under the symbol “NLY PrG” and our 8.125% Series H Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock under the symbol “NLY PrH”.

 

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Principal Executive Offices and Telephone Number

Our principal executive offices are located at 1211 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10036. Our telephone number is (212) 696-0100. Our website is http://www.annaly.com . The contents of our website are not a part of, and are not incorporated by reference into, this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves risks. You should carefully consider the risks described under “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, as well as any other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus or in any prospectus supplement hereto before making a decision to invest in our securities. See “Where You Can Find More Information About Us,” below.

USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by this prospectus to acquire targeted assets under our capital allocation policy, which may include further diversification of our investments in Agency assets as well as residential, commercial and corporate credit assets. These investments include, without limitation, residential credit assets (including residential mortgage loans), middle market corporate debt, Agency MBS pools, to-be-announced forward contracts, adjustable rate mortgages, MSRs and commercial real estate loans, equity and securities. We also intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by this prospectus for general corporate purposes, including, without limitation, to pay down obligations and other working capital items.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF EQUITY SECURITIES

General

Our charter provides that the total number of shares of stock of all classes which we have the authority to issue is two billion (2,000,000,000) shares of capital stock, par value $0.01 per share. These shares of capital stock consist of 1,924,050,000 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share, 7,000,000 shares of 7.625% Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share (“Series C Preferred Stock”), 18,400,000 shares of 7.50% Series D Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share (“Series D Preferred Stock”), 28,800,000 shares of 6.95% Series F Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share (“Series F Preferred Stock”), 19,550,000 shares of 6.50% Series G Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share (“Series G Preferred Stock”), and 2,200,000 shares of 8.125% Series H Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share (“Series H Preferred Stock”).

Our Board may classify and reclassify any unissued shares of capital stock by setting or changing in any one or more respects the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends, qualifications or terms or conditions of redemption of such shares of stock. As of January 30, 2019, we had 1,400,031,214 shares of common stock outstanding. In addition, as of January 30, 2019, we had 7,000,000 shares of Series C Preferred Stock outstanding, 18,400,000 shares of Series D Preferred Stock outstanding, 28,800,000 shares of Series F Preferred Stock outstanding, 17,000,000 shares of Series G Preferred Stock outstanding and 2,200,000 shares of Series H Preferred Stock outstanding.

All shares of common stock offered hereby will be duly authorized, fully paid and nonassessable. The statements below describing the common stock are in all respects subject to and qualified in their entirety by reference to our charter, including any articles supplementary classifying and designating shares of preferred stock, and our bylaws.

Voting

Subject to our charter restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock and the terms of any other class or series of our stock, each outstanding share of our common stock entitles the holder thereof to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors. Cumulative voting in the election of directors is not permitted. Each nominee for director shall be elected by a majority of the votes cast. A majority of the votes cast means the affirmative vote of a majority of the total votes cast “for” and “against” such nominee. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a nominee for director shall be elected by a plurality of the votes cast if the number of nominees exceeds the number of directors to be elected. If an incumbent director fails to receive the required vote for re-election, under our current bylaws our Board is required to publicly disclose whether it has requested and accepted the resignation of such director and, if applicable, its decision regarding any tendered resignation and its rationale.

Our bylaws provide that annual meetings of our stockholders will be held each calendar year on the date and at the time and place set by our Board, and special meetings may be called by our Board, the Chairman of our Board, our Chief Executive Officer or our President. Additionally, our Secretary is required to call a meeting of stockholders upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of the votes that all stockholders are entitled to cast at the meeting. Our charter may be amended in accordance with its terms and Maryland law.

Dividends; Liquidation; Other Rights

Common stockholders are entitled to receive dividends if and when authorized by our Board and declared by us out of legally available funds. The right of common stockholders to receive dividends is subordinate to the

 

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rights of preferred stockholders or other senior stockholders. If we liquidate, dissolve or wind-up, our common stockholders will share ratably in all of our assets remaining after the payment of all of our liabilities and the payment of all liquidation and other preference amounts to preferred stockholders and other senior stockholders. Common stockholders have no preemptive or other subscription rights, and there are no conversion rights, or redemption or sinking fund provisions, relating to the shares of common stock.

Classification or Reclassification of Common Stock or Preferred Stock

Our charter authorizes our Board to reclassify any unissued shares of stock into other classes or series of shares, to establish the number of shares in each class or series and to set the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations, and restrictions on ownership, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications, and terms or conditions of redemption for each class or series.

Preferred Stock

The following description sets forth general terms and provisions of the preferred stock to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The statements below describing the preferred stock are in all respects subject to and qualified in their entirety by reference to our charter, our bylaws and any articles supplementary filed with the State Department of Assessments and Taxation of Maryland designating terms of a class or series of preferred stock. The preferred stock, when issued, will be validly issued, fully paid, and non-assessable. Because our Board has the power to establish the preferences, powers and rights of each class or series of preferred stock, our Board may afford the holders of any class or series of preferred stock preferences, powers and rights, voting or otherwise, senior to the rights of common stockholders.

The rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations, and restrictions on ownership, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications, and terms or conditions of redemption of each class or series of preferred stock will be fixed by the articles supplementary relating to the class or series. A prospectus supplement, relating to each class or series, will specify the terms of the preferred stock including, without limitation, the following:

 

   

the title and stated value of the preferred stock;

 

   

the voting rights of the preferred stock, if applicable;

 

   

the preemptive rights of the preferred stock, if applicable;

 

   

the restrictions on alienability of the preferred stock, if applicable;

 

   

the number of shares offered, the liquidation preference per share and the offering price of the shares;

 

   

liability to further calls or assessment of the preferred stock, if applicable;

 

   

the dividend rate(s), period(s) and payment date(s) or method(s) of calculation applicable to the preferred stock (including fixed and floating rates, as applicable);

 

   

the date from which dividends on the preferred stock will accumulate, if applicable;

 

   

the procedures for any auction and remarketing for the preferred stock;

 

   

the provision for a sinking fund, if any, for the preferred stock;

 

   

the provision for and any restriction on redemption, if applicable, of the preferred stock;

 

   

the provision for and any restriction on repurchase, if applicable, of the preferred stock;

 

   

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange;

 

   

the terms and provisions, if any, upon which the preferred stock will be convertible into common stock or any other security, including the conversion price (or manner of calculation) and conversion period;

 

   

the terms under which the rights of the preferred stock may be modified, if applicable;

 

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any other specific terms, preferences, rights, limitations or restrictions of the preferred stock;

 

   

a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

 

   

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our affairs;

 

   

any limitation on issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the class or series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our affairs; and

 

   

any limitations on direct or beneficial ownership and restrictions on transfer of the preferred stock, in each case as may be appropriate to preserve our qualification as a REIT.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

Computershare Inc., 480 Washington Blvd., 27th Floor, Jersey City, New Jersey 07310-1900, is the transfer agent and registrar for our stock. Its website is www.computershare.com and its telephone number is (800) 301-5234.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

This section describes the general terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer by this prospectus. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of the warrants then offered, and the terms and provisions described in this section will apply only to the extent not superseded by the terms of the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock or preferred stock, respectively referred to as common stock warrants and preferred stock warrants. Warrants may be issued independently or together with any other securities offered by this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement and may be attached to or separate from such other securities. Each issuance of the warrants will be issued under a separate securities warrant agreement to be entered into by us and a bank or trust company, as securities warrant agent, all as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular issue of offered warrants. Each issue of warrants will be evidenced by securities warrant certificates. The securities warrant agent will act solely as an agent of ours in connection with the securities warrant certificates and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holder of securities warrant certificates or beneficial owners of warrants.

If we offer warrants pursuant to this prospectus in the future, the applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of such warrants including, but not limited to, the following, where applicable:

 

   

the offering price;

 

   

the aggregate number of shares purchasable upon exercise of such warrants, and in the case of warrants for preferred stock, the designation, aggregate number, and terms of the class or series of preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of such warrants;

 

   

the designation and terms of the securities with which such warrants are being offered, if any, and the number of such warrants being offered with each such security;

 

   

the date on and after which such warrants and any related securities will be transferable separately;

 

   

the number of shares of preferred stock or shares of common stock purchasable upon exercise of each of such warrants and the price at which such number of shares of preferred stock or common stock may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise such warrants shall commence and the expiration date on which such right shall expire;

 

   

U.S. federal income tax considerations; and

 

   

any other material terms of such warrants.

Holders of future warrants, if any, will not be entitled by virtue of being such holders, to vote, to consent, to receive dividends, to receive notice with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter, or to exercise any rights whatsoever as our stockholders.

If warrants for the purchase of preferred stock are offered, the applicable prospectus supplement will also describe the terms of the preferred stock into which the warrants are exercisable as described under “Description of Equity Securities—Preferred Stock.”

 

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DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS TO PURCHASE OUR SECURITIES

This section describes the general terms and provisions of the rights to purchase certain of our securities that we may issue to holders of our securities by this prospectus. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of the rights then issued, and the terms and provisions described in this section will apply only to the extent not superseded by the terms of the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may issue, as a dividend at no cost, to holders of record of our securities or any class or series thereof on the applicable record date, rights to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock, to purchase warrants exercisable for shares of our common stock or preferred stock, or to purchase units consisting of two or more of the foregoing. In this prospectus, we refer to such rights as “stockholder rights.” If stockholder rights are so issued to existing holders of securities, each stockholder right will entitle the registered holder thereof to purchase the securities issuable upon exercise of the rights pursuant to the terms set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

If stockholder rights are issued, the applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of such stockholder rights including, but not limited to, the following, where applicable:

 

   

record date;

 

   

subscription price;

 

   

subscription agent;

 

   

aggregate number of shares of preferred stock, shares of common stock, warrants, or units purchasable upon exercise of such stockholder rights and in the case of stockholder rights for preferred stock or warrants exercisable for preferred stock, the designation, aggregate number, and terms of the class or series of preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of such stockholder rights or warrants;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise such stockholder rights shall commence and the expiration date on which such right shall expire;

 

   

U.S. federal income tax considerations; and

 

   

other material terms of such stockholder rights.

In addition to the terms of the stockholder rights and the securities issuable upon exercise thereof, the prospectus supplement may describe, for a holder of such stockholder rights who validly exercises all stockholder rights issued to such holder, how to subscribe for unsubscribed securities, issuable pursuant to unexercised stockholder rights issued to other holders, to the extent such stockholder rights have not been exercised.

Holders of stockholder rights will not be entitled by virtue of being such holders, to vote, to consent, to receive dividends, to receive notice with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter, or to exercise any rights whatsoever as our stockholders, except to the extent described in the related prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

The following description of debt securities describes general terms and provisions of a series of debt securities to which any prospectus supplement may relate. When we offer to sell a series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in the applicable prospectus supplement. If any particular terms of the debt securities of that series or the indenture described in a prospectus supplement differ from any of the terms described in this prospectus, then the terms described in the applicable prospectus supplement will supersede the terms described in this prospectus.

We may issue our debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. The debt securities will be our unsubordinated and, unless otherwise expressly stated in the applicable prospectus supplement, unsecured obligations and may be issued in one or more series. If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may issue debt securities that are secured by specified collateral.

The debt securities will be issued under one or more indentures, each to be entered into by us and a trustee. The trustee shall be Wells Fargo Bank, National Association or such other trustee as may be named in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless otherwise expressly stated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may issue both secured and unsecured debt securities under the same indenture. Unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires, references in this section to the “indenture” and the “trustee” refer to the applicable indenture pursuant to which any particular series of debt securities is issued and to the trustee under that indenture. The terms of any series of debt securities will be those specified in or pursuant to the applicable indenture and in the certificates evidencing that series of debt securities and those made part of the indenture by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the “Trust Indenture Act of 1939.”

The following summary of selected provisions of the indenture is not complete, and the summary of selected terms of a particular series of debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement also will not be complete. You should review the form of applicable indenture, the form of any applicable supplemental indenture and the form of certificate evidencing the applicable debt securities, which forms have been or will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or as exhibits to documents which have been or will be incorporated by reference into this prospectus. To obtain a copy of the form of indenture, the form of any such supplemental indenture or the form of certificate for any debt securities, see “Where You Can Find More Information About Us” in this prospectus. The following summary and the summary in the applicable prospectus supplement are qualified in their entirety by reference to all of the provisions of the applicable indenture, any supplemental indenture and the certificates evidencing the applicable debt securities, which provisions, including defined terms, are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Capitalized terms used in this section and not defined have the meanings assigned to those terms in the indenture. Unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires, references in this section to “Annaly,” “we,” “our company,” “us” and “our” and other similar references mean Annaly Capital Management, Inc., excluding its subsidiaries.

General

The debt securities may be issued from time to time in one or more series. We can issue an unlimited amount of debt securities under the indenture. The indenture provides that debt securities of any series may be issued up to the aggregate principal amount that may be authorized from time to time by us. Please read the applicable prospectus supplement relating to the series of debt securities being offered for specific terms including, but not limited to, the following, where applicable:

 

   

the title of the series of debt securities;

 

   

any limit on the aggregate principal amount of debt securities of the series;

 

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the price or prices at which debt securities of the series will be issued;

 

   

the person to whom any interest on a debt security of the series shall be payable, if other than the person in whose name that debt security is registered on the applicable record date;

 

   

the date or dates on which we will pay the principal of and premium, if any, on debt securities of the series, or the method or methods, if any, used to determine those dates;

 

   

the rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, at which debt securities of the series will bear interest, if any, or the method or methods, if any, used to determine those rates;

 

   

the basis used to calculate interest, if any, on the debt securities of the series if other than a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months;

 

   

the date or dates, if any, from which interest on the debt securities of the series will begin to accrue, or the method or methods, if any, used to determine those dates;

 

   

the dates on which the interest, if any, on the debt securities of the series will be payable and the record dates for the payment of interest;

 

   

the place or places where amounts due on the debt securities of the series will be payable and where the debt securities of the series may be surrendered for registration of transfer and exchange, if other than the corporate trust office of the applicable trustee;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we may, at our option, redeem debt securities of the series;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will repurchase or repay debt securities of the series at the option of the holders of debt securities of the series;

 

   

the terms of any sinking fund or analogous provision;

 

   

if other than U.S. dollars, the currency in which the purchase price for the debt securities of the series will be payable, the currency in which payments on the debt securities of the series will be payable, and the ability, if any, of us or the holders of debt securities of the series to have payments made in any other currency or currencies;

 

   

with respect to debt securities of the series, any addition of any covenant or Event of Default, or the modification or deletion of any covenant or Event of Default;

 

   

whether the debt securities of the series are to be issuable, in whole or in part, in bearer form (“bearer debt securities”);

 

   

whether any debt securities of the series will be issued in temporary or permanent global form (“global debt securities”) and, if so, the identity of the depositary for the global debt securities if other than The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”);

 

   

if and under what circumstances we will pay additional amounts (“Additional Amounts”) on the debt securities of the series in respect of specified taxes, assessments or other governmental charges and, if so, whether we will have the option to redeem the debt securities of the series rather than pay the Additional Amounts;

 

   

the manner in which, or the person to whom, any interest on any bearer debt security of the series will be payable, if other than upon presentation and surrender of the coupons relating to the bearer debt security;

 

   

the extent to which, or the manner in which, any interest payable on a temporary global debt security will be paid, if other than in the manner provided in the indenture;

 

   

the portion of the principal amount of the debt securities of the series which will be payable upon acceleration if other than the full principal amount;

 

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the authorized denominations in which the debt securities of the series will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiples of $1,000, in the case of debt securities in registered form (“registered debt securities”) or $5,000, in the case of bearer debt securities;

 

   

the terms, if any, upon which debt securities of the series may be convertible into or exchangeable for other securities or property;

 

   

if the amount of payments on the debt securities of the series may be determined with reference to an index, formula or other method or methods and the method used to determine those amounts;

 

   

if the debt securities of the series will be secured by any collateral and, if so, a general description of the collateral and of some of the terms of any related security, pledge or other agreements;

 

   

any listing of the debt securities on any securities exchange; and

 

   

any other terms of the debt securities of the series (whether or not such other terms are consistent or inconsistent with any other terms of the indenture).

As used in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement relating to the offering of debt securities of any series, references to the principal of and premium, if any, and interest, if any, on the debt securities of the series include the payment of Additional Amounts, if any, required by the debt securities of the series to be paid in that context.

We may issue debt securities at a discount from, or at a premium to, their stated principal amount. A prospectus supplement may describe U.S. federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to a debt security issued with original issue discount or at a premium.

If the principal of, premium, if any, or interest, if any, with regard to any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency, then in the prospectus supplement relating to those debt securities, we will describe any restrictions on currency conversions, tax considerations or other material restrictions with respect to that issue of debt securities.

The terms of the debt securities of any series may differ from the terms of the debt securities of any other series, and the terms of particular debt securities within any series may differ from each other. Unless otherwise expressly provided in the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities, we may, without the consent of the holders of the debt securities of any series, reopen an existing series of debt securities and issue additional debt securities of that series.

Unless otherwise described in a prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities and except to the limited extent set forth below under “—Merger, Consolidation and Transfer of Assets,” the indenture does not contain any provisions that would limit our ability or the ability of any of our subsidiaries to incur indebtedness or other liabilities or that would afford holders of debt securities protection in the event of a business combination, takeover, recapitalization or highly leveraged or similar transaction involving us. Accordingly, we and our subsidiaries may in the future enter into transactions that could increase the amount of our consolidated indebtedness and other liabilities or otherwise adversely affect our capital structure or credit rating without the consent of the holders of the debt securities of any series.

Registration, Transfer and Payment

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, each series of debt securities will be issued in registered form only, without coupons. The indenture, however, provides that we may also issue a series of debt securities in bearer form only, or in both registered and bearer form.

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, registered debt securities will be issued in denominations of $1,000 or any integral multiples of $1,000, and bearer debt securities will be issued in denominations of $5,000.

 

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Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will be payable and may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and, if applicable, for conversion into or exchange for other securities or property, at an office or agency maintained by us in the United States. However, we, at our option, may make payments of interest on any registered debt security by check mailed to the address of the person entitled to receive that payment or by wire transfer to an account maintained by the payee with a bank located in the United States. Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, no service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange, redemption or repayment of debt securities, or for any conversion or exchange of debt securities for other securities or property, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with such transaction.

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, payment of principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, on bearer debt securities will be made, subject to any applicable laws and regulations, at an office or agency outside the United States. Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, payment of interest due on bearer debt securities on any interest payment date will be made only against surrender of the coupon relating to that interest payment date. Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, no payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, if any, with respect to any bearer debt security will be made at any office or agency in the United States or by check mailed to any address in the United States or by wire transfer to an account maintained with a bank located in the United States. However, if any bearer debt securities are payable in U.S. dollars, payments on those bearer securities may be made at the corporate trust office of the relevant trustee or at any office or agency designated by us in the United States if, but only if, payment of the full amount due on the bearer debt securities for principal, premium, if any, or interest, if any, at all offices outside of the United States maintained for that purpose by us is illegal or effectively precluded by exchange controls or similar restrictions.

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will not be required to:

 

   

issue, register the transfer of or exchange debt securities of any series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before any selection of debt securities of that series of like tenor and terms to be redeemed and ending at the close of business on the day of that selection;

 

   

register the transfer of or exchange any registered debt security, or portion of any registered debt security, selected for redemption, except the unredeemed portion of any registered debt security being redeemed in part;

 

   

exchange any bearer debt security selected for redemption, except to exchange a bearer debt security for a registered debt security of that series of like tenor and terms that is simultaneously surrendered for redemption; or

 

   

issue, register the transfer of or exchange a debt security that has been surrendered for repayment at the option of the holder, except the portion, if any, of the debt security not to be repaid.

Book-Entry Debt Securities

The securities depositary will be The Depository Trust Company, New York, NY, known as DTC, unless otherwise identified in the prospectus supplement relating to the securities. If DTC is the depositary for an issuance of securities, the issuance will be issued as fully-registered securities registered in the name of Cede & Co. (DTC’s partnership nominee) or such other name as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. One fully registered security certificate will be issued for each issue of securities, each in the aggregate principal amount of such issue, and will be deposited with DTC. If, however, the aggregate amount of any issue exceeds $500 million, one certificate will be issued with respect to each $500 million of issue and an additional certificate will be issued with respect to any remaining amount of such issue.

DTC has advised us that it is a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law, a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law, a member of the Federal Reserve

 

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System, a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code, and a “clearing agency” registered under Section 17A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. DTC holds and provides asset servicing for issues of U.S. and non-U.S. equity issues, corporate and municipal debt issues, and money market instruments that its direct participants deposit with DTC. Direct participants include both U.S. and non-U.S. securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations, and certain other organizations. Access to the DTC system is also available to others such as both U.S. and non-U.S. securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, and clearing corporations that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a direct participant, either directly or indirectly (“indirect participants”).

Purchases of the securities under the DTC system must be made by or through direct participants, which will receive a credit for the securities on DTC’s records. The ownership interest of each actual purchaser of each security, the beneficial owner, is in turn to be recorded on the direct and indirect participants’ records. Beneficial owners will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchase. A beneficial owner, however, is expected to receive written confirmations providing details of the transaction, as well as periodic statements of its holdings, from the direct or indirect participant through which the beneficial owner entered into the transaction. Transfers of ownership interests in the securities are to be accomplished by entries made on the books of direct and indirect participants acting on behalf of beneficial owners. Beneficial owners will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the securities, except if the use of the book-entry system for the securities is discontinued. The deposit of global securities with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede& Co., or such other nominee, as the case may be, do not effect any change in beneficial ownership. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the global securities; DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participants to whose accounts global securities are credited, which may or may not be the beneficial owners. The direct participants and indirect participants will remain responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.

Conveyance of notices and other communications by DTC to direct participants, by direct participants to indirect participants and by direct participants and indirect participants to beneficial owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements as may be in effect from time to time.

To the extent any issuance of securities is redeemable, we will send redemption notices to DTC. If less than all of the securities within an issue are being redeemed, DTC’s practice is to determine by lot the amount of the interest of each direct participant in such issue to be redeemed. The applicable prospectus supplement for an issuance of securities will indicate whether such issue is redeemable.

None of DTC, Cede & Co., or any other DTC nominee will consent or vote with respect to the securities unless authorized by a direct participant in accordance with DTC’s MMI procedures. Under its usual procedures, DTC mails an omnibus proxy to us as soon as possible after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns Cede & Co.’s consenting or voting rights to those direct participants to whose accounts the securities are credited on the record date (identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy).

A beneficial owner must give any required notice of its election to have its securities repurchased through the participant through which it holds its beneficial interest in the security to the applicable trustee or tender agent. The beneficial owner shall effect delivery of its securities by causing the direct participant to transfer its interest in the securities on DTC’s records. The requirement for physical delivery of securities in connection with an optional tender or a mandatory purchase will be deemed satisfied when the ownership rights in the securities are transferred by the direct participant on DTC’s records and followed by a book-entry credit of tendered securities to the applicable trustee or agent’s DTC account.

Redemption proceeds, distributions, and dividend payments on the global securities will be made to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. DTC’s practice is to credit direct participants’ accounts, upon DTC’s receipt of funds and corresponding detail information from the

 

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issuer or agent, on the payable date in accordance with their respective holdings shown on DTC’s records. Payments by participants to beneficial owners will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as in the case of securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” These payments will be the responsibility of such participant and not DTC, Annaly or any agent thereof, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements as may be in effect from time to time. Payment of redemption proceeds, distributions, and dividend payments to Cede & Co. (or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC) will be the responsibility of Annaly or its respective agent. Disbursement of such payments to direct participants will be the responsibility of DTC, and disbursement of such payments to beneficial owners will be the responsibility of direct participants and indirect participants. None of Annaly, any trustee or agent, or the registrar for the securities will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests of the global security or global securities for any series of securities or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial interests.

DTC may discontinue providing its services as depositary with respect to any securities at any time by giving reasonable notice to the issuer or its agent. Under such circumstances, in the event that a successor depositary is not obtained, security certificates will be printed and delivered to DTC. In addition, an issuer may decide to discontinue use of the system of book-entry-only transfers through DTC (or a successor securities depositary). In that event, security certificates are required to be printed and delivered.

If so stated in the relevant prospectus supplement, beneficial owners may elect to hold interests in the securities through either Clearstream Banking S.A., known as “Clearstream, Luxembourg,” or through Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V., as operator of the Euroclear System, or “Euroclear” (in Europe), either directly if they are participants of such systems or indirectly through organizations that are participants in such systems. Clearstream, Luxembourg and Euroclear will hold interests on behalf of their participants through customers’ securities accounts in Clearstream, Luxembourg’s and Euroclear’s names on the books of their U.S. depositaries, which in turn will hold such interests in customers’ securities accounts in the U.S. depositaries’ names on the books of DTC.

Euroclear and Clearstream, Luxembourg each hold securities for their customers and facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions by electronic book-entry transfer between their respective account holders (each such account holder, a “participant” and collectively, the “participants”). Euroclear and Clearstream, Luxembourg provide various services, including safekeeping, administration, clearance and settlement of internationally traded securities and securities lending and borrowing. Euroclear and Clearstream, Luxembourg also deal with domestic securities markets in several countries through established depositary and custodial relationships. Euroclear and Clearstream, Luxembourg have established an electronic bridge between their two systems across which their respective participants may settle trades with each other. Euroclear is incorporated under the laws of Belgium, and Clearstream, Luxembourg is incorporated under the laws of Luxembourg.

Euroclear and Clearstream, Luxembourg customers are world-wide financial institutions, including underwriters, securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, and clearing corporations. Indirect access to Euroclear and Clearstream, Luxembourg is available to other institutions that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a participant of either system. The address of Euroclear is Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V., 1 Boulevard du Roi Albert II, B-1210 Brussels and the address of Clearstream, Luxembourg is Clearstream Banking, 42 Avenue JF Kennedy, L-1855, Luxembourg.

If DTC is the depositary for a global security, Euroclear and Clearstream, Luxembourg may hold interests in the global security as participants in DTC.

The laws of some jurisdictions may require that purchasers of securities take physical delivery of those securities in definitive form. Accordingly, the ability to transfer interests in the securities represented by a global

 

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security to those persons may be limited. In addition, because DTC can act only on behalf of its participants, who in turn act on behalf of persons who hold interests through participants, the ability of a person having an interest in securities represented by a global security to pledge or transfer such interest to persons or entities that do not participate in DTC’s system, or otherwise to take actions in respect of such interest, may be affected by the lack of a physical definitive security in respect of such interest.

Neither we nor the principal paying agent will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to, or payments made on account of, securities by DTC, Clearstream, Luxembourg, or Euroclear, or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records of those organizations relating to the securities.

Redemption and Repurchase

The debt securities of any series may be redeemable at our option or may be subject to mandatory redemption by us as required by a sinking fund or otherwise. In addition, the debt securities of any series may be subject to repurchase or repayment by us at the option of the holders. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms, the times and the prices regarding any optional or mandatory redemption by us or any repurchase or repayment at the option of the holders of any series of debt securities, if any.

Conversion and Exchange

The terms, if any, on which debt securities of any series are convertible into or exchangeable for our common shares or any other securities or property will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Such terms may include provisions for conversion or exchange, either mandatory, at the option of the holders or at our option. Unless otherwise expressly stated in the applicable prospectus supplement or the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to the conversion or exchange of debt securities of any series for other securities or property shall be deemed not to refer to or include any exchange of any debt securities of a series for other debt securities of the same series.

Secured Debt Securities

The debt securities of any series may be secured by collateral. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe any such collateral and the terms of such secured debt securities.

Merger, Consolidation and Transfer of Assets

The indenture provides that we will not, in any transaction or series of related transactions, consolidate with, or sell, lease or convey all or substantially all of our property and assets to, or merge with or into, any person unless:

 

   

either (1) we shall be the continuing person (in the case of a merger) or (2) the successor person (if other than us) formed by or resulting from the consolidation or merger, or which shall have received the transfer of assets, shall be an entity organized and existing under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia and shall expressly assume the due and punctual payment of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest, if any, on all the debt securities outstanding under the indenture and the due and punctual performance and observance of all covenants and conditions in such outstanding debt securities and the indenture to be performed or satisfied by us (including, without limitation, the obligation to convert or exchange any debt securities that are convertible into or exchangeable for other securities or property in accordance with the provisions of such debt securities and the indenture) by a supplemental indenture reasonably satisfactory in form to the trustee;

 

   

immediately after giving effect to the transaction described above, no Event of Default under the indenture, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time or both would become an Event of Default under the indenture, shall have occurred and be continuing; and

 

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the trustee shall have received the officers’ certificate and opinion of counsel called for by the indenture.

In the case of any such consolidation, sale, lease, conveyance or merger in which we are not the continuing entity and upon execution and delivery by the successor person of the supplemental indenture described above, such successor person shall succeed to, and be substituted for, us and may exercise every right and power of ours under the indenture with the same effect as if such successor person had been named as us therein, and we shall be automatically released and discharged from all obligations and covenants under the indenture and the debt securities issued under that indenture.

Events of Default

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of any series is defined in the indenture as being:

 

  (1)

default in payment of any interest, if any, on, or any Additional Amounts, if any, payable in respect of any interest, if any, on, any of the debt securities of that series when due, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days;

 

  (2)

default in payment of any principal of or premium, if any, on, or any Additional Amounts, if any, payable in respect of any principal of or premium, if any, on, any of the debt securities of that series when due (whether at maturity, upon redemption, upon repayment or repurchase at the option of the holder or otherwise and whether payable in cash, our common shares or other securities or property);

 

  (3)

default in the deposit of any sinking fund payment or payment under any analogous provision when due with respect to any of the debt securities of that series;

 

  (4)

default in the delivery when due of any securities, cash or other property (including, without limitation, any of our common shares) when required to be delivered upon conversion of any convertible debt security of that series or upon the exchange of any debt security of that series which is exchangeable for our common shares or other securities or property (other than an exchange of debt securities of that series for other debt securities of the same series);

 

  (5)

default in the performance, or breach, of any other covenant or warranty applicable to us in the indenture or in any debt security of that series other than a covenant or warranty included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series, and continuance of that default or breach (without that default or breach having been cured or waived in accordance with the indenture) for a period of 90 days after notice to us by the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the debt securities of that series then outstanding;

 

  (6)

default after the expiration of any applicable grace period in the payment of principal when due, or resulting in acceleration of, other indebtedness (other than Non-recourse Debt, as defined below) of us or any Significant Subsidiary of ours for borrowed money where the aggregate principal amount with respect to which the default or acceleration has occurred exceeds $100 million and such indebtedness has not been discharged, or such default in payment or acceleration has not been cured or rescinded, prior to written notice of acceleration of the debt securities of that series;

 

  (7)

failure by us or any of our Subsidiaries to pay final judgments or decrees entered by a court or courts of competent jurisdiction aggregating in excess of $100 million, which judgments are not paid, discharged or stayed for a period of 30 calendar days after such judgments become final and non-appealable;

 

  (8)

specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization with respect to us or any Significant Subsidiary of ours; or

 

  (9)

any other Event of Default established for the debt securities of that series.

No Event of Default with respect to any particular series of debt securities necessarily constitutes an Event of Default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The indenture provides that, within 90 days after the

 

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occurrence of any default with respect to the debt securities of any series, the trustee will mail to all holders of the debt securities of that series notice of that default if known to the trustee, unless that default has been cured or waived. However, the indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice of a default with respect to the debt securities of that series, except a default in payment of principal, premium, if any, interest, if any, Additional Amounts, if any, or sinking fund payments, if any, if the trustee considers it in the best interests of the holders to do so. As used in this paragraph, the term “default” means any event which is, or after notice or lapse of time or both would become, an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of any series.

The indenture provides that if an Event of Default (other than an Event of Default specified in clause (8) of the second preceding paragraph with respect to us) occurs and is continuing with respect to any series of debt securities, either the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the debt securities of that series then outstanding may declare the principal of, or if debt securities of that series are original issue discount securities, such lesser amount as may be specified in the terms of that series of debt securities, and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all the debt securities of that series to be due and payable immediately. The indenture also provides that if an Event of Default specified in clause (8) of the second preceding paragraph with respect to us occurs with respect to any series of debt securities, then the principal of, or if debt securities of that series are original issue discount securities, such lesser amount as may be specified in the terms of that series of debt securities, and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all the debt securities of that series will automatically become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder of the debt securities of that series. However, upon specified conditions, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of a series then outstanding may rescind and annul an acceleration of the debt securities of that series and its consequences. For purposes of clarity, references to an Event of Default specified in clause (8) of the second preceding paragraph with respect to us shall not include any Event of Default specified in clause (8) of the second preceding paragraph with respect to any Significant Subsidiary of ours.

Subject to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 requiring the trustee, during the continuance of an Event of Default under the indenture, to act with the requisite standard of care, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of debt securities of any series unless those holders have offered the trustee indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the trustee against the costs, fees and expenses and liabilities that might be incurred in compliance with such request or direction. Subject to the foregoing, holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series issued under the indenture have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee under the indenture with respect to that series. The indenture requires the annual filing by us with the trustee of a certificate that states whether or not we are in default under the terms of the indenture.

No holder of any debt securities of any series shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy under the indenture, unless:

 

   

such holder has previously given written notice to the trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of such series;

 

   

the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series shall have made written request to the trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as trustee under the indenture;

 

   

such holder or holders have offered to the trustee indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the trustee against the costs, fees and expenses and liabilities which might be incurred in compliance with such request;

 

   

the trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and

 

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no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the trustee during such 60 day period by the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series.

Notwithstanding any other provision of the indenture, the holder of a debt security will have the right, which is absolute and unconditional, to receive payment of the principal of and premium, if any, and interest, if any, on that debt security on the respective due dates for those payments and, in the case of any debt security that is convertible into or exchangeable for other securities or property, to convert or exchange, as the case may be, that debt security in accordance with its terms, and to institute suit for the enforcement of those payments and any right to effect such conversion or exchange, and this right shall not be impaired without the consent of the holder.

Modification, Waivers and Meetings

The indenture permits us and the trustee, with the consent of the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series issued under the indenture and affected by a modification or amendment, to modify or amend any of the provisions of the indenture or of the debt securities of the applicable series or the rights of the holders of the debt securities of that series under the indenture. However, the consent of the holder of each debt security affected will be required for any modification or amendment that, among other things:

 

   

changes the stated maturity of the principal of, or premium, if any, or any installment of interest, if any, on or any Additional Amounts, if any, with respect to any debt securities issued under the indenture;

 

   

reduces the principal of or any premium on any debt securities, reduces the rate of interest on any debt securities or reduces the price payable upon the redemption of any debt securities, whether such redemption is mandatory or at our option, or upon the repurchase of any debt securities at the option of the holder, or reduces any Additional Amounts with respect to any debt securities, or change our obligation to pay Additional Amounts;

 

   

reduces the amount of principal of any original issue discount securities that would be due and payable upon an acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

   

adversely affects any right of repayment or repurchase of any debt securities at the option of any holder;

 

   

changes any place where, or the currency in which, debt securities are payable;

 

   

impairs the holder’s right to institute suit to enforce the payment of any debt securities on or after their stated maturity or, in the case of any debt securities that are convertible into or exchangeable for other securities or property, to institute suit to enforce the right to convert or exchange such debt securities in accordance with their terms;

 

   

makes any change that adversely affects the right, if any, to convert or exchange any debt securities for other securities or property;

 

   

reduces the percentage of debt securities of any series issued under the indenture whose holders must consent to any modification or amendment or any waiver of compliance with specific provisions of such indenture or specified defaults under the indenture and their consequences; or

 

   

reduces the requirements for a quorum or voting at a meeting of holders of the applicable debt securities.

The indenture also contains provisions permitting us and the trustee, without the consent of the holders of any debt securities issued under the indenture, to modify or amend the indenture, among other things:

 

   

to evidence the succession of another person to us and the assumption by that successor of our covenants contained in the indenture and in the debt securities;

 

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to add to our covenants for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities issued under the indenture or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us with respect to all or any series of debt securities issued under the indenture;

 

   

to add to or change any provisions of the indenture to facilitate the issuance of bearer securities;

 

   

to establish the form or terms of debt securities of any series and any related coupons, including, without limitation, conversion and exchange provisions applicable to debt securities which are convertible into or exchangeable for other securities or property, and to establish any provisions with respect to any security or other collateral for such debt securities, and to make any deletions from or additions or changes to the indenture in connection with any of the matters referred to in this bullet point so long as those deletions, additions and changes are not applicable to any other series of debt securities then outstanding;

 

   

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of the appointment of a successor trustee in respect of the debt securities of one or more series;

 

   

to cure any ambiguity or correct or supplement any provision in such indenture which may be defective or inconsistent with other provisions in the indenture, or to make any other provisions with respect to matters or questions arising under the indenture, which shall not adversely affect the interests of the holders of the debt securities of any series then outstanding in any material respect;

 

   

to add any additional Events of Default with respect to all or any series of debt securities;

 

   

to supplement any of the provisions of the indenture to permit or facilitate defeasance, covenant defeasance and/or satisfaction and discharge of any series of debt securities, provided that such action shall not adversely affect the interests of any holder of a debt security of such series or any other debt security in any material respect;

 

   

to secure or, if applicable, to provide additional security for all or any debt securities issued under the indenture and to provide for any and all matters relating thereto, and to provide for the release of any collateral as security for all or any debt securities in accordance with the terms of the indenture;

 

   

to add to or change or eliminate any provision of the indenture as is necessary or desirable in accordance with any amendment to the Trust Indenture Act;

 

   

to make any change to the indenture, or any supplemental indenture, or any debt securities to conform the terms thereof to any provision of the description of a series of any debt securities in any prospectus (including this prospectus), prospectus supplement, offering memorandum or similar offering document used in connection with the initial offering or sale of any debt securities to the extent that such provision in such description was intended to be a substantially verbatim recitation of a provision of the indenture or debt securities;

 

   

in the case of any series of debt securities which are convertible into or exchangeable for our common shares or other securities or property, to provide for the conversion or exchange rights of those debt securities in the event of any reclassification or change of our common shares or any of our other securities into which such debt securities are convertible or for which such debt securities are exchangeable or any similar transaction if expressly required by the terms of that series of debt securities; or

 

   

to amend or supplement any provision contained in the indenture or in any debt securities, provided that such amendment or supplement does not apply to any outstanding debt securities issued prior to the date of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefits of such provisions.

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may waive our compliance with the provisions described above under “—Merger, Consolidation and Transfer of Assets” and certain other provisions of the indenture and, if specified in the prospectus supplement relating to

 

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such series of debt securities, any additional covenants applicable to the debt securities of such series. The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may, on behalf of all holders of debt securities of that series, waive any past default under the indenture with respect to debt securities of that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest, if any, on debt securities of that series or, in the case of any debt securities which are convertible into or exchangeable for other securities or property, a default in any such conversion or exchange, or a default in respect of a covenant or provision that cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security of the affected series.

The indenture contains provisions for convening meetings of the holders of a series of debt securities if (and only if) debt securities of such series are issued or issuable, in whole or in part, in the form of bearer debt securities. A meeting may be called at any time by the trustee, and also upon our request or the request of holders of at least 33 1/3% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series. Notice of a meeting must be given in accordance with the provisions of the indenture. Except for any consent that must be given by the holder of each outstanding debt security affected in the manner described above, any resolution presented at a meeting or adjourned meeting duly reconvened at which a quorum, as described below, is present may be adopted by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series. However, any resolution with respect to any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action for which the indenture provides may be made, given or taken by the holders of a specified percentage, which is less or more than a majority, in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series may be adopted at a meeting or adjourned meeting duly reconvened at which a quorum is present by the affirmative vote of the holders of that specified percentage in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series. Any resolution passed or decision taken at any meeting of holders of debt securities of any series duly held in accordance with the indenture will be binding on all holders of debt securities of that series and the related coupons, if any. The quorum at any meeting called to adopt a resolution, and at any reconvened meeting, will be persons entitled to vote a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series, or, if any action is to be taken at a meeting with respect to any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action for which the indenture provides may be given by holders of a greater percentage in principal amount of outstanding debt securities of a series, the persons entitled to vote at such greater percentage in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series.

Discharge, Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance

Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, upon our direction, the indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to any series of debt securities issued under the indenture specified by us, subject to the survival of specified provisions of the indenture (including the obligation to pay Additional Amounts to the extent described below and the obligation, if applicable, to exchange or convert debt securities of that series into other securities or property in accordance with their terms) when:

 

   

either

 

  (A)

all outstanding debt securities of that series and, in the case of bearer securities, all related coupons, have been delivered to the trustee for cancellation, subject to exceptions, or

 

  (B)

all debt securities of that series and, if applicable, any related coupons have become due and payable or will become due and payable at their stated maturity within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year and we have deposited with the trustee, in trust, funds in U.S. dollars or in the foreign currency in which the debt securities of that series are payable in an amount sufficient to pay the entire indebtedness on the debt securities of that series in respect of principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any (and, to the extent that (x) the debt securities of that series provide for the payment of Additional Amounts upon the occurrence of specified events of taxation, assessment or governmental charge with respect to payments on the debt securities and (y) the amount of any Additional Amounts which are or will be payable is at the time of deposit

 

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  reasonably determinable by us, in the exercise of our sole and absolute discretion, those Additional Amounts) to the date of such deposit, if the debt securities of that series have become due and payable, or to the maturity or redemption date of the debt securities of that series, as the case may be;

 

   

we have paid all other sums payable under the indenture with respect to the debt securities of that series; and

 

   

the trustee has received an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel called for by the indenture.

Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may elect with respect to any series of debt securities either:

 

   

defease and be discharged from all of our obligations with respect to that series of debt securities (“defeasance”), except for:

 

  (1)

the obligation to pay Additional Amounts, if any, upon the occurrence of specified events of taxation, assessment or governmental charge with respect to payments on that series of debt securities to the extent (and only to the extent) that those Additional Amounts exceed the amount deposited in respect of those Additional Amounts as provided below,

 

  (2)

the obligation, if applicable, to exchange or convert debt securities of that series into other securities or property in accordance with their terms, and

 

  (3)

certain other limited obligations; or

 

   

to be released from our obligations with respect to the debt securities of such series under such covenants as may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, and any omission to comply with those obligations shall not constitute a default or an Event of Default with respect to that series of debt securities (“covenant defeasance”), in either case upon the irrevocable deposit with the trustee, or other qualifying trustee, in trust for that purpose, of an amount in U.S. dollars or in the foreign currency in which those debt securities are payable at stated maturity or, if applicable, upon redemption, and/or Government Obligations which through the payment of principal and interest in accordance with their terms will provide money, in an amount sufficient to pay the principal of and any premium and any interest on (and, to the extent that (x) the debt securities of that series provide for the payment of Additional Amounts and (y) the amount of the Additional Amounts which are or will be payable is at the time of deposit reasonably determinable by us, in the exercise of our sole and absolute discretion, the Additional Amounts with respect to) that series of debt securities, and any mandatory sinking fund or analogous payments on that series of debt securities, on the due dates for those payments.

The defeasance or covenant defeasance described above shall only be effective if, among other things:

 

   

it shall not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, the indenture;

 

   

in the case of defeasance, we shall have delivered to the trustee an opinion of independent counsel reasonably acceptable to the trustee confirming that (A) we have received from or there has been published by the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) a ruling or (B) since the date of the indenture there has been a change in applicable U.S. federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based on this ruling or change the opinion of counsel shall confirm that, the holders and beneficial owners of the debt securities of the applicable series will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the defeasance had not occurred;

 

   

in the case of defeasance, we shall provide money in an amount sufficient in the written opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants to pay the principal of, premium, if any, and each installment of interest on the debt securities;

 

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in the case of covenant defeasance, we shall have delivered to the trustee an opinion of independent counsel reasonably acceptable to the trustee to the effect that the holders and beneficial owners of the debt securities of the applicable series will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the covenant defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the covenant defeasance had not occurred;

 

   

if the cash and Government Obligations deposited are sufficient to pay the outstanding debt securities of that series provided those debt securities are redeemed on a particular redemption date, we shall have given the trustee irrevocable instructions to redeem those debt securities on that date; and

 

   

no Event of Default or event which with notice or lapse of time or both would become an Event of Default with respect to debt securities of that series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of the deposit into trust; and, solely in the case of defeasance, no Event of Default arising from specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization with respect to us or event which with notice or lapse of time or both would become such an Event of Default with respect to us shall have occurred and be continuing during the period through and including the 91st day after the date of the deposit into trust.

The applicable prospectus supplement may further describe the provisions, if any, permitting or restricting satisfaction and discharge, defeasance or covenant defeasance with respect to the debt securities of a particular series.

Definitions

As used in the indenture, the following terms have the meanings specified below:

The term “Corporation” includes corporations, partnerships, associations, limited liability companies and other companies and business trusts. The term “corporation” means a corporation and does not include partnerships, associations, limited liability companies or other companies or business trusts.

“Non-recourse Debt” means any indebtedness the terms of which provide that the claim for repayment of such indebtedness by the holder thereof is limited solely to a claim against the property or assets (including, without limitation, securities or interests in securities) that secure such indebtedness; provided, however, that any obligations or liabilities of the debtor or obligor or any other person solely for indemnities, covenants or breaches of warranties, representations or covenants or similar matters in respect of any indebtedness will not prevent such indebtedness from constituting Non-recourse Debt.

‘Person” or “person” means any individual, Corporation, joint venture, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

“Significant Subsidiary” means, as of any date of determination, a Subsidiary of ours that would constitute a “significant subsidiary” as such term is defined under Rule 1-02(w) of Regulation S-X of the Securities and Exchange Commission as in effect on the date of the indenture.

“Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, (i) any corporation, association or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of capital stock or other equity interests entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by such Person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of such Person (or a combination thereof) and (ii) any partnership (a) the sole general partner or managing general partner of which is such Person or a Subsidiary of such Person or (b) the only general partners of which are such Person or one or more Subsidiaries of such Person (or any combination thereof).

 

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Governing Law

The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York, without regard to conflicts of laws principles thereof.

The Trust Indenture Act of 1939 limits the rights of a trustee, if the trustee becomes a creditor of us, to obtain payment of claims or to realize on property received by it in respect of those claims, as security or otherwise. Any trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions with us and our subsidiaries from time to time. However, if a trustee acquires any conflicting interest, it must eliminate the conflict upon the occurrence of an Event of Default under the applicable indenture or resign as trustee.

Wells Fargo Bank, National Association may act as trustee under one or more of the indentures. Wells Fargo Bank, National Association provides commercial banking services to us in the ordinary course of business.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS

We may issue purchase contracts, including contracts obligating holders to purchase from or sell to us, and for us to sell to or purchase from the holders, any of the following securities, or any combination thereof, at a future date or dates:

 

   

a specified principal amount of debt securities;

 

   

a specified number of shares of common stock or preferred stock;

 

   

securities of an entity not affiliated with us, a basket of those securities, an index or indices of those securities or any combination of the above;

 

   

currencies;

 

   

commodities; or

 

   

other property.

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of the purchase contracts and purchase units. The following description and any description of the purchase contracts in the applicable prospectus supplement may not be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to the terms and provisions of the applicable purchase contract. A form of the purchase contract reflecting the particular terms and provisions of a series of offered purchase contracts will be filed with the SEC in connection with the offering and incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

The price of our debt securities, price per share of our common stock or our preferred stock or the price of securities of an entity not affiliated with us, a basket of those securities, an index or indices of those securities or any combination of the above, currencies or commodities, as applicable, may be fixed at the time the purchase contracts are issued or may be determined by reference to a specific formula contained in such purchase contracts. The purchase contracts may be issued separately or as part of units, including units consisting of a combination of a purchase contract obligating the holder to purchase shares of common stock or preferred stock and debt securities or debt obligations of third parties, which may secure the holders’ obligations to purchase the common stock or preferred stock under the purchase contracts.

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the purchase contracts offered pursuant to it, including, but not limited to, one or more of the following:

 

   

whether the purchase contracts obligate the holder to purchase or sell, or both purchase and sell, our debt securities, common stock or preferred stock or securities of an entity not affiliated with us, a basket of those securities, an index or indices of those securities or any combination of the above, currencies or commodities, as applicable, and the nature and amount of each of those securities or method of determining those amounts;

 

   

the amounts payable under the purchase contract or the formula by which such amount will be determined;

 

   

whether the purchase contracts are to be prepaid or not and whether the purchase contracts will be issued in fully registered or global form;

 

   

whether the purchase contracts are to be settled by delivery, or by reference or linkage to the value, performance or level of our common stock, our preferred stock, such securities of an entity not affiliated with us, a basket of such securities, an index or indices of such securities or any combination of the above, currencies or commodities;

 

   

any acceleration, cancellation, termination or other provisions relating to the settlement of the purchase contracts; and

 

   

U.S. federal income tax considerations relevant to the purchase contracts.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units consisting of two or more other constituent securities. These units may be issuable as, and for a specified period of time may be transferable only as a single security, rather than as the separate constituent securities comprising such units. The statements made in this section relating to the units are summaries only. These summaries are not complete. When we issue units, we will provide the specific terms of the units in a prospectus supplement. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

When we issue units, we will provide in a prospectus supplement the following terms of the units being issued:

 

   

the title of any series of units;

 

   

identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;

 

   

the price or prices at which the units will be issued;

 

   

the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;

 

   

information with respect to any book-entry procedures;

 

   

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax consequences applicable to an investment in the units; and

 

   

any other terms of the units and their constituent securities.

 

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RESTRICTIONS ON OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER

To assist us in qualifying as a REIT, among other purposes, our charter prohibits anyone from acquiring or holding, directly or constructively, ownership of 9.8% or more, in number of shares or value, of any class of our outstanding capital stock. We refer to this restriction as the “9.8% ownership limit.” For this purpose, the term “ownership” generally means either direct ownership or constructive ownership in accordance with the constructive ownership provisions of Section 544 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), as modified in Section 856(h) of the Code.

The constructive ownership provisions of Section 544 of the Code generally (a) attribute ownership of securities owned by a corporation, partnership, estate or trust proportionately to its stockholders, partners or beneficiaries; (b) attribute ownership of securities owned by family members to other members of the same family; and (c) set forth rules for attributing securities constructively owned by one person to another person. To determine whether a person holds or would hold capital stock in excess of the 9.8% ownership limit, a person will be treated as owning not only shares of capital stock actually owned, but also any shares of capital stock attributed to that person under the attribution rules described above. Accordingly, a person who individually owns less than 9.8% of the shares outstanding may nevertheless be in violation of the 9.8% ownership limit.

Any transfer of shares of capital stock that would cause us to be disqualified as a REIT or that would (a) create a direct or constructive ownership of shares of capital stock in excess of the 9.8% ownership limit, (b) result in the shares of capital stock being beneficially owned (within the meaning of Section 856(a) of the Code) by fewer than 100 persons (determined without reference to any rules of attribution) or (c) result in us being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code, will be null and void, and the intended transferee (the “purported transferee”) will acquire no rights to those shares. These restrictions on transferability and ownership will not apply if our Board determines that it is no longer in our best interests to attempt to, or to continue to, qualify as a REIT.

Any purported transfer of shares of capital stock that would result in a purported transferee owning (directly or constructively) shares of capital stock in excess of the 9.8% ownership limit due to the unenforceability of the transfer restrictions described above will constitute “excess securities.” Excess securities will be transferred by operation of law to a trust that we will establish for the exclusive benefit of a charitable organization or charitable organizations (the “charitable beneficiary”), until such time as the trustee of the trust retransfers the excess securities. The trustee will be a banking institution designated by us that is not affiliated with the purported transferee or us. While the excess securities are held in trust, the purported transferee will not be entitled to vote or to share in any dividends or other distributions with respect to the securities. Subject to the 9.8% ownership limit, excess securities may be transferred by the trust to any person (if such transfer would not result in excess securities). Upon such a transfer, the purported transferee shall receive a price for such excess securities equal to the lesser of (i) the price per share such purported transferee paid in the transfer that resulted in the excess securities (or, if the purported transferee did not give value for such excess securities (such as through a gift, devise or other transaction), a price per share equal to the Market Price (as defined in our charter) for the excess securities on the date of the purported transfer that resulted in the excess securities), or (ii) the price per share for the excess securities received by the trust from the sale or other disposition of the excess securities to the new owner, at which point the excess securities will automatically cease to be excess securities.

Upon a purported transfer of excess securities, the purported transferee will cease to be entitled to distributions, voting rights and other benefits with respect to the shares of capital stock except the right to payment of the purchase price for the shares of capital stock on the retransfer of securities as provided above. Any dividend or distribution paid to a purported transferee on excess securities prior to our discovery that shares of capital stock have been transferred in violation of our charter, shall be paid to the trust for the exclusive benefit of the charitable beneficiary. If any of the transfer restrictions in our charter are determined to be void, invalid or unenforceable by a court of competent jurisdiction, then the purported transferee of any excess securities may be deemed, at our option, to have acted as an agent on our behalf in acquiring the excess securities

 

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and to hold the excess securities on our behalf. All certificates representing shares of capital stock will bear a legend referring to the restrictions described above.

Any person who acquires shares in violation of our charter, or any person who is a purported transferee, such that excess securities results, must immediately give written notice or, in the event of a proposed or attempted transfer that would be void as set forth above, give at least 15 days’ prior written notice to us of such event and shall provide us such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of the transfer on our qualification as a REIT. In addition, every record owner of more than 5.0% of the number or value of our outstanding shares of capital stock must send us an annual written notice by January 30 stating the name and address of the record owner, the number of shares beneficially owned and describing how the shares are held. Further, each beneficial owner and each person (including the stockholder of record) who is holding stock for a beneficial owner is required to disclose to us in information with respect to the direct and constructive ownership of shares as we may reasonably request in order to comply with the REIT provisions of the Code, to comply with the requirements of any taxing authority or governmental agency or to determine any such compliance.

Notwithstanding the above, our Board may increase or decrease the 9.8% ownership limit unless, after giving effect to any increased ownership limit, five or fewer persons could beneficially own, in the aggregate, more than 50% in value of the shares of our capital stock then outstanding. In addition, to the extent consistent with the REIT provisions of the Code, our Board may, upon receipt of a ruling from the IRS or an opinion of our tax advisor or other documents or evidence satisfactory to our Board and upon such other conditions as our Board may direct, waive the 9.8% ownership limit for a purchaser of our stock.

The provisions described above may inhibit market activity and may delay, defer or prevent a change in control or other transaction and the resulting opportunity for the holders of our capital stock to receive a premium for their shares that might otherwise exist in the absence of such provisions. Such provisions also may make us an unsuitable investment vehicle for any person seeking to obtain ownership of more than 9.8%, in number of shares or value, of the outstanding shares of any class or series of our capital stock.

 

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CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

We have summarized certain terms and provisions of our charter and bylaws and the Maryland General Corporation Law (the “MGCL”). This summary is not complete and is qualified by the provisions of our charter and bylaws and the MGCL. See “Where You Can Find More Information About Us.” For restrictions on ownership and transfer of our capital stock contained in our charter, see “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”

Number of Directors; Vacancies and Removal of Directors

Our bylaws provide for the gradual declassification of the Board commencing with the annual meeting of the stockholders of the Company held in 2019, which will result in the Board being fully declassified (and all Board members standing for annual election) commencing with the annual meeting of the stockholders of the Company held in 2021. Directors elected prior to the annual meeting of stockholders of the Company in 2019 are divided into three classes (Class I, Class II and Class III) and will serve out the terms in the classes for which they have been elected as set forth below:

 

Class I    3 Directors    Expires 2021
Class II    4 Directors    Expires 2019
Class III    4 Directors    Expires 2020

Our charter and bylaws provide that the number of directors we have may be established only by our Board of directors and may not be fewer than the minimum number required by the MGCL. Pursuant to our bylaws, the number of directors may not be more than 15. Under our bylaws, at the annual meeting of stockholders of the Company held in 2019, the successors to the directors whose terms expire at that meeting will be elected to serve until the next annual meeting of stockholders and until their successors are duly elected and qualify; at the annual meeting of stockholders of the Company held in 2020, the successors to the directors whose terms expire at that meeting will be elected to serve until the next annual meeting of stockholders and until their successors are duly elected and qualify; and beginning with the annual meeting of stockholders in 2021, all directors will be elected to serve until the next annual meeting of stockholders and until their successors are duly elected and qualify. Our bylaws also provide that, except in the case of a vacancy, a majority of our Board must (i) meet the independence requirements under the rules and regulations of the New York Stock Exchange as in effect from time to time and (ii) not be an officer, member or employee of either us or the Manager.

Our bylaws provide that any vacancy on our Board for any cause other than an increase in the number of directors may be filled by a majority of the remaining directors; provided, however, that, pursuant to Maryland law, stockholders will have the concurrent power to elect a director to fill a vacancy resulting from the removal of a director by a vote of the stockholders. Any vacancy on our Board created by an increase in the number of directors may be filled by a majority of the entire Board. Pursuant to the MGCL, a director may be removed at any time, with or without cause, upon the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes entitled to be cast in the election of directors; provided however, directors serving in Class II, Class III and Class I may not be removed without cause until the respective annual meeting of stockholders of the Company in 2019, 2020 and 2021.

Limitation of Liability and Indemnification of Directors and Officers

The MGCL permits the charter of a Maryland corporation to include a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages, except to the extent that (1) it is proved that the person actually received an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services; or (2) a judgment or other final adjudication adverse to the person is entered in a proceeding based on a finding that the person’s action, or failure to act, was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty and was material to the cause of action adjudicated in the proceeding. Our charter provides for elimination of the liability of our directors and officers to us or our stockholders for money damages to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law from time to time.

 

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The MGCL requires us (unless our charter were to provide otherwise, which it does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made a party to by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits us to indemnify our present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to or in which they may be made or threatened to be made a party to or witness in by reason of their service in those or certain other capacities unless it is established that:

 

   

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (a) was committed in bad faith or (b) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

 

   

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

   

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

The MGCL prohibits us from indemnifying a director or officer who has been adjudged liable in a suit by us or on our behalf or in which the director or officer was adjudged liable on the basis that a personal benefit was improperly received. A court may order indemnification if it determines that the director or officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification, even though the director or officer did not meet the prescribed standard of conduct or was adjudged liable on the basis that a personal benefit was improperly received; however, indemnification for an adverse judgment in a suit by us or on our behalf, or for a judgment of liability on the basis that a personal benefit was improperly received, is limited to expenses.

In addition, the MGCL permits us to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon our receipt of (a) a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification and (b) a written undertaking by him or her or on his or her behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed if it is ultimately determined that the standard of conduct was not met.

To the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, our charter and bylaws obligate us to indemnify any individual who is made or threatened to be made a party to or witness in a proceeding by reason of his or her service:

 

   

as a director or officer of us; or

 

   

while a director or officer and at our request, as a director, officer, trustee, member, manager or partner of another corporation, real estate investment trust, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise,

in each case, from and against any claim or liability to which he or she may become subject or that he or she may incur by reason of his or her service in any of these capacities, and to pay or reimburse his or her reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding. Our charter and bylaws also permit us, with the approval of our Board, to indemnify and advance expenses to any individual who served any of our predecessors in any of the capacities described above and any employee or agent of ours or any of our predecessors.

Exclusive Forum

Our bylaws provide that unless we consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland, or if that court does not have jurisdiction, the United States District Court for the District of Maryland, Baltimore Division, will be the sole and exclusive forum for (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of any duty owed by any director or officer or other employee of ours to us or our stockholders, (3) any action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer or other employee of ours arising pursuant to any provision of the MGCL or the our charter or our bylaws, or (4) any other action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer or other employee of ours that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine.

 

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Maryland Business Combination Act

The MGCL establishes special requirements for “business combinations” between a Maryland corporation and “interested stockholders” unless exemptions are applicable. An interested stockholder is defined as (i) any person who beneficially owns 10% or more of the voting power of a corporation’s then outstanding voting stock or (ii) an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period immediately before the date in question, was the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s then outstanding voting stock. Among other things, the law prohibits for a period of five years a merger and other similar transactions between a corporation and an interested stockholder unless the corporation’s board of directors approves the transaction prior to the party becoming an interested stockholder. The five-year period runs from the most recent date on which the interested stockholder became an interested stockholder. The law also requires a supermajority stockholder vote for such transactions after the end of the five-year period. This means that the transaction must be approved by at least:

 

   

80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding voting shares; and

 

   

two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding voting shares other than shares held by the interested stockholder or an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder with whom the business combination is to be effected.

These super-majority vote requirements do not apply if the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price, as defined under the MGCL, for their shares in the form of cash or other consideration in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares.

The MGCL permits various exemptions from its provisions, including business combinations that are exempted by our Board before the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Pursuant to the MGCL, we have elected not to be governed by the Maryland business combination statute. We made this election by opting out of this statute in our charter. If, however, we amend our charter to opt back in to the statute, subject to stockholder approval, the business combination statute could have the effect of discouraging offers to acquire us and of increasing the difficulty of consummating any such offers, even if our acquisition would be in our stockholders’ best interests.

Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act

Maryland law provides that “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” have no voting rights except to the extent approved by a vote of the other stockholders. Two-thirds of the shares eligible to vote must vote in favor of granting the “control shares” voting rights. Shares held by (i) the person who has made or proposes to make such acquisition, (ii) any officer of the corporation and (iii) any employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation are not eligible to vote. “Control shares” are shares of stock that, taken together with all other shares of stock the acquirer previously acquired, would entitle the acquirer to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power:

 

   

one-tenth or more but less than one-third of all voting power;

 

   

one-third or more but less than a majority of all voting power; or

 

   

a majority or more of all voting power.

Control shares do not include shares of stock the acquiring person is entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition of control shares, subject to certain exceptions.

If a person who has made (or proposes to make) a control share acquisition satisfies certain conditions (including agreeing to pay expenses and making an “acquiring person statement” as described in the MGCL), he or she may compel our Board to call a special meeting of stockholders to consider the voting rights of the shares. If such a person makes no request for a meeting, we have the option to present the question at any stockholders’ meeting.

 

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If voting rights are not approved at a meeting of stockholders, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, we may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value. We will determine the fair value of the shares, without regard to the absence of voting rights, as of the date of either:

 

   

the last control share acquisition; or

 

   

if we hold a meeting where stockholders consider and do not approve voting rights of the control shares, as of the date of such meeting.

If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders’ meeting and the acquirer becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares of stock entitled to vote, all other stockholders may obtain rights as objecting stockholders and, thereunder, exercise appraisal rights. This means that you would be able to force us to redeem your stock for fair value. Under Maryland law, the fair value may not be less than the highest price per share paid in the control share acquisition. Furthermore, certain limitations otherwise applicable to the exercise of dissenters’ rights would not apply in the context of a control share acquisition. The control share acquisition statute would not apply to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if we were a party to the transaction. The control share acquisition statute could have the effect of discouraging offers to acquire us and of increasing the difficulty of consummating any such offers, even if our acquisition would be in our stockholders’ best interests.

Amendment to Charter and Bylaws

Except as provided in the MGCL, amendments to our charter must be advised by our Board and approved by the affirmative vote of our stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Our bylaws may be amended by our Board or by the affirmative vote of our stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

Subtitle 8

Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to be subject to any or all of the following five provisions:

 

   

a classified board;

 

   

a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director;

 

   

a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the directors;

 

   

a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by a vote of the remaining directors (whether or not they constitute a quorum) and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred and until a successor is elected and qualifies; or

 

   

a majority requirement for the calling of a special meeting of stockholders.

Although we have not specifically elected to be subject to any of the provisions of Subtitle 8, through provisions in our bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we (1) require, unless called by the chairman of our Board, our chief executive officer, our president or our board of directors, the request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at the meeting to call a special meeting of stockholders, and (2) allow a majority of our Board to fix the number of directors without stockholder approval.

Meetings of Stockholders

Under our bylaws and pursuant to Maryland law, annual meetings of stockholders will be held each year at a date and at the time and place determined by our Board. Special meetings of stockholders may be called by our

 

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Board, the chairman of our Board, our president or our chief executive officer. Additionally, subject to the provisions of our bylaws, special meetings of the stockholders to act on any matter must be called by our secretary upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast on such matter at such meeting who have requested the special meeting in accordance with the procedures set forth in, and provided the information and certifications required by, our bylaws. Only matters set forth in the notice of the special meeting may be considered and acted upon at such a meeting. Our secretary will inform the requesting stockholders of the reasonably estimated cost of preparing and delivering the notice of meeting (including our proxy materials), and the requesting stockholder or stockholders must pay such estimated cost before our secretary may prepare and deliver the notice of the special meeting.

Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business

Our bylaws provide that:

 

   

with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors and the proposal of business to be considered by stockholders at the annual meeting may be made only:

 

   

pursuant to our notice of the meeting;

 

   

by or at the direction of our Board; or

 

   

by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record at the record date set by our Board for the meeting, at the time of giving of the notice of the meeting and at the time of the annual meeting (and any postponement or adjustment thereof), who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated or on such other business and who has complied with the advance notice procedures set forth in, and provided the information and certifications required by, our bylaws; and

 

   

with respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of meeting may be brought before the special meeting of stockholders, and nominations of individuals for election to our Board may be made only:

 

   

by or at the direction of our Board;

 

   

by a stockholder that has requested a special meeting be called for the purpose of electing directors in compliance with our bylaws; or

 

   

provided that the meeting has been called in accordance with our bylaws for the purpose of electing directors, by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record at the record date set by our Board for the meeting, at the time of giving of the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the meeting (and any postponement or adjustment thereof), who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated and who has complied with the advance notice provisions set forth in, and provided the information and certifications required by, our bylaws.

The purpose of requiring stockholders to give advance notice of nominations and other proposals is to afford our Board and our stockholders the opportunity to consider the qualifications of the proposed nominees or the advisability of the other proposals and, to the extent considered necessary by our Board, to inform stockholders and make recommendations regarding the nominations or other proposals. Although our bylaws do not give our Board the power to disapprove timely stockholder nominations and proposals, our bylaws may have the effect of precluding a contest for the election of directors or proposals for other action if the proper procedures are not followed, and of discouraging or deterring a third party from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect its own slate of directors to our Board or to approve its own proposal.

 

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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

The following summary describes material U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to the ownership of our capital stock as of the date hereof by U.S. holders and non-U.S. holders, each as defined below. Except where noted, this summary deals only with shares of our capital stock held as capital assets for U.S. federal income tax purposes and does not deal with special situations, such as those of dealers in securities or currencies, financial institutions, regulated investment companies, tax-exempt entities (except as described in “—Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Capital Stock” below), insurance companies, persons holding our capital stock as a part of a hedging, integrated, conversion or constructive sale transaction or a straddle, traders in securities that elect to use a mark-to-market method of accounting for their securities holdings, persons liable for alternative minimum tax, investors in pass-through entities or U.S. holders of our capital stock whose “functional currency” is not the U.S. dollar. Furthermore, the discussion below is based upon the provisions of the Code and regulations, rulings and judicial decisions thereunder as of the date hereof, and such authorities may be repealed, revoked or modified, possibly with retroactive effect, so as to result in U.S. federal income tax consequences different from those discussed below.

You should consult your tax advisors concerning the U.S. federal income tax consequences in light of your particular situation as well as consequences arising under the laws of any other taxing jurisdiction.

Our Taxation as a REIT

We elected to be taxed as a REIT under the U.S. federal income tax laws beginning with our taxable year ended December 31, 1997. We believe that we have operated in a manner qualifying us as a REIT since our election and intend to continue to so operate. In the opinion of Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP, we qualified to be taxed as a REIT under the U.S. federal income tax laws for our taxable years ended December 31, 2015 through December 31, 2018, and our organization and current and proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to qualify as a REIT for our taxable year ending December 31, 2019 and in the future. You should be aware that Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP’s opinion is based on existing U.S. federal income tax law governing qualification as a REIT, which is subject to change, possibly on a retroactive basis, is not binding on the IRS or any court, and speaks as of the date issued. In addition, Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP’s opinion is based on customary assumptions and is conditioned upon certain representations made by us as to factual matters, including representations regarding the nature of our assets and the future conduct of our business, all of which are described in the opinion. Moreover, our continued qualification and taxation as a REIT depends on our ability to meet, on a continuing basis, through actual operating results, certain qualification tests in the U.S. federal income tax laws. Those qualification tests involve the percentage of our income that we earn from specified sources, the percentages of our assets that fall within specified categories, the diversity of our share ownership and the percentage of our earnings that we distribute. While Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP has reviewed those matters in connection with the foregoing opinion, Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP will not review our compliance with those tests on a continuing basis. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the actual results of our operations for any particular taxable year will satisfy such requirements. Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP’s opinion does not foreclose the possibility that we may have to use one or more of the REIT savings provisions described below, which would require us to pay an excise or penalty tax (which could be material) in order to maintain our REIT qualification. For a discussion of the tax consequences of our failure to qualify as a REIT, see “—Failure to Qualify,” below.

The sections of the Code and the corresponding regulations that govern the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a REIT and its stockholders are highly technical and complex. The following discussion is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Code provisions, rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, and administrative interpretations thereof. In any year in which we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on that portion of our net taxable income that we distribute currently to our stockholders, although taxable income generated by domestic taxable REIT subsidiaries, if any, will be subject to regular corporate income tax. Our stockholders generally will be taxed on dividends that they receive

 

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at ordinary income rates unless such dividends are designated by us as capital gain dividends. Distributions we make are not eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporations. We expect that ordinary dividends paid by us generally will not be eligible for the reduced rates that generally apply to distributions by non-REIT C corporations to certain U.S. individuals, trusts and estates.

We are generally not subject to U.S. corporate income tax on income that we distribute currently to stockholders, but we will be subject to U.S. federal tax as follows:

 

   

We will pay U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income, including net capital gain, that we do not distribute to stockholders during, or within a specified time after, the calendar year in which the income is earned.

 

   

For taxable years prior to 2018, under some circumstances, we may be subject to the “alternative minimum tax” due to our undistributed items of tax preference and alternative minimum tax adjustments.

 

   

If we have net income from “prohibited transactions,” which are, in general, sales or other dispositions of property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, other than foreclosure property, such income will be subject to a 100% tax.

 

   

If we elect to treat property that we acquire in connection with a foreclosure of a mortgage loan or from certain leasehold terminations as “foreclosure property,” we may thereby avoid (a) the 100% tax on gain from a resale of that property (if the sale would otherwise constitute a prohibited transaction) and (b) the inclusion of any income from such property not qualifying for purposes of the REIT gross income tests discussed below, but the income from the sale or operation of the property may be subject to U.S. corporate income tax at the highest applicable rate.

 

   

If due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect we fail to satisfy either the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test discussed below, but nonetheless maintain our qualification as a REIT because other requirements are met, we will be subject to a 100% tax on the greater of the amount by which we fail the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, multiplied in either case by a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

 

   

If we fail to satisfy the asset tests (other than a de minimis failure of the 5% asset test or the 10% vote or value test, as described below under “—Asset Tests”) as long as the failure was due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, we dispose of the assets or otherwise comply with such asset tests within six months after the last day of the quarter in which we identify such failure and we file a schedule with the IRS describing the assets that caused such failure, we will pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the highest income tax rate then applicable to U.S. corporations on the net income from the nonqualifying assets during the period in which we failed to satisfy such asset tests.

 

   

If we fail to satisfy one or more requirements for REIT qualification, other than the gross income tests and the asset tests, and the failure was due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

 

   

We may be required to pay monetary penalties to the IRS in certain circumstances, including if we fail to meet recordkeeping requirements intended to monitor our compliance with rules relating to the composition of a REIT’s stockholders, as described below in “—Requirements for Qualification as a REIT.”

 

   

If we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of:

 

   

85% of our ordinary income for such calendar year;

 

   

95% of our capital gain net income for such calendar year; and

 

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any undistributed taxable income from prior taxable years,

we will pay a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the excess of the required distribution over the amount we actually distributed, plus any retained amounts on which income tax has been paid at the corporate level.

 

   

We may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net long-term capital gain. In that case, a U.S. holder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed long-term capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the holder) in its income, and would receive a credit or a refund for its proportionate share of the tax we paid.

 

   

We will be subject to a 100% excise tax on transactions between us and a taxable REIT subsidiary that are not conducted on an arm’s length basis.

 

   

With respect to an interest in a taxable mortgage pool or a residual interest in a real estate mortgage investment conduit, or REMIC, the ownership of which is attributed to us or to a REIT in which we own an interest, although the law on the matter is unclear as to the ownership of an interest in a taxable mortgage pool, we may be taxable at the highest corporate rate on the amount of any excess inclusion income for the taxable year allocable to the percentage of our stock that is held in record name by “disqualified organizations.” To the extent that we own a REMIC residual interest or a taxable mortgage pool through a taxable REIT subsidiary, we will not be subject to this tax. A “disqualified organization” includes:

 

   

the U.S.;

 

   

any state or political subdivision of the U.S.;

 

   

any foreign government;

 

   

any international organization;

 

   

any agency or instrumentality of any of the foregoing;

 

   

any other tax-exempt organization, other than a farmer’s cooperative described in

 

   

section 521 of the Code, that is exempt both from income taxation and from taxation under the unrelated business taxable income provisions of the Code; and

 

   

any rural electrical or telephone cooperative.

We do not currently intend to hold REMIC residual interests or engage in financing or other activities that would result in the allocation of excess inclusion to our shareholders. See “—Taxable Mortgage Pools and Excess Inclusion Income.”

 

   

If we acquire any appreciated asset from a non-REIT C corporation in a carry-over basis transaction, we could be liable for tax with respect to “built-in gain” in that asset if we recognize gain on the sale or disposition of the asset during the 5-year period after we acquire the asset. Built-in gain is the amount by which an asset’s fair market value exceeds its adjusted tax basis at the time we acquire the asset.

In addition, notwithstanding our status as a REIT, we may also have to pay certain state and local income taxes, because not all states and localities treat REITs in the same manner that they are treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Moreover, as further described below, any domestic taxable REIT subsidiary in which we own an interest will be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on its net income.

Requirements for Qualification as a REIT. The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:

 

  (1)

that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

 

  (2)

the beneficial ownership of which is evidenced by transferable shares, or by transferable certificates of beneficial interest;

 

  (3)

that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for sections 856 through 859 of the Code;

 

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  (4)

that is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company subject to certain provisions of the Code;

 

  (5)

the beneficial ownership of which is held by 100 or more persons;

 

  (6)

of which not more than 50% in value of the outstanding shares are owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities) after applying certain attribution rules;

 

  (7)

that makes an election to be a REIT for the current taxable year or has made such an election for a previous taxable year, which has not been terminated or revoked; and

 

  (8)

that meets other tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets.

Conditions (1) through (4), inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year. Condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months other than the first taxable year for which an election to become a REIT is made. Condition (6) must be met during the last half of each taxable year but neither conditions (5) nor (6) apply to the first taxable year for which an election to become a REIT is made. For purposes of determining the stock ownership requirement described in condition (6) above, an “individual” generally includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefits plan, a private foundation, or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes. An “individual,” however, generally does not include a trust that is a qualified employee pension or profit sharing trust under the U.S. federal income tax laws, and beneficiaries of such a trust will be treated as holding our shares in proportion to their actuarial interests in the trust for purposes of the requirement described in condition (6) above. We believe that we have maintained and will maintain sufficient diversity of ownership to allow us to continue to satisfy conditions (5) and (6) above. In addition, our charter contains restrictions regarding the ownership and transfer of our stock that are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. These restrictions, however, may not ensure that we will be able to satisfy these share ownership requirements. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, we will fail to qualify as a REIT.

If we comply with regulatory rules pursuant to which we are required to send annual letters to holders of our stock requesting information regarding the actual ownership of our stock (as discussed below), and we do not know, or exercising reasonable diligence would not have known, whether we failed to meet condition (6) above, we will be treated as having met the requirement.

To monitor compliance with the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above, we generally are required to maintain records regarding the actual ownership of our stock. To do so, we must demand written statements each year from the record holders of significant percentages of our stock pursuant to which the record holders must disclose the actual owners of the shares (i.e., the persons required to include our dividends in their gross income). We must maintain a list of those persons failing or refusing to comply with this demand as part of our records. We could be subject to monetary penalties if we fail to comply with these record-keeping requirements. If you fail or refuse to comply with the demands, you will be required by U.S. Treasury regulations to submit a statement with your tax return disclosing your actual ownership of our stock and other information. In addition, we must satisfy all relevant filing and other administrative requirements established by the IRS to elect and maintain REIT status, use a calendar year for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and comply with the record keeping requirements of the Code and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Disregarded Entities and Partnerships . An unincorporated domestic entity, such as a partnership or limited liability company, that has a single owner for U.S. federal income tax purposes generally is not treated as an entity separate from its parent for U.S. federal income tax purposes. An unincorporated domestic entity with two or more owners for U.S. federal income tax purposes generally is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In the case of a REIT that is a partner in an entity that is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, U.S. Treasury regulations provide that the REIT is deemed to own its proportionate share

 

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of the partnership’s assets and to earn its proportionate share of the partnership’s gross income based on its pro rata share of capital interests in the partnership for purposes of the asset and gross income tests applicable to REITs, as described below. However, solely for purposes of the 10% value test, described below (see “—Asset Tests”), the determination of a REIT’s interest in partnership assets will be based on the REIT’s proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership, excluding for these purposes, certain excluded securities as described in the Code. In addition, the assets and gross income of the partnership generally are deemed to retain the same character in the hands of the REIT. Thus, our proportionate share of the assets and items of income of partnerships in which we own an equity interest is treated as assets and items of income of our company for purposes of applying the REIT requirements described below. Consequently, to the extent that we directly or indirectly hold a preferred or other equity interest in a partnership or limited liability company, the partnership’s or limited liability company’s assets and operations may affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, even though we may have no control or only limited influence over the partnership.

Qualified REIT Subsidiaries. If a REIT owns a corporate subsidiary that is a “qualified REIT subsidiary,” the separate existence of that subsidiary is disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Generally, a qualified REIT subsidiary is a corporation, other than a taxable REIT subsidiary, all of the stock of which is owned directly or indirectly by the REIT. All assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of the qualified REIT subsidiary will be treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit of the REIT itself. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not subject to U.S. federal corporate income taxation, although it may be subject to state and local taxation in some states.

In the event that a qualified REIT subsidiary or disregarded subsidiary ceases to be wholly owned by us (for example, if any equity interest in the subsidiary is acquired by a person other than us or another disregarded subsidiary of us), the subsidiary’s separate existence would no longer be disregarded for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Instead, it would have multiple owners and would be treated as either a partnership or a taxable corporation. Such an event could, depending on the circumstances, adversely affect our ability to satisfy the various asset and gross income tests applicable to REITs, including the requirement that REITs generally may not own, directly or indirectly, more than 10% of the value or voting power of the outstanding securities of another corporation. See “—Asset Tests” and “—Income Tests.”

Taxable REIT Subsidiaries. A taxable REIT subsidiary is an entity that is taxable as a corporation in which we directly or indirectly own stock and that elects with us to be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. In addition, if a taxable REIT subsidiary owns, directly or indirectly, securities representing 35% or more of the vote or value of a subsidiary corporation, that subsidiary will also be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. However, an entity will not qualify as a taxable REIT subsidiary if it directly or indirectly operates or manages a lodging or health care facility or, generally, provides to another person, under a franchise, license or otherwise, rights to any brand name under which any lodging facility or health care facility is operated. We generally may not own more than 10%, as measured by voting power or value, of the securities of a corporation that is not a qualified REIT subsidiary unless we and such corporation elect to treat such corporation as a taxable REIT subsidiary. Overall, no more than 20% of the value of a REIT’s assets (25% for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018) may consist of stock or securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries.

Income earned by a taxable REIT subsidiary is not attributable to the REIT. As a result, income that might not be qualifying income for purposes of the income tests applicable to REITs could be earned by a taxable REIT subsidiary without affecting our status as a REIT. Our domestic taxable REIT subsidiaries will be fully subject to corporate income tax on their taxable income.

Several provisions of the Code regarding the arrangements between a REIT and its taxable REIT subsidiaries ensure that a taxable REIT subsidiary will be subject to an appropriate level of U.S. federal income taxation. For example, a taxable REIT subsidiary is limited in its ability to deduct interest payments made to affiliated REITs. In addition, we would be obligated to pay a 100% penalty tax on some payments that we receive from, or on certain expenses deducted by, a taxable REIT subsidiary if the IRS were to assert

 

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successfully that the economic arrangements between us and a taxable REIT subsidiary are not comparable to similar arrangements among unrelated parties. Any income earned by a taxable REIT subsidiary that is attributable to services provided to us, or on our behalf to any of our tenants, that is less than the amounts that would have been charged based upon arm’s length negotiations, will also be subject to a 100% penalty tax. We intend to scrutinize all of our transactions with any of our subsidiaries that are treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary in an effort to ensure that we do not become subject to this penalty tax; however, we cannot assure you that we will be successful in avoiding this penalty tax.

Taxable Mortgage Pools and Excess Inclusion Income. An entity, or a portion of an entity, that does not elect to be treated as a REMIC may be classified as a taxable mortgage pool, or TMP, under the Code if:

 

   

substantially all of its assets consist of debt obligations or interests in debt obligations;

 

   

more than 50% of those debt obligations are real estate mortgages or interests in real estate mortgages as of specified testing dates;

 

   

the entity has issued debt obligations (liabilities) that have two or more maturities; and

 

   

the payments required to be made by the entity on its debt obligations “bear a relationship” to the payments to be received by the entity on the debt obligations that it holds as assets.

Under the U.S. Treasury regulations, if less than 80% of the assets of an entity (or a portion of an entity) consists of debt obligations, these debt obligations are considered not to comprise “substantially all” of its assets, and therefore the entity would not be treated as a taxable mortgage pool.

A TMP generally is treated as a taxable corporation and it cannot file a consolidated U.S. federal income tax return with any other corporation. If, however, a REIT owns 100% of the equity interests in a TMP, then the TMP is a qualified REIT subsidiary and, as such, ignored as an entity separate from the REIT, but a portion of the REIT’s income will be treated as excess inclusion income and a portion of the dividends the REIT pays to U.S. holders will be considered to be excess inclusion income.

Section 860E(c) of the Code defines the term “excess inclusion” with respect to a residual interest in a REMIC. The IRS has yet to issue guidance on the computation of excess inclusion income on equity interests in a TMP held by a REIT. Generally, however, excess inclusion income with respect to our investment in any TMP and any taxable year will equal the excess of (i) the amount of income we accrue on our investment in the TMP over (ii) the amount of income we would have accrued if our investment were a debt instrument having an issue price equal to the fair market value of our investment on the day we acquired it and a yield to maturity equal to 120% of the long-term applicable federal rate in effect on the date we acquired our interest. The term “applicable federal rate” refers to rates that are based on weighted average yields for U.S. Treasury securities and are published monthly by the IRS for use in various tax calculations. If we undertake securitization transactions that are TMPs, the amount of excess inclusion income we recognize in any taxable year could represent a significant portion of our total taxable income for that year.

Although we intend to structure our securitization and financing transactions so that we will not recognize any excess inclusion income, we cannot assure you that we will always be successful in this regard. If, notwithstanding our intent, we recognized excess inclusion income, then under guidance issued by the IRS we would be required to allocate the excess inclusion income proportionately among the dividends we pay to our stockholders and we must notify our stockholders of the portion of our dividends that represents excess inclusion income. The portion of any dividend you receive that is treated as excess inclusion income is subject to special rules. First, your taxable income can never be less than the sum of your excess inclusion income for the year; excess inclusion income cannot be offset with net operating losses or other allowable deductions. Second, if you are a tax-exempt organization and your excess inclusion income is subject to the unrelated business income tax, then the excess inclusion portion of any dividend you receive will be treated as unrelated business taxable income. Third, dividends paid to Non-U.S. holders who hold stock for investment and not in connection with a

 

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trade or business conducted in the U.S. will be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax without regard to any reduction in rate otherwise allowed by any applicable income tax treaty.

If we recognize excess inclusion income, and one or more disqualified organizations are record holders of shares of capital stock, we will be taxable at the highest federal corporate income tax rate on the portion of any excess inclusion income equal to the percentage of our stock that is held by disqualified organizations. In such circumstances, we may reduce the amount of our distributions to a disqualified organization whose stock ownership gave rise to the tax. To the extent that our capital stock owned by disqualified organizations is held by a broker/dealer or other nominee, the broker/dealer or other nominee would be liable for a tax at the highest corporate tax rate on the portion of our excess inclusion income allocable to our capital stock held by the broker/dealer or other nominee on behalf of the disqualified organizations.

We do not currently intend to hold REMIC residual interests or engage in financing or other activities that would result in the allocation of excess inclusion to our shareholders.

Tax-exempt investors, non-U.S. investors and taxpayers with net operating losses should carefully consider the tax consequences described above and are urged to consult their tax advisors in connection with their decision to invest in our capital stock.

Income Tests

To qualify as a REIT, we must satisfy two gross income requirements, each of which is applied on an annual basis. First, at least 75% of our gross income for each taxable year generally must be derived directly or indirectly from:

 

   

rents from real property;

 

   

interest on debt secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property;

 

   

dividends or other distributions on, and gain from the sale of, stock in other REITs;

 

   

gain from the sale of real property or mortgage loans;

 

   

abatements and refunds of taxes on real property;

 

   

income and gain derived from foreclosure property (as described below);

 

   

amounts (other than amounts the determination of which depends in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person) received or accrued as consideration for entering into agreements (i) to make loans secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property or (ii) to purchase or lease real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property);

 

   

income derived from a REMIC in proportion to the real estate assets held by the REMIC, unless at least 95% of the REMIC’s assets are real estate assets, in which case all of the income derived from the REMIC; and

 

   

interest or dividend income from investments in stock or debt instruments attributable to the temporary investment of new capital during the one-year period following our receipt of new capital that we raise through equity offerings or public offerings of debt obligations with at least a five-year term.

Second, at least 95% of our gross income for each taxable year must be derived from sources that qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test, and from (i) dividends, (ii) interest and (iii) gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities.

Gross income from the following sources is excluded from both the numerator and the denominator in both gross income tests:

 

   

gain from a sale of property that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business;

 

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income and gain from hedging transactions that we enter into to hedge indebtedness incurred or to be incurred to acquire or carry real estate assets and that are clearly and timely identified as such;

 

   

certain foreign currency gains; and

 

   

cancellation of indebtedness income.

We will monitor the amount of our non-qualifying income and we will seek to manage our portfolio to comply at all times with the gross income tests. The following paragraphs discuss some of the specific applications of the gross income tests to us.

Interest. The term “interest,” as defined for purposes of both gross income tests, generally excludes any amount that is based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person, however, it generally includes the following: (i) an amount that is received or accrued based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales, and (ii) an amount that is based on the income or profits of a debtor, as long as the debtor derives substantially all of its income from the real property securing the debt by leasing substantially all of its interest in the property, and only to the extent that the amounts received by the debtor would be qualifying “rents from real property” if received directly by a REIT. We do not expect that any of our loans will be based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person.

Interest on debt secured by mortgages on real property or on interests in real property, including, for this purpose, prepayment penalties, loan assumption fees and late payment charges that are not compensation for services, generally is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. If a loan is secured by real property and other property and the highest principal amount of a loan outstanding during a taxable year exceeds the fair market value of the real property (including, for loans secured by real property and personal property where the fair market value of the personal property is less than 15% of the total fair market value of all such property, such personal property) securing the loan as of the date (i) we agreed to originate or acquire the loan or (ii) as discussed below, in the event of a “significant modification,” the date we modified the loan, a portion of the interest income from such loan will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test but will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test. However, in the case of a loan that is secured by both real property and personal property, if the fair market value of such personal property does not exceed 15% of the total fair market value of all property securing the loan, then the personal property securing the loan will be treated as real property for purposes of determining whether the interest on such loan is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. If apportionment is required, the percentage of the interest income that will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test will be equal to the percentage of the principal amount of the loan that is not secured by real property—that is, the amount by which the loan exceeds the value of the real estate that is security for the loan.

We expect that the MBS in which we invest generally will be treated either as interests in a grantor trust or as interests in a REMIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes and that all interest income from such MBS will be qualifying income for the 95% gross income test. In the case of MBS treated as interests in grantor trusts, we would be treated as owning an undivided beneficial ownership interest in the mortgage loans held by the grantor trust. The interest on such mortgage loans would be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test to the extent that the obligation is secured by real property, as discussed above. In the case of MBS treated as interests in a REMIC, income derived from REMIC interests generally will be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. If less than 95% of the assets of the REMIC are real estate assets, however, then only a proportionate part of our interest in the REMIC and income derived from the interest will qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test. In addition, some REMIC securitizations include imbedded interest swap or cap contracts or other derivative instruments that potentially could produce non-qualifying income for the holder of the related REMIC securities.

We purchase and sell Agency MBS through to-be-announced forward contracts, or TBAs, and recognize income or gains from the disposition of those TBAs, through dollar roll transactions or otherwise. While there is

 

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no direct authority with respect to the qualification of income or gains from dispositions of TBAs as gains from the sale of real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property) or other qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, we treat income and gains from our TBAs as qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, based on an opinion of prior tax counsel substantially to the effect for purposes of the 75% REIT gross income test, any gain recognized by us in connection with the settlement of our TBAs should be treated as gain from the sale or disposition of an interest in mortgages on real property. If the IRS were to successfully challenge the opinion of counsel, we could be subject to a penalty tax or we could fail to remain qualified as a REIT if a sufficient portion of our income consists of income or gains from the disposition of TBAs.

We own interests in mezzanine loans, which are loans secured by equity interests in an entity that directly or indirectly owns real property, rather than by a direct mortgage of the real property. In Revenue Procedure 2003-65, the IRS established a safe harbor under which loans secured by a first priority security interest in the ownership interests in a partnership or limited liability company owning real property will be treated as real estate assets for purposes of the REIT asset tests described below, and interest derived from those loans will be treated as qualifying income for both the 75% and 95% gross income tests, provided several requirements are satisfied. Although the Revenue Procedure provides a safe harbor on which taxpayers may rely, it does not prescribe rules of substantive tax law. Moreover, our mezzanine loans may not meet all of the requirements for reliance on the safe harbor. To the extent any mezzanine loans that we acquire do not qualify for the safe harbor described above, the interest income from the loans will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but there is a risk that such interest income will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. We believe we have invested, and intend to continue to invest, in mezzanine loans in a manner that will enable us to continue to satisfy the REIT gross income and asset tests.

We may modify the terms of our mortgage or mezzanine loans. Under the Code, if the terms of a loan are modified in a manner constituting a “significant modification,” such modification triggers a deemed exchange of the original loan for the modified loan. IRS Revenue Procedure 2014-51 provides a safe harbor pursuant to which we will not be required to redetermine the fair market value of the real property securing a loan for purposes of the gross income and asset tests in connection with a loan modification that is (i) occasioned by a borrower default or (ii) made at a time when we reasonably believe that the modification to the loan will substantially reduce a significant risk of default on the original loan. To the extent we significantly modify loans in a manner that does not qualify for that safe harbor, we will be required to redetermine the value of the real property securing the loan at the time it was significantly modified, which could result in a portion of the interest income on the loan being treated as nonqualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. In determining the value of the real property securing such a loan, we generally will not obtain third-party appraisals but rather will rely on internal valuations.

The interest, original issue discount, and market discount income that we will receive from our mortgage-related assets generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both gross income tests. Some of our investments, such as the investments we acquire through our middle market lending activities, will not be secured by mortgages on real property or interests in real property. Our interest income from those investments will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test.

We have entered, and intend to enter, into financing arrangements that are structured as sale and repurchase agreements pursuant to which we would nominally sell certain of our assets to a counterparty and simultaneously enter into an agreement to repurchase these assets at a later date in exchange for a purchase price. Economically, these agreements are financings that are secured by the assets sold pursuant thereto. We believe that we would be treated for REIT asset and income test purposes as the owner of the assets that are the subject of any such sale and repurchase agreement notwithstanding that such agreements may transfer record ownership of the assets to the counterparty during the term of the agreement. It is possible, however, that the IRS could assert that we did not own the assets during the term of the sale and repurchase agreement, in which case we could fail to qualify as a REIT.

 

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Hedging Transactions. We may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Hedging transactions could take a variety of forms, including interest rate swap agreements, interest rate cap agreements, options, futures contracts, forward rate agreements or similar financial instruments. Except to the extent provided by U.S. Treasury regulations, any income from a hedging transaction we enter into (i) in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of interest rate or price changes or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made, or ordinary obligations incurred or to be incurred, to acquire or carry real estate assets, which is clearly identified as specified in U.S. Treasury regulations before the close of the day on which it was acquired, originated or entered into, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, (ii) primarily to manage risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that would be qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income tests that is clearly identified as such before the close of the day on which it was acquired, originated or entered into and satisfies other identification requirements, or (iii) in connection with the effective termination of certain hedging transactions described above, will not constitute gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests. To the extent that we enter into other types of hedging transactions, the income from those transactions is likely to be treated as non-qualifying income for purposes of both of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our qualification as a REIT.

We may conduct some or all of our hedging activities through a taxable REIT subsidiary or other corporate entity, the income of which may be subject to U.S. federal income tax, rather than by participating in the arrangements directly or through pass-through subsidiaries.

Fee Income. Fee income generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests if it is received in consideration for entering into an agreement to make a loan secured by real property and the fees are not determined by income and profits. Other fees generally are not qualifying income for purposes of either gross income test. Any fees earned by a taxable REIT subsidiary will not be included for purposes of the gross income tests.

Rents from Real Property. To the extent that we own or acquire real property or an interest therein, rents we receive will qualify as “rents from real property” in satisfying the gross income requirements for a REIT described above only if several conditions are met. These conditions relate to the identity of the tenant, the computation of the rent payable, and the nature of the property leased. First, the amount of rent must not be based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from rents from real property solely by reason of being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales. Second, rents we receive from a “related party tenant” will not qualify as rents from real property in satisfying the gross income tests unless the tenant is a taxable REIT subsidiary at least 90% of the property is leased to unrelated tenants, the rent paid by the taxable REIT subsidiary is substantially comparable to the rent paid by the unrelated tenants for comparable space and the rent is not attributable to an increase in rent due to a modification of a lease with a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” (i.e., a taxable REIT subsidiary in which we own directly or indirectly more than 50% of the voting power or value of the stock). A tenant is a related party tenant if the REIT, or an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of the REIT, actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the tenant. Third, if rent attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property is greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease, then the portion of rent attributable to the personal property will not qualify as rents from real property. Finally, for rents to qualify as “rents from real property” for purposes of the gross income tests, we are only allowed to provide services that are both usually or “customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of real property and not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant.” We may, however, render services to our tenants through an “independent contractor” who is adequately compensated and from whom we do not derive revenue. We may also own a taxable REIT subsidiary which provides non-customary services to tenants without tainting our rental income from the related properties.

Even if a REIT furnishes or renders services that are non-customary with respect to a property, if the greater of (i) the amounts received or accrued, directly or indirectly, or deemed received by the REIT with respect to

 

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such services, or (ii) 150% of our direct cost in furnishing or rendering the services during a taxable year is not more than 1% of all amounts received or accrued, directly or indirectly by the REIT with respect to the property during the same taxable year, then only the amounts with respect to such non-customary services are not treated as rent for purposes of the REIT gross income tests.

Prohibited Transactions Tax. A REIT will incur a 100% tax on the net income derived from any sale or other disposition of property, other than foreclosure property, that the REIT holds primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business. Whether a REIT holds an asset primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business depends, however, on the facts and circumstances in effect from time to time, including those related to a particular asset. Nevertheless, we generally intend to conduct our operations so that no asset that we own will be treated as, or as having been, held for sale to customers, and that a sale of any such asset will not be treated as having been in the ordinary course of our business. We cannot assure you that we will comply with certain safe harbor provisions or that we will avoid owning property that may be characterized as property that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business. The 100% tax will not apply to gains from the sale of property that is held through a taxable REIT subsidiary or other taxable corporation, although such income will be subject to tax in the hands of the corporation at regular corporate income tax rates.

Foreclosure Property. Foreclosure property is any real property, including interests in real property, and any personal property incident to such real property:

 

   

that is acquired by a REIT as the result of the REIT having bid in such property at foreclosure, or having otherwise reduced such property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law, after there was a default or default was imminent on a lease of such property or on indebtedness that such property secured;

 

   

for which the related loan was acquired by the REIT at a time when the default was not imminent or anticipated; and

 

   

for which the REIT makes a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property.

However, a REIT will not be considered to have foreclosed on a property where the REIT takes control of the property as a mortgagee-in-possession and cannot receive any profit or sustain any loss except as a creditor of the mortgagor.

Property generally ceases to be foreclosure property at the end of the third taxable year following the taxable year in which the REIT acquired the property, or longer if an extension is granted by the Secretary of the U.S. Treasury. This grace period terminates and foreclosure property ceases to be foreclosure property on the first day:

 

   

on which a lease is entered into for the property that, by its terms, will give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test, or any amount is received or accrued, directly or indirectly, pursuant to a lease entered into on or after such day that will give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test;

 

   

on which any construction takes place on the property, other than completion of a building or any other improvement, if more than 10% of the construction was completed before default became imminent; or

 

   

which is more than 90 days after the day on which the REIT acquired the property and the property is used in a trade or business that is conducted by the REIT, other than through an independent contractor from whom the REIT itself does not derive or receive any income or a taxable REIT subsidiary.

We will be subject to tax at the maximum corporate rate on any income from foreclosure property, other than income that otherwise would be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, less expenses directly connected with the production of that income. However, income from foreclosure property, including

 

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gain from the sale of foreclosure property held for sale in the ordinary course of a trade or business, will qualify for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests.

We may have the option to foreclose on mortgage loans when a borrower is in default. The foregoing rules could affect a decision by us to foreclose on a particular mortgage loan and could affect whether we choose to foreclose with regard to a particular mortgage loan.

Foreign Currency Gain. Certain foreign currency gains will be excluded from gross income for purposes of one or both of the gross income tests. “Real estate foreign exchange gain” will be excluded from gross income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. Real estate foreign exchange gain generally includes foreign currency gain attributable to any item of income or gain that is qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, foreign currency gain attributable to the acquisition or ownership of (or becoming or being the obligor under) obligations secured by mortgages on real property or an interest in real property and certain foreign currency gain attributable to certain “qualified business units” of a REIT that satisfies the 75% gross income test and 75% asset test on a stand-alone basis. “Passive foreign exchange gain” will be excluded from gross income for purposes of the 95% gross income test. Passive foreign exchange gain generally includes real estate foreign exchange gain as described above, and also includes foreign currency gain attributable to any item of income or gain that is qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test and foreign currency gain attributable to the acquisition or ownership of (or becoming or being the obligor under) obligations. These exclusions for real estate foreign exchange gain and passive foreign exchange gain do not apply to any foreign currency gain derived from dealing, or engaging in substantial and regular trading, in securities. Such gain is treated as nonqualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests.

Dividends. Our dividend income from stock in any corporation (other than any REIT) and from any taxable REIT subsidiary will be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test. If we own stock in other REITs, the dividends that we receive from those REITs and our gain on the sale of the stock in those REITs will be qualifying income for purposes of both gross income tests. However, if a REIT in which we own stock fails to qualify as a REIT in any year, our income from such REIT would be qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not the 75% gross income test.

Phantom income. Due to the nature of the assets in which we will invest, we may be required to recognize taxable income from certain assets in advance of our receipt of cash flow from or proceeds from disposition of such assets, and may be required to report taxable income that exceeds the economic income ultimately realized on such assets.

We may acquire debt instruments or MBS in the secondary market for less than their face amount. The amount of such discount generally will be treated as “market discount” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Accrued market discount is reported as income when, and to the extent that, any payment of principal of the debt instrument is made, unless we elect to include accrued market discount in income as it accrues. Principal payments on certain loans are made monthly, and consequently accrued market discount may have to be included in income each month as if the debt instrument were assured of ultimately being collected in full. If we collect less on the debt instrument than our purchase price plus the market discount we had previously reported as income, we may not be able to benefit from any offsetting loss deductions.

Some of the loans and debt securities that we acquire may have been issued with original issue discount. In general, we will be required to accrue original issue discount based on the constant yield to maturity of the debt securities, and to treat it as taxable income in accordance with applicable U.S. federal income tax rules even though such yield may exceed cash payments, if any, received on such debt instrument.

We generally will be required to take certain amounts in income no later than the time such amounts are reflected on certain financial statements. The application of this rule may require the accrual of income with respect to our debt instruments or MBS, such as original issue discount, earlier than would be the case under the

 

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general tax rules, although the precise application of this rule is unclear at this time. To the extent that this rule requires the accrual of income earlier than under the general tax rules, it could increase our phantom income, which may make it more likely that we could be required to borrow funds or take other action to satisfy the REIT distribution requirements for the taxable year in which this phantom income is recognized. We currently do not expect that this rule will have a material impact on the timing of accrual of our income or on the amount of our distribution requirement. We will consider the potential effects of phantom income on our taxable stockholders in managing our investments.

We may agree to modify the terms of distressed and other loans we hold. These modifications may be considered “significant modifications” for U.S. federal income tax purposes that give rise to a deemed debt-for-debt exchange upon which we may recognize taxable income or gain without a corresponding receipt of cash.

In addition, in the event that any debt instruments or debt securities acquired by us are delinquent as to mandatory principal and interest payments, or in the event payments with respect to a particular debt instrument are not made when due, we may nonetheless be required to continue to recognize the unpaid interest as taxable income. Similarly, we may be required to accrue interest income with respect to subordinated MBS at the stated rate regardless of whether corresponding cash payments are received.

Finally, we may be required under the terms of indebtedness that we incur to use cash received from interest payments to make principal payments on that indebtedness, with the effect of recognizing income but not having a corresponding amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders.

As a result of each of these potential timing differences between income recognition or expense deduction and cash receipts or disbursements, there is a significant risk that we may have substantial taxable income in excess of cash available for distribution. In that event, we may need to borrow funds or take other action to satisfy the REIT distribution requirements for the taxable year in which this “phantom income” is recognized. See “—Annual Distribution Requirements Applicable to REITs.”

Failure to Satisfy Gross Income Tests . If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% and 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for that year if we are entitled to relief under the Code. That relief provision will be available if our failure to meet the tests is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, and we attach a schedule of the sources of our income to our U.S. federal income tax return. It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. For example, if we fail to satisfy the gross income tests because nonqualifying income that we intentionally recognize exceeds the limits on nonqualifying income, the IRS could conclude that the failure to satisfy the tests was not due to reasonable cause. If these relief provisions are inapplicable to a particular set of circumstances, we will fail to qualify as a REIT. Even if these relief provisions apply, a penalty tax would be imposed based on the amount of nonqualifying income. See “—Our Taxation as a REIT” and “—Failure to Qualify.”

Asset Tests

At the close of each quarter of our taxable year, we must satisfy the following tests relating to the nature of our assets.

 

   

At least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by the following (or, the 75% asset class):

 

   

interests in real property, including leaseholds and options to acquire real property and leaseholds, and, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015, personal property to the extent such personal property is leased in connection with real property and rents attributable to such personal property are treated as “rents from real property” as a result of such rents not exceeding 15% of the total rent attributable to personal property and real property under such lease;

 

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interests in mortgages on real property;

 

   

stock in other REITs and debt instruments issued by “publicly offered” REITs;

 

   

cash and cash items;

 

   

government securities;

 

   

investments in stock or debt instruments attributable to the temporary investment of new capital during the one-year period following our receipt of new capital that we raise through equity offerings or public offerings of debt obligations with at least a five-year term; and

 

   

regular or residual interests in a REMIC. However, if less than 95% of the assets of a REMIC consist of assets that are qualifying real estate-related assets under the U.S. federal income tax laws, determined as if we held such assets directly, we will be treated as holding directly our proportionate share of the assets of such REMIC.

 

   

Not more than 25% of our total assets may be represented by securities, other than those in the 75% asset class.

 

   

Except for securities in taxable REIT subsidiaries and the securities in the 75% asset class, the value of any one issuer’s securities owned by us may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets (or, the 5% asset test).

 

   

Except for securities in taxable REIT subsidiaries and the securities in the 75% asset class, we may not own more than 10% of any one issuer’s outstanding voting securities (or, the 10% vote test).

 

   

Except for securities of taxable REIT subsidiaries and the securities in the 75% asset class, we may not own more than 10% of the total value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer, other than securities that qualify for the “straight debt” exception discussed below (or, 10% value test).

 

   

Not more than 20% (25% for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018) of the value of our total assets may be represented by the securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries.

 

   

For any taxable year beginning after December 31, 2015, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments of “publicly offered” REITs that are not secured by real property or interests in real property.

Securities, for the purposes of the asset tests, may include debt we hold from other issuers. However, debt we hold in an issuer that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% asset test will not be taken into account for purposes of the 10% value test if the debt securities meet the straight debt safe harbor. Debt will meet the “straight debt” safe harbor if the debt is a written unconditional promise to pay on demand or on a specified date a sum certain in money, the debt is not convertible, directly or indirectly, into stock, and the interest rate and the interest payment dates of the debt are not contingent on the profits, the borrower’s discretion or similar factors. In the case of an issuer that is a corporation or a partnership, securities that otherwise would be considered straight debt will not be so considered if we, and any of our “controlled taxable REIT subsidiaries” as defined in the Code, hold any securities of the corporate or partnership issuer that (a) are not straight debt or other excluded securities (prior to the application of this rule), and (b) have an aggregate value greater than 1% of the issuer’s outstanding securities (including, for the purposes of a partnership issuer, our interest as a partner in the partnership).

In addition, the following instruments will not be taken into account for purposes of the 10% value test: (i) a REIT’s interest as a partner in a partnership; (ii) any debt instrument issued by a partnership (other than straight debt or any other excluded security) will not be considered a security issued by the partnership if at least 75% of the partnership’s gross income is derived from sources that would qualify for the 75% REIT gross income test; (iii) any debt instrument issued by a partnership (other than straight debt or any other excluded security) will not be to the extent of the REIT’s interest as a partner in the partnership; (iv) any loan to an individual or an estate;

 

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(v) any “section 467 rental agreement,” other than an agreement with a related party tenant; (vi) any obligation to pay “rents from real property”; (vii) certain securities issued by governmental entities that are not dependent in whole or in part on the profits of (or payments made by) a non-governmental entity; and (viii) any security (including debt securities) issued by another REIT. For purposes of the 10% value test, our proportionate share of the assets of a partnership is our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership, without regard to the securities described clause (i) and (ii) in the preceding sentence.

For purposes of the 75% asset test, mortgage loans generally will qualify as real estate assets to the extent that they are secured by real property. Where a mortgage covers both real property and other property, an apportionment may be required in the same manner as described under “—Income Tests—Interest.” IRS Revenue Procedure 2014-51 provides a safe harbor under which the IRS has stated that it will not challenge a REIT’s treatment of a loan as being, in part, a qualifying real estate asset in an amount equal to the lesser of (i) the fair market value of the loan on the relevant quarterly REIT asset testing date or (ii) the greater of (a) the fair market value of the real property securing the loan on the relevant quarterly REIT asset testing date or (b) the fair market value of the real property securing the loan on the date the REIT committed to originate or acquire the loan. It is unclear how the safe harbor in Revenue Procedure 2014-51 is affected by the subsequent legislative changes regarding the treatment of loans secured by both real property and personal property where the fair market value of the personal property does not exceed 15% of the sum of the fair market values of the real property and personal property securing the loan.

As described above, Revenue Procedure 2003-65 provides a safe harbor pursuant to which certain mezzanine loans secured by a first priority security interest in ownership interests in a partnership or limited liability company will be treated as qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test (and therefore, are not subject to the 5% asset test and the 10% vote test or 10% value test). See “— Income Tests.” We believe our mezzanine loans should be treated as qualifying assets for the 75% asset test or should be excluded from the definition of securities for purposes of the 10% vote or 10% value test. To the extent we originate or acquire mezzanine loans, we intend to do so only to the extent such loans will not cause us to fail the asset tests described above.

We expect that our investments in MBS generally will be treated as interests in a grantor trust or as interests in a REMIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In the case of MBS treated as interests in grantor trusts, we would be treated as owning an undivided beneficial ownership interest in the mortgage loans held by the grantor trust. In the case of MBS treated as an interest in a REMIC, such interests generally will qualify as real estate assets, and income derived from REMIC interests generally will be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the REIT income tests described above. If less than 95% of the assets of a REMIC are real estate assets, however, then only a proportionate part of our interest in the REMIC and income derived from the interest qualifies for purposes of the REIT asset and income tests. We purchase and sell Agency MBS through TBAs. While there is no direct authority with respect to the qualification of TBAs as real estate assets or U.S. Government securities for purposes of the 75% asset test, we treat our TBAs as qualifying assets for purposes of the REIT asset tests, based on an opinion of prior tax counsel substantially to the effect that for purposes of the REIT asset tests, our ownership of a TBA should be treated as ownership of real estate assets. If the IRS were to successfully challenge the opinion of counsel, we could be subject to a penalty tax or we could fail to remain qualified as a REIT if a sufficient portion of our assets consists of TBAs.

We believe that most of the assets that we hold and those we expect to hold will be qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test. However, our investment in other asset-backed securities, bank loans and other instruments that are not secured by mortgages on real property will not be qualifying assets for purposes of the 75% asset test.

We will monitor the status of our assets for purposes of the various asset tests and will seek to manage our portfolio to comply at all times with such tests. There can be no assurances, however, that we will be successful in this effort. In this regard, to determine our compliance with these requirements, we will need to estimate the

 

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value of the real estate securing our mortgage loans at various times. In addition, we will be required to value our investment in our other assets to ensure compliance with the asset tests. Although we will seek to be prudent in making these estimates, no independent appraisals will be obtained to support our conclusions as to the value of our assets and securities, or in many cases, the real estate collateral for the senior loans and mezzanine loans that we hold. Moreover, values of some assets may not be susceptible to a precise determination. As a result, there can be no assurances that the IRS may not disagree with these determinations and assert that a different value is applicable, in which case we may not satisfy the 75% and the other asset tests.

We will not lose our REIT status for a de minimis failure to meet the 5% or 10% asset requirements if the failure is due to ownership of assets the total value of which does not exceed the lesser of 1% of the total value of our assets or $10 million. If we fail to satisfy any of the asset requirements for a particular tax quarter, we may still qualify as a REIT if we (1) identify the failure on a separate schedule, (2) the failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, (3) the assets causing the failure are disposed of within six months of the last day of the quarter in which the failure occurred and (4) we pay a tax computed as the greater of either $50,000 or the net income generated by the assets causing the failure multiplied by the highest corporate income tax rate.

After initially meeting the asset tests after the close of any quarter, we will not lose our status as a REIT if we fail to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in the relative values of our assets. However, an acquisition of property by a REIT requires the REIT to revalue all of its assets. If the failure to satisfy the asset tests results from an increase in the value of our assets after the acquisition of securities or other property during a quarter, the failure can be cured by eliminating the discrepancy within 30 days after the close of that quarter. We intend to maintain adequate records of the value of our assets to ensure compliance with the asset tests and to take any available action within 30 days after the close of any quarter as may be required to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests. We cannot ensure that these steps always will be successful. If we fail to cure the noncompliance with the asset tests within this 30-day period, we could fail to qualify as a REIT.

Annual Distribution Requirements Applicable to REITs

To qualify as a REIT, we generally must distribute dividends (other than capital gain dividends) to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to:

 

   

the sum of (i) 90% of our REIT taxable income, computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain and (ii) 90% of our net income after tax, if any, from foreclosure property; minus

 

   

the excess of the sum of specified items of non-cash income (including original issue discount on our senior loans and mezzanine loans) over 5% of our REIT taxable income, computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain.

Distributions generally must be made during the taxable year to which they relate. Distributions may be made in the following year in two circumstances. First, if we declare a dividend in October, November or December of any year with a record date in one of these months and pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year, we will be treated as having paid the dividend on December 31 of the year in which the dividend was declared. Second, distributions may be made in the following year if the dividends are declared before we timely file our tax return for the year and if made before the first regular dividend payment made after such declaration. These distributions are taxable to our stockholders in the year in which paid, even though the distributions relate to our prior taxable year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement. To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain or we distribute at least 90%, but less than 100% of our REIT taxable income, as adjusted, we will be subject to tax on the undistributed amount at regular corporate tax rates.

If we cease to be a “publicly offered REIT,” then in order for distributions to be counted as satisfying the annual distribution requirements for REITs, and to provide us with a REIT-level tax deduction, the distributions

 

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must not be “preferential dividends.” A dividend is not a preferential dividend if the distribution is (i) pro-rata among all outstanding shares of stock within a particular class, and (ii) in accordance with the preferences among different classes of stock as set forth in our organizational documents.

If we fail to distribute during a calendar year (or, in the case of distributions with declaration and record dates falling in the last three months of the calendar year, by the end of January following such calendar year) at least the sum of (i) 85% of our ordinary income for such year, (ii) 95% of our capital gain net income for such year and (iii) any undistributed taxable income from prior years, we will be subject to a 4% excise tax on the excess of such required distribution over the sum of (x) the amounts actually distributed (taking into account excess distributions from prior years) and (y) the amounts of income retained on which we have paid corporate income tax.

We may elect to retain rather than distribute all or a portion of our net capital gains and pay the tax on the gains. In that case, we may elect to have our stockholders include their proportionate share of the undistributed net capital gains in income as long-term capital gains and receive a credit for their share of the tax paid by us. For purposes of the 4% excise tax described above, any retained amounts for which we elect this treatment would be treated as having been distributed.

We intend to make timely distributions sufficient to satisfy the distribution requirements. However, due to the nature of the assets in which we will invest, we may be required to recognize taxable income from those assets in advance of our receipt of cash flow on or proceeds from disposition of such assets. For instance, we may be required to accrue interest and discount income on mortgage loans, MBS, and other types of debt securities or interests in debt securities before we receive any payments of interest or principal on such assets. See “—Income Tests—Phantom Income.” Moreover, in certain instances we may be required to accrue taxable income that we may not actually recognize as economic income. For example, if we own a residual equity position in a mortgage loan securitization, we may recognize taxable income that we will never actually receive due to losses sustained on the underlying mortgage loans. Although those losses would be deductible for tax purposes, they would likely occur in a year subsequent to the year in which we recognized the taxable income.

Although several types of non-cash income are excluded in determining the annual distribution requirement, we will incur corporate income tax and the 4% nondeductible excise tax with respect to those non-cash income items if we do not distribute those items on a current basis. As a result of the foregoing, we may not have sufficient cash to distribute all of our taxable income and thereby avoid corporate income tax and the excise tax imposed on certain undistributed income. In such a situation, we may need to borrow funds or issue additional common stock or preferred stock.

We may satisfy the 90% distribution test with taxable distributions of our stock or debt securities. The IRS has issued a revenue procedure authorizing publicly offered REITs to treat certain distributions that are paid partly in cash and partly in stock as dividends that would satisfy the REIT annual distribution requirement and qualify for the dividends paid deduction for U.S. federal income tax purposes. We have no current intention to make a taxable dividend payable in cash and stock.

Under some circumstances, we may be able to rectify a failure to meet the distribution requirement for a year by paying deficiency dividends to stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. Thus, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends. However, we will be required to pay interest based upon the amount of any deduction taken for deficiency dividends.

Failure to Qualify

If we fail to satisfy one or more requirements of REIT qualification, other than the income tests or asset requirements, then we may still retain REIT qualification if the failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, and we pay a penalty of $50,000 for each failure.

 

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If we fail to qualify for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year and the relief provisions do not apply, we will be subject to tax, including, for taxable years prior to 2018, any applicable alternative minimum tax, on our taxable income at regular corporate rates. This would significantly reduce both our cash available for distribution to our stockholders and our earnings. If we fail to qualify as a REIT, we will not be required to make any distributions to stockholders and any distributions that are made will not be deductible by us. Moreover, all distributions to stockholders would be taxable as dividends to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, whether or not attributable to capital gains of ours. Subject to certain limitations of the Code, corporate distributees may be eligible for the dividends received deduction with respect to those distributions, and individual, trust and estate distributees may be eligible for reduced income tax rates on such dividends. Unless we are entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we also will be disqualified from taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which qualification was lost.

Taxation of U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock

U.S. Holder. As used in the remainder of this discussion, the term “U.S. holder” means a beneficial owner of our capital stock that is for U.S. federal income tax purposes:

 

   

a citizen or resident of the U.S.;

 

   

a corporation (or an entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) created or organized in or under the laws of the U.S., any of its States or the District of Columbia;

 

   

an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

 

   

a trust if it (a) is subject to the primary supervision of a court within the U.S. and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (b) has a valid election in effect under applicable U.S. Treasury regulations to be treated as a U.S. person.

If a partnership (or an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) holds our capital stock, the tax treatment of a partner generally will depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. If you are a partner of a partnership holding our capital stock, you should consult your advisors. A “non-U.S. holder” is a beneficial owner of our capital stock that is neither a U.S. holder nor a partnership (or an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes).

Distributions Generally. As long as we qualify as a REIT, distributions made to taxable U.S. holders of our capital stock out of current or accumulated earnings and profits that are not designated as capital gain dividends will be taken into account by them as ordinary income taxable at ordinary income tax rates and will not qualify for the reduced capital gains rates that currently generally apply to distributions by non-REIT C corporations to certain non-corporate U.S. holders. In determining the extent to which a distribution constitutes a dividend for tax purposes, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to distributions with respect to our preferred stock and then to our common stock. Corporate stockholders will not be eligible for the dividends received deduction with respect to these distributions.

For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026, individuals, trusts and estates may deduct up to 20% of certain pass-through income, including ordinary REIT dividends that are not “capital gain dividends” or “qualified dividend income,” subject to certain limitations (the “pass-through deduction”). For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026, the maximum tax rate for U.S. holders taxed at individual rates is 37%. For taxpayers qualifying for the full pass-through deduction, the effective maximum tax rate on ordinary REIT dividends for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026 would be 29.6%.

Distributions in excess of both current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a U.S. holder to the extent that the distributions do not exceed the adjusted basis of the holder’s stock. Rather, such distributions will reduce the adjusted basis of the stock. To the extent that distributions exceed the adjusted basis

 

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of a U.S. holder’s stock, the distributions will be taxable as capital gains. A U.S. holder’s initial tax basis in a share of our capital stock is, in general, equal to the amount paid per share.

Distributions generally will be taxable, if at all, in the year of the distribution. However, if we declare a dividend in October, November or December of any year with a record date in one of these months and pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year, we will be treated as having paid the dividend, and the stockholder will be treated as having received the dividend, on December 31 of the year in which the dividend was declared.

Capital Gain Dividends. We may elect to designate distributions of our net capital gain as “capital gain dividends.” Capital gain dividends are taxed to U.S. holders of our stock as gain from the sale or exchange of a capital asset held for more than one year. This tax treatment applies regardless of the period during which the U.S. holders have held their stock. If we designate any portion of a dividend as a capital gain dividend, the amount that will be taxable to the stockholder as capital gain will be indicated to U.S. holders on IRS Form 1099-DIV. Corporate U.S. holders, however, may be required to treat up to 20% of capital gain dividends as ordinary income. Capital gain dividends are not eligible for the dividends-received deduction for corporations.

Instead of paying capital gain dividends, we may elect to require U.S. holders to include our undistributed net capital gains in their income. If we make such an election, U.S. holders (i) will include in their income as long-term capital gains their proportionate share of such undistributed capital gains and (ii) will be deemed to have paid their proportionate share of the tax paid by us on such undistributed capital gains and thereby receive a credit or refund for such amount. A U.S. holder of our capital stock will increase the basis in its shares of our capital stock by the difference between the amount of capital gain included in its income and the amount of tax it is deemed to have paid. Our earnings and profits will be adjusted appropriately.

We must classify portions of our designated capital gain dividend into the following categories:

 

   

a 20% gain distribution, which would be taxable to non-corporate U.S. holders of our stock at a rate of up to 20%; or

 

   

an unrecaptured section 1250 gain distribution, which would be taxable to non-corporate U.S. holders of our stock at a maximum rate of 25%.

The IRS currently requires that distributions made to different classes of stock be composed proportionately of dividends of a particular type.

Passive Activity Loss and Investment Interest Limitation. Distributions and gain from the disposition of our capital stock will not be treated as passive activity income, and therefore U.S. holders will not be able to apply any “passive activity losses” against such income. Dividends paid by us, to the extent they do not constitute a return of capital, generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of the investment income limitation on the deduction of the investment interest.

Other Tax Considerations. U.S. holders of our capital stock may not include in their individual income tax returns any of our net operating losses or capital losses. Our operating or capital losses would be carried over by us for potential offset against future income, subject to applicable limitations.

Sales of Our Capital Stock. Upon any taxable sale or other disposition of our capital stock, a U.S. holder of our capital stock will recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes on the disposition of our capital stock in an amount equal to the difference between:

 

   

the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received on such disposition; and

 

   

the U.S. holder’s adjusted basis in such REIT stock for tax purposes.

 

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Gain or loss will be capital gain or loss. The applicable tax rate will depend on the holder’s holding period in the asset (generally, if an asset has been held for more than one year it will produce long-term capital gain) and the holder’s tax bracket.

Medicare Tax. Certain U.S. holders, including individuals and estates and trusts, are subject to an additional 3.8% Medicare tax on all or a portion of their “net investment income,” which includes net gain from a sale or exchange of our capital stock and income from dividends paid on our capital stock. U.S. holders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the Medicare tax.

Redemption of Preferred Stock. A redemption of preferred stock will be treated under section 302 of the Code as a distribution that is taxable as dividend income (to the extent of our current or accumulated earnings and profits), unless the redemption satisfies certain tests set forth in section 302(b) of the Code enabling the redemption to be treated as a sale of the preferred stock (in which case the redemption will be treated in the same manner as a sale described above in “—Taxation of U.S. Holders of our Capital Stock”). The redemption will satisfy such tests if it (i) is “substantially disproportionate” with respect to the U.S. holder’s interest in our stock, (ii) results in a “complete termination” of the U.S. holder’s interest in all classes of our stock or (iii) is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to the U.S. holder, all within the meaning of section 302(b) of the Code. In determining whether any of these tests have been met, stock considered to be owned by the U.S. holder by reason of certain constructive ownership rules set forth in the Code, as well as stock actually owned, generally must be taken into account. Because the determination as to whether any of the three alternative tests of section 302(b) of the Code described above will be satisfied with respect to any particular U.S. holder of preferred stock depends upon the facts and circumstances at the time that the determination must be made, prospective investors are urged to consult their tax advisors to determine such tax treatment. If a redemption of preferred stock does not meet any of the three tests described above, the redemption proceeds will be taxable as a dividend, as described above in “—Taxation of U.S. Holders of our Capital Stock.” In that case, a U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in the redeemed preferred stock will be transferred to such U.S. holder’s remaining stockholdings in our company. If the U.S. holder does not retain any of our stock, such basis could be transferred to a related person that holds our stock or it may be lost.

Under proposed U.S. Treasury regulations, if any portion of the amount received by a U.S. holder on a redemption of any class of our preferred stock is treated as a distribution with respect to our stock but not as a taxable dividend, then such portion will be allocated to all shares of stock of the redeemed class held by the redeemed stockholder just before the redemption on a pro-rata, share-by-share, basis. The amount applied to each share of stock will first reduce the redeemed U.S. holder’s basis in that share and any excess after the basis is reduced to zero will result in taxable gain. If the redeemed stockholder has different bases in its shares of stock, then the amount allocated could reduce some of the basis in certain shares of stock while reducing all the basis and giving rise to taxable gain in others. Thus, the redeemed U.S. holder could have gain even if such U.S. holder’s basis in all its shares of stock of the redeemed class exceeded such portion.

The proposed U.S. Treasury regulations permit the transfer of basis in the redeemed shares of preferred stock to the redeemed U.S. holder’s remaining, unredeemed shares of preferred stock of the same class (if any), but not to any other class of stock held (directly or indirectly) by the redeemed U.S. holder. Instead, any unrecovered basis in the redeemed shares of preferred stock would be treated as a deferred loss to be recognized when certain conditions are satisfied. The proposed U.S. Treasury regulations would be effective for transactions that occur after the date the regulations are published as final U.S. Treasury regulations. There can, however, be no assurance as to whether, when and in what particular form such proposed U.S. Treasury regulations will ultimately be finalized.

Conversion of Preferred Stock. Except as provided below, (i) a U.S. holder generally will not recognize gain or loss upon the conversion of preferred stock into our common stock, and (ii) a U.S. holder’s basis and holding period in our common stock received upon conversion generally will be the same as those of the converted preferred stock (but the basis will be reduced by the portion of adjusted tax basis allocated to any fractional share

 

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exchanged for cash). Any of our shares of common stock received in a conversion that are attributable to accumulated and unpaid dividends on the converted preferred stock will be treated as a distribution that is potentially taxable as a dividend. Cash received upon conversion in lieu of a fractional share generally will be treated as a payment in a taxable exchange for such fractional share, and gain or loss will be recognized on the receipt of cash in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash received and the adjusted tax basis allocable to the fractional share deemed exchanged. This gain or loss will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. holder has held the preferred stock for more than one year at the time of conversion. U.S. holders are urged to consult with their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of any transaction by which such holder exchanges shares of our common stock received on a conversion of preferred stock for cash or other property.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock

The rules governing U.S. federal income taxation of non-U.S. holders are complex. This section is only a summary of such rules. We urge non-U.S. holders to consult their tax advisors to determine the impact of federal, state and local income tax laws on ownership of our capital stock, including any reporting requirements.

For most foreign investors, investment in a REIT that invests principally in mortgage loans and MBS is not the most tax-efficient way to acquire and manage, through our subsidiaries, such assets. That is because receiving distributions of income derived from such assets in the form of REIT dividends subjects most foreign investors to withholding taxes that direct investment in those asset classes, and the direct receipt of interest and principal payments, with respect to them, would not. The principal exceptions are foreign sovereigns and their agencies and instrumentalities, which may be exempt from withholding taxes on REIT dividends under the Code, and certain foreign pension funds or similar entities able to claim an exemption from withholding taxes on REIT dividends under the terms of a bilateral tax treaty between their country of residence and the U.S.

Distributions. Distributions by us to a non-U.S. holder of our capital stock that are neither attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of “U.S. real property interests” nor designated by us as capital gains dividends will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. These distributions ordinarily will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a gross basis at a rate of 30%, or a lower rate as permitted under an applicable income tax treaty, unless the dividends are treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a U.S. trade or business. Under some treaties, however, lower rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from REITs. Further, reduced treaty rates are not available to the extent the income allocated to the non-U.S. holder is excess inclusion income. Although we do not expect to recognize any excess inclusion income, if we did recognize excess inclusion income that exceeds our undistributed REIT taxable income in a particular year, it would be allocated to our stockholders. See “—Our Taxation as a REIT—Taxable Mortgage Pools.” Dividends that are effectively connected with a trade or business will be subject to tax on a net basis, that is, after allowance for deductions, at graduated rates, in the same manner as U.S. holders are taxed with respect to these dividends, and are generally not subject to withholding. Applicable certification and disclosure requirements must be satisfied to be exempt from withholding under the effectively connected income exception. Any dividends received by a corporate non-U.S. holder that is engaged in a U.S. trade or business also may be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a 30% rate, or lower applicable treaty rate. We expect to withhold U.S. income tax at the rate of 30% on any dividend distributions, not designated as (or deemed to be) capital gain dividends, made to a non-U.S. holder unless:

 

   

a lower treaty rate applies and the non-U.S. holder files an IRS Form W-8BEN or IRS Form W-8BEN-E, as applicable, with us evidencing eligibility for that reduced rate is filed with us; or

 

   

the non-U.S. holder files an IRS Form W-8ECI with us claiming that the distribution is income effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s trade or business.

Distributions in excess of our current or accumulated earnings and profits that do not exceed the adjusted basis of the non-U.S. holder in our capital stock will reduce the non-U.S. holder’s adjusted basis in our capital

 

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stock and will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax. Distributions in excess of current and accumulated earnings and profits that do exceed the adjusted basis of the non-U.S. holder in our capital stock will be treated as gain from the sale of its stock, the tax treatment of which is described below. See “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock—Sales of Our Capital Stock.” Because we generally cannot determine at the time we make a distribution whether or not the distribution will exceed our current and accumulated earnings and profits, we normally will withhold tax on the entire amount of any distribution at the same rate as we would withhold on a dividend.

We would be required to withhold at least 15% of any distribution to a non-U.S. holder in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits if our capital stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest with respect to such non-U.S. holder, as described below under “—Sales of Our Capital Stock.” This withholding would apply even if a lower treaty rate applies or the non-U.S. holder is not liable for tax on the receipt of that distribution. However, a non-U.S. holder may seek a refund of these amounts from the IRS if the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. tax liability with respect to the distribution is less than the amount withheld.

Distributions to a non-U.S. holder that are designated by us at the time of the distribution as capital gain dividends, other than those arising from the disposition of a U.S. real property interest, generally should not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation unless:

 

   

the investment in our capital stock is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s trade or business, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to any gain, except that a holder that is a foreign corporation also may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax, as discussed above; or

 

   

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a “tax home” in the U.S., in which case the nonresident alien individual will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s capital gains.

Under the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980, which is referred to as “FIRPTA,” distributions to certain non-U.S. holders that are attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of U.S. real property interests, whether or not designated as a capital gain dividend, will cause such non-U.S. holders to be treated as recognizing gain that is income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. Such non-U.S. holders will be taxed on this gain at the same rates applicable to U.S. holders, subject to a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. Also, this gain may be subject to a 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate) branch profits tax in the hands of a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation. Unless the non-U.S. holder is a “qualified shareholder” or a “qualified foreign pension fund” (each as defined below), we will be required to withhold and remit to the IRS 21% of any distributions to non-U.S. holders that are designated as capital gain dividends, or, if greater, 21% of a distribution that could have been designated as a capital gain dividend, whether or not attributable to sales of U.S. real property interests. Distributions can be designated as capital gains to the extent of our net capital gain for the taxable year of the distribution. The amount withheld, which for individual non-U.S. holders may exceed the actual tax liability, is creditable against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability.

However, the 21% withholding tax will not apply to any capital gain dividend with respect to any class of our stock which is regularly traded on an established securities market located in the U.S. if the non-U.S. stockholder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of such dividend. Instead, any capital gain dividend to such holder will be treated as a distribution of ordinary income subject to the rules discussed above under “—Distributions.” Also, the branch profits tax will not apply to such a distribution.

 

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Sales of Our Capital Stock. Gain recognized by a non-U.S. holder upon the sale or exchange of our capital stock generally would not be subject to U.S. taxation unless:

 

   

the investment in our capital stock is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. trade or business, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as domestic holders with respect to any gain;

 

   

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and has a tax home in the U.S., in which case the nonresident alien individual will be subject to a 30% tax on the individual’s net capital gains for the taxable year; or

 

   

the non-U.S. holder is not a “qualified shareholder” or a “qualified foreign pension fund” and our capital stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest within the meaning of FIRPTA, as described below.

Our capital stock will not constitute a U.S. real property interest if we either are not a U.S. real property holding corporation or we are a domestically-controlled REIT. Whether we are a U.S. real property holding corporation will depend upon whether the fair market value of U.S. real property interests owned by us equals or exceeds 50% of the fair market value of these interests, any interests in real estate outside of the U.S., and our other trade and business assets. The term “U.S. real property interests” generally does not include mortgage loans or MBS. Even if we are a U.S. real property holding corporation, the disposition of our capital stock will not be subject to FIRPTA if we are a domestically-controlled REIT. Generally, a REIT is domestically controlled if, at all times during a specified testing period, less than 50% of the value of its shares is held directly or indirectly by non-U.S. persons.

Because our capital stock will be publicly traded, no assurance can be given that we are or will be a domestically-controlled REIT. Even if we were a U.S. real property holding corporation and were not a domestically-controlled REIT, a sale of capital stock by a non-U.S. holder would nevertheless not be subject to taxation under FIRPTA as a sale of a U.S. real property interest if:

 

   

the applicable class or series of our capital stock were “regularly traded” on an established securities market within the meaning of applicable U.S. Treasury regulations; and

 

   

the non-U.S. holder did not actually, or constructively under specified attribution rules under the Code, own more than 10% of the applicable class or series of our capital stock at any time during the shorter of the five-year period preceding the disposition or the holder’s holding period.

We believe that our common stock, Series C Preferred Stock, Series D Preferred Stock, Series F Preferred Stock, Series G Preferred Stock and Series H Preferred Stock are currently treated as being regularly traded on an established securities market. If gain on the sale or exchange of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the non-U.S. holder would be subject to regular U.S. income tax with respect to any gain in the same manner as a taxable U.S. holder, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. In such case, under FIRPTA, the purchaser of capital stock may be required to withhold 15% of the purchase price and remit this amount to the IRS.

Qualified Shareholders. Subject to the exception discussed below, any distribution to a “qualified shareholder” who holds REIT stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation under FIRPTA and thus will not be subject to special withholding rules under FIRPTA. While a “qualified shareholder” will not be subject to FIRPTA withholding on REIT distributions, the portion of REIT distributions attributable to certain investors in a “qualified shareholder” (i.e., non-U.S. persons who hold interests in the “qualified shareholder” (other than interests solely as a creditor), and directly or indirectly hold more than 10% of the applicable class or series of the stock of such REIT (whether or not by reason of the investor’s ownership in the “qualified shareholder”)) may be subject to FIRPTA withholding. REIT distributions received by a “qualified shareholder” that are exempt from FIRPTA withholding may still be subject to regular U.S. withholding tax.

 

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In addition, a sale of our stock by a “qualified shareholder” who holds such stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation under FIRPTA. As with distributions, the portion of amounts realized attributable to certain investors in a “qualified shareholder” (i.e., non-U.S. persons who hold interests in the “qualified shareholder” (other than interests solely as a creditor), and directly or indirectly hold more than 10% of the applicable class or series of the stock of such REIT (whether or not by reason of the investor’s ownership in the “qualified shareholder”)) may be subject to U.S. federal income taxation and FIRPTA withholding on a sale of our stock.

A “qualified shareholder” is a foreign person that (i) either is eligible for the benefits of a comprehensive income tax treaty which includes an exchange of information program and whose principal class of interests is listed and regularly traded on one or more recognized stock exchanges (as defined in such comprehensive income tax treaty), or is a foreign partnership that is created or organized under foreign law as a limited partnership in a jurisdiction that has an agreement for the exchange of information with respect to taxes with the U.S. and has a class of limited partnership units representing greater than 50% of the value of all the partnership units that is regularly traded on the NYSE or Nasdaq markets, (ii) is a “qualified collective investment vehicle” (defined below), and (iii) maintains records on the identity of each person who, at any time during the foreign person’s taxable year, is the direct owner of 5% or more of the class of interests or units (as applicable) described in (i), above.

A qualified collective investment vehicle is a foreign person that (i) would be eligible for a reduced rate of withholding under the comprehensive income tax treaty described above, even if such entity holds more than 10% of the applicable class or series of the stock of such REIT, (ii) is publicly traded, is treated as a partnership under the Code, is a withholding foreign partnership, and would be treated as a “United States real property holding corporation” if it were a domestic corporation, or (iii) is designated as such by the Secretary of the U.S. Treasury and is either (a) fiscally transparent within the meaning of section 894 of the Code, or (b) required to include dividends in its gross income, but is entitled to a deduction for distributions to its investors.

Qualified Foreign Pension Funds. Any distribution to a “qualified foreign pension fund” (or an entity all of the interests of which are held by a “qualified foreign pension fund”) who holds REIT stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation under FIRPTA and thus will not be subject to special withholding rules under FIRPTA. REIT distributions received by a “qualified foreign pension fund” that are exempt from FIRPTA withholding may still be subject to regular U.S. withholding tax. In addition, a sale of our stock by a “qualified foreign pension fund” that holds such stock directly or indirectly (through one or more partnerships) will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation under FIRPTA.

A qualified foreign pension fund is any trust, corporation, or other organization or arrangement (i) which is created or organized under the law of a country other than the U.S., (ii) which is established by such country or an employer to provide retirement or pension benefits to participants or beneficiaries that are current or former employees (or persons designated by such employees) of one or more employers in consideration for services rendered, (iii) which does not have a single participant or beneficiary with a right to more than 5% of its assets or income, (iv) which is subject to government regulation and with respect to which annual information reporting about its beneficiaries is provided or otherwise available to the relevant tax authorities in the country in which it is established or operates, and (v) with respect to which, under the laws of the country in which it is established or operates, (a) contributions to such organization or arrangement that would otherwise be subject to tax under such laws are deductible or excluded from the gross income of such entity or taxed at a reduced rate, or (b) taxation of any investment income of such organization or arrangement is deferred or such income is taxed at a reduced rate.

Conversion of Preferred Stock. The conversion of our preferred stock into our common stock may be a taxable exchange for a non-U.S. holder if our preferred stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest. Even if our preferred stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest, provided our common stock also constitutes a U.S. real property interest, a non-U.S. holder generally will not recognize gain or loss upon a conversion of preferred stock

 

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into our common stock so long as certain FIRPTA-related reporting requirements are satisfied. If our preferred stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest and such requirements are not satisfied, however, a conversion will be treated as a taxable exchange of preferred stock for our common stock. Such a deemed taxable exchange will be subject to tax under FIRPTA at the rate of tax, including any applicable capital gains rates, that would apply to a U.S. holder of the same type (e.g., a corporate or a non-corporate stockholder, as the case may be) on the excess, if any, of the fair market value of such non-U.S. holder’s common stock received over such non-U.S. holder’s adjusted basis in its preferred stock. Collection of such tax will be enforced by a refundable withholding tax at a rate of 15% of the value of the common stock.

Non-U.S. holders are urged to consult with their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of any transaction by which such non-U.S. holder exchanges shares of our common stock received on a conversion of preferred stock for cash or other property.

Redemption of Preferred Stock. For a discussion of the treatment of a redemption of preferred stock, see “Taxation of U.S. Holders of our Capital Stock—Redemption of Preferred Stock.”

Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Capital Stock

Provided that a tax-exempt holder has not held its capital stock as “debt-financed property” within the meaning of the Code, the dividend and interest income from us generally will not be unrelated business taxable income, referred to as UBTI, to a tax-exempt holder. Similarly, income from the sale of our capital stock will not constitute UBTI unless the tax-exempt holder has held its capital stock as debt-financed property within the meaning of the Code. Although we do not expect to recognize any excess inclusion income, to the extent that we, or a part of us, or a disregarded subsidiary of ours, is a taxable mortgage pool, a portion of the dividends paid to a tax-exempt stockholders that is allocable to excess inclusion income may be subject to tax as UBTI. See “—Our Taxation as a REIT—Taxable Mortgage Pools.”

Notwithstanding the above, however, social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations, supplemental unemployment benefit trusts and qualified group legal services plans that are exempt from taxation under special provisions of the U.S. federal income tax laws are subject to different UBTI rules, which generally will require them to characterize distributions that they receive from us as UBTI. Moreover, a portion of the dividends paid by a “pension-held REIT” are treated as UBTI as to any trust which is described in section 401(a) of the Code, is tax-exempt under section 501(a) of the Code, and holds more than 10%, by value, of the interests in the REIT. Tax-exempt pension funds that are described in section 401(a) of the Code are referred to below as “pension trusts.”

A REIT is a “pension-held REIT” if it meets the following two tests:

 

   

it would not have qualified as a REIT but for section 856(h)(3) of the Code, which provides that stock owned by pension trusts will be treated, for purposes of determining whether the REIT is closely held, as owned by the beneficiaries of the trust rather than by the trust itself; and

 

   

either (i) at least one pension trust holds more than 25% of the value of the interests in the REIT, or (ii) a group of pension trusts each individually holding more than 10% of the value of the REIT’s stock, collectively owns more than 50% of the value of the REIT’s stock.

The percentage of any REIT dividend from a “pension-held REIT” that is treated as UBTI is equal to the ratio of the UBTI earned by the REIT, treating the REIT as if it were a pension trust and therefore subject to tax on UBTI, to the total gross income of the REIT. An exception applies where the percentage is less than 5% for any year, in which case none of the dividends would be treated as UBTI. The provisions requiring pension trusts to treat a portion of REIT distributions as UBTI will not apply if the REIT is not a “pension-held REIT” (for example, if the REIT is able to satisfy the “not closely held requirement” without relying on the “look through” exception with respect to pension trusts). Our 9.8% ownership limit may make it less likely that a pension trust

 

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would hold more than 25% of the value of our capital stock or that a group of pension trusts each holding more than 10% of the value of our capital stock would hold more than 50% of the value of our capital stock. No assurance can be given, however, that we will not be a “pension-held REIT” because of ownership waivers or otherwise.

Backup Withholding Tax and Information Reporting

U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock. In general, information-reporting requirements will apply to payments of dividends and interest on and payments of the proceeds of the sale of our capital stock held by U.S. holders, unless an exception applies. The payor is required to withhold tax on such payments if (i) the payee fails to furnish a taxpayer identification number, or TIN, to the payor or to establish an exemption from backup withholding, or (ii) the IRS notifies the payor that the TIN furnished by the payee is incorrect. In addition, a payor of the dividends or interest on our capital stock is required to withhold tax if (i) there has been a notified payee under-reporting with respect to interest, dividends or original issue discount described in section 3406(c) of the Code, or (ii) there has been a failure of the payee to certify under the penalty of perjury that the payee is not subject to backup withholding under the Code. A U.S. holder that does not provide us with a correct TIN may also be subject to penalties imposed by the IRS. In addition, we may be required to withhold a portion of capital gain distributions to any U.S. holders who fail to certify their U.S. status to us. Some U.S. holders of our capital stock, including corporations, may be exempt from backup withholding. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules from a payment to a stockholder will be allowed as a credit against the stockholder’s U.S. federal income tax and may entitle the stockholder to a refund, provided that the required information is furnished to the IRS. The payor will be required to furnish annually to the IRS and to holders of our capital stock information relating to the amount of dividends paid on our capital stock, and that information reporting may also apply to payments of proceeds from the sale of our capital stock. Some holders, including corporations, financial institutions and certain tax-exempt organizations, are generally not subject to information reporting.

Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock. Generally, information reporting will apply to payments of interest and dividends on our capital stock, and backup withholding described above for a U.S. holder will apply, unless the payee certifies that it is not a U.S. person or otherwise establishes an exemption.

The payment of the proceeds from the disposition of our capital stock to or through the U.S. office of a U.S. or foreign broker will be subject to information reporting and backup withholding as described above for U.S. holders unless the non-U.S. holder satisfies the requirements necessary to be an exempt non-U.S. holder or otherwise qualifies for an exemption. The proceeds of a disposition by a non-U.S. holder of our capital stock to or through a foreign office of a broker generally will not be subject to information reporting or backup withholding. However, if the broker is a U.S. person, a controlled foreign corporation for U.S. tax purposes, a foreign person 50% or more of whose gross income from all sources for specified periods is from activities that are effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business, a foreign partnership if partners who hold more than 50% of the interest in the partnership are U.S. persons, or a foreign partnership that is engaged in the conduct of a trade or business in the U.S., then information reporting generally will apply as though the payment was made through a U.S. office of a U.S. or foreign broker.

Applicable U.S. Treasury regulations provide presumptions regarding the status of a holder of our capital stock when payments to such holder cannot be reliably associated with appropriate documentation provided to the payer. Because the application of these U.S. Treasury regulations varies depending on the stockholder’s particular circumstances, you are advised to consult your tax advisor regarding the information reporting requirements applicable to you.

Additional Withholding Requirement. Under sections 1471 through 1474 of the Code (such sections commonly referred to as “FATCA”), a 30% U.S. federal withholding tax will apply to dividends that we pay to certain foreign entities if such entities do not satisfy disclosure requirements related to U.S. accounts or ownership. Foreign entities must provide documentation evidencing compliance with or an exemption from

 

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FATCA, typically provided on IRS Form W-8BEN-E, to avoid this withholding tax. If a payment is both subject to withholding under FATCA and subject to withholding tax discussed above, the withholding under FATCA may be credited against, and therefore reduce, such other withholding tax. Non-U.S. holders and U.S. holders holding through foreign accounts or intermediaries should consult their tax advisors to determine the applicability of FATCA in light of their individual circumstances.

Legislative or Other Actions Affecting REITs

The present U.S. federal income tax treatment of REITs may be modified, possibly with retroactive effect, by legislative, judicial, or administrative action at any time. The REIT rules are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS and the U.S. Treasury Department which may result in statutory changes as well as revisions to regulations and interpretations. The tax law informally known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or the TCJA, significantly changed the U.S. federal income tax laws applicable to businesses and their owners, including REITs and their stockholders. Additional technical corrections or other amendments to the TCJA or administrative guidance interpreting the TCJA may be forthcoming at any time. We cannot predict the long-term effect of the TCJA or any future law changes on REITs and their stockholders. Prospective investors are urged to consult with their tax advisors regarding the effect of potential changes to the federal tax laws on an investment in our capital stock.

State and Local Taxes

We and our stockholders may be subject to state or local taxation in various state or local jurisdictions, including those in which we or they transact business or reside. Our state and local tax treatment and that of our stockholders may not conform to the U.S. federal income tax treatment discussed above. Consequently, prospective stockholders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect of state and local tax laws on an investment in our capital stock.

Tax Shelter Reporting

If a stockholder recognizes a loss with respect to stock of $2 million or more for an individual stockholder or $10 million or more for a corporate stockholder, the stockholder must file a disclosure statement with the IRS on Form 8886. Direct stockholders of portfolio securities are in many cases exempt from this reporting requirement, but stockholders of a REIT currently are not excepted. The fact that a loss is reportable under these regulations does not affect the legal determination of whether the taxpayer’s treatment of the loss is proper. Stockholders should consult their tax advisors to determine the applicability of these regulations in light of their individual circumstances.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplements to or through one or more underwriters or dealers, or we may sell the securities to investors directly or through agents. Each prospectus supplement, to the extent applicable, will describe the number and terms of the securities to which such prospectus supplement relates, the name or names of any underwriters or agents with whom we have entered into arrangements with respect to the sale of such securities, the public offering or purchase price of such securities, the net proceeds we will receive from such sale and any discounts or concessions allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers. Any underwriter or agent involved in the offer and sale of the securities will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement. We may sell securities directly to investors on our own behalf in those jurisdictions where we are authorized to do so.

Underwriters may offer and sell the securities at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to the prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. We also may, from time to time, authorize dealers or agents to offer and sell these securities upon such terms and conditions as may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. In connection with the sale of any of these securities, underwriters may receive compensation from us in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions and may also receive commissions from purchasers of the securities for whom they may act as agent. Underwriters may sell the securities to or through dealers, and such dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters or commissions from the purchasers for which they may act as agents.

Shares may also be sold in one or more of the following transactions: (a) block transactions (which may involve crosses) in which a broker-dealer may sell all or a portion of the shares as agent but may position and resell all or a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction; (b) purchases by a broker-dealer as principal and resale by the broker-dealer for its own account pursuant to a prospectus supplement; (c) a special offering, an exchange distribution or a secondary distribution in accordance with applicable New York Stock Exchange or other stock exchange rules; (d) ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which a broker-dealer solicits purchasers; (e) sales “at the market” to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market, on an exchange or otherwise, for shares; and (f) sales in other ways not involving market makers or established trading markets, including direct sales to purchasers. Broker-dealers may also receive compensation from purchasers of the shares, which is not expected to exceed that customary in the types of transactions involved.

Any underwriting compensation paid by us to underwriters or agents in connection with the offering of these securities, and any discounts or concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers, will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions.

Underwriters, dealers and agents may be entitled, under agreements entered into with us, to indemnification against and contribution toward certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. Unless otherwise set forth in the accompanying prospectus supplement, the obligations of any underwriters to purchase any of these securities will be subject to certain conditions precedent.

In connection with the offering of the securities hereby, certain underwriters, and selling group members and their respective affiliates, may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the market price of the applicable securities. These transactions may include stabilization transactions effected in accordance with Rule 104 of Regulation M promulgated by the SEC pursuant to which these persons may bid for or purchase securities for the purpose of stabilizing their market price.

 

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The underwriters in an offering of securities may also create a “short position” for their account by selling more securities in connection with the offering than they are committed to purchase from us. In that case, the underwriters could cover all or a portion of the short position by either purchasing securities in the open market following completion of the offering of these securities or by exercising any over-allotment option granted to them by us. In addition, the managing underwriter may impose “penalty bids” under contractual arrangements with other underwriters, which means that they can reclaim from an underwriter (or any selling group member participating in the offering) for the account of the other underwriters, the selling concession for the securities that are distributed in the offering but subsequently purchased for the account of the underwriters in the open market. Any of the transactions described in this paragraph, or comparable transactions that are described in any accompanying prospectus supplement, may result in the maintenance of the price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. None of the transactions described in this paragraph or in an accompanying prospectus supplement are required to be taken by any underwriters and, if they are undertaken, may be discontinued at any time.

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “NLY”, our Series C Preferred Stock under the symbol “NLY PrC”, our Series D Preferred Stock under the symbol “NLY PrD”, our Series F Preferred Stock under the symbol “NLY PrF”, our Series G Preferred Stock under the symbol “NLY PrG” and our Series H Preferred Stock under the symbol “NLY PrH”. Except for our common stock or as otherwise described in the applicable prospectus supplement, all other securities offered hereby will be new issues of securities with no established trading market and may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. Any underwriters or agents to or through which securities are sold by us may make a market in the securities, but these underwriters or agents will not be obligated to do so and any of them may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. No assurance can be given as to the liquidity of or trading market for any securities sold by us.

Underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us and our affiliates in the ordinary course of business. Underwriters have from time to time in the past provided, and may from time to time in the future provide, investment banking services to us for which they have in the past received, and may in the future receive, customary fees.

 

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EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements incorporated in this prospectus by reference from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, and the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report, which is incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements have been so incorporated in reliance upon the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the securities offered hereby is being passed upon for us by Venable LLP. The opinion of counsel described under the heading “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” is being rendered by Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP. This opinion is subject to various assumptions and is based on current tax law.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION ABOUT US

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that site is http://www.sec.gov . Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “NLY”, our Series C Preferred Stock under the symbol “NLY PrC”, our Series D Preferred Stock under the symbol “NLY PrD”, our Series F Preferred Stock under the symbol “NLY PrF”, our Series G Preferred Stock under the symbol “NLY PrG” and our Series H Preferred Stock under the symbol “NLY PrH”. All such reports, proxy statements and other information filed by us with the New York Stock Exchange may be inspected at the New York Stock Exchange’s offices at 20 Broad Street, New York, New York 10005. Finally, we also maintain an Internet site where you can find additional information. The address of our Internet site is http://www.annaly.com . All internet addresses provided in this prospectus or in any accompanying prospectus supplement are for informational purposes only and are not intended to be hyperlinks. In addition, the information on our internet site is not a part of, and is not incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into, this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement or other offering materials. Accordingly, no information in our or any of these other internet addresses is included herein or incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference herein.

We have filed a registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, covering the securities offered hereby. As allowed by SEC rules, this prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits, financial statements and schedules thereto. We refer you to the registration statement, the exhibits, financial statements and schedules thereto for further information. This prospectus is qualified in its entirety by such other information.

 

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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, except for any information superseded by information in this prospectus. We have filed the documents listed below with the SEC (File No. 1-13447) under the Exchange Act, and these documents are incorporated herein by reference:

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017 filed on February 16, 2018;

 

   

The information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017 from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 10, 2018;

 

   

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2018 filed on May 3, 2018;

 

   

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2018 filed on August 3, 2018;

 

   

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q/A for the quarter ended September 30, 2018 filed on November 2, 2018;

 

   

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on January 3, 2018, January 9, 2018, January 12, 2018, May 2, 2018, May 3, 2018, May 23, 2018, September 7, 2018, September 14, 2018, October 10, 2018, December 13, 2018 and January 10, 2019 (other than documents or portions of those documents not deemed to be filed);

 

   

Description of our common stock included in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed on October 6, 1997;

 

   

Description of our 7.625% Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock included in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed May 16, 2012;

 

   

Description of our 7.50% Series D Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock included in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed September 13, 2012;

 

   

Description of our 6.95% Series F Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock included in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed July 27, 2017;

 

   

Description of our 6.50% Series G Fixed-to-Floating Rate Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock included in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed January 10, 2018; and

 

   

Description of our 8.125% Series H Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock included in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed September 7, 2018.

All documents we file pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering of the securities to which this prospectus relates (other than information in such documents that is furnished and not deemed to be filed) shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and to be part hereof from the date of filing of those documents. All documents we file pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of the initial registration statement that contains this prospectus and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and to be part hereof from the date of filing those documents.

Any statement contained in this prospectus or in a document incorporated by reference shall be deemed to be modified or superseded for all purposes to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or in any other document that is also incorporated by reference modifies or supersedes that statement.

 

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We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a copy of this prospectus is delivered, a copy of any or all of the information that has been incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with this prospectus (other than the exhibits to such documents which are not specifically incorporated by reference herein); we will provide this information at no cost to the requester upon written or oral request to Investor Relations, Annaly Capital Management, Inc., 1211 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10036, telephone number (888) 8ANNALY.

 

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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14.

Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

The fees and expenses to be paid in connection with the distribution of the securities being registered hereby are estimated as follows:

 

     Amounts to
be paid
 

Registration fee

   $             *  

Legal fees and expenses (including Blue Sky fees)

   $             **  

Accounting fees and expenses

   $             **  

Printing

   $             **  

Trustee fees

   $             **  

Miscellaneous

   $             **  
  

 

 

 

Total

   $             **  
  

 

 

 

 

*

Deferred pursuant to Rules 456(b) and 457(r).

**

Estimated expenses are not presently known.

 

Item 15.

Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

The MGCL permits the charter of a Maryland corporation to include a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages, except to the extent that (1) it is proved that the person actually received an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services; or (2) a judgment or other final adjudication adverse to the person is entered in a proceeding based on a finding that the person’s action, or failure to act, was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty and was material to the cause of action adjudicated in the proceeding. Our charter provides for elimination of the liability of our directors and officers to us or our stockholders for money damages to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law from time to time.

The MGCL requires us (unless our charter were to provide otherwise, which it does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made a party to by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits us to indemnify our present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to or in which they may be made or threatened to be made a party to or witness in by reason of their service in those or certain other capacities unless it is established that:

 

   

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (a) was committed in bad faith or (b) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

 

   

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

   

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

The MGCL prohibits us from indemnifying a director or officer who has been adjudged liable in a suit by us or on our behalf or in which the director or officer was adjudged liable on the basis that a personal benefit was improperly received. A court may order indemnification if it determines that the director or officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification, even though the director or officer did not meet the prescribed standard of

 

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conduct or was adjudged liable on the basis that a personal benefit was improperly received; however, indemnification for an adverse judgment in a suit by us or on our behalf, or for a judgment of liability on the basis that a personal benefit was improperly received, is limited to expenses.

In addition, the MGCL permits us to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon our receipt of (a) a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification and (b) a written undertaking by him or her or on his or her behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed if it is ultimately determined that the standard of conduct was not met.

To the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, our charter and bylaws obligate us to indemnify any individual who is made or threatened to be made a party to or witness in a proceeding by reason of his or her service:

 

   

as a director or officer of us; or

 

   

while a director or officer and at our request, as a director, officer, trustee, member, manager or partner of another corporation, real estate investment trust, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise,

in each case, from and against any claim or liability to which he or she may become subject or that he or she may incur by reason of his or her service in any of these capacities, and to pay or reimburse his or her reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding. Our charter and bylaws also permit us, with the approval of our Board, to indemnify and advance expenses to any individual who served any of our predecessors in any of the capacities described above and any employee or agent of ours or any of our predecessors.

We maintain policies of insurance under which our directors and officers are insured, within the limits and subject to the limitations of the policies, against expenses in connection with the defense of actions, suits or proceedings resulting from such director or officer being or having been a director or officer, and certain liabilities which might be imposed as a result of these actions, suits or proceedings.

 

Item 16.

Exhibits.

 

Exhibit
Number

  

Exhibit Description

  1.1*    Form of Underwriting Agreement
  4.1    Specimen Common Stock Certificate (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to Amendment No.  1 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-11 (Registration No. 333-32913), filed with the SEC on September 17, 1997)
  4.2    Specimen Series C Preferred Stock Certificate (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on May 16, 2012)
  4.3    Specimen Series D Preferred Stock Certificate (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on September 13, 2012)
  4.4    Specimen Series F Preferred Stock Certificate (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.8 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on July 27, 2017)
  4.5    Specimen Series G Preferred Stock Certificate (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.9 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on January 10, 2018)
  4.6    Specimen Series H Preferred Stock Certificate (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.10 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement (Registration No. 333-224968) on Form S-4/A filed with the SEC on May 31, 2018)

 

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Exhibit
Number

  

Exhibit Description

  4.7    Indenture, dated as of February 1, 2019, between the Registrant and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association
  4.8*    Form of Debt Security
  4.9*    Form of Warrant
  4.10*    Form of Warrant Agreement
  4.11*    Form of Purchase Contract Agreement
  4.12*    Form of Unit Certificate
  4.13*    Form of Unit Agreement
  5.1    Opinion of Venable LLP (including consent of such firm)
  8.1    Tax Opinion of Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP (including consent of such firm)
23.1    Consent of Ernst & Young LLP
23.2    Consent of Venable LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)
23.3    Consent of Hunton Andrews Kurth LLP (included in Exhibit 8.1)
24.1    Power of Attorney (included on the signature page of the Registration Statement)
25.1    Statement of Eligibility of Wells Fargo Bank, National Association on Form T-1
25.2**    Statement of Eligibility of any other trustee on Form T-1

 

*

To be filed by amendment or incorporated by reference in connection with the offerings of the securities.

**

To be filed, as applicable, on electronic form type “305B2” in accordance with the requirements of Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

 

Item 17.

Undertakings.

 

(a)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

  (1)

To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

  (i)

To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

  (ii)

To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in this registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

  (iii)

To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in this registration statement;

 

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provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

  (2)

That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (3)

To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

  (4)

That, for purposes of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

  (i)

Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

  (ii)

Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

  (5)

That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

  (i)

Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

  (ii)

Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

  (iii)

The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

  (iv)

Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

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(b)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(c)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Act.

 

(d)

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of New York, State of New York, on February 1, 2019.

 

ANNALY CAPITAL MANAGEMENT, INC.
By:  

/s/ Kevin G. Keyes

 

Kevin G. Keyes

Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President

Each person whose signature appears below hereby authorizes Kevin G. Keyes as attorney-in-fact to sign on his or her behalf, individually and in each capacity stated below, any amendment, including post-effective amendments to this registration statement, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and all documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed below by the following persons in the capacities and on the date indicated.

 

Signatures

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ Kevin G. Keyes

Kevin G. Keyes

   Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President (Principal Executive Officer)   February 1, 2019

/s/ Glenn A. Votek

Glenn A. Votek

  

Chief Financial Officer

(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

  February 1, 2019

/s/ Francine J. Bovich

Francine J. Bovich

  

Director

  February 1, 2019

/s/ Kevin P. Brady

Kevin P. Brady

  

Director

  February 1, 2019

/s/ Wellington J. Denahan

Wellington J. Denahan

  

Director

  February 1, 2019

/s/ Katherine Beirne Fallon

Katherine Beirne Fallon

  

Director

  February 1, 2019

/s/ Jonathan D. Green

Jonathan D. Green

  

Director

  February 1, 2019

/s/ Michael E. Haylon

Michael E. Haylon

  

Director

  February 1, 2019

/s/ E. Wayne Nordberg

E. Wayne Nordberg

  

Director

  February 1, 2019

 

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/s/ John H. Schaefer

John H. Schaefer

  

Director

  February 1, 2019

/s/ Donnell A. Segalas

Donnell A Segalas

  

Director

  February 1, 2019

/s/ Vicki Williams

Vicki Williams

  

Director

  February 1, 2019

 

II-7

Exhibit 4.7

 

 

ANNALY CAPITAL MANAGEMENT, INC.,

                                                                                   Issuer

to

WELLS FARGO BANK, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION,

                                                                                  Trustee

 

 

INDENTURE

 

 

Dated as of February 1, 2019

Debt Securities

 

 


CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE*

 

Trust Indenture Act Section

  

Indenture Section

310(a)(1)    607
    (a)(2)    607
    (a)(3)    N.A.
    (a)(4)    N.A.
    (a)(5)    607
    (b)    608
    (c)    N.A.
311(a)    604
    (b)    604
    (c)    N.A.
312(a)    701, 702
    (b)    702
    (c)    702
313(a)    703
    (b)    1601
    (c)    703
    (d)    703
314(a)    704, 1007
    (b)    N.A.
    (c)(1)    102
    (c)(2)    102
    (c)(3)    N.A.
    (d)    N.A.
    (e)    101
    (f)    N.A.
315(a)    601
    (b)    602
    (c)    503
    (d)    601
    (e)    515
316(a)(1)(A)    502, 512
    (a)(1)(B)    513
    (a)(2)    N.A.
    (b)    508
    (c)    N.A.
317(a)(1)    503
    (a)(2)    504
    (b)    1003
318(a)    108

 

N.A. means not applicable.

* This Cross-Reference Table is not part of the Indenture.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  
ARTICLE ONE

 

DEFINITIONS AND OTHER PROVISIONS OF GENERAL APPLICATION

 

Section 101. Definitions

     1  

Section 102. Compliance Certificates and Opinions

     9  

Section 103. Form of Documents Delivered to Trustee

     9  

Section 104. Acts of Holders

     10  

Section 105. Notices, etc., to Trustee and Company

     11  

Section 106. Notice to Holders of Securities; Waiver

     11  

Section 107. Language of Notices

     12  

Section 108. Conflict with Trust Indenture Act

     12  

Section 109. Effect of Headings and Table of Contents

     13  

Section 110. Successors and Assigns

     13  

Section 111. Separability Clause

     13  

Section 112. Benefits of Indenture

     13  

Section 113. Governing Law; Waiver of Jury Trial; Consent to Jurisdiction and Service

     13  

Section 114. Legal Holidays

     14  

Section 115. Counterparts

     14  

Section 116. Judgment Currency

     14  

Section 117. Extension of Payment Dates

     15  

Section 118. Immunity of Shareholders, Directors, Officers and Agents of the Company

     15  

Section 119. Force Majeure

     15  

Section 120. U.S.A. Patriot Act

     15  
ARTICLE TWO

 

SECURITIES FORMS

 

Section 201. Forms Generally

     16  

 

i


Section 202. Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication

     16  

Section 203. Securities in Global Form

     16  
ARTICLE THREE

 

THE SECURITIES

 

Section 301. Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series

     17  

Section 302. Currency; Denominations

     21  

Section 303. Execution, Authentication, Delivery and Dating

     21  

Section 304. Temporary Securities

     22  

Section 305. Registration, Transfer and Exchange

     23  

Section 306. Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities

     26  

Section 307. Payment of Interest and Certain Additional Amounts; Rights to Interest and Certain Additional Amounts Preserved

     27  

Section 308. Persons Deemed Owners

     28  

Section 309. Cancellation

     29  

Section 310. Computation of Interest

     29  

Section 311. CUSIP Numbers

     29  
ARTICLE FOUR

 

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE

 

Section 401. Satisfaction and Discharge

     29  

Section 402. Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance

     31  

Section 403. Application of Trust Money

     34  

Section 404. Reinstatement

     35  
ARTICLE FIVE

 

REMEDIES

 

Section 501. Events of Default

     35  

Section 502. Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment

     37  

Section 503. Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee

     38  

Section 504. Trustee May File Proofs of Claim

     39  

 

ii


Section 505. Trustee May Enforce Claims without Possession of Securities or Coupons

     39  

Section 506. Application of Money Collected

     39  

Section 507. Limitations on Suits

     40  

Section 508. Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and any Premium, Interest and Additional Amounts

     41  

Section 509. Restoration of Rights and Remedies

     41  

Section 510. Rights and Remedies Cumulative

     41  

Section 511. Delay or Omission Not Waiver

     41  

Section 512. Control by Holders of Securities

     41  

Section 513. Waiver of Past Defaults

     42  

Section 514. Waiver of Usury, Stay or Extension Laws

     42  

Section 515. Undertaking for Costs

     42  
ARTICLE SIX

 

THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 601. Certain Rights of Trustee

     43  

Section 602. Notice of Defaults

     44  

Section 603. Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities

     45  

Section 604. May Hold Securities

     45  

Section 605. Money Held in Trust

     45  

Section 606. Compensation and Reimbursement

     45  

Section 607. Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility

     46  

Section 608. Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor

     46  

Section 609. Acceptance of Appointment by Successor

     47  

Section 610. Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business

     48  

Section 611. Appointment of Authenticating Agent

     49  
ARTICLE SEVEN   
HOLDERS LISTS AND REPORTS BY TRUSTEE AND COMPANY   

Section 701. Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Holders

     50  

 

iii


Section 702. Preservation of Information; Communications to Holders

     50  

Section 703. Reports by Trustee

     51  

Section 704. Reports by Company

     51  
ARTICLE EIGHT

 

CONSOLIDATION, MERGER AND SALES

 

Section 801. Company May Consolidate, Etc., Only on Certain Terms

     52  

Section 802. Successor Person Substituted for Company

     52  
ARTICLE NINE

 

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

 

Section 901. Supplemental Indentures without Consent of Holders

     53  

Section 902. Supplemental Indentures with Consent of Holders

     54  

Section 903. Execution of Supplemental Indentures

     55  

Section 904. Effect of Supplemental Indentures

     55  

Section 905. Reference in Securities to Supplemental Indentures

     55  

Section 906. Conformity with Trust Indenture Act

     56  
ARTICLE TEN

 

COVENANTS

 

Section 1001. Payment of Principal, Premium, Interest and Additional Amounts

     56  

Section 1002. Maintenance of Office or Agency

     56  

Section 1003. Money for Securities Payments to Be Held in Trust

     57  

Section 1004. Additional Amounts

     58  

Section 1005. Legal Existence

     58  

Section 1006. Waiver of Certain Covenants

     59  

Section 1007. Company Statement as to Compliance

     59  

Section 1008. Calculation of Original Issue Discount

     59  

 

iv


ARTICLE ELEVEN   
REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES   

Section 1101. Applicability of Article

     59  

Section 1102. Election to Redeem; Notice to Trustee

     59  

Section 1103. Selection by Trustee of Securities to be Redeemed

     60  

Section 1104. Notice of Redemption

     60  

Section 1105. Deposit of Redemption Price

     62  

Section 1106. Securities Payable on Redemption Date

     62  

Section 1107. Securities Redeemed in Part

     63  
ARTICLE TWELVE

 

SINKING FUNDS

 

Section 1201. Applicability of Article

     63  

Section 1202. Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities

     63  

Section 1203. Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund

     64  
ARTICLE THIRTEEN

 

REPAYMENT AT THE OPTION OF HOLDERS

 

Section 1301. Applicability of Article

     64  
ARTICLE FOURTEEN

 

SECURITIES IN FOREIGN CURRENCIES

 

Section 1401. Applicability of Article

     65  
ARTICLE FIFTEEN

 

MEETINGS OF HOLDERS OF SECURITIES

 

Section 1501. Purposes for Which Meetings May Be Called

     65  

Section 1502. Call, Notice and Place of Meetings

     65  

Section 1503. Persons Entitled to Vote at Meetings

     66  

Section 1504. Quorum; Action

     66  

Section 1505. Determination of Voting Rights; Conduct and Adjournment of Meetings

     66  

Section 1506. Counting Votes and Recording Action of Meetings

     67  
ARTICLE SIXTEEN

 

SECURITY

 

Section 1601. Security

     68  

 

v


INDENTURE, dated as of February 1, 2019 the (“Indenture”), between Annaly Capital Management, Inc., a Maryland corporation (hereinafter called the “Company”), having its principal executive office located at 1211 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10036, and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, a national banking association duly organized and existing under the laws of the United States of America (hereinafter called the “Trustee”).

RECITALS

The Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance from time to time of senior unsecured and secured debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness (hereinafter called the “Securities”), unlimited as to principal amount, to bear such rates of interest, to mature at such time or times, to be issued in one or more series and to have such other provisions as shall be fixed as hereinafter provided.

The Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture. All things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

This Indenture is subject to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission promulgated thereunder that are required to be part of this Indenture and, to the extent applicable, shall be governed by such provisions.

NOW, THEREFORE, THIS INDENTURE WITNESSETH:

For and in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the Holders (as herein defined) thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed, for the equal and proportionate benefit of all Holders of the Securities or of any series thereof and any Coupons (as herein defined) as follows:

ARTICLE ONE

DEFINITIONS AND OTHER PROVISIONS OF GENERAL APPLICATION

Section 101. Definitions .

Except as otherwise expressly provided in or pursuant to this Indenture or unless the context otherwise requires, for all purposes of this Indenture:

(1) the terms defined in this Article have the meanings assigned to them in this Article, and include the plural as well as the singular;

(2) all other terms used herein which are defined in the Trust Indenture Act either directly or by reference therein, have the meanings assigned to them therein;

(3) all accounting terms not otherwise defined herein have the meanings assigned to them in accordance with GAAP;

(4) the words “herein”, “hereof”, “hereto” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision;

(5) the word “or” is always used inclusively (for example, the phrase “A or B” means “A or B or both”, not “either A or B but not both”);

(6) provisions apply to successive events and transactions;

 

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(7) the term “merger” includes a statutory share exchange and the terms “merge” and “merged” have correlative meanings;

(8) the masculine gender includes the feminine and the neuter; and

(9) references to agreements and other instruments include subsequent amendments and supplements thereto.

Certain terms used principally in certain Articles hereof are defined in those Articles.

Except as otherwise expressly provided in or pursuant to this Indenture or the context otherwise requires, for all purposes of this Indenture, references to the conversion or exchange of any Securities for or into other securities (other than Securities of the same series) or property shall not include the exchange of Securities of any series for other Securities of the same series.

“Act”, when used with respect to any Holders, has the meaning specified in Section 104.

“Additional Amounts” means any additional amounts which are required by this Indenture or by any Security, or by the terms of any Security established pursuant to Section 301, under circumstances specified herein or therein, to be paid by the Company in respect of certain taxes, duties, levies, imposts, assessments or other governmental charges imposed on Holders specified herein or therein.

“Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified Person. For the purposes of this definition, “control,” when used with respect to any specified Person means the power to direct the management and policies of such Person, directly or indirectly, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise, and the terms “controlling” and “controlled” have meanings correlative to the foregoing.

“Authenticating Agent” means any Person authorized by the Trustee pursuant to Section 611 to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of one or more series.

“Authorized Newspaper” means a newspaper, in an official language of the place of publication or in the English language, customarily published on each day that is a Business Day in the place of publication, whether or not published on days that are not Business Days in the place of publication, and of general circulation in each place in connection with which the term is used or in the financial community of each such place. Where successive publications are required to be made in Authorized Newspapers, the successive publications may be made in the same or in different newspapers in the same place meeting the foregoing requirements and in each case on any day that is a Business Day in the place of publication.

“Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code or any similar federal, state, or foreign law for the relief of debtors.

“Bearer Security” means any Security in the form established pursuant to Section 201 which is payable to bearer.

“Board of Directors” means the board of directors of the Company or any committee of that board duly authorized to act generally or in any particular respect for the Company hereunder. The term “board of directors” means the board of directors of the Company and does not include committees of the board of directors.

 

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“Board Resolution” means a copy of one or more resolutions, certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification, delivered to the Trustee.

“Business Day” means, unless otherwise specified with respect to the Securities of any series pursuant to Section 301, any day other than a Saturday, Sunday or other day on which banking institutions in The City of New York are authorized or obligated by law, regulation or executive order to close; provided that such term shall mean, when used with respect to any payment of principal of, or premium or interest, if any, on, or Additional Amounts with respect to, the Securities of any series to be made at any Place of Payment for such Securities, unless otherwise specified pursuant to Section 301 with respect to such Securities, any day other than a Saturday, Sunday or other day on which banking institutions in such Place of Payment are authorized or obligated by law, regulation or executive order to close.

“Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, or, if at any time after the execution of this Indenture such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

“Common Shares” means the common shares of the Company as such common shares exist on the date of this Indenture or shares of any class or classes resulting from any reclassification or reclassifications thereof and which have no preference in respect of dividends or similar distributions or of amounts payable in the event of any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company and which are not subject to redemption by the Company; provided that, solely in the case of any Securities that are convertible into Common Shares, unless otherwise provided pursuant to Section 301 with respect to the Securities of such series, if at any time there shall be more than one such resulting class, the shares of each such class then so issuable on conversion of such Securities shall be substantially in the proportion which the total number of shares of such class resulting from all such reclassifications bears to the total number of shares of all such classes resulting from all such reclassifications.

“Company” means the Person named as the “Company” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Person shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Company” shall mean such successor Person and any other obligor upon the Securities.

“Company Request” and “Company Order” mean, respectively, a written request or order, as the case may be, signed in the name of the Company by the Chairman, the Chief Executive Officer, the President, the Chief Financial Officer or a Vice President and by the Treasurer, an Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company, and delivered to the Trustee.

“Conversion Event” means (i) with respect to any Foreign Currency other than the Euro, the cessation of use of such Foreign Currency both by the government of the country or the confederation which issued such Foreign Currency and for the settlement of transactions by a central bank or other public institutions of or within the international banking community or (ii) in the case of the Euro, the cessation of use of the Euro both within the European Monetary System and for the settlement of transactions by public institutions of or within the European Union.

“Corporate Trust Office” means the designated corporate trust office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business shall be administered, which office at the date of this Indenture is located at 150 East 42 nd Street, 40 th Floor, New York, New York 10017, Attention: Corporate Trust Services, Administrator - Annaly Capital Management, Inc.

 

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The term “Corporation” includes corporations, partnerships, associations, limited liability companies and other companies, and business trusts. The term “corporation” means a corporation and does not include partnerships, associations, limited liability companies or other companies or business trusts.

“Coupon” means any interest coupon appertaining to a Bearer Security.

“Currency”, with respect to any payment, deposit or other transfer in respect of the principal of or any premium or interest on or any Additional Amounts with respect to any Security, means Dollars or the Foreign Currency, as the case may be, in which such payment, deposit or other transfer is required to be made by or pursuant to the terms hereof or such Security and, with respect to any other payment, deposit or transfer pursuant to or contemplated by the terms hereof or such Security, means Dollars.

“CUSIP number” means the alphanumeric designation assigned to a Security by Standard & Poor’s, CUSIP Service Bureau.

“Defaulted Interest” has the meaning specified in Section 307.

“Depository” means, with respect to any Security issuable or issued in the form of one or more global Securities, the Person designated as depository by the Company in or pursuant to this Indenture, and, unless otherwise provided with respect to any Security, any successor to such Person. If at any time there is more than one such Person, “Depository” shall mean, with respect to any Securities, the depository which has been appointed with respect to such Securities.

“Dollars” or “$” means a dollar or other equivalent unit of legal tender for payment of public or private debts in the United States of America.

“Euro” means the currency introduced at the start of the third stage of European economic and monetary union pursuant to the Treaty establishing European Community, as amended by the Treaty on European Union.

“European Monetary System” means the European Monetary System established by the Resolution of December 5, 1978 of the Council of the European Community.

“European Union” means the participating member states that adopt a single currency in accordance with the Treaty establishing the European Community, as amended by the Treaty on European Union.

“Event of Default” has the meaning specified in Section 501.

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or any successor thereto, in each case as amended from time to time.

“Foreign Currency” means any currency, currency unit or composite currency, including, without limitation, the Euro, issued by the government of one or more countries other than the United States of America or by any recognized confederation or association of such government.

“GAAP” and “generally accepted accounting principles” mean, unless otherwise specified with respect to any series of Securities pursuant to Section 301, such accounting principles as are generally accepted in the United States of America as of the date or time of any computation required hereunder.

“Government Obligations” means securities which are (i) direct obligations of the United States of America or the other government or governments in the confederation which issued the Foreign Currency in which the principal of or any premium or interest on the relevant Security or any Additional

 

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Amounts in respect thereof shall be payable, in each case where the payment or payments thereunder are supported by the full faith and credit of such government or governments or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America or such other government or governments, in each case where the timely payment or payments thereunder are unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America or such other government or governments, and which, in the case of (i) or (ii), are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer or issuers thereof, and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of or other amount with respect to any such Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Government Obligation or the specific payment of interest on or principal of or other amount with respect to the Government Obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.

“Holder”, in the case of any Registered Security, means the Person in whose name such Security is registered in the Security Register and, in the case of any Bearer Security, means the bearer thereof and, in the case of any Coupon, means the bearer thereof.

“Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into pursuant to the applicable provisions hereof and, with respect to any Security, by the terms and provisions of such Security and any Coupon appertaining thereto established pursuant to Section 301 (as such terms and provisions may be amended pursuant to the applicable provisions hereof), provided, however, that, if at any time more than one Person is acting as Trustee under this instrument, “Indenture” shall mean, with respect to any one or more series of Securities for which such Person is Trustee, this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into pursuant to the applicable provisions hereof and shall include the terms of those particular series of Securities for which such Person is Trustee established pursuant to Section 301, exclusive, however, of any provisions or terms which relate solely to other series of Securities for which such Person is not Trustee, regardless of when such terms or provisions were adopted.

“Indexed Security” means a Security the terms of which provide that the principal amount thereof payable at Stated Maturity may be more or less than the principal face amount thereof at original issuance.

“Interest”, with respect to any Original Issue Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity, means interest payable after Maturity.

“Interest Payment Date”, with respect to any Security, means the Stated Maturity of an installment of interest on such Security.

“Judgment Currency” has the meaning specified in Section 116.

“Maturity”, with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security or an installment of principal becomes due and payable as provided in or pursuant to this Indenture or such Security, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, upon redemption at the option of the Company, upon repurchase or repayment at the option of the Holder or otherwise, and includes a Redemption Date for such Security and a date fixed for the repurchase or repayment of such Security at the option of the Holder.

“New York Banking Day” has the meaning specified in Section 116.

 

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“Non-recourse Debt” means any indebtedness the terms of which provide that the claim for repayment of such indebtedness by the holder thereof is limited solely to a claim against the property or assets (including, without limitation, securities or interests in securities) that secure such indebtedness; provided, however, that any obligations or liabilities of the debtor or obligor or any other person solely for indemnities, covenants or breaches of warranties, representations or covenants or similar matters in respect of any indebtedness will not prevent such indebtedness from constituting Non-recourse Debt.

“Office” or “Agency”, with respect to any Securities, means an office or agency of the Company maintained or designated in a Place of Payment for such Securities pursuant to Section 1002 or any other office or agency of the Company maintained or designated for such Securities pursuant to Section 1002 or, to the extent designated or required by Section 1002 in lieu of such office or agency, the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee.

“Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by the Chairman, the Chief Executive Officer, the President, the Chief Financial Officer or a Vice President and by the Treasurer, an Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company, that complies with the requirements of Section 314(e) of the Trust Indenture Act and is delivered to the Trustee.

“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company or other counsel who shall be reasonably acceptable to the Trustee, that, if required by the Trust Indenture Act, complies with the requirements of Section 314(e) of the Trust Indenture Act.

“Original Issue Discount Security” means a Security issued pursuant to this Indenture which provides for an amount less than the principal face amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration pursuant to Section 502.

“Outstanding”, when used with respect to any Securities, means, as of the date of determination, all such Securities theretofore authenticated and delivered under this Indenture, except:

(a) any such Security theretofore cancelled by the Trustee or the Security Registrar or delivered to the Trustee or the Security Registrar for cancellation;

(b) any such Security for whose payment at the Maturity thereof money in the necessary amount (or, to the extent that such Security is payable at such Maturity in Common Shares or other securities or property, Common Shares or such other securities or property in the necessary amount, together with, if applicable, cash in lieu of fractional shares or securities) has been theretofore deposited pursuant hereto (other than pursuant to Section 402) with the Trustee or any Paying Agent (other than the Company) in trust or set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own Paying Agent) for the Holders of such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto, provided that, if such Securities are to be redeemed, notice of such redemption has been duly given pursuant to this Indenture or provision therefor satisfactory to the Trustee has been made;

(c) any such Security with respect to which the Company has effected defeasance or covenant defeasance pursuant to Section 402, except to the extent provided in Section 402;

(d) any such Security which has been paid pursuant to Section 306 or in exchange for or in lieu of which other Securities have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to this Indenture, unless there shall have been presented to the Trustee proof satisfactory to it that such Security is held by a bona fide purchaser in whose hands such Security is a valid obligation of the Company; and

(e) any such Security converted or exchanged as contemplated by this Indenture into Common Shares or other securities or property, if the terms of such Security provide for such conversion or exchange pursuant to Section 301;

 

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provided, however , that in determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of Outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder or are present at a meeting of Holders of Securities for quorum purposes, (i) the principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security that may be counted in making such determination and that shall be deemed to be Outstanding for such purposes shall be equal to the amount of the principal thereof that pursuant to the terms of such Original Issue Discount Security would be declared (or shall have been declared to be) due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration thereof pursuant to Section 502 at the time of such determination, and (ii) the principal amount of any Indexed Security that may be counted in making such determination and that shall be deemed Outstanding for such purpose shall be equal to the principal face amount of such Indexed Security at original issuance, unless otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, and (iii) the principal amount of a Security denominated in a Foreign Currency that may be counted in making such determination and that shall be deemed Outstanding for such purposes shall be the Dollar equivalent, determined on the date of original issuance of such Security, of the principal amount (or, in the case of an Original Issue Discount Security, the Dollar equivalent on the date of original issuance of such Security of the amount determined as provided in (i) above) of such Security, and (iv) Securities owned by the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities, or any Affiliate of the Company or such other obligor shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding, except that, in determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in making any such determination or relying upon any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, only Securities which a Responsible Officer of the Trustee actually knows to be so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities so owned which shall have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee (A) the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and (B) that the pledgee is not the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Coupons appertaining thereto or an Affiliate (other than a Trust) of the Company or such other obligor.

“Paying Agent” means any Person authorized by the Company to pay the principal of, or any premium or interest on, or any Additional Amounts with respect to, any Security or any Coupon on behalf of the Company.

“Person” and “person” mean any individual, Corporation, joint venture, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

“Place of Payment”, with respect to any Security, means the place or places where the principal of, or any premium or interest on, or any Additional Amounts with respect to such Security are payable as provided in or pursuant to this Indenture or such Security.

“Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same indebtedness as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 306 in exchange for or in lieu of a lost, destroyed, mutilated or stolen Security or any Security to which a mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Coupon appertains shall be deemed to evidence the same indebtedness as the lost, destroyed, mutilated or stolen Security or the Security to which a mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Coupon appertains.

“Redemption Date”, with respect to any Security or portion thereof to be redeemed, means the date fixed for such redemption by or pursuant to this Indenture or such Security.

“Redemption Price”, with respect to any Security or portion thereof to be redeemed, means the price at which it is to be redeemed as determined by or pursuant to this Indenture or such Security.

“Registered Security” means any Security established pursuant to Section 201 which is registered in the Security Register.

 

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“Regular Record Date” for the interest payable on any Registered Security on any Interest Payment Date therefor means the date, if any, specified in or pursuant to this Indenture or such Security as the record date for the payment of such interest.

“Required Currency” has the meaning specified in Section 116.

“Responsible Officer” shall mean, when used with respect to the Trustee, any officer within the corporate trust department of the Trustee, including any vice president, assistant vice president, trust officer or assistant trust officer or any other officer of the Trustee who customarily performs functions similar to those performed by the Persons who at the time shall be such officers, respectively, or to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of such person’s knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject and who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.

“Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or any successor thereto, in each case as amended from time to time.

“Security” or “Securities” means any note or notes, bond or bonds, debenture or debentures, or any other evidences of indebtedness, as the case may be, authenticated and delivered under this Indenture; provided, however, that, if at any time there is more than one Person acting as Trustee under this Indenture, “Securities”, with respect to any such Person, shall mean Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture, exclusive, however, of Securities of any series as to which such Person is not Trustee.

“Security Register” and “Security Registrar” have the respective meanings specified in Section 305.

“Significant Subsidiary” means, as of any date of determination, a Subsidiary of the Company that would constitute a “significant subsidiary,” as such term is defined under Rule 1-02(w) of Regulation S-X of the Commission as in effect on the date of this Indenture.

“Special Record Date” for the payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Registered Security means a date fixed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 307.

“Stated Maturity”, with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon or any Additional Amounts with respect thereto, means the date established by or pursuant to this Indenture or such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal or interest is, or such Additional Amounts are, due and payable.

“Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, (i) any corporation, association or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of capital stock or other equity interests entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by such Person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of such Person (or a combination thereof) and (ii) any partnership (a) the sole general partner or managing general partner of which is such Person or a Subsidiary of such Person or (b) the only general partners of which are such Person or one or more Subsidiaries of such Person (or any combination thereof).

“Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, and any reference herein to the Trust Indenture Act or a particular provision thereof shall mean such Act or provision, as the case may be, as amended or replaced from time to time or as supplemented from time to time by rules or regulations adopted by the Commission under or in furtherance of the purposes of such Act or provision, as the case may be.

 

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“Trustee” means the Person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such with respect to one or more series of Securities pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean each Person who is then a Trustee hereunder; provided, however, that if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” shall mean each such Person and as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean the Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series.

“United States”, means the United States of America (including the states thereof and the District of Columbia), its territories, its possessions and other areas subject to its jurisdiction; and the term “United States of America” means the United States of America.

“United States Alien”, except as otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture or any Security, means any Person who, for United States Federal income tax purposes, is a foreign corporation, a non-resident alien individual, a non-resident alien fiduciary of a foreign estate or trust, or a foreign partnership one or more of the members of which is, for United States Federal income tax purposes, a foreign corporation, a non-resident alien individual or a non-resident alien fiduciary of a foreign estate or trust.

“Vice President”, when used with respect to the Company or the Trustee, means any vice president, whether or not designated by a number or a word or words added before or after the title “Vice President”.

Section 102. Compliance Certificates and Opinions .

Except as otherwise expressly provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, upon any application or request by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under or in connection with any provision of this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that all conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with and an Opinion of Counsel stating that, in the opinion of such counsel, all such conditions precedent, if any, have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or request as to which the furnishing of such documents or any of them is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or request, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

Section 103. Form of Documents Delivered to Trustee .

In any case where several matters are required to be certified by, or covered by an opinion of, any specified Person, it is not necessary that all such matters be certified by, or covered by the opinion of, only one such Person, or that they be so certified or covered by only one document, but one such Person may certify or give an opinion with respect to some matters and one or more other such Persons as to other matters, and any such Person may certify or give an opinion as to such matters in one or several documents.

Any certificate or opinion of an officer of the Company may be based, insofar as it relates to legal matters, upon an Opinion of Counsel, unless such officer knows, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know, that the opinion with respect to the matters upon which his certificate or opinion is based is erroneous. Any such Opinion of Counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to factual matters, upon a certificate or opinion of, or representations by, an officer or officers of the Company, a governmental official or officers or any other Person or Persons stating that the information with respect to such factual matters is in the possession of the Company unless such counsel knows, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know, that the certificate, opinion or representations with respect to such matters are erroneous.

 

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Where any Person is required to make, give or execute two or more applications, requests, consents, certificates, statements, opinions or other instruments under this Indenture or any Security, they may, but need not, be consolidated and form one instrument.

Section 104. Acts of Holders .

(1) Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided by or pursuant to this Indenture to be made, given or taken by Holders may be embodied in and evidenced by one or more instruments of substantially similar tenor signed by such Holders in person or by an agent duly appointed in writing. If, but only if, Securities of a series are issuable as Bearer Securities, any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided in or pursuant to this Indenture to be made, given or taken by Holders of Securities of such series may, alternatively, be embodied in and evidenced by the record of Holders of Securities of such series voting in favor thereof, either in person or by proxies duly appointed in writing, at any meeting of Holders of Securities of such series duly called and held in accordance with the provisions of Article Fifteen, or a combination of such instruments and any such record. Except as herein otherwise expressly provided, such action shall become effective when such instrument or instruments or record or both are delivered to the Trustee and, where it is hereby expressly required, to the Company. Such instrument or instruments and any such record (and the action embodied therein and evidenced thereby) are herein sometimes referred to as the “Act” of the Holders signing such instrument or instruments or so voting at any such meeting. Proof of execution of any such instrument or of a writing appointing any such agent, or of the holding by any Person of a Security, shall be sufficient for any purpose of this Indenture and (subject to Section 315 of the Trust Indenture Act) conclusive in favor of the Trustee and the Company and any agent of the Trustee or the Company, if made in the manner provided in this Section 104. The record of any meeting of Holders of Securities shall be proved in the manner provided in Section 1506.

Without limiting the generality of this Section 104, unless otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, a Holder, including a Depository that is a Holder of a global Security, may make, give or take, by a proxy or proxies, duly appointed in writing, any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act provided in or pursuant to this Indenture or the Securities to be made, given or taken by Holders, and a Depository that is a Holder of a global Security may provide its proxy or proxies to the beneficial owners of interests in any such global Security through such Depository’s standing instructions and customary practices.

(2) The fact and date of the execution by any Person of any such instrument or writing may be proved in any reasonable manner which the Trustee deems sufficient and in accordance with such reasonable rules as the Trustee may determine; and the Trustee may in any instance require further proof with respect to any of the matters referred to in this Section 104.

(3) The ownership, principal amount and serial numbers of Registered Securities held by any Person, and the date of the commencement and the date of the termination of holding the same, shall be proved by the Security Register.

(4) The ownership, principal amount and serial numbers of Bearer Securities held by any Person, and the date of the commencement and the date of the termination of holding the same, may be proved by the production of such Bearer Securities or by a certificate executed, as depositary, by any trust company, bank, banker or other depositary reasonably acceptable to the Company, wherever situated, if such certificate shall be deemed by the Company and the Trustee to be satisfactory, showing that at the date therein mentioned such Person had on deposit with such depositary, or exhibited to it, the Bearer Securities therein described; or such facts may be proved by the certificate or affidavit of the Person holding such Bearer Securities, if such certificate or affidavit is deemed by the Company and the Trustee to be satisfactory. The Trustee and the Company may assume that such ownership of any Bearer Security continues until (1) another certificate or affidavit bearing a later date issued in respect of the same Bearer

 

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Security is produced, or (2) such Bearer Security is produced to the Trustee by some other Person, or (3) such Bearer Security is surrendered in exchange for a Registered Security, or (4) such Bearer Security is no longer Outstanding. The ownership, principal amount and serial numbers of Bearer Securities held by the Person so executing such instrument or writing and the date of the commencement and the date of the termination of holding the same may also be proved in any other manner which the Company and the Trustee deem sufficient.

(5) If the Company shall solicit from the Holders of any Registered Securities any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act, the Company may at its option (but is not obligated to), by Board Resolution fix in advance a record date for the determination of Holders of Registered Securities entitled to give such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act. If such a record date is fixed, such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act may be given before or after such record date, but only the Holders of Registered Securities of record at the close of business on such record date shall be deemed to be Holders for the purpose of determining whether Holders of the requisite proportion of Outstanding Securities have authorized or agreed or consented to such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act, and for that purpose the Outstanding Securities shall be computed as of such record date; provided that no such authorization, agreement or consent by the Holders of Registered Securities shall be deemed effective unless it shall become effective pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture not later than six months after the record date.

(6) Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act by the Holder of any Security shall bind every future Holder of the same Security and the Holder of every Security issued upon the registration of transfer thereof or in exchange therefor or in lieu thereof in respect of anything done or suffered to be done by the Trustee, any Security Registrar, any Paying Agent or the Company in reliance thereon, whether or not notation of such Act is made upon such Security.

Section 105. Notices, etc., to Trustee and Company .

Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act of Holders or other document provided or permitted by this Indenture to be made upon, given or furnished to, or filed with,

(1) the Trustee by any Holder or the Company shall be sufficient for every purpose hereunder if made, given, furnished or filed in writing to or with the Trustee at its Corporate Trust Office, or

(2) the Company by the Trustee or any Holder shall be sufficient for every purpose hereunder (unless otherwise herein expressly provided) if in writing and mailed, first-class postage prepaid, to the Company addressed to the attention of its Chief Financial Officer at the address of the Company’s principal office specified in the first paragraph of this instrument or at any other address previously furnished in writing to the Trustee by the Company.

Section 106. Notice to Holders of Securities; Waiver .

Except as otherwise expressly provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, where this Indenture provides for notice to Holders of Securities of any event,

(1) such notice shall be sufficiently given to Holders of Registered Securities if in writing and mailed, first-class postage prepaid, to each Holder of a Registered Security affected by such event, at his address as it appears in the Security Register, not later than the latest date, and not earlier than the earliest date, prescribed for the giving of such notice; and

 

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(2) such notice shall be sufficiently given to Holders of Bearer Securities, if any, if published in an Authorized Newspaper in The City of New York and, if such Securities are then listed on any stock exchange outside the United States, in an Authorized Newspaper in such city as the Company shall advise the Trustee that such stock exchange so requires, on a Business Day at least twice, the first such publication to be not earlier than the earliest date and the second such publication not later than the latest date prescribed for the giving of such notice.

In any case where notice to Holders of Registered Securities is given by mail, neither the failure to mail such notice, nor any defect in any notice so mailed, to any particular Holder of a Registered Security shall affect the sufficiency of such notice with respect to other Holders of Registered Securities or the sufficiency of any notice to Holders of Bearer Securities given as provided herein. Any notice which is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given or provided. In the case by reason of the suspension of regular mail service or by reason of any other cause it shall be impracticable to give such notice by mail, then such notification as shall be made with the approval of the Trustee shall constitute a sufficient notification for every purpose hereunder.

In case by reason of the suspension of publication of any Authorized Newspaper or Authorized Newspapers or by reason of any other cause it shall be impracticable to publish any notice to Holders of Bearer Securities as provided above, then such notification to Holders of Bearer Securities as shall be given with the approval of the Trustee shall constitute sufficient notice to such Holders for every purpose hereunder. Neither failure to give notice by publication to Holders of Bearer Securities as provided above, nor any defect in any notice so published, shall affect the sufficiency of any notice mailed to Holders of Registered Securities as provided above.

Where this Indenture provides for notice in any manner, such notice may be waived in writing by the Person entitled to receive such notice, either before or after the event, and such waiver shall be the equivalent of such notice. Waivers of notice by Holders of Securities shall be filed with the Trustee, but such filing shall not be a condition precedent to the validity of any action taken in reliance upon such waiver.

Anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding, unless otherwise expressly stated in this Indenture or pursuant to Section 301 with respect to the Securities of any series, if a Depository or its nominee is the Holder of any Security, then any notice given to such Depository or its nominee, as the case may be, in respect of such Security may be given by the Company or the Trustee electronically in accordance with the procedures of such Depository as in effect from time to time in lieu of giving notice to such Depository or such nominee, as the case may be, by mail and all references in this Indenture to the mailing of any such notice shall be deemed to mean, solely as concerns the notice given by the Company or the Trustee to such Depository or its nominee, as the case may be, the electronic transmission of such notice as aforesaid, mutatis mutandis .

Section 107. Language of Notices .

Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, election or waiver required or permitted under this Indenture shall be in the English language, except that, if the Company so elects, any published notice may be in an official language of the country of publication.

Section 108. Conflict with Trust Indenture Act .

If any provision hereof limits, qualifies or conflicts with any duties under any required provision of the Trust Indenture Act imposed hereon by Section 318(c) thereof, such required provision shall control.

 

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Section 109. Effect of Headings and Table of Contents .

The Article and Section headings herein and the Table of Contents are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

Section 110. Successors and Assigns .

All covenants and agreements in this Indenture by the Company shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

Section 111. Separability Clause .

In case any provision in this Indenture, any Security or any Coupon shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not, to the fullest extent permitted by law, in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

Section 112. Benefits of Indenture .

Nothing in this Indenture, any Security or any Coupon, express or implied, shall give to any Person, other than the parties hereto, any Security Registrar, any Paying Agent and their successors hereunder and the Holders of Securities or Coupons, any benefit or any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under this Indenture.

Section 113. Governing Law; Waiver of Jury Trial; Consent to Jurisdiction and Service .

This Indenture, the Securities and any Coupons shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York applicable to agreements made or instruments entered into and, in each case, performed in said State, without regard to conflicts of laws or principles thereof.

EACH OF THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS INDENTURE, THE SECURITIES, THE COUPONS OR THE TRANSACTION CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

To the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, the Company hereby irrevocably submits to the jurisdiction of any federal or state court located in the Borough of Manhattan in The City of New York, New York in any suit, action or proceeding based on or arising out of or relating to this Indenture or any Securities and irrevocably agrees that all claims in respect of such suit or proceeding may be determined in any such court. The Company irrevocably waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any objection which it may have to the laying of the venue of any such suit, action or proceeding brought in an inconvenient forum. The Company agrees that final judgment in any such suit, action or proceeding brought in such a court shall be conclusive and binding upon the Company, and may be enforced in any courts to the jurisdiction of which the Company is subject by a suit upon such judgment, provided, that service of process is effected upon the Company in the manner specified herein or as otherwise permitted by law. The Company hereby irrevocably designates and appoints Anthony C. Green, Chief Corporate Officer and Chief Legal Officer, 1211 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036 (the “Process Agent”) as its authorized agent for purposes of this section, it being understood that the designation and appointment of the Process Agent as such authorized agent shall become effective immediately without any further action on the part of the Company. The Company further agrees that service of process upon the Process Agent and written notice of said service to the Company, mailed by prepaid registered first class mail or delivered to the Process Agent at its principal office, shall be deemed in every respect effective service of process upon the Company, in any such suit or proceeding. The Company further agrees to take any and all action, including the execution and filing of any and all such documents and

 

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instruments as may be necessary, to continue such designation and appointment of the Process Agent in full force and effect so long as the Company, has any outstanding obligations under this Indenture. To the extent the Company has or hereafter may acquire any immunity from jurisdiction of any court or from any legal process (whether through service of notice, attachment prior to judgment, attachment in aid of execution, executor or otherwise) with respect to itself or its property, the Company hereby irrevocably waives such immunity in respect of its obligations under this Indenture to the extent permitted by law.

Section 114. Legal Holidays .

Unless otherwise specified in or pursuant to this Indenture or any Securities, in any case where any Interest Payment Date, Stated Maturity or Maturity of, or any other day on which a payment is due with respect to, any Security shall be a day which is not a Business Day at any Place of Payment, then (notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture, any Security or any Coupon other than a provision in any Security or Coupon or in the Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture establishing the terms of any Security that specifically states that such provision shall apply in lieu hereof) payment need not be made at such Place of Payment on such date, but such payment may be made on the next succeeding day that is a Business Day at such Place of Payment with the same force and effect as if made on the Interest Payment Date, at the Stated Maturity or Maturity or on any such other payment date, as the case may be, and no interest shall accrue on the amount payable on such date or at such time for the period from and after such Interest Payment Date, Stated Maturity, Maturity or other payment date, as the case may be, to the next succeeding Business Day.

Section 115. Counterparts .

This Indenture may be executed in several counterparts, each of which shall be an original and all of which shall constitute but one and the same instrument. The exchange of copies of this Indenture and of signature pages by facsimile or PDF transmission shall constitute effective execution and delivery of this Indenture as to the parties hereto and may be used in lieu of the original Indenture for all purposes. Signatures of the parties hereto transmitted by facsimile or PDF shall be deemed to be their original signatures for all purposes.

Section 116. Judgment Currency .

The Company agrees, to the fullest extent that it may effectively do so under applicable law, that (a) if for the purpose of obtaining judgment against it in any court, it is necessary to convert the sum due in respect of the principal of, or premium or interest, if any, or Additional Amounts on the Securities of any series (the “Required Currency”) into a currency in which a judgment will be rendered (the “Judgment Currency”), the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the New York Banking Day preceding that on which a final unappealable judgment is given and (b) its obligations under this Indenture to make payments in the Required Currency (i) shall not be discharged or satisfied by any tender, or any recovery pursuant to any judgment (whether or not entered in accordance with clause (a)), in any currency other than the Required Currency, except to the extent that such tender or recovery shall result in the actual receipt, by the payee, of the full amount of the Required Currency expressed to be payable in respect of such payments, (ii) shall be enforceable as an alternative or additional cause of action for the purpose of recovering in the Required Currency the amount, if any, by which such actual receipt shall fall short of the full amount of the Required Currency so expressed to be payable and (iii) shall not be affected by judgment being obtained for any other sum due under this Indenture. For purposes of the foregoing, “New York Banking Day” means any day except a Saturday, Sunday or a legal holiday in The City of New York or a day on which banking institutions in The City of New York are authorized or obligated by law, regulation or executive order to be closed. The provisions of this Section 116 shall not be applicable with respect to any payment due on a Security which is payable in Dollars.

 

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Section 117. Extension of Payment Dates .

In the event that (i) the terms of any Security or Coupon appertaining thereto established in or pursuant to this Indenture permit the Company or any Holder thereof to extend the date on which any payment of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest, if any, on, or Additional Amounts, if any, with respect to such Security or Coupon is due and payable and (ii) the due date for any such payment shall have been so extended, then all references herein to the Stated Maturity of such payment (and all references of like import) shall be deemed to refer to the date as so extended.

Section 118. Immunity of Shareholders, Directors, Officers and Agents of the Company .

No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement contained in this Indenture or in any Security, or because of any indebtedness evidenced thereby, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, shall be had against any past, present or future shareholder, incorporator, employee, officer or director, as such, of the Company or any predecessor or successor to the Company, either directly or through the Company or any such predecessor or successor, under any rule of law, statute or constitutional provision or by the enforcement of any assessment or by any legal or equitable proceeding or otherwise, all such liability being expressly waived and released by the acceptance of the Securities by the Holders and as part of the consideration for the issue of the Securities; it being expressly understood that, without limitation to the foregoing, this Indenture and the Securities and the obligations created hereunder and thereunder are solely corporate, limited liability company, partnership, limited partnership or similar obligations, as the case may be, of the Company and that no such personal liability whatever shall attach to, or is or shall be incurred by, any past, present or future shareholder, incorporator, employee, officer or director, as such, of the Company or any of its predecessors or successors, or any of them, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any Security or implied herefrom or therefrom and that any and all such personal liability of every type and nature, either at common law or in equity or by constitution or statute, of, and any and all such rights and claims against, every such past, present or future shareholder, incorporator, employee, officer or director, as such, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any Security or implied herefrom or therefrom, are hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issuance of the Securities. As used in this Section 118, all references to “shareholders” shall be deemed to mean, with respect to any Person, any past, present or future holder or owner of an equity interest in such Person, including, without limitation, owners or holders of capital stock, limited or general partnership interests and limited liability company interests.

Section 119. Force Majeure .

In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services; it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances.

Section 120. U.S.A. Patriot Act .

The parties hereto acknowledge that in accordance with Section 326 of the U.S.A. Patriot Act, the Trustee, like all financial institutions and in order to help fight the funding of terrorism and money laundering, is required to obtain, verify, and record information that identifies each person or legal entity that establishes a relationship or opens an account with the Trustee. The parties to this Indenture agree that they will provide the Trustee with such information as it may request in order for the Trustee to satisfy the requirements of the U.S.A. Patriot Act.

 

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ARTICLE TWO

SECURITIES FORMS

Section 201. Forms Generally .

Each Registered Security, Bearer Security, Coupon and temporary or permanent global Security issued pursuant to this Indenture shall be in the form established by or pursuant to a Board Resolution and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, shall have such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as are required or permitted by or pursuant to this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto and may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification and such legends or endorsements placed thereon as may, consistently herewith, be determined by any officer of the Company executing such Security or Coupon as evidenced by the execution of such Security or Coupon.

Unless otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture or any Securities, the Securities shall be issuable in registered form without Coupons.

Definitive Securities and definitive Coupons shall be printed, lithographed or engraved or produced by any combination of these methods on a steel engraved border or steel engraved borders or may be produced in any other manner, all as determined by the officers of the Company executing such Securities or Coupons, as evidenced by their execution of such Securities or Coupons.

Section 202. Form of Trustee s Certificate of Authentication .

Subject to Section 611, the Trustee’s certificate of authentication shall be in substantially the following form:

This is one of the Securities of the series designated therein referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

WELLS FARGO BANK, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION,
as Trustee
By:  

                     

  Authorized Signatory

Section 203. Securities in Global Form .

Unless otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture or any Securities, the Securities shall not be issuable in global form. If Securities of a series shall be issuable in temporary or permanent global form, any such Security may provide that it or any number of such Securities shall represent the aggregate amount of all Outstanding Securities of such series (or such lesser amount as is permitted by the terms thereof) from time to time endorsed thereon or reflected on the books and records of the Trustee and may also provide that the aggregate amount of Outstanding Securities represented thereby may from time to time be increased or reduced to reflect exchanges. Any endorsement of any Security in global form to reflect the amount, or any increase or decrease in the amount, or changes in the rights of Holders, of Outstanding Securities represented thereby shall be made in such manner and by such Person or Persons as shall be specified therein or pursuant to Section 301 with respect to such Security or in the Company Order to be delivered pursuant to Section 303 or Section 304 with respect thereto. Subject to the provisions of Section 303 and, if applicable, Section 304, the Trustee shall deliver and redeliver any

 

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Security in global form in the manner and upon instructions given by the Person or Persons specified therein or pursuant to Section 301 with respect to such Security or in the applicable Company Order. If a Company Order pursuant to Section 303 or Section 304 has been, or simultaneously is, delivered, any instructions by the Company with respect to a Security in global form shall be in writing but need not be accompanied by or contained in an Officers’ Certificate and need not be accompanied by an Opinion of Counsel. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this paragraph, in the event a global Security is exchangeable for definitive Securities as provided in Section 305, then, unless otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such series, the Trustee shall deliver and redeliver such global Security to the extent necessary to effect such exchanges, shall endorse such global Security to reflect any decrease in the principal amount thereto resulting from such exchanges and shall take such other actions, all as contemplated by Section 305.

Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 307, unless otherwise specified in or pursuant to this Indenture or any Securities, payment of principal of, any premium and interest on, and any Additional Amounts in respect of, any Security in temporary or permanent global form shall be made to the Person or Persons specified therein.

Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 308 and except as provided in the preceding paragraph, the Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company and the Trustee shall treat as the Holder of such principal amount of Outstanding Securities represented by a global Security (i) in the case of a global Security in registered form, the Holder of such global Security in registered form, or (ii) in the case of a global Security in bearer form, the Person or Persons specified pursuant to Section 301.

ARTICLE THREE

THE SECURITIES

Section 301. Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series .

The aggregate principal amount of Securities which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series.

With respect to any Securities to be authenticated and delivered hereunder, there shall be established in or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, prior to the issuance of any Securities of a series,

(1) the title of the Securities of such series;

(2) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of such series pursuant to Section 304, Section 305, Section 306, Section 905 or Section 1107, upon repayment in part of any Security of such series pursuant to Article Thirteen or upon surrender in part of any Security for conversion or exchange into Common Shares or other securities or property pursuant to its terms), and if such series may not be reopened from time to time for the issuance of additional Securities of such series;

(3) if such Securities are to be issuable as Registered Securities, as Bearer Securities or alternatively as Bearer Securities and Registered Securities, and whether the Bearer Securities are to be issuable with Coupons, without Coupons or both, and any restrictions applicable to the offer, sale or delivery of the Bearer Securities and the terms, if any, upon which Bearer Securities may be exchanged for Registered Securities and vice versa;

 

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(4) if any of such Securities are to be issuable in global form, when any of such Securities are to be issuable in global form and (i) whether such Securities are to be issued in temporary or permanent global form or both, (ii) whether beneficial owners of interests in any such global Security may exchange such interests for Securities of the same series and of like tenor and of any authorized form and denomination, and the circumstances under which any such exchanges may occur, if other than in the manner specified in Section 305, (iii) the name of the Depository with respect to any such global Security and (iv) if applicable and in addition to the Persons specified in Section 305, the Person or Persons who shall be entitled to make any endorsements on any such global Security and to give the instructions and take the other actions with respect to such global Security contemplated by the first paragraph of Section 203;

(5) if any of such Securities are to be issuable as Bearer Securities, the date as of which any such Bearer Security shall be dated (if other than the date of original issuance of the first of such Securities to be issued);

(6) if any of such Securities are to be issuable as Bearer Securities, whether interest in respect of any portion of a temporary Bearer Security in global form payable in respect of an Interest Payment Date therefor prior to the exchange, if any, of such temporary Bearer Security for definitive Securities shall be paid to any clearing organization with respect to the portion of such temporary Bearer Security held for its account and, in such event, the terms and conditions (including any certification requirements) upon which any such interest payment received by a clearing organization will be credited to the Persons entitled to interest payable on such Interest Payment Date;

(7) the date or dates, or the method or methods, if any, by which such date or dates shall be determined, on which the principal and premium, if any, of such Securities is payable;

(8) the rate or rates at which such Securities shall bear interest, if any, or the method or methods, if any, by which such rate or rates are to be determined, the date or dates, if any, from which such interest shall begin to accrue or the method or methods, if any, by which such date or dates are to be determined, the Interest Payment Dates, if any, on which such interest shall be payable and the Regular Record Date, if any, for the interest payable on Registered Securities on any Interest Payment Date, the notice, if any, to Holders regarding the determination of interest on a floating rate Security and the manner of giving such notice, and the basis upon which interest shall be calculated if other than that of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months;

(9) if in addition to or other than the place where the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee may from time to time be located, the place or places where the principal of, premium, if any, and interest, if any, on, and Additional Amounts, if any, with respect to, such Securities shall be payable, any of such Securities that are Registered Securities may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange, any of such Securities may be surrendered for conversion or exchange and notices or demands to or upon the Company in respect of such Securities and this Indenture may be served;

(10) whether any of such Securities are to be redeemable at the option of the Company and, if so, the date or dates on which, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the other terms and conditions upon which such Securities may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

(11) if the Company is obligated to redeem or purchase any of such Securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provision or at the option of any Holder thereof and, if so, the date or dates on which, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the other terms and conditions upon which such Securities shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation, and any provisions for the remarketing of such Securities so redeemed or purchased;

 

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(12) the denominations in which any of such Securities that are Registered Securities shall be issuable if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiples thereof, and the denominations in which any of such Securities that are Bearer Securities shall be issuable if other than the denomination of $5,000;

(13) whether the Securities of the series will be convertible into and/or exchangeable for Common Shares or other securities or property, and if so, the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, and any deletions from or modifications or additions to this Indenture to permit or to facilitate the issuance of such convertible or exchangeable Securities or the administration thereof;

(14) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of any of such Securities that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 502 or the method by which such portion is to be determined;

(15) if other than Dollars, the Foreign Currency in which payment of the principal of, any premium or interest on or any Additional Amounts with respect to any of such Securities shall be payable;

(16) if the principal of, any premium or interest on or any Additional Amounts with respect to any of such Securities are to be payable, at the election of the Company or a Holder thereof or otherwise, in Dollars or in a Foreign Currency other than that in which such Securities are stated to be payable, the date or dates on which, the period or periods within which, and the other terms and conditions upon which, such election may be made, and the time and manner of determining the exchange rate between the Currency in which such Securities are stated to be payable and the Currency in which such Securities or any of them are to be paid pursuant to such election, and any deletions from or modifications of or additions to the terms of this Indenture to provide for or to facilitate the issuance of Securities denominated or payable, at the election of the Company or a Holder thereof or otherwise, in a Foreign Currency;

(17) if the amount of payments of principal of, any premium or interest on or any Additional Amounts with respect to such Securities may be determined with reference to an index, formula or other method or methods (which index, formula or method or methods may be based, without limitation, on one or more Currencies, commodities, equity indices or other indices), and, if so, the terms and conditions upon which and the method by which such amounts shall be determined and paid or payable;

(18) any deletions from, modifications of or additions to the Events of Default or covenants of the Company with respect to such Securities (whether or not such Events of Default or covenants are consistent with the Events of Default or covenants set forth herein), and, if any additional covenants not contained in this Indenture as of its date shall be applicable with respect to such Securities, whether Section 1006 shall be applicable with respect to any such additional covenants;

(19) if any one or more of Section 401 relating to satisfaction and discharge, Section 402(2) relating to defeasance or Section 402(3) relating to covenant defeasance shall not be applicable to the Securities of such series, and any covenants in addition to or other than those covenants, if any, specified in Section 402(3) relating to the Securities of such series which shall be subject to covenant defeasance, and, if the Securities of such series are subject to repurchase or repayment at the option of the Holders thereof pursuant to Article Thirteen, if the Company’s obligation to repurchase or repay such Securities will not be subject to satisfaction and discharge pursuant to Section 401 or to defeasance pursuant to Section 402, and, if the Holders of such Securities have the right to convert or exchange such Securities into Common Shares or other securities or property, if the right to effect such conversion or exchange will be subject to satisfaction and discharge pursuant to Section 401 or to defeasance or covenant defeasance pursuant to Section 402, and any deletions from, or modifications or additions to, the provisions of Article Four in respect of the Securities of such series;

 

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(20) if any of such Securities are to be issuable upon the exercise of warrants, and the time, manner and place for such Securities to be authenticated and delivered;

(21) if any of such Securities are issuable in global form and are to be issuable in definitive form (whether upon original issue or upon exchange of a temporary Security) only upon receipt of certain certificates or other documents or satisfaction of other conditions, then the form and terms of such certificates, documents or conditions;

(22) whether and under what circumstances the Company will pay Additional Amounts on such Securities to any Holder who is a United States Alien in respect of specified taxes, assessments or other government charges and, if so, whether the Company will have the option to redeem such Securities rather than pay such Additional Amounts;

(23) if there is more than one Trustee, the identity of the Trustee and, if not the Trustee, the identity of each Security Registrar, Paying Agent or Authenticating Agent with respect to such Securities;

(24) the Person to whom any interest on any Registered Security of such series shall be payable, if other than the Person in whose name the Registered Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the Regular Record Date for such interest, the manner in which, or the Person to whom, any interest on any Bearer Security of such series shall be payable, if other than upon presentation and surrender of the Coupons appertaining thereto as they severally mature, and the extent to which, or the manner in which, any interest payable on a temporary global Security will be paid if other than in the manner provided in this Indenture;

(25) whether the Securities of such series are to be secured by any property, assets or other collateral and, if so, the applicable collateral, any deletions from, or modifications or additions to, the provisions of Article Sixteen hereof or any other provisions of this Indenture in connection therewith or in connection with any other instrument or agreement entered into in connection therewith; and

(26) any other terms of such Securities (whether or not such other terms are consistent or inconsistent with any other terms of this Indenture) and any deletions from or modifications or additions to this Indenture in respect of such Securities.

All Securities of any one series and all Coupons, if any, appertaining to Bearer Securities of such series shall be substantially identical except as to Currency of payments due thereunder, denomination and the rate of interest, or method of determining the rate of interest, if any, Maturity, and the date from which interest, if any, shall accrue and except as may otherwise be provided by the Company in or pursuant to the Board Resolution and set forth in the Officers’ Certificate or in any indenture or indentures supplemental hereto pertaining to such series of Securities. The terms of the Securities of any series may provide, without limitation, that the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered by the Trustee on original issue from time to time upon written or (if acceptable to the Trustee) oral order of persons designated in the Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture, as the case may be, pertaining to such series of Securities (telephonic instructions to be promptly confirmed in writing by such person) and that such persons are authorized to determine, consistent with such Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture, such terms and conditions of the Securities of such series as are specified in such Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture. All Securities of any one series need not be issued at the same time and, unless otherwise provided by the Company as contemplated by this Section 301, a series may be reopened from time to time without the consent of any Holders for issuances of additional Securities of such series.

If any of the terms of the Securities of any series shall be established by action taken by or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions, such Board Resolutions shall be delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officers’ Certificate setting forth the terms of such series.

 

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Section 302. Currency; Denominations .

Unless otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, the principal of, any premium and interest on and any Additional Amounts with respect to the Securities shall be payable in Dollars. Unless otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, Registered Securities denominated in Dollars shall be issuable in registered form without Coupons in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiples thereof, and the Bearer Securities denominated in Dollars shall be issuable in the denomination of $5,000. Securities not denominated in Dollars shall be issuable in such denominations as are established with respect to such Securities in or pursuant to this Indenture.

Section 303. Execution, Authentication, Delivery and Dating .

Securities shall be executed on behalf of the Company by its Chairman, its Chief Executive Officer, its President or one of its Vice Presidents and by its Treasurer, one of its Assistant Treasurers, its Secretary or one of its Assistant Secretaries and may (but need not) have its corporate or other seal or a facsimile thereof reproduced thereon. Coupons shall be executed on behalf of the Company by its Chairman, its Chief Executive Officer, its President or any of its Vice Presidents. The signature of any of these officers on the Securities or any Coupons appertaining thereto may be manual or facsimile.

Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto bearing the manual or facsimile signatures of individuals who were at any time the proper officers of the Company shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, bind the Company, notwithstanding that such individuals or any of them have ceased to hold such offices prior to the authentication and delivery of such Securities or did not hold such offices at the date of such Securities or Coupons.

At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities, together with any Coupons appertaining thereto, executed by the Company, to the Trustee for authentication and, provided that the Board Resolution and Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture or indentures with respect to such Securities referred to in Section 301 and a Company Order for the authentication and delivery of such Securities have been delivered to the Trustee, the Trustee in accordance with the Company Order and subject to the provisions hereof and of such Securities shall authenticate and deliver such Securities. In authenticating such Securities, and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto, the Trustee shall receive, and (subject to the applicable provisions of Sections 315(a) through 315(d) of the Trust Indenture Act) shall be fully protected in conclusively relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel to the following effect, which Opinion of Counsel may contain such assumptions, qualifications and limitations as such counsel shall deem appropriate:

(a) the form or forms and terms of such Securities and Coupons, if any, have been established in conformity with Section 201 and Section 301 of this Indenture; and

(b) all conditions precedent set forth in Section 201, Section 301 and Section 303 of this Indenture to the authentication and delivery of such Securities and Coupons, if any, appertaining thereto have been complied with and that such Securities, and Coupons, when completed by appropriate insertions (if applicable), executed by duly authorized officers of the Company, delivered by duly authorized officers of the Company to the Trustee for authentication pursuant to this Indenture, and authenticated and delivered by the Trustee and issued by the Company in the manner and subject to any conditions specified in such Opinion of Counsel, will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms, except as enforcement thereof may be subject to or limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium, arrangement, fraudulent conveyance, fraudulent transfer or other similar laws relating to or affecting creditors’ rights generally, and subject to general principles of equity (regardless of whether enforcement is sought in a proceeding in equity or at law).

 

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If all the Securities of any series are not to be issued at one time, it shall not be necessary to deliver an Opinion of Counsel at the time of issuance of each Security, but such opinion, with such modifications as counsel shall deem appropriate, shall be delivered at or before the time of issuance of the first Security of such series. After any such first delivery, any separate request by the Company that the Trustee authenticate Securities of such series for original issue will be deemed to be a certification by the Company that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture relating to authentication and delivery of such Securities continue to have been complied with.

The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate or to cause an Authenticating Agent to authenticate any Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner which is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee or if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken.

Each Registered Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. Each Bearer Security and any Bearer Security in global form shall be dated as of the date specified in or pursuant to this Indenture.

No Security or Coupon appertaining thereto shall be entitled to any benefit under this Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose, unless there appears on such Security a certificate of authentication substantially in the form provided for in Section 202 or Section 611 executed by or on behalf of the Trustee or by the Authenticating Agent by the manual signature of one of its authorized signatories. Such certificate upon any Security shall be conclusive evidence, and the only evidence, that such Security has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder. Except as permitted by Section 306 or Section 307 or as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, the Trustee shall not authenticate and deliver any Bearer Security unless all Coupons appertaining thereto then matured have been detached and cancelled.

Section 304. Temporary Securities .

Pending the preparation of definitive Securities, the Company may execute and deliver to the Trustee and, upon Company Order, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in the manner provided in Section 303, temporary Securities in lieu thereof which are printed, lithographed, typewritten, mimeographed or otherwise produced, in any authorized denomination, substantially of the tenor of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, in registered form or, if authorized in or pursuant to this Indenture, in bearer form with one or more Coupons or without Coupons and with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as the officers of the Company executing such Securities may determine, as conclusively evidenced by their execution of such Securities. Such temporary Securities may be in global form.

Except in the case of temporary Securities in global form, which shall be exchanged in accordance with the provisions set forth in this Indenture or the provisions established pursuant to Section 301, if temporary Securities are issued, the Company shall cause definitive Securities to be prepared without unreasonable delay. Except as otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, after the preparation of definitive Securities of the same series and containing terms and provisions that are identical to those of any temporary Securities, such temporary Securities shall be exchangeable for such definitive Securities upon surrender of such temporary Securities at an Office or Agency for such Securities, without charge to any Holder thereof. Except as otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, upon surrender for cancellation of any one or more temporary Securities (accompanied by any unmatured Coupons appertaining thereto), the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a like principal amount of definitive Securities of authorized denominations of the same series and containing identical terms and provisions; provided, however, that no definitive Bearer Security, except as provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, shall be delivered in exchange for a temporary Registered Security; and provided, further, that a definitive Bearer Security

 

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shall be delivered in exchange for a temporary Bearer Security only in compliance with the conditions set forth in or pursuant to this Indenture. Unless otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture with respect to a temporary global Security, until so exchanged the temporary Securities of any series shall in all respects be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series.

Section 305. Registration, Transfer and Exchange .

With respect to the Registered Securities of each series, if any, the Company shall cause to be kept a register (each such register being herein sometimes referred to as the “Security Register”) at an Office or Agency for such series in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall provide for the registration of the Registered Securities of such series and of transfers of the Registered Securities of such series. Such Office or Agency shall be the “Security Registrar” for that series of Securities. Unless otherwise specified in or pursuant to this Indenture or the Securities, the initial Security Registrar for each series of Securities shall be as specified in the last paragraph of Section 1002. The Company shall have the right to remove and replace from time to time the Security Registrar for any series of Securities; provided that no such removal or replacement shall be effective until a successor Security Registrar with respect to such series of Securities shall have been appointed by the Company and shall have accepted such appointment. In the event that the Trustee shall not be or shall cease to be Security Registrar with respect to a series of Securities, it shall have the right to examine the Security Register for such series at all reasonable times. There shall be only one Security Register for each series of Securities.

Except as otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, upon surrender for registration of transfer of any Registered Security of any series at any Office or Agency for such series, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in the name of the designated transferee or transferees, one or more new Registered Securities of the same series denominated as authorized in or pursuant to this Indenture, of a like aggregate principal amount bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding and containing identical terms and provisions.

Except as otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, at the option of the Holder, Registered Securities of any series may be exchanged for other Registered Securities of the same series containing identical terms and provisions, in any authorized denominations, and of a like aggregate principal amount, upon surrender of the Securities to be exchanged at any Office or Agency for such series. Whenever any Registered Securities are so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, the Registered Securities which the Holder making the exchange is entitled to receive.

If provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, with respect to Securities of any series, at the option of the Holder, Bearer Securities of such series may be exchanged for Registered Securities of such series containing identical terms, denominated as authorized in or pursuant to this Indenture and in the same aggregate principal amount, upon surrender of the Bearer Securities to be exchanged at any Office or Agency for such series, with all unmatured Coupons and all matured Coupons in default thereto appertaining. If the Holder of a Bearer Security is unable to produce any such unmatured Coupon or Coupons or matured Coupon or Coupons in default, such exchange may be effected if the Bearer Securities are accompanied by payment in funds acceptable to the Company and the Trustee in an amount equal to the face amount of such missing Coupon or Coupons, or the surrender of such missing Coupon or Coupons may be waived by the Company and the Trustee if there is furnished to them such security or indemnity as they may require to save each of them and any Paying Agent harmless from and against any and all loss, liability or expense. If thereafter the Holder of such Bearer Security shall surrender to any Paying Agent any such missing Coupon in respect of which such a payment shall have been made, such Holder shall be entitled to receive the amount of such payment; provided, however, that, except as otherwise provided in Section 1002, interest represented by Coupons shall be payable only upon presentation and surrender of those Coupons at an Office or Agency for such series located outside the

 

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United States. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in case a Bearer Security of any series is surrendered at any such Office or Agency for such series in exchange for a Registered Security of such series and like tenor after the close of business at such Office or Agency on (i) any Regular Record Date and before the opening of business at such Office or Agency on the relevant Interest Payment Date, or (ii) any Special Record Date and before the opening of business at such Office or Agency on the related date for payment of Defaulted Interest, such Bearer Security shall be surrendered without the Coupon relating to such Interest Payment Date or proposed date of payment, as the case may be (or, if such Coupon is so surrendered with such Bearer Security, such Coupon shall be returned to the Person so surrendering the Bearer Security), and interest or Defaulted Interest, as the case may be, shall not be payable on such Interest Payment Date or proposed date for payment, as the case may be, in respect of the Registered Security issued in exchange for such Bearer Security, but shall be payable only to the Holder of such Coupon when due in accordance with the provisions of this Indenture.

If provided in or pursuant to this Indenture with respect to Securities of any series, at the option of the Holder, Registered Securities of such series may be exchanged for Bearer Securities upon such terms and conditions as may be provided in or pursuant to this Indenture with respect to such series.

Whenever any Securities are surrendered for exchange as contemplated by the immediately preceding two paragraphs, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, the Securities which the Holder making the exchange is entitled to receive.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, except as otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, the global Securities of any series shall be exchangeable for definitive certificated Securities of such series only if (i) the Depository for such global Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as a Depository for such global Securities or at any time the Depository for such global Securities ceases to be a clearing agency registered as such under the Exchange Act, if so required by applicable law or regulation, and no successor Depository for such Securities shall have been appointed within 90 days of such notification or of the Company becoming aware of the Depository’s ceasing to be so registered, as the case may be, (ii) the Company, in its sole discretion, determines that the Securities of such series shall no longer be represented by one or more global Securities and executes and delivers to the Trustee a Company Order to the effect that such global Securities shall be so exchangeable, or (iii) an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing with respect to such Securities.

If the beneficial owners of interests in a global Security are entitled to exchange such interests for definitive Securities as the result of an event described in clause (i), (ii) or (iii) of the preceding paragraph, then without unnecessary delay but in any event not later than the earliest date on which such interests may be so exchanged, the Company shall deliver to the Trustee definitive Securities in such form and denominations as are required by or pursuant to this Indenture, and of the same series, containing identical terms and in aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of such global Security, executed by the Company. On or after the earliest date on which such interests may be so exchanged, such global Security shall be surrendered from time to time by the Depository (or its custodian) as shall be specified in the Company Order with respect thereto (which the Company agrees to deliver), and in accordance with instructions given to the Trustee and the Depository (which instructions shall be in writing but need not be contained in or accompanied by an Officers’ Certificate or be accompanied by an Opinion of Counsel), as shall be specified in the Company Order with respect thereto to the Trustee, as the Company’s agent for such purpose, to be exchanged, in whole or in part, for definitive Securities as described above without charge. The Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, in exchange for each portion of such surrendered global Security, a like aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of the same series of authorized denominations and of like tenor as the portion of such global Security to be exchanged, which (unless such Securities are not issuable both as Bearer Securities and as Registered Securities, in which case the definitive Securities exchanged for the global Security shall be issuable only in the form in which the Securities are issuable, as provided in or pursuant to this Indenture) shall be in the form of Bearer Securities or Registered Securities, or any combination

 

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thereof, and which shall be in such denominations and, in the case of Registered Securities, registered in such names, as shall be specified by the Depository, but subject to the satisfaction of any certification or other requirements to the issuance of Bearer Securities; provided, however, that no such exchanges may occur during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before any selection of Securities of the same series to be redeemed and ending on the relevant Redemption Date; and provided, further, that (unless otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture) no Bearer Security delivered in exchange for a portion of a global Security shall be mailed or otherwise delivered to any location in the United States. Promptly following any such exchange in part, such global Security shall be returned by the Trustee to such Depository (or its custodian) or such other Depository (or its custodian) referred to above in accordance with the instructions of the Company referred to above, and the Trustee shall endorse such global Security to reflect the decrease in the principal amount thereof resulting from such exchange. If a Registered Security is issued in exchange for any portion of a global Security after the close of business at the Office or Agency for such Security where such exchange occurs on or after (i) any Regular Record Date for such Security and before the opening of business at such Office or Agency on the next Interest Payment Date, or (ii) any Special Record Date for such Security and before the opening of business at such Office or Agency on the related proposed date for payment of interest or Defaulted Interest, as the case may be, interest shall not be payable on such Interest Payment Date or proposed date for payment, as the case may be, in respect of such Registered Security, but shall be payable on such Interest Payment Date or proposed date for payment, as the case may be, only to the Person to whom interest in respect of such portion of such global Security shall be payable in accordance with the provisions of this Indenture.

All Securities issued upon any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities shall be the valid obligations of the Company evidencing the same debt and entitling the Holders thereof to the same benefits under this Indenture as the Securities surrendered upon such registration of transfer or exchange.

Every Registered Security presented or surrendered for registration of transfer or for exchange or redemption shall (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar for such Security) be duly endorsed, or be accompanied by a written instrument of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Security Registrar for such Security duly executed by the Holder thereof or his attorney duly authorized in writing.

No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities, or any redemption or repayment of Securities, or any conversion or exchange of Securities for other types of securities or property, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 304, Section 905 or Section 1107, upon repayment or repurchase in part of any Registered Security pursuant to Article Thirteen, or upon surrender in part of any Registered Security for conversion or exchange into Common Shares or other securities or property pursuant to its terms, in each case not involving any transfer.

Except as otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, the Company shall not be required (i) to issue, register the transfer of or exchange any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the mailing of notice of redemption of Securities of like tenor and terms and of the same series under Section 1103 and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, or (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Registered Security, or portion thereof, so selected for redemption, except in the case of any Registered Security to be redeemed in part, the portion thereof not to be redeemed, or (iii) to exchange any Bearer Security so selected for redemption except, to the extent provided with respect to such Bearer Security, that such Bearer Security may be exchanged for a Registered Security of like tenor and terms and of the same series, provided that such Registered Security shall be simultaneously surrendered for redemption with written instruction for payment consistent with the provisions of this Indenture or (iv) to issue, register the transfer of or exchange any Security which, in accordance with its terms, has been surrendered for repayment at the option of the Holder pursuant to Article Thirteen and not withdrawn, except the portion, if any, of such Security not to be so repaid.

 

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The Trustee shall have no obligation or duty to monitor, determine or inquire as to compliance with any restrictions on transfer imposed under this Indenture or under applicable law with respect to any transfer of any interest in any Security (including any transfers between or among Depository participants or beneficial owners of interests in any global Security) other than to require delivery of such certificates and other documentation or evidence as are expressly required by, and to do so if and when expressly required by the terms of, this Indenture, and to examine the same to determine substantial compliance as to form with the express requirements hereof.

Neither the Trustee nor any agent shall have any responsibility for any actions taken or not taken by the Depository.

Section 306. Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities .

If any mutilated Security or a Security with a mutilated Coupon appertaining to it is surrendered to the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section 306, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a new Security of the same series containing identical terms and of like principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, with Coupons appertaining thereto corresponding to the Coupons, if any, appertaining to the surrendered Security.

If there be delivered to the Company and to the Trustee (i) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security or Coupon, and (ii) such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them and any agent of either of them harmless from and against any and all loss, liability or expense, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Trustee that such Security or Coupon has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute and, upon the Company’s request the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in exchange for or in lieu of any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security or in exchange for the Security to which a destroyed, lost or stolen Coupon appertains with all appurtenant Coupons not destroyed, lost or stolen, a new Security of the same series containing identical terms and of like principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, with Coupons corresponding to the Coupons, if any, appertaining to such destroyed, lost or stolen Security or to the Security to which such destroyed, lost or stolen Coupon appertains.

Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 306, in case any mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security or Coupon has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security or Coupon; provided, however, that payment of principal of, any premium or interest on or any Additional Amounts with respect to any Bearer Securities shall, except as otherwise provided in Section 1002, be payable only at an Office or Agency for such Securities located outside the United States and, unless otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, any interest on Bearer Securities and any Additional Amounts with respect to such interest shall be payable only upon presentation and surrender of the Coupons appertaining thereto.

Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

Every new Security, with any Coupons appertaining thereto issued pursuant to this Section in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security, or in exchange for a Security to which a destroyed, lost or stolen Coupon appertains shall constitute a separate obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security and Coupons appertaining thereto or the destroyed, lost or stolen Coupon shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of such series and any Coupons, if any, duly issued hereunder.

 

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The provisions of this Section, as amended or supplemented pursuant to this Indenture with respect to particular Securities or generally, shall (to the extent lawful) be exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities or Coupons.

Section 307. Payment of Interest and Certain Additional Amounts; Rights to Interest and Certain Additional Amounts Preserved .

Unless otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, any interest on and any Additional Amounts with respect to any Registered Security which shall be payable, and are punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date shall be paid to the Person in whose name such Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered as of the close of business on the Regular Record Date for such interest. Unless otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, in case a Bearer Security is surrendered in exchange for a Registered Security after the close of business at an Office or Agency for such Security on any Regular Record Date therefor and before the opening of business at such Office or Agency on the next succeeding Interest Payment Date therefor, such Bearer Security shall be surrendered without the Coupon relating to such Interest Payment Date and interest shall not be payable on such Interest Payment Date in respect of the Registered Security issued in exchange for such Bearer Security, but shall be payable only to the Holder of such Coupon when due in accordance with the provisions of this Indenture.

Unless otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, any interest on and any Additional Amounts with respect to any Registered Security which shall be payable, but shall not be punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for such Registered Security (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the Holder thereof on the relevant Regular Record Date by virtue of having been such Holder; and such Defaulted Interest may be paid by the Company, at its election in each case, as provided in Clause (1) or (2) below:

(1) The Company may elect to make payment of any Defaulted Interest to the Person in whose name such Registered Security (or a Predecessor Security thereof) shall be registered at the close of business on a Special Record Date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner. The Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on such Registered Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit on or prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when so deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Person entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this Clause provided. Thereupon, the Trustee shall fix a Special Record Date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall be not more than 15 days and not less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such Special Record Date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the Special Record Date therefor to be mailed, first-class postage prepaid, to the Holder of such Registered Security (or a Predecessor Security thereof) at his address as it appears in the Security Register not less than 10 days prior to such Special Record Date. The Trustee may, in its discretion, in the name and at the expense of the Company cause a similar notice to be published at least once in an Authorized Newspaper of general circulation in the Borough of Manhattan, The City of New York, but such publication shall not be a condition precedent to the establishment of such Special Record Date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the Special Record Date therefor having been mailed as aforesaid,

 

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such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Person in whose name such Registered Security (or a Predecessor Security thereof) shall be registered at the close of business on such Special Record Date and shall no longer be payable pursuant to the following clause (2). In case a Bearer Security is surrendered at the Office or Agency for such Security in exchange for a Registered Security after the close of business at such Office or Agency on any Special Record Date and before the opening of business at such Office or Agency on the related proposed date for payment of Defaulted Interest, such Bearer Security shall be surrendered without the Coupon relating to such Defaulted Interest and Defaulted Interest shall not be payable on such proposed date of payment in respect of the Registered Security issued in exchange for such Bearer Security, but shall be payable only to the Holder of such Coupon when due in accordance with the provisions of this Indenture.

(2) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Security may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this Clause, such payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

Unless otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture or the Securities of any particular series, at the option of the Company, interest on Registered Securities that bear interest may be paid by mailing a check to the address of the Person entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register or by transfer to an account maintained by the payee with a bank located in the United States of America.

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section and Section 305, each Security delivered under this Indenture upon registration of transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, which were carried by such other Security.

Section 308. Persons Deemed Owners .

Prior to due presentment of a Registered Security for registration of transfer, the Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company or the Trustee may treat the Person in whose name such Registered Security is registered in the Security Register as the owner of such Registered Security for the purpose of receiving payment of principal of, any premium and (subject to Section 305 and Section 307) interest on and any Additional Amounts with respect to such Registered Security and for all other purposes whatsoever, whether or not any payment with respect to such Registered Security shall be overdue, and none of the Company, the Trustee or any agent of the Company or the Trustee shall be affected by notice to the contrary.

The Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company or the Trustee may treat the bearer of any Bearer Security or the bearer of any Coupon as the absolute owner of such Security or Coupon for the purpose of receiving payment thereof or on account thereof and for all other purposes whatsoever, whether or not any payment with respect to such Security or Coupon shall be overdue, and none of the Company, the Trustee or any agent of the Company or the Trustee shall be affected by notice to the contrary.

No holder of any beneficial interest in any global Security held on its behalf by a Depository shall have any rights under this Indenture with respect to such global Security, and such Depository may be treated by the Company, the Trustee, and any agent of the Company or the Trustee as the owner of such global Security for all purposes whatsoever. None of the Company, the Trustee, any Paying Agent or the Security Registrar will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests of a global Security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests.

 

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Notwithstanding the foregoing, nothing herein shall prevent the Company, the Trustee, any Paying Agent or the Security Registrar from giving effect to any written certification, proxy or other authorization furnished by the applicable Depository, as a Holder, with respect to a global Security or impair, as between such Depository and the owners of beneficial interests in such global Security, the operation of customary practices governing the exercise of the rights of such Depository (or its nominee) as the Holder of such global Security.

Section 309. Cancellation .

All Securities and Coupons surrendered for payment, redemption, registration of transfer, exchange or conversion or for credit against any sinking fund payment shall, if surrendered to any Person other than the Trustee, be delivered to the Trustee, and any such Securities and Coupons, as well as Securities and Coupons surrendered directly to the Trustee for any such purpose, shall be cancelled promptly by the Trustee. The Company may at any time deliver to the Trustee for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated and delivered hereunder which the Company may have acquired in any manner whatsoever, and all Securities so delivered shall be cancelled promptly by the Trustee. No Securities shall be authenticated in lieu of or in exchange for any Securities cancelled as provided in this Section, except as expressly permitted by or pursuant to this Indenture. All cancelled Securities and Coupons held by the Trustee shall be disposed of by the Trustee in accordance with its customary procedures.

Section 310. Computation of Interest .

Except as otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture or in the Securities of any series, interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.

Section 311. CUSIP Numbers .

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” or “ISIN” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” or “ISIN” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other identification numbers printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers. The Company will promptly notify the Trustee in writing of any change in the “CUSIP” or “ISIN” numbers.

ARTICLE FOUR

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE

Section 401. Satisfaction and Discharge .

Unless, pursuant to Section 301, the provisions of this Section 401 shall not be applicable with respect to the Securities of any series, upon the direction of the Company by a Company Order, this Indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to any series of Securities specified in such Company Order and any Coupons appertaining thereto, and the Trustee, on receipt of a Company Order, at the expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture as to such series, when

 

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(1) either

(a) all Securities of such series theretofore authenticated and delivered and all Coupons appertaining thereto (other than (i) Coupons appertaining to Bearer Securities of such series surrendered in exchange for Registered Securities of such series and maturing after such exchange whose surrender is not required or has been waived as provided in Section 305, (ii) Securities and Coupons of such series which have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 306, (iii) Coupons appertaining to Securities of such series called for redemption and maturing after the relevant Redemption Date whose surrender has been waived as provided in Section 1106, and (iv) Securities and Coupons of such series for whose payment money has theretofore been deposited in trust or segregated and held in trust by the Company and thereafter repaid to the Company or discharged from such trust, as provided in Section 1103) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or

(b) all Securities of such series and, in the case of (i) or (ii) below, if applicable, any Coupons appertaining thereto not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation

(i) have become due and payable, or

(ii) will become due and payable at their Stated Maturity within one year, or

(iii) if redeemable at the option of the Company, are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the Trustee in the name, and at the expense, of the Company,

and the Company, in the case of (i), (ii) or (iii) above, has deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for such purpose, money in the Currency in which such Securities are payable in an amount sufficient to pay and discharge the entire indebtedness on such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including the principal of, any premium and interest on, and, to the extent that the Securities of such series provide for the payment of Additional Amounts thereon and the amount of any such Additional Amounts which are or will be payable with respect to the Securities of such series is at the time of deposit reasonably determinable by the Company (in the exercise by the Company of its sole and absolute discretion), any Additional Amounts with respect to, such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto, to the date of such deposit (in the case of Securities which have become due and payable) or to the Maturity thereof, as the case may be;

(2) the Company has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company with respect to the Outstanding Securities of such series and any Coupons appertaining thereto; and

(3) the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture as to such series have been complied with.

In the event there are Securities of two or more series Outstanding hereunder, the Trustee shall be required to execute an instrument acknowledging satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture only if requested to do so with respect to Securities of such series as to which it is Trustee and if the other conditions thereto are met.

Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to any series of Securities, the obligations of the Company to the Trustee under Section 606 and, if money shall have been deposited with the Trustee pursuant to subclause (b) of clause (1) of this Section, the respective obligations of the Company and the Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series under Section 305, Section 306, Section 403, Section 404, Section 1102 and Section 1103, any rights of Holders of the Securities of such series (unless otherwise provided pursuant to Section 301 with respect to the Securities of such series) to convert or exchange, and the obligations of the Company to convert or exchange, such Securities into Common Shares or other securities or property, and, if expressly provided

 

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pursuant to Section 301 with respect to the Securities of such series, any rights of Holders of the Securities of such series to require the Company to repurchase or repay, and the obligations of the Company to repurchase or repay, such Securities at the option of such Holders as contemplated by Article Thirteen hereof, shall survive, and, if the Securities of such series provide for the payment of Additional Amounts pursuant to Section 1104, the Company will remain obligated, following satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such series, to pay Additional Amounts with respect to such Securities as contemplated by Section 1104, to the extent (and only to the extent) that the Additional Amounts payable with respect to such Securities exceed the amount deposited in respect of such Additional Amounts pursuant to subclause (b) of clause (1) of this Section.

Section 402. Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance .

(1) Unless, pursuant to Section 301, either or both of (i) defeasance of the Securities of or within a series under clause (2) of this Section 402 or (ii) covenant defeasance of the Securities of or within a series under clause (3) of this Section 402 shall not be applicable with respect to the Securities of such series, then such provisions, together with the other provisions of this Section 402 (with such modifications thereto as may be specified pursuant to Section 301 with respect to any Securities), shall be applicable to such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto, and the Company may at its option by Board Resolution, at any time, with respect to the Securities of or within such series and any Coupons appertaining thereto, elect to have Section 402(2) or Section 402(3) be applied to such Outstanding Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto upon compliance with the conditions set forth below in this Section 402. Unless otherwise specified pursuant to Section 301 with respect to the Securities of any series, defeasance under clause (2) of this Section 402 and covenant defeasance under clause (3) of this Section 402 may be effected with respect to any or all of the Outstanding Securities of any series. To the extent that the terms of any Security or Coupon appertaining thereto established in or pursuant to this Indenture permit the Company or any Holder thereof to extend the date on which any payment of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest, if any, on, or Additional Amounts, if any, with respect to such Security or Coupon is due and payable, then unless otherwise provided pursuant to Section 301, the right to extend such date shall terminate upon defeasance or covenant defeasance, as the case may be.

(2) Upon the Company’s exercise of the above option applicable to this Section 402(2) with respect to any Securities of or within a series, the Company shall be deemed to have been discharged from its obligations with respect to such Outstanding Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto on the date the conditions set forth in clause (4) of this Section 402 are satisfied (hereinafter, “defeasance”). For this purpose, such defeasance means that the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness represented by such Outstanding Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto, which shall thereafter be deemed to be “Outstanding” only for the purposes of clause (5) of this Section 402 and the other Sections of this Indenture referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) of this paragraph, and shall be deemed to have satisfied all of its other obligations under such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto and this Indenture insofar as such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto are concerned (and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging the same), except for the following which shall survive until otherwise terminated or discharged hereunder: (i) the rights of Holders of such Outstanding Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto to receive, solely (except as provided in clause (ii) below) from the trust fund described in clause (4)(a) of this Section 402 and as more fully set forth in this Section 402 and Section 403, payments in respect of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest, if any, on, and Additional Amounts, if any, with respect to, such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto when such payments are due, (ii) the obligations of the Company and the Trustee with respect to such Securities under Section 305, Section 306, Section 1002 and Section 1003 and, if applicable to the Securities of such series, any rights of Holders of such Securities (unless otherwise provided pursuant to Section 301 with respect to the Securities of such series) to convert or exchange, and the obligations of the Company to convert or exchange, such Securities into Common Shares or other securities or property, and, if expressly provided pursuant to Section 301 with respect to the Securities of such series, any rights of Holders of the

 

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Securities of such series to require the Company to repurchase or repay, and the obligations of the Company to repurchase or repay, such Securities at the option of such Holders as contemplated by Article Thirteen hereof, and, if the Securities of such series provide for the payment of Additional Amounts pursuant to Section 1004, the Company will remain obligated, following defeasance of this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such series, to pay Additional Amounts with respect to such Securities as contemplated by Section 1004, to the extent (and only to the extent) that the Additional Amounts payable with respect to such Securities exceed the amount deposited in respect of such Additional Amounts pursuant to clause 4(a) of this Section 402, (iii) the rights, powers, trusts, duties and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and (iv) this Section 402 and Section 403 and Section 404. The Company may exercise its option under this Section 402(2) notwithstanding the prior exercise of its option under Section 402(3) with respect to such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto.

(3) Upon the Company’s exercise of the above option applicable to this Section 402(3) with respect to any Securities of or within a series, the Company shall be released from its obligations under any covenants applicable to such Securities which are specified pursuant to Section 301 as being subject to covenant defeasance on and after the date the conditions set forth in clause (4) of this Section 402 are satisfied (hereinafter, “covenant defeasance”), and such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto shall thereafter be deemed to be not “Outstanding” for the purposes of any direction, waiver, consent or declaration or Act of Holders (and the consequences of any thereof) in connection with any such covenant, but shall continue to be deemed “Outstanding” for all other purposes hereunder. For this purpose, such covenant defeasance means that with respect to such Outstanding Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto, the Company may omit to comply with, and shall have no liability in respect of, any term, condition or limitation set forth in any such covenant, whether directly or indirectly, by reason of any reference elsewhere herein to any such Section or such other covenant or by reason of reference in any such Section or such other covenant to any other provision herein or in any other document and such omission to comply shall not constitute a default or an Event of Default under Section 501(5) or Section 501(11) or otherwise, as the case may be, but, except as specified above, the remainder of this Indenture and such Securities and Coupons appertaining thereto shall be unaffected thereby.

(4) The following shall be the conditions to application of clause (2) or (3) of this Section 402 to any Outstanding Securities of or within a series and any Coupons appertaining thereto:

(a) The Company shall irrevocably have deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee (or another trustee satisfying the requirements of Section 607 who shall agree to comply with the provisions of this Section 402 applicable to it) as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto, (1) an amount in Dollars or in such Foreign Currency in which such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto are then specified as payable at Stated Maturity or, if such defeasance or covenant defeasance is to be effected in compliance with subsection (f) below, on the relevant Redemption Date, as the case may be, or (2) Government Obligations applicable to such Securities and Coupons appertaining thereto (determined on the basis of the Currency in which such Securities and Coupons appertaining thereto are then specified as payable at Stated Maturity or, if such defeasance or covenant defeasance is to be effected in compliance with subsection (f) below, on the relevant Redemption Date, as the case may be) which through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in respect thereof in accordance with their terms will provide, not later than one day before the due date of any payment of principal of (and premium, if any) and interest, if any, on such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto, money in an amount, or (3) a combination thereof, in any case, in an amount, sufficient, without consideration of any reinvestment of such principal and interest, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge, and which shall be applied by the Trustee (or other qualifying trustee) to pay and discharge, (y) the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest, if any, on, and, to the extent that such Securities provide for the payment of Additional

 

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Amounts thereon and the amount of any such Additional Amounts which are or will be payable with respect to the Securities of such series is at the time of deposit reasonably determinable by the Company (in the exercise by the Company of its sole and absolute discretion), any Additional Amounts with respect to, such Outstanding Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto on the Stated Maturity of such principal or installment of principal or interest or the applicable Redemption Date, as the case may be, and (z) any mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments applicable to such Outstanding Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and of such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto.

(b) Such defeasance or covenant defeasance shall not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture.

(c) No Event of Default or event which with notice or lapse of time or both would become an Event of Default with respect to such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit, and, solely in the case of defeasance under Section 402(2), no Event of Default with respect to the Company under clauses (8), (9) or (10) of Section 501 with respect to such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto or event which with notice or lapse of time or both would become an Event of Default with respect to the Company under clauses (8), (9) or (10) of Section 501 with respect to such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto shall have occurred and be continuing at any time during the period ending on and including the 91st day after the date of such deposit (it being understood that this condition to defeasance under Section 402(2) shall not be deemed satisfied until the expiration of such period).

(d) In the case of defeasance pursuant to Section 402(2), the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an opinion of independent counsel reasonably acceptable to the Trustee stating that (x) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling, or (y) since the date of this Indenture there has been a change in applicable U.S. federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion of independent counsel shall confirm that, the Holders and beneficial owners of such Outstanding Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of such defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such defeasance had not occurred; or, in the case of covenant defeasance pursuant to Section 402(3), the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an opinion of independent counsel reasonably acceptable to the Trustee to the effect that the Holders and beneficial owners of such Outstanding Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of such covenant defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such covenant defeasance had not occurred.

(e) The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent to the defeasance or covenant defeasance, as the case may be, under this Indenture have been complied with.

(f) If the monies or Government Obligations or combination thereof, as the case may be, deposited under clause (a) above are sufficient to pay the principal of, and premium, if any, and interest, if any, on and, to the extent provided in such clause (a), Additional Amounts with respect to, such Securities provided such Securities are redeemed on a particular Redemption Date, the Company shall have given the Trustee irrevocable instructions to redeem such Securities on such date and to provide notice of such redemption to Holders as provided in or pursuant to this Indenture.

 

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(g) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Section 402(4), such defeasance or covenant defeasance shall be effected in compliance with any additional or substitute terms, conditions or limitations which may be imposed on the Company in connection therewith pursuant to Section 301.

(5) Subject to the provisions of the last paragraph of Section 1003, all money and Government Obligations (or other property as may be provided pursuant to Section 301) (including the proceeds thereof) deposited with the Trustee (or other qualifying trustee—collectively for purposes of this Section 402(5) and Section 403, the “Trustee”) pursuant to clause (4)(a) of Section 402 in respect of any Outstanding Securities of any series and any Coupons appertaining thereto shall be held in trust and applied by the Trustee, in accordance with the provisions of such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (other than the Company or any Subsidiary or Affiliate of the Company acting as Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the Holders of such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto of all sums due and to become due thereon in respect of principal (and premium, if any) and interest and Additional Amounts, if any, but such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

Unless otherwise specified in or pursuant to this Indenture or any Securities, if, after a deposit referred to in Section 402(4)(a) has been made, (a) the Holder of a Security in respect of which such deposit was made is entitled to, and does, elect pursuant to Section 301 or the terms of such Security to receive payment in a Currency other than that in which the deposit pursuant to Section 402(4)(a) has been made in respect of such Security, or (b) a Conversion Event occurs in respect of the Foreign Currency in which the deposit pursuant to Section 402(4)(a) has been made, the indebtedness represented by such Security and any Coupons appertaining thereto shall be deemed to have been, and will be, fully discharged and satisfied through the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any), and interest, if any, on, and Additional Amounts, if any, with respect to, such Security as the same becomes due out of the proceeds yielded by converting (from time to time as specified below in the case of any such election) the amount or other property deposited in respect of such Security into the Currency in which such Security becomes payable as a result of such election or Conversion Event based on (x) in the case of payments made pursuant to clause (a) above, the applicable market exchange rate for such Currency in effect on the second Business Day prior to each payment date, or (y) with respect to a Conversion Event, the applicable market exchange rate for such Foreign Currency in effect (as nearly as feasible) at the time of the Conversion Event.

The Company shall pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge, imposed on or assessed against the Government Obligations deposited pursuant to this Section 402 or the principal or interest received in respect thereof other than any such tax, fee or other charge which by law is for the account of the Holders of such Outstanding Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto.

Anything in this Section 402 to the contrary notwithstanding, the Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon Company Request any money or Government Obligations (or other property and any proceeds therefrom) held by it as provided in clause (4)(a) of this Section 402 which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are in excess of the amount thereof which would then be required to be deposited to effect a defeasance or covenant defeasance, as applicable, in accordance with this Section 402.

Section 403. Application of Trust Money .

Subject to the provisions of the last paragraph of Section 1003, all money and Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 401 or Section 402 shall be held in trust and applied by it, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities, the Coupons and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own Paying

 

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Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the Persons entitled thereto, of the principal, premium, interest and Additional Amounts for whose payment such money has or Government Obligations have been deposited with or received by the Trustee; but such money and Government Obligations need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

Section 404. Reinstatement .

If the Trustee (or other qualifying trustee appointed pursuant to Section 402(4)(a)) or any Paying Agent is unable to apply any moneys or Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Section 401(1) or Section 402(4)(a) to pay any principal of or premium, if any, or interest, if any, on or Additional Amounts, if any, with respect to the Securities of the applicable series by reason of any legal proceeding or any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, then the Company’s obligations under this Indenture and the Securities of such series shall be revived and reinstated as though no such deposit had occurred, until such time as the Trustee (or other qualifying trustee) or Paying Agent is permitted to apply all such moneys and Government Obligations to pay the principal of and premium, if any, and interest, if any, on and Additional Amounts, if any, in respect of the Securities of such series as contemplated by Section 401 or Section 402 as the case may be, and Section 403; provided, however, that if the Company makes any payment of the principal of or premium, if any, or interest if any, on or Additional Amounts, if any, in respect of the Securities of such series following the reinstatement of its obligations as aforesaid, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights of the Holders of such Securities to receive such payment from the funds held by the Trustee (or other qualifying trustee) or Paying Agent.

ARTICLE FIVE

REMEDIES

Section 501. Events of Default .

“Event of Default”, wherever used herein with respect to Securities of any series, means any one of the following events (whatever the reason for such Event of Default and whether it shall be voluntary or involuntary or be effected by operation of law or pursuant to any judgment, decree or order of any court or any order, rule or regulation of any administrative or governmental body) unless such event is specifically deleted or modified in or pursuant to the supplemental indenture, Board Resolution or Officers’ Certificate establishing the terms of such series pursuant to this Indenture:

(1) default in the payment of any interest, if any, on, or any Additional Amounts, if any, payable in respect of any interest, if any, on, any of the Securities of such series or any Coupon appertaining thereto when such interest or such Additional Amounts, as the case may be, become due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days; or

(2) default in the payment of any principal of or premium, if any, on, or any Additional Amounts, if any, payable in respect of any principal of or premium, if any, on, any of the Securities of such series when due (whether at Maturity or otherwise and whether payable in cash or in Common Shares or other securities or property); or

(3) default in the deposit of any sinking fund payment or payment under any analogous provision when due with respect to any of the Securities of such series; or

(4) default in the delivery when due of any securities, cash or other property (including, without limitation, any Common Shares) when required to be delivered upon conversion of any convertible Security of such series or upon the exchange of any Security of such series which is exchangeable for Common Shares or other securities or property (other than an exchange of Securities of such series for other Securities of the same series); or

 

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(5) default in the performance, or breach, of any covenant or warranty applicable to the Company in this Indenture or any Security of such series (other than a covenant or warranty for which the consequences of breach or nonperformance are addressed elsewhere in this Section 501 or a covenant or warranty which has expressly been included in this Indenture, whether or not by means of a supplemental indenture, solely for the benefit of Securities of a series other than such series), and continuance of such default or breach (without such default or breach having been cured or waived in accordance of the provisions of this Indenture) for a period of 90 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Company by the Trustee or to the Company and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder; or

(6) default after the expiration of any applicable grace period in the payment of principal when due, or resulting in acceleration of, other indebtedness (other than Non-recourse Debt) of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary of the Company for borrowed money where the aggregate principal amount with respect to which the default or acceleration has occurred exceeds $100 million and such indebtedness has not been discharged, or such default in payment or acceleration has not been cured or rescinded, prior to written notice of acceleration of the Outstanding Securities of such series; or

(7) failure by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries to pay final judgments or decree entered by a court or courts of competent jurisdiction aggregating in excess of $100 million, which judgments are not paid, discharged or stayed for a period of 30 days after such judgments become final and non-appealable; or

(8) the Company or any Significant Subsidiary of the Company pursuant to or under or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:

(i) commences a voluntary case or proceeding seeking liquidation, reorganization or other relief with respect to it or its debts or seeking the appointment of a trustee, receiver, liquidator, custodian or other similar official of it or any substantial part of its property; or

(ii) consents to any such relief or to the appointment of or taking possession by any such official in an involuntary case or other proceeding commenced against it; or

(iii) consents to the appointment of a custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property; or

(iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of creditors; or

(9) an involuntary case or other proceeding shall be commenced against the Company or any Significant Subsidiary of the Company seeking liquidation, reorganization or other relief with respect to it or its debts under any bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect or seeking the appointment of a trustee, receiver, liquidator, custodian or other similar official of it or any substantial part of its property, and such involuntary case or other proceeding shall remain undismissed and unstayed for a period of 90 days; or

(10) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that:

(i) is for relief against the Company or any Significant Subsidiary of the Company in an involuntary case or proceeding; or

 

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(ii) appoints a trustee, receiver, liquidator, custodian or other similar official of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary of the Company or any substantial part of their respective properties; or

(iii) orders the liquidation of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary of the Company;

and, in each case in this clause (10), the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 days; or

(11) any other Event of Default provided in or pursuant to this Indenture with respect to Securities of such series.

Section 502. Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment .

If an Event of Default (other than an Event of Default specified in clauses (8), (9) or (10) of Section 501 with respect to the Company) occurs and is continuing with respect to Securities of any series, then either the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series may declare the principal of all the Securities of such series, or such lesser amount as may be provided for in the Securities of such series, and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, thereon to be due and payable immediately, by a notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by the Holders), and upon any such declaration such principal or such lesser amount, as the case may be, and such accrued and unpaid interest shall become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in clause (8), (9) or (10) of Section 501 with respect to the Company occurs with respect to the Securities of any series, then the principal of all of the Securities of such series, or such lesser amount as may be provided for in the Securities of such series, and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, thereon shall ipso facto become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or any Holder of the Securities of such series. For purposes of clarity, the parties hereto agree that references in this Indenture to an Event of Default specified in clauses (8), (9) or (10) of Section 501 with respect to the Company shall not include any Event of Default specified in clauses (8), (9) or (10) of Section 501 with respect to any Significant Subsidiary of the Company.

At any time after Securities of any series have been accelerated (whether by declaration of the Trustee or the Holders or automatically) and before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the Trustee as hereinafter in this Article provided, the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if

(1) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum of money sufficient to pay (or, to the extent that the terms of the Securities of such series established pursuant to Section 301 expressly provide for payment to be made in Common Shares or other securities or property, Common Shares or other securities or property, together with cash in lieu of fractional shares or securities to the extent required pursuant to the terms of such Securities, sufficient to pay)

(a) all overdue installments of any interest on any Securities of such series and any Coupons appertaining thereto which have become due otherwise than by such declaration of acceleration and any Additional Amounts with respect thereto,

(b) the principal of and any premium on any Securities of such series which have become due otherwise than by such declaration of acceleration and any Additional Amounts with respect thereto and, to the extent permitted by applicable law, interest thereon at the rate or respective rates, as the case may be, provided for in or with respect to such Securities, or, if no such rate or rates are so provided, at the rate or respective rates, as the case may be, of interest borne by such Securities,

 

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(c) to the extent permitted by applicable law, interest upon installments of any interest, if any, which have become due otherwise than by such declaration of acceleration and any Additional Amounts with respect thereto at the rate or respective rates, as the case may be, provided for in or with respect to such Securities, or, if no such rate or rates are so provided, at the rate or respective rates, as the case may be, of interest borne by such Securities, and

(d) all sums paid or advanced by the Trustee hereunder and the reasonable compensation, fees and expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel and all other amounts due the Trustee under Section 606; and

(2) all Events of Default with respect to Securities of such series other than the non-payment of the principal of, any premium and interest on, and any Additional Amounts with respect to Securities of such series which shall have become due solely by such declaration of acceleration, shall have been cured or waived as provided in Section 513.

No such rescission shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.

Section 503. Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee .

The Company covenants that if:

(1) default is made in the payment of any interest on, or any Additional Amounts payable in respect of any interest on, any Security or any Coupon appertaining thereto when such interest or Additional Amounts, as the case may be, shall have become due and payable and such default continues for a period of 30 days, or

(2) default is made in the payment of any principal of or premium, if any, on, or any Additional Amounts payable in respect of any principal of or premium, if any, on, any Security at its Maturity, or

(3) default is made in the deposit of any sinking fund payment when due, then the Company shall, upon demand of the Trustee, pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the Holders of such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto, the whole amount of money then due and payable with respect to such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto, with interest upon the overdue principal, any premium and, to the extent permitted by applicable law, upon any overdue installments of interest and Additional Amounts at the rate or respective rates, as the case may be, provided for or with respect to such Securities or, if no such rate or rates are so provided, at the rate or respective rates, as the case may be, of interest borne by such Securities, and, in addition thereto, such further amount of money as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel and all other amounts due to the Trustee under Section 606.

If the Company fails to pay the money it is required to pay the Trustee pursuant to the preceding paragraph forthwith upon the demand of the Trustee, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, may institute a judicial proceeding for the collection of the money so due and unpaid, and may prosecute such proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce the same against the Company or any other obligor upon such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto and collect the monies adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company or any other obligor upon such Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto, wherever situated.

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any series occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce its rights and the rights of the Holders of Securities of such series and any Coupons appertaining thereto by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement in this Indenture or such Securities or in aid of the exercise of any power granted herein or therein, or to enforce any other proper remedy.

 

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Section 504. Trustee May File Proofs of Claim .

In case of the pendency of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, arrangement, adjustment, composition or other judicial proceeding relative to the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or the property of the Company or such other obligor or their creditors, the Trustee (irrespective of whether the principal of the Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand on the Company for the payment of any overdue principal, premium, interest or Additional Amounts) shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceeding or otherwise,

(1) to file and prove a claim for the whole amount, or such lesser amount as may be provided for in the Securities of such series, of the principal and any premium, interest and Additional Amounts owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities and any Coupons appertaining thereto and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents or counsel) and of the Holders of Securities or any Coupons allowed in such judicial proceeding, and

(2) to collect and receive any monies or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims and to distribute the same;

and any custodian, receiver, assignee, trustee, liquidator, sequestrator or other similar official in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Holder of Securities or any Coupons to make such payments to the Trustee and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Holders of Securities or any Coupons, to pay to the Trustee any amount due to it for the reasonable compensation, fees and expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 606.

Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Holder of a Security or any Coupon any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities or Coupons or the rights of any Holder thereof, or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Holder of a Security or any Coupon in any such proceeding.

Section 505. Trustee May Enforce Claims without Possession of Securities or Coupons .

All rights of action and claims under this Indenture or any of the Securities or Coupons may be prosecuted and enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities or Coupons or the production thereof in any proceeding relating thereto, and any such proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery or judgment, after provision for the payment of the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, shall be for the ratable benefit of each and every Holder of a Security or Coupon in respect of which such judgment has been recovered.

Section 506. Application of Money Collected .

Any money collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article with respect to the Securities of any series shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such money on account of principal, or any premium, interest or Additional Amounts, upon presentation of such Securities or the Coupons, if any, appertaining thereto, or both, as the case may be, and the notation thereon of the payment if only partially paid and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

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FIRST: To the payment of all amounts due the Trustee (acting in any capacity hereunder or in connection herewith), its agents and counsel and any predecessor Trustee under Section 606;

SECOND: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon the Securities and any Coupons for principal and any premium, interest and Additional Amounts in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the aggregate amounts due and payable on such Securities and Coupons for principal and any premium, interest and Additional Amounts;

THIRD: The balance, if any, to the Person or Persons entitled thereto.

Section 507. Limitations on Suits .

No Holder of any Security of any series or any Coupons appertaining thereto shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless

(1) such Holder has previously given written notice to the Trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such series;

(2) the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as Trustee hereunder;

(3) such Holder or Holders have offered to the Trustee indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee against the costs, fees and expenses and liabilities which might be incurred in compliance with such request;

(4) the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and

(5) no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such 60-day period by the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series;

it being understood and intended and being expressly covenanted by the taker and holder of every Security, with every other taker and holder with the Trustee that no one or more of such Holders shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue of, or by availing of, any provision of this Indenture or any Security to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other such Holders or Holders of Securities of any other series, or to obtain or to seek to obtain priority or preference over any other Holders or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal and ratable benefit of all such Holders (it being understood that the Trustee does not have an affirmative duty to ascertain whether or not such actions or forbearances are unduly prejudicial to such Holders).

 

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Section 508. Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and any Premium, Interest and Additional Amounts .

Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture, the Holder of any Security or Coupon shall have the right, which is absolute and unconditional, to receive payment of the principal of, any premium, if any, and (subject to Section 305 and Section 307) interest, if any, on and any Additional Amounts with respect to such Security or such Coupon, as the case may be, on the respective Stated Maturity or Maturities therefor specified in such Security or Coupon (or, in the case of redemption, on the Redemption Date or, in the case of repayment pursuant to Article Thirteen hereof at the option of such Holder if provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, on the date such repayment is due) and, in the case of any Security which is convertible into or exchangeable for other securities or property, to convert or exchange, as the case may be, such Security in accordance with its terms, and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and any such right to convert or exchange, and such right shall not be impaired without the consent of such Holder.

Section 509. Restoration of Rights and Remedies .

If the Trustee or any Holder of a Security or a Coupon has instituted any proceeding to enforce any right or remedy under this Indenture and such proceeding has been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or has been determined adversely to the Trustee or to such Holder, then and in every such case the Company, the Trustee and each such Holder shall, subject to any determination in such proceeding, be restored severally and respectively to their former positions hereunder, and thereafter all rights and remedies of the Trustee and each such Holder shall continue as though no such proceeding had been instituted.

Section 510. Rights and Remedies Cumulative .

To the extent permitted by applicable law and except as otherwise provided with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities or Coupons in the last paragraph of Section 306, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to each and every Holder of a Security or a Coupon is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy, to the extent permitted by law, shall be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not, to the extent permitted by law, prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

Section 511. Delay or Omission Not Waiver .

No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of any Security or Coupon to exercise any right or remedy accruing upon any Event of Default shall, to the extent permitted by applicable law, impair any such right or remedy or constitute a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein. Every right and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or to any Holder of a Security or a Coupon may, to the extent permitted by applicable law, be exercised from time to time, and as often as may be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by such Holder, as the case may be.

Section 512. Control by Holders of Securities .

The Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series and any Coupons appertaining thereto, provided that

(1) such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture or with the Securities of any series,

(2) the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction, and

 

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(3) such direction is not unduly prejudicial to the rights of the other Holders of Securities of such series not joining in such action.

Section 513. Waiver of Past Defaults .

The Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such series and any Coupons appertaining thereto may waive any past default hereunder with respect to such series and its consequences, except

(1) a default in the payment of the principal of, any premium or interest on, or any Additional Amounts with respect to, any Security of such series or any Coupons appertaining thereto, or

(2) in the case of any Securities which are convertible into or exchangeable for Common Shares or other securities or property, a default in any such conversion or exchange, or

(3) a default in respect of a covenant or provision hereof which under Article Nine cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the Holder of each Outstanding Security of such series affected.

Upon any such waiver, such default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon.

Section 514. Waiver of Usury, Stay or Extension Laws .

The Company covenants that (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) it will not at any time insist upon, or plead, or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay or extension law or any usury law or any other law wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, which would prohibit or forgive the Company from paying all or any portion of the principal of or premium, if any, or interest, if any, on or Additional Amounts, if any, with respect to any Securities as contemplated herein and therein or which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture or the Securities; and the Company (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) expressly waives all benefit or advantage of any such law and covenants that it will not hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee or the Holders, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law had been enacted.

Section 515. Undertaking for Costs .

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted to be taken by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of any undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees and disbursements, against any party litigant in such suit having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section 515 shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Holder, or group of Holders, holding in the aggregate more than 10% in principal amount of Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Holder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest, if any, on or Additional Amounts, if any, with respect to any Security on or after the respective Stated Maturities expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on or after the Redemption Date, and, in the case of repayment at the option of the Holder pursuant to Article Thirteen hereof, on or after the date for repayment) or for the enforcement of the right, if any, to convert or exchange any Security into Common Shares or other securities in accordance with its terms.

 

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ARTICLE SIX

THE TRUSTEE

Section 601. Certain Rights of Trustee .

Subject to Sections 315(a) through 315(d) of the Trust Indenture Act:

(1) the Trustee may conclusively rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, coupon or other paper or document reasonably believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

(2) any request or direction of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Company Request or a Company Order (in each case, other than delivery of any Security, together with any Coupons appertaining thereto, to the Trustee for authentication and delivery pursuant to Section 303 which shall be sufficiently evidenced as provided therein) and any resolution of the Board of Directors may be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution;

(3) whenever in the administration of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking, suffering or omitting any action hereunder, the Trustee (unless other evidence shall be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of bad faith on its part, rely upon an Officers’ Certificate;

(4) the Trustee may consult with counsel of its selection and the advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;

(5) the Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by or pursuant to this Indenture at the request or direction of any of the Holders of Securities of any series or any Coupons appertaining thereto pursuant to this Indenture, unless such Holders shall have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee against the costs, fees and expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction;

(6) the Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, coupon or other paper or document, but the Trustee, in its discretion, may make such further inquiry or investigation into such facts or matters as it may see fit, and, if the Trustee shall determine to make such further inquiry or investigation, it shall be entitled to examine, during business hours and upon reasonable notice, the books, records and premises of the Company, personally or by agent or attorney;

(7) the Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder;

(8) the Trustee undertakes to perform such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee;

 

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(9) in the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions which by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture (but need not confirm or investigate the accuracy of mathematical calculations or other facts stated therein);

(10) no provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur any financial liability in the performance of any of its duties hereunder, or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if it shall have reasonable grounds for believing that repayment of such funds or adequate indemnity against such risk or liability is not reasonably assured to it;

(11) the Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken, suffered, or omitted to be taken by it in good faith and reasonably believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

(12) in no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for special, indirect, punitive or consequential loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including, but not limited to, loss of profit) irrespective of whether the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage and regardless of the form of action;

(13) the Trustee shall not be deemed to have notice of any default or Event of Default unless a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has actual knowledge thereof or unless written notice of any event which is in fact such a default is received by the Trustee at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and such notice references the Securities and this Indenture;

(14) the rights, privileges, protections, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee, including, without limitation, its right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by, the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder, and each agent, custodian and other Person employed to act hereunder;

(15) the Trustee shall not be required to give any bond or surety in respect of the performance of its powers and duties hereunder; and

(16) the Trustee may request that the Company deliver a certificate setting forth the names of individuals and/or titles of officers authorized at such time to take specified actions pursuant to this Indenture.

Section 602. Notice of Defaults .

Within 90 days after the occurrence of any default hereunder with respect to the Securities of any series, the Trustee shall transmit by mail to all Holders of Securities of such series entitled to receive reports pursuant to Section 703(3), notice of such default hereunder known to the Trustee, unless such default shall have been cured or waived; provided, however, that, except in the case of a default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any), or interest, if any, on, or Additional Amounts or any sinking fund installment with respect to, any Security of such series, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the board of directors, the executive committee or a trust committee of directors and/or Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determine that the withholding of such notice is in the best interest of the Holders of Securities and Coupons of such series; and provided, further, that in the case of any default of the character specified in Section 501(5) or Section 501(11) with respect to Securities of such series, no such notice to Holders shall be given until at least 30 days after the occurrence thereof. For the purpose of this Section, the term “default” means any event which is, or after notice or lapse of time or both would become, an Event of Default with respect to Securities of such series.

 

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Section 603. Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities .

The recitals contained herein and in the Securities, except the Trustee’s certificate of authentication, and in any Coupons shall be taken as the statements of the Company and neither the Trustee nor any Authenticating Agent assumes any responsibility for their correctness. The Trustee makes no representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities or the Coupons, except that the Trustee represents that it is duly authorized to execute and deliver this Indenture, authenticate the Securities and perform its obligations hereunder and that the statements made by it in a Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 supplied to the Company are true and accurate, subject to the qualifications set forth therein. Neither the Trustee nor any Authenticating Agent shall be accountable for the use or application by the Company of the Securities or the proceeds thereof.

Section 604. May Hold Securities .

The Trustee, any Authenticating Agent, any Paying Agent, any Security Registrar or any other Person that may be an agent of the Trustee or the Company, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities or Coupons and, subject to Sections 310(b) and 311 of the Trust Indenture Act, may otherwise deal with the Company with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, Authenticating Agent, Paying Agent, Security Registrar or such other Person.

Section 605. Money Held in Trust .

Except as provided in Section 403 and Section 1003, money held by the Trustee in trust hereunder need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law and shall be held uninvested. The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any money received by it hereunder except as otherwise agreed in writing with the Company.

Section 606. Compensation and Reimbursement .

The Company agrees:

(1) to pay to the Trustee (acting in any capacity hereunder) from time to time such compensation as shall be agreed in writing between the Company and the Trustee for all services rendered by the Trustee hereunder (which compensation shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust);

(2) except as otherwise expressly provided herein, to reimburse the Trustee upon its request for all reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its agents and counsel), except any such expense, disbursement or advance as may be attributable to the Trustee’s negligence or willful misconduct; and

(3) to indemnify each of the Trustee (acting in any capacity hereunder), or any predecessor Trustee, and its agents for, and to hold them harmless against, any and all loss, liability, damage, claim or reasonable expense (including, without limitation, the reasonable fees and disbursements of the Trustee’s agents, legal counsel, accountants and experts) incurred without negligence or willful misconduct on their part, arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of the trust or trusts hereunder (whether asserted by the Company, a Holder or any other Person), including the reasonable costs and expenses of defending themselves against any claim or liability in connection with the exercise or performance of any of their powers or duties hereunder, except to the extent that any such loss, liability or expense was due to the Trustee’s negligence or willful misconduct.

 

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As security for the performance of the obligations of the Company under this Section, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities of any series upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the payment of principal of, or premium or interest on or any Additional Amounts with respect to Securities or any Coupons appertaining thereto.

Any compensation or expense incurred by the Trustee after a default specified by Section 501(8), (9) or (10) is intended to constitute an expense of administration under any then applicable bankruptcy or insolvency law. “Trustee” for purposes of this Section 606 shall include any predecessor Trustee but the negligence or willful misconduct of any Trustee shall not affect the rights of any other Trustee under this Section 606. The provisions of this Section 606 shall, to the extent permitted by law, survive any termination of this Indenture (including, without limitation, termination pursuant to any Bankruptcy Laws) and the resignation or removal of the Trustee.

Section 607. Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility .

There shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder that is a Corporation, organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America, any state thereof or the District of Columbia, eligible under Section 310(a)(1) of the Trust Indenture Act to act as trustee under an indenture qualified under the Trust Indenture Act and that has a combined capital and surplus (computed in accordance with Section 310(a)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act) of at least $50,000,000 subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authority. If at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, it shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect hereinafter specified in this Article.

Section 608. Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor .

(1) No resignation or removal of the Trustee and no appointment of a successor Trustee pursuant to this Article shall become effective until the acceptance of appointment by the successor Trustee pursuant to Section 609.

(2) The Trustee may resign at any time with respect to the Securities of one or more series by giving written notice thereof to the Company. If the instrument of acceptance by a successor Trustee required by Section 609 shall not have been delivered to the Trustee within 30 days after the giving of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition, at the expense of the Company, any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee with respect to such series.

(3) The Trustee may be removed at any time with respect to the Securities of any series by Act of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series, delivered to the Trustee and the Company. If an instrument of acceptance by a successor Trustee required by Section 609 shall not have been delivered to the Trustee within 30 days after the giving of such notice of removal, the Trustee being removed may petition, at the expense of the Company, any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee with respect to such series.

(4) If at any time:

(a) the Trustee shall fail to comply with the obligations imposed upon it under Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with respect to Securities of any series after written request therefor by the Company or any Holder of a Security of such series who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security of such series for at least six months, or

(b) the Trustee shall cease to be eligible under Section 607 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or any such Holder, or

 

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(c) the Trustee shall become incapable of acting or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation,

then, in any such case, (i) the Company, by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, may remove the Trustee with respect to all Securities or the Securities of such series, or (ii) subject to Section 315(e) of the Trust Indenture Act, any Holder of a Security who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security of such series for at least six months may, on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee with respect to all Securities of such series and the appointment of a successor Trustee or Trustees.

(5) If the Trustee shall resign, be removed or become incapable of acting, or if a vacancy shall occur in the office of Trustee for any cause, with respect to the Securities of one or more series, the Company, by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, shall promptly appoint a successor Trustee or Trustees with respect to the Securities of that or those series (it being understood that any such successor Trustee may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more or all of such series and that at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any particular series) and shall comply with the applicable requirements of Section 609. If, within one year after such resignation, removal or incapability, or the occurrence of such vacancy, a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series shall be appointed by Act of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series delivered to the Company and the retiring Trustee, the successor Trustee so appointed shall, forthwith upon its acceptance of such appointment in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section 609, become the successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series and to that extent supersede the successor Trustee appointed by the Company. If no successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series shall have been so appointed by the Company or the Holders of Securities and accepted appointment in the manner required by Section 609, any Holder of a Security who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security of such series for at least six months may, on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series.

(6) The Company shall give notice of each resignation and each removal of the Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series and each appointment of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series by mailing written notice of such event by first-class mail, postage prepaid, to the Holders of Registered Securities, if any, of such series as their names and addresses appear in the Security Register and, if Securities of such series are issued as Bearer Securities, by publishing notice of such event once in an Authorized Newspaper in each Place of Payment located outside the United States. Each notice shall include the name of the successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series and the address of its Corporate Trust Office.

Section 609. Acceptance of Appointment by Successor .

(1) Upon the appointment hereunder of any successor Trustee with respect to all Securities, such successor Trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor Trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties hereunder of the retiring Trustee; but, on the request of the Company or such successor Trustee, such retiring Trustee, upon payment of its charges, shall execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor Trustee all the rights, powers and trusts of the retiring Trustee and, subject to Section 1003, shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor Trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder, subject nevertheless to its claim, if any, provided for in Section 606. Trustee shall have no responsibility or liability for the action or inaction of any successor Trustee.

 

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(2) Upon the appointment hereunder of any successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and such successor Trustee shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor Trustee shall accept such appointment and which (1) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm to, and to vest in, such successor Trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates, (2) if the retiring Trustee is not retiring with respect to all Securities, shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and (3) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust, that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee and that no Trustee shall be responsible for any notice given to, or received by, or any act or failure to act on the part of any other Trustee hereunder, and, upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture, the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein, such retiring Trustee shall have no further responsibility for the exercise of rights and powers or for the performance of the duties and obligations vested in the Trustee under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates other than as hereinafter expressly set forth, and such successor Trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates; but, on request of the Company or such successor Trustee, such retiring Trustee, upon payment of its charges with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor relates and subject to Section 1003 shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor Trustee, to the extent contemplated by such supplemental indenture, the property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates, subject to its claim, if any, provided for in Section 606.

(3) Upon request of any Person appointed hereunder as a successor Trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor Trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in paragraph (1) or (2) of this Section, as the case may be.

(4) No Person shall accept its appointment hereunder as a successor Trustee unless at the time of such acceptance such successor Person shall be qualified and eligible under this Article.

Section 610. Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business .

Any Corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any Corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any Corporation succeeding to all or substantially all of the corporate trust business of the Trustee, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder (provided that such Corporation shall otherwise be qualified and eligible under this Article), without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto. In case any Securities shall have been authenticated but not delivered by the Trustee then in office, any such successor to such authenticating Trustee may adopt such authentication and deliver the Securities so authenticated with the same effect as if such successor Trustee had itself authenticated such Securities. In case any Securities shall not have been authenticated by such predecessor Trustee, any such successor Trustee may authenticate and deliver such Securities in either its own name or that of its predecessor Trustee.

 

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Section 611. Appointment of Authenticating Agent .

The Trustee may appoint one or more Authenticating Agents acceptable to the Company with respect to one or more series of Securities which shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of that or those series issued upon original issue, exchange, registration of transfer, partial redemption, partial repayment, partial conversion or exchange for Common Shares or other securities or property, or pursuant to Section 306, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. Wherever reference is made in this Indenture to the authentication and delivery of Securities by the Trustee or the Trustee’s certificate of authentication, such reference shall be deemed to include authentication and delivery on behalf of the Trustee by an Authenticating Agent and a certificate of authentication executed on behalf of the Trustee by an Authenticating Agent.

Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and, except as provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, shall at all times be a Corporation that would be permitted by the Trust Indenture Act to act as trustee under an indenture qualified under the Trust Indenture Act, is authorized under applicable law and by its charter to act as an Authenticating Agent and has a combined capital and surplus (computed in accordance with Section 310(a)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act) of at least $50,000,000. If at any time an Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, it shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in this Section.

Any Corporation into which an Authenticating Agent may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any Corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which such Authenticating Agent shall be a party, or any Corporation succeeding to all or substantially all of the corporate agency or corporate trust business of an Authenticating Agent, shall be the successor of such Authenticating Agent hereunder, provided such Corporation shall be otherwise eligible under this Section, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of the Trustee or the Authenticating Agent.

An Authenticating Agent may resign at any time by giving written notice thereof to the Trustee and the Company. The Trustee may at any time terminate the agency of an Authenticating Agent by giving written notice thereof to such Authenticating Agent and the Company. Upon receiving such a notice of resignation or upon such a termination, or in case at any time such Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, the Trustee may appoint a successor Authenticating Agent which shall be acceptable to the Company and shall (i) mail written notice of such appointment by first-class mail, postage prepaid, to all Holders of Registered Securities, if any, of the series with respect to which such Authenticating Agent shall serve, as their names and addresses appear in the Security Register, and (ii) if Securities of the series are issued as Bearer Securities, publish notice of such appointment at least once in an Authorized Newspaper in the place where such successor Authenticating Agent has its principal office if such office is located outside the United States. Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder, with like effect as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent. No successor Authenticating Agent shall be appointed unless eligible under the provisions of this Section.

The Company agrees to pay each Authenticating Agent from time to time reasonable compensation for its services under this Section.

The provisions of Section 308, Section 603 and Section 604 shall be applicable to each Authenticating Agent.

 

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If an Authenticating Agent is appointed with respect to one or more series of Securities pursuant to this Section, the Securities of such series may have endorsed thereon, in addition to or in lieu of the Trustee’s certificate of authentication, an alternate certificate of authentication in substantially the following form:

This is one of the Securities of the series designated herein referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

WELLS FARGO BANK, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION,
As Trustee
By:  

 

  As Authenticating Agent
By:  

 

  Authorized Signatory

If all of the Securities of any series may not be originally issued at one time, and if the Trustee does not have an office capable of authenticating Securities upon original issuance located in a Place of Payment where the Company wishes to have Securities of such series authenticated upon original issuance, the Trustee, if so requested in writing (which writing need not be accompanied by or contained in an Officers’ Certificate of the Company), shall appoint in accordance with this Section an Authenticating Agent having an office in a Place of Payment designated by the Company with respect to such series of Securities.

ARTICLE SEVEN

HOLDERS LISTS AND REPORTS BY TRUSTEE AND COMPANY

Section 701. Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Holders .

In accordance with Section 312(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Company shall furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee

(1) semi-annually with respect to Securities of each series not later than 15 days after each Regular Record Date or upon such other dates as are set forth in or pursuant to the Board Resolution or indenture supplemental hereto authorizing such series, a list, in each case in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of Holders as of the applicable date, and

(2) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished,

provided, however, that so long as the Trustee is the Security Registrar no such list shall be required to be furnished.

Section 702. Preservation of Information; Communications to Holders .

The Trustee shall comply with the obligations imposed upon it pursuant to Section 312 of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

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Every Holder of Securities or Coupons, by receiving and holding the same, agrees with the Company and the Trustee that none of the Company, the Trustee, any Paying Agent or any Security Registrar shall be held accountable by reason of the disclosure of any such information as to the names and addresses of the Holders of Securities in accordance with Section 312(c) of the Trust Indenture Act, regardless of the source from which such information was derived, and that the Trustee shall not be held accountable by reason of mailing any material pursuant to a request made under Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Section 703. Reports by Trustee .

(1) Within 60 days after May 15 of each year commencing with the first May 15 following the first issuance of Securities pursuant to Section 301, if required by Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee shall transmit, pursuant to Section 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act, a brief report dated as of such May 15 with respect to any of the events specified in said Sections 313(a) and 313(b)(2) which may have occurred since the later of the immediately preceding May 15 and the date of this Indenture.

(2) The Trustee shall transmit the reports required by Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act at the times specified therein.

(3) Reports pursuant to this Section shall be transmitted in the manner and to the Persons required by Sections 313(c) and 313(d) of the Trust Indenture Act.

(4) A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Holders, be filed by the Trustee with each stock exchange, if any, upon which the Securities are listed, with the Commission and with the Company. The Company will promptly notify the Trustee in writing when the Securities are listed on any stock exchange and of any delisting thereof.

Section 704. Reports by Company .

The Company, pursuant to Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, shall:

(1) file with the Trustee, within 15 days after the Company is required to file the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) which the Company may be required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; or, if the Company is not required to file information, documents or reports pursuant to either of said Sections, then it shall file with the Trustee and the Commission, in accordance with rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission, such of the supplementary and periodic information, documents and reports which may be required pursuant to Section 13 of the Exchange Act in respect of a security listed and registered on a national securities exchange as may be prescribed from time to time in such rules and regulations;

(2) file with the Trustee and the Commission, in accordance with rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission, such additional information, documents and reports with respect to compliance by the Company with the conditions and covenants of this Indenture as may be required from time to time by such rules and regulations; and

(3) transmit within 30 days after the filing thereof with the Trustee, in the manner and to the extent provided in Section 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act, such summaries of any information, documents and reports required to be filed by the Company pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Section as may be required by rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission.

(4) Delivery of such reports, information and documents to the Trustee is for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officers’ Certificates).

 

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ARTICLE EIGHT

CONSOLIDATION, MERGER AND SALES

Section 801. Company May Consolidate, Etc., Only on Certain Terms .

The Company shall not, in any transaction or series of related transactions, consolidate with, or sell, lease or convey all or substantially all of its property and assets to, or merge with or into, any Person unless:

(1) either (A) the Company shall be the continuing Person (in the case of a merger) or (B) the successor Person (if other than the Company) formed by or resulting from the consolidation or merger or which shall have received the transfer of assets shall be an entity organized and existing under the laws of the United States of America, any state thereof or the District of Columbia and shall expressly assume the due and punctual payment of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest, if any, on, and Additional Amounts, if any, with respect to, all Securities Outstanding under this Indenture and the due and punctual performance and observance of all covenants and conditions in such Outstanding Securities and this Indenture to be performed or satisfied by the Company (including, without limitation, the obligation to convert or exchange any Securities that are convertible into or exchangeable for other securities or property in accordance with the provisions of such Securities and this Indenture) by a supplemental indenture reasonably satisfactory in form to the Trustee;

(2) immediately after giving effect to such transaction, no Event of Default, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time, or both, would become an Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing; and

(3) either the Company or the successor Person shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that such consolidation, merger, sale, assignment, transfer, lease or other conveyance and, if a supplemental indenture is required in connection with such transaction, such supplemental indenture comply with this Article and that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to such transaction have been complied with.

Section 802. Successor Person Substituted for Company .

In the case of any such consolidation, sale, lease, conveyance or merger in which the Company is not the continuing entity and upon execution and delivery by the successor Person of the supplemental indenture described in Section 801, such successor Person shall succeed to, and be substituted for, the Company and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor Person had been named as the Company herein, and the predecessor Company shall be automatically released and discharged from all obligations and covenants under this Indenture, the Securities and the Coupons.

 

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ARTICLE NINE

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

Section 901. Supplemental Indentures without Consent of Holders .

Without the consent of any Holders of Securities or Coupons, the Company (when authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution) and the Trustee, at any time and from time to time, may enter into one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in form reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, for any of the following purposes:

(1) to evidence the succession of another Person to the Company, and the assumption by any such successor of the covenants of the Company contained herein and in the Securities; or

(2) to add to the covenants of the Company for the benefit of the Holders of all or any series of Securities (as shall be specified in such supplemental indenture or indentures) or to surrender any right or power herein conferred upon the Company with respect to all or any series of Securities issued under this Indenture (as shall be specified in such supplemental indenture or indentures); or

(3) to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture to facilitate the issuance of Bearer Securities, to provide that Bearer Securities may be registrable as to principal, to change or eliminate any restrictions on the payment of principal of, any premium or interest on or any Additional Amounts with respect to Securities, to permit Bearer Securities to be issued in exchange for Registered Securities, to permit Bearer Securities to be exchanged for Bearer Securities of other authorized denominations or to permit or facilitate the issuance of Securities in uncertificated or global form, provided any such action shall not adversely affect the interests of the Holders of Securities of any series then Outstanding or any Coupons appertaining thereto; or

(4) to establish the form or terms of Securities of any series and any Coupons appertaining thereto as permitted by Section 201 and Section 301, including, without limitation, any conversion or exchange provisions applicable to Securities which are convertible into or exchangeable for other securities or property, and to make any deletions from or additions or changes to this Indenture in connection with any matters referred to in this clause (4) (provided that any such deletions, additions and changes shall not be applicable to any other series of Securities then Outstanding); or

(5) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, pursuant to the requirements of Section 609; or

(6) to cure any ambiguity or to correct or supplement any provision herein which may be defective or which may be inconsistent with any other provision herein, or to make any other provisions with respect to matters or questions arising under this Indenture which shall not adversely affect the interests of the Holders of Securities of any series then Outstanding or any Coupons appertaining thereto in any material respect; or

(7) to add any additional Events of Default with respect to all or any series of Securities (as shall be specified in such supplemental indenture); or

(8) to supplement any of the provisions of this Indenture to such extent as shall be necessary to permit or facilitate the defeasance, covenant defeasance and/or satisfaction and discharge of any series of Securities pursuant to Article Four, provided that any such action shall not adversely affect the interests of any Holder of a Security of such series and any Coupons appertaining thereto or any other Security or Coupon in any material respect; or

(9) to add to or change or eliminate any provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary or desirable in accordance with any amendments to the Trust Indenture Act; or

(10) to make any change in this Indenture, or Supplemental Indenture, or any Securities to conform the terms thereof to any provision of the description of a series of any Securities in any prospectus, prospectus supplement, offering memorandum or similar offering document used in connection with the initial offering or sale of any Securities to the extent that such provision in such description was intended to be a substantially verbatim recitation of a provision of the indenture or the notes; or

 

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(11) in the case of any series of Securities which are convertible into or exchangeable for Common Shares or other securities or property, to safeguard or provide for the conversion or exchange rights, as the case may be, of such Securities in the event of any reclassification or change of outstanding Common Shares (or any other securities of the Company into which such Securities are convertible or for which such Securities are exchangeable), or in the event of any merger, consolidation, statutory share exchange or combination of the Company with or into another Person or any sale, lease, assignment, transfer, disposition or other conveyance of all or substantially all of the properties and assets of the Company to any other Person or other similar transactions, if expressly required by the terms of such series of Securities established pursuant to Section 301; or

(12) to secure the Securities; or

(13) to amend or supplement any provision contained herein, in any supplemental indenture or in any Securities (which amendment or supplement may apply to one or more series of Securities or to one or more Securities within any series as specified in such supplemental indenture), provided that such amendment or supplement does not apply to any Outstanding Security issued prior to the date of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefits of such provision.

Section 902. Supplemental Indentures with Consent of Holders .

With the consent of the Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of each series affected by such supplemental indenture, by Act of said Holders delivered to the Company and the Trustee, the Company (when authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution) and the Trustee may enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of the Securities of such series or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Holders of Securities of such series under this Indenture; provided, that no such supplemental indenture, without the consent of the Holder of each Outstanding Security affected thereby, shall

(1) change the Stated Maturity of the principal of, or premium, if any, or any installment of interest, if any, on, or any Additional Amounts, if any, with respect to, any Security, or reduce the principal amount thereof or the premium, if any, thereon or the rate (or modify the calculation of such rate) of interest thereon, or reduce the amount payable upon redemption thereof, whether such redemption is mandatory or at the option of the Company, or upon repayment thereof at the option of the Holder, or reduce any Additional Amounts payable with respect thereto, or change the obligation of the Company to pay Additional Amounts pursuant to Section 1004 (except as contemplated by Section 801(1) and permitted by Section 901(1)), or reduce the amount of the principal of any Original Issue Discount Security that would be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 502 or the amount thereof provable in bankruptcy pursuant to Section 504, or adversely affect the right of repayment at the option of any Holder as contemplated by Article Thirteen, or change the Place of Payment where or the Currency in which the principal of, any premium or interest on, or any Additional Amounts with respect to any Security is payable, or impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after the Stated Maturity thereof (or, in the case of redemption, on or after the Redemption Date or, in the case of repayment pursuant to Article Thirteen at the option of the Holder, on or after the date for repayment) in each case as such Stated Maturity, Redemption Date or date for repayment may, if applicable, be extended in accordance with the terms of such Security or any Coupon appertaining thereto, or in the case of any Security which is convertible into or exchangeable for other securities or property, impair the right to institute suit to enforce the right to convert or exchange such Security in accordance with its terms, or

 

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(2) reduce the percentage in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, the consent of whose Holders is required for any such supplemental indenture, or the consent of whose Holders is required for any waiver (of compliance with certain provisions of this Indenture or certain defaults hereunder and their consequences) provided for in Section 513 or Section 1106 of this Indenture, or reduce the requirements of Section 1504 for quorum or voting, or

(3) make any change that adversely affects the right, if any, to convert or exchange any Security for Common Shares or other securities or property in accordance with its terms, or

(4) modify any of the provisions of this Section, Section 513 or Section 1006, except to increase any such percentage or to provide that certain other provisions of this Indenture cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the Holder of each Outstanding Security affected thereby.

A supplemental indenture which changes or eliminates any covenant or other provision of this Indenture which shall have been included solely for the benefit of one or more particular series of Securities, or which modifies the rights of the Holders of Securities of such series with respect to such covenant or other provision, shall be deemed not to affect the rights under this Indenture of the Holders of Securities of any other series.

Anything in this Indenture to the contrary notwithstanding, if more than one series of Securities is Outstanding, the Company shall be entitled to enter into a supplemental indenture under this Section 902 with respect to any one or more series of Outstanding Securities without entering into a supplemental indenture with respect to any other series of Outstanding Securities.

It shall not be necessary for any Act of Holders of Securities under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such Act shall approve the substance thereof.

Section 903. Execution of Supplemental Indentures .

As a condition to executing, or accepting the additional trusts created by, any supplemental indenture permitted by this Article or the modifications thereby of the trust created by this Indenture, the Trustee shall receive, and (subject to Sections 315(a) through 315(d) of the Trust Indenture Act) shall be fully protected in conclusively relying upon, an Officers’ Certificate and Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the execution of such supplemental indenture is authorized or permitted by this Indenture and that such supplemental indenture has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by, and is a valid, binding and enforceable obligation of, the Company, subject to customary exceptions. The Trustee may, but shall not be obligated to, enter into any such supplemental indenture which affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

Section 904. Effect of Supplemental Indentures .

Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture under this Article, this Indenture shall be modified in accordance therewith, and such supplemental indenture shall form a part of this Indenture for all purposes; and every Holder of a Security theretofore or thereafter authenticated and delivered hereunder and of any Coupon appertaining thereto shall be bound thereby.

Section 905. Reference in Securities to Supplemental Indentures .

Securities of any series authenticated and delivered after the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to this Article may, and shall if required by the Trustee, bear a notation in form approved by the Trustee as to any matter provided for in such supplemental indenture. If the Company shall so determine, new Securities of any series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Trustee and the Company, to any such supplemental indenture may be prepared and executed by the Company and authenticated and delivered by the Trustee in exchange for Outstanding Securities of such series.

 

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Section 906. Conformity with Trust Indenture Act .

Every supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article shall conform to the requirements of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect.

ARTICLE TEN

COVENANTS

Section 1001. Payment of Principal, Premium, Interest and Additional Amounts .

The Company covenants and agrees for the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of each series that it will duly and punctually pay the principal of, any premium and interest on and any Additional Amounts with respect to the Securities of such series, whether payable in cash, Common Shares or other securities or property, in accordance with the terms thereof, any Coupons appertaining thereto and this Indenture. Any interest due on any Bearer Security on or before the Maturity thereof, and any Additional Amounts payable with respect to such interest, shall be payable only upon presentation and surrender of the Coupons appertaining thereto for such interest as they severally mature.

Section 1002. Maintenance of Office or Agency .

The Company shall maintain in each Place of Payment for any series of Securities an Office or Agency where Securities of such series (but not Bearer Securities, except as otherwise provided below, unless such Place of Payment is located outside the United States) may be presented or surrendered for payment, where Securities of such series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange, where Securities of such series that are convertible or exchangeable may be surrendered for conversion or exchange, and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such series relating thereto and this Indenture may be served. If Securities of a series are issuable as Bearer Securities, the Company shall maintain, subject to any laws or regulations applicable thereto, an Office or Agency in a Place of Payment for such series which is located outside the United States where Securities of such series and any Coupons appertaining thereto may be presented and surrendered for payment; provided, however, that if the Securities of such series are listed on any stock exchange located outside the United States and such stock exchange shall so require, the Company shall maintain a Paying Agent in a city located outside the United States required by such stock exchange, so long as the Securities of such series are listed on such exchange. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the location, and any change in the location, of such Office or Agency. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required Office or Agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, except that Bearer Securities of such series and any Coupons appertaining thereto may be presented and surrendered for payment at the place specified for the purpose with respect to such Securities as provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands.

Except as otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, no payment of principal, premium, interest or Additional Amounts with respect to Bearer Securities shall be made at any Office or Agency in the United States or by check mailed to any address in the United States or by transfer to an account maintained with a bank located in the United States; provided, however, if amounts owing with respect to any Bearer Securities shall be payable in Dollars, payment of principal of, any premium or interest on and any Additional Amounts with respect to any such Security may be made at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee or any Office or Agency designated by the Company in the United States designated for such

 

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purpose, if (but only if) payment of the full amount of such principal, premium, interest or Additional Amounts at all offices outside the United States maintained for such purpose by the Company in accordance with this Indenture is illegal or effectively precluded by exchange controls or other similar restrictions (in which case the Company shall so notify the Trustee in writing).

The Company may also from time to time designate one or more other Offices or Agencies where the Securities of one or more series may be presented or surrendered for any or all such purposes and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligations to maintain an Office or Agency in each Place of Payment for Securities of any series for such purposes. The Company shall give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the location of any such other Office or Agency.

Unless otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture (including, without limitation, pursuant to Section 301 with respect to the Securities of any series), the Company hereby designates the place where the Trustee shall from time to time maintain its Corporate Trust Office as the Company’s Office or Agency for such purpose and initially appoints the Trustee as the Security Registrar for each series of Securities and, if the Securities of any series are convertible into or exchangeable for Common Shares or other securities or property, initially appoints the Trustee as conversion or exchange agent, as the case may be, for the Securities of such series. The Company may subsequently appoint a different or additional Office or Agency and, as provided in Section 305, may remove and replace from time to time the Security Registrar.

Section 1003. Money for Securities Payments to Be Held in Trust .

If the Company shall at any time act as its own Paying Agent with respect to any series of Securities, it shall, on or before each due date of the principal of, any premium or interest on, or any Additional Amounts with respect to any of the Securities of such series, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum in the Currency or Currencies in which the Securities of such series are payable sufficient to pay the principal, any premium, interest and Additional Amounts, as the case may be, so becoming due until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided, and shall promptly notify the Trustee of its action or failure so to act.

Whenever the Company shall have one or more Paying Agents for any series of Securities, it shall, on or prior to each due date of the principal of, or any premium or interest on or any Additional Amounts with respect to, any Securities of such series, deposit with any Paying Agent a sum (in the Currency or Currencies described in the preceding paragraph) sufficient to pay the principal, premium, interest and Additional Amounts, as the case may be, so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto, and (unless such Paying Agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of its action or failure so to act.

The Company shall cause each Paying Agent for any series of Securities other than the Trustee to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such Paying Agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section, that such Paying Agent shall:

(1) hold all sums held by it for the payment of the principal of, any premium or interest on or any Additional Amounts with respect to Securities of such series in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as provided in or pursuant to this Indenture;

(2) give the Trustee notice of any default by the Company (or any other obligor upon the Securities of such series) in the making of any payment of principal, any premium or interest on or any Additional Amounts with respect to the Securities of such series; and

 

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(3) at any time during the continuance of any such default, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such Paying Agent.

To the extent that the terms of any Securities established pursuant to Section 301 provide that any principal of, or premium or interest, if any, on or any Additional Amounts with respect to any such Securities is or may be payable in Common Shares or other securities or property, then the provisions of this Section 1003 shall apply, mutatis mutandis , to such Common Shares or other securities or property.

The Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or by Company Order direct any Paying Agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such Paying Agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same terms as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such Paying Agent; and, upon such payment by any Paying Agent to the Trustee, such Paying Agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such sums.

Except as otherwise provided herein or pursuant hereto, any money deposited with the Trustee or any Paying Agent, or then held by the Company, in trust for the payment of the principal of, any premium or interest on or any Additional Amounts with respect to any Security of any series or any Coupon appertaining thereto and remaining unclaimed for two years after such principal or such premium or interest or Additional Amount shall have become due and payable shall be paid to the Company on Company Request, or (if then held by the Company) shall be discharged from such trust; and the Holder of such Security or any Coupon appertaining thereto shall thereafter, as an unsecured general creditor, look only to the Company for payment thereof, and all liability of the Trustee or such Paying Agent with respect to such trust money, and all liability of the Company as trustee thereof, shall thereupon cease; provided, however, that the Trustee or such Paying Agent, before being required to make any such repayment, may, not later than 30 days after the Company’s request for such repayment, at the expense of the Company cause to be published once, in an Authorized Newspaper in each Place of Payment for such series or to be mailed to Holders of Registered Securities of such series, or both, notice that such money remains unclaimed and that, after a date specified therein, which shall not be less than 30 days from the date of such publication or mailing nor shall it be earlier than two years after such principal and any premium or interest or Additional Amounts shall have become due and payable, any unclaimed balance of such money then remaining will be repaid to the Company.

Section 1004. Additional Amounts .

If any Securities of a series provide for the payment of Additional Amounts by the Company, the Company agrees to pay to the Holder of any such Security or any Coupon appertaining thereto Additional Amounts as provided in or pursuant to this Indenture or such Securities. Whenever in this Indenture there is mentioned, in any context, the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on, or in respect of, any Security of any series or any Coupon, such mention shall be deemed to include mention of the payment of Additional Amounts provided by the terms of such series established hereby or pursuant hereto to the extent that, in such context, Additional Amounts are, were or would be payable in respect thereof pursuant to such terms, and express mention of the payment of Additional Amounts (if applicable) in any provision hereof shall not be construed as excluding Additional Amounts in those provisions hereof where such express mention is not made.

Section 1005. Legal Existence .

Subject to Article Eight, the Company shall do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its legal existence as any type of Corporation (it being understood that nothing in this Section 1005 shall prohibit the Company from changing its legal form from one type of Corporation to another type of Corporation).

 

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Section 1006. Waiver of Certain Covenants .

The Company may omit in any particular instance to comply with any term, provision or condition set forth in Section 801, Section 802, Section 1002, Section 1003 or Section 1005 with respect to the Securities of any series and, if expressly provided pursuant to Section 301 with respect to the Securities of such series, any additional covenants applicable to the Securities of such series if before the time for such compliance the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series, by Act of such Holders, either shall waive such compliance in such instance or generally shall have waived compliance with such term, provision or condition, but no such waiver shall extend to or affect such term, provision or condition except to the extent so expressly waived, and, until such waiver shall become effective, the obligations of the Company and the duties of the Trustee in respect of any such term, provision or condition shall remain in full force and effect.

Section 1007. Company Statement as to Compliance .

The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year, a written statement (which need not be contained in or accompanied by an Officers’ Certificate) signed by the principal executive officer, the principal financial officer or the principal accounting officer of the Company, stating whether or not, to the best of his or her knowledge, the Company is in default in the performance and observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions of this Indenture (without regard to notice requirements or periods of grace) and if the Company shall be in default, specifying all such defaults and the nature and status thereof of which he or she may have knowledge.

Section 1008. Calculation of Original Issue Discount .

The Company shall file with the Trustee promptly at the end of each calendar year (i) a written notice specifying the amount of original issue discount (including daily rates and accrual periods) accrued on Outstanding Securities as of the end of such year and (ii) such other specific information relating to such original issue discount as may then be relevant under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended from time to time.

ARTICLE ELEVEN

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES

Section 1101. Applicability of Article .

Redemption of Securities of any series at the option of the Company as permitted or required by the terms of such Securities shall be made in accordance with the terms of such Securities and (except as otherwise provided herein or pursuant hereto) this Article.

Section 1102. Election to Redeem; Notice to Trustee .

The election of the Company to redeem any Securities shall be evidenced by or pursuant to a Board Resolution. In case of any redemption at the election of the Company of less than all of the Securities of any series, the Company shall, at least 60 days prior to the Redemption Date fixed by the Company (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee), notify the Trustee of such Redemption Date and of the principal amount of Securities of such series to be redeemed and, in the event that the Company shall determine that the Securities of any series to be redeemed shall be selected from Securities of such series having the same issue date, interest rate or interest rate formula, Stated Maturity and other terms (the “Equivalent Terms”), the Company shall notify the Trustee of such Equivalent Terms.

 

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In the case of any redemption of Securities (A) prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture or (B) pursuant to an election of the Company which is subject to a condition specified in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate evidencing compliance with such restriction or condition.

Section 1103. Selection by Trustee of Securities to be Redeemed .

If less than all of the Securities of any series are to be redeemed or if less than all of the Securities of any series with Equivalent Terms are to be redeemed, the particular Securities to be redeemed shall be selected not more than 60 days prior to the Redemption Date by the Trustee (in accordance with the procedures of the Depository) from the Outstanding Securities of such series or from the Outstanding Securities of such series with Equivalent Terms, as the case may be, not previously called for redemption, by such method as the Trustee shall deem fair and appropriate and which may provide for the selection for redemption of portions of the principal amount of Registered Securities of such series; provided, however, that no such partial redemption shall reduce the portion of the principal amount of a Security of such series not redeemed to less than the minimum denomination for a Security of such series established herein or pursuant hereto.

The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company and the Security Registrar (if other than itself) in writing of the Securities selected for redemption and, in the case of any Securities selected for partial redemption, the principal amount thereof to be redeemed.

For all purposes of this Indenture, unless the context otherwise requires, all provisions relating to the redemption of Securities shall relate, in the case of any Securities redeemed or to be redeemed only in part, to the portion of the principal of such Securities which has been or is to be redeemed.

Unless otherwise specified in or pursuant to this Indenture or the Securities of any series or in a notice of redemption, if any Security selected for partial redemption is converted or exchanged for Common Shares or other securities or property in part before termination of the conversion or exchange right with respect to the portion of the Security so selected, the converted or exchanged portion of such Security shall be deemed (so far as may be) to be the portion selected for redemption. Securities which have been converted or exchanged during a selection of Securities to be redeemed shall be treated by the Trustee as Outstanding for the purpose of such selection.

Section 1104. Notice of Redemption .

Notice of redemption shall be given in the manner provided in Section 106, not less than 30 nor more than 60 days prior to the Redemption Date, unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed, to the Holders of Securities to be redeemed. Failure to give notice by mailing in the manner herein provided to the Holder of any Registered Securities designated for redemption as a whole or in part, or any defect in the notice to any such Holder, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities or portions thereof.

Any notice that is mailed to the Holder of any Registered Securities in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not such Holder receives the notice. In the event Trustee is either selecting notes or delivering notice, it shall receive notice from the Company 5 Business Days before such selection or delivery.

All notices of redemption shall state:

(1) the Redemption Date,

 

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(2) the Redemption Price or, if applicable, the manner in which the Redemption Price will be determined,

(3) if less than all Outstanding Securities of any series are to be redeemed, the identification (and, in the case of partial redemption, the principal amount) of the particular Security or Securities to be redeemed,

(4) that, in case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, on and after the Redemption Date, upon surrender of such Security, the Holder of such Security will receive, without charge, a new Security or Securities of authorized denominations for the principal amount thereof remaining unredeemed,

(5) that, on the Redemption Date, the Redemption Price shall become due and payable upon each such Security or po