UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 20-F

 

(Mark one)

☐ REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

OR

 

☒ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended June 30, 2020

 

OR

 

☐ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

OR

 

☐ SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

for the transition period from ____________to ____________

 

Commission file number 001-38505

 

CLPS Incorporation

(Exact name of the Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Cayman Islands

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

c/o Unit 702, 7th Floor, Millennium City II

378 Kwun Tong Road, Kwun Tong, Kowloon

Hong Kong SAR

Tel: (852) 37073600

(Address of principal executive office)

 

Raymond Ming Hui Lin, Chief Executive Officer

c/o Unit 702, 7th Floor, Millennium City II

378 Kwun Tong Road, Kwun Tong, Kowloon

Hong Kong SAR

Tel: (852) 37073600 

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile Number and Address of Company Contact Person)

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class   Trading Symbol(s)   Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Shares, par value $0.0001   CLPS   The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None.

 

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None.

 

On October 15, 2020, the issuer had 16,093,248 shares outstanding.

 

 

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

 

Yes ☐    No ☒

 

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

 

Yes ☐    No ☒

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

 

Yes ☒    No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

 

Yes ☒    No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or an “emerging growth company.” See definition of “accelerated filer and large accelerated filer” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

☐ Large Accelerated filer ☐ Accelerated filer ☒ Non-accelerated filer

 

Emerging growth company ☒

 

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 

☒ US GAAP International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ☐ Other

 

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

 

☐ Item 17   ☐ Item 18

 

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

 

Yes ☐    No ☒

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

    Page
PART I    
     
ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS 1
ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE 1
ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION 1
ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY 29
ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS 54
ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECT 54
ITEM 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES 75
ITEM 7. MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS 88
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL INFORMATION 90
ITEM 9. THE OFFER AND LISTING 91
ITEM 10. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 91
ITEM 11. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURE ABOUT MARKET RISK 98
ITEM 12. DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES 98
     
PART II    
     
ITEM 13. DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES 99
ITEM 14. MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS 99
ITEM 15. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES 99
ITEM 16. RESERVED 101
ITEM 16A. AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT. 101
ITEM 16B. CODE OF ETHICS. 101
ITEM 16C. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES. 101
ITEM 16D. EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES. 101
ITEM 16E. PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS. 102
ITEM 16F. CHANGES IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT. 102
ITEM 16G. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE 102
     
PART III    
     
ITEM 17. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 103
ITEM 18. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 103
ITEM 19. EXHIBITS 105

 

i

 

 

CERTAIN INFORMATION

 

Unless otherwise indicated, numerical figures included in this Annual Report on Form 20-F (the “Annual Report”) have been subject to rounding adjustments. Accordingly, numerical figures shown as totals in various tables may not be arithmetic aggregations of the figures that precede them.

 

For the sake of clarity, this Annual Report follows the English naming convention of first name followed by last name, regardless of whether an individual’s name is Chinese or English. Certain market data and other statistical information contained in this Annual Report are based on information from independent industry organizations, publications, surveys and forecasts. Some market data and statistical information contained in this Annual Report are also based on management’s estimates and calculations, which are derived from our review and interpretation of the independent sources listed above, our internal research and our knowledge of the PRC information technology industry. While we believe such information is reliable, we have not independently verified any third-party information and our internal data has not been verified by any independent source.

 

Except where the context otherwise requires and for purposes of this Annual Report only:

 

  Depending on the context, the terms “we,” “us,” “our company,” and “our” refer to CLPS Incorporation, a Cayman Islands company, and its subsidiary and affiliated companies:

 

  “Qinheng” refers to Qinheng Co., Limited, a Hong Kong company;

 

  “Qiner” refers to Qiner Co., Limited, a Hong Kong company;

 

  “CLIVST” refers to CLIVST Ltd., a British Virgin Islands company;

 

  “FDT-CL” refers to FDT-CL Financial Technology Services Limited, a Hong Kong company;

 

  “JQ” refers to JQ Technology Co., Limited, a Hong Kong company;

 

  “JL” refers to JIALIN Technology Limited, a Taiwan company;

 

  “CLPS QC (WOFE)” refers to Shanghai Qincheng Information Technology Co., Ltd., a PRC company;

 

  “CLPS Shanghai” refers to ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd., a PRC company;

 

  “CLPS Dalian” refers to CLPS Dalian Co., Ltd., a PRC company;

 

  “CLPS RC” refers to CLPS Ruicheng Co., Ltd., a PRC company;

 

  “CLPS Beijing” refers to CLPS Beijing Hengtong Co., Ltd., a PRC company;

 

  “Judge China” refers to Judge (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., a PRC company;

 

  “Judge HR” refers to Judge (Shanghai) Human Resource Co., Ltd., a PRC company;

 

  “CLPS-Ridik AU” refers to CLPS-Ridik Technology (Australia) Pty. Ltd., an Australian company;

 

  “CLPS SG” refers to CLPS Technology (Singapore) Pte. Ltd., a Singaporean company;

 

  “CLPS Hong Kong” refers to CLPS Technology (HK) Co., Limited, a Hong Kong company;

 

  “CLPS Shenzhen” refers to CLPS Shenzhen Co., Ltd., a PRC company;

 

  “Huanyu” refers to Tianjin Huanyu Qinshang Network Technology Co., Ltd., a PRC company

 

  “CLPS Guangzhou” refers to CLPS Guangzhou Co., Ltd., a PRC company.

 

  “CLPS US” refers to CLPS Technology (US) Ltd., a Delaware company.

 

  “CLPS California” refers to CLPS Technology (California) Inc., a California company.

 

ii

 

 

  “CLPS Lihong” refers to CLPS Lihong Financial Information Services Co., Ltd., formerly Lihong Financial Information Services Co., Ltd. before the investment, a PRC company.
     
  “Infogain” refers to Infogain Solutions PTE. Ltd., a Singaporean company.
     
  “EMIT” refers to Economic Modeling Information Technology Co., Ltd., a PRC company.
     
  “CLPS Hangzhou” refers to CLPS Hangzhou Co. Ltd., a PRC company.
     
 

“CLPS Guangdong Zhichuang” refers to CLPS Guangdong Zhichuang Software Technology Co., Ltd. a PRC company.

 

  “CLPS Shenzhen Robotics” refers to CLPS Shenzhen Robotics Co. Ltd., a PRC company.
     
  “Ridik Pte.” refers to Ridik Pte. Ltd., a Singaporean company.
     
  “Ridik Consulting” refers to Ridik Consulting Private Limited, an Indian company.
     
  “Ridik Sdn.” refers to Ridik Sdn. Bhd., a Malaysian company.
     
  “Ridik Software Pte.” refers to Ridik Software Solutions Pte. Ltd., a Singaporean company.
     
  “Ridik Software” refers to Ridik Software Solutions Ltd., a UK company.
     
  “Suzhou Ridik” refers to Suzhou Ridik Information Technology Co., Ltd., a PRC company.
     
  “CLPS Japan” refers to CLPS Technology Japan, a Japanese company.
     
  “Qinson” refers to Qinson Credit Card Services Limited, a Hong Kong company.

 

  “Shares” and “Common Shares” refer to our shares, $0.0001 par value per share;

 

  “China” and “PRC” refer to the People’s Republic of China, excluding, for the purposes of this Annual Report only, Macau, Taiwan and Hong Kong; and

 

  all references to “RMB,” “yuan” and “Renminbi” are to the legal currency of China, and all references to “USD,” and “U.S. dollars” are to the legal currency of the United States.

 

Unless otherwise noted, all currency figures in this filing are in U.S. dollars. Any discrepancies in any table between the amounts identified as total amounts and the sum of the amounts listed therein are due to rounding. Our reporting currency is U.S. dollar and our functional currency is Renminbi. This Annual Report contains translations of certain foreign currency amounts into U.S. dollars for the convenience of the reader. Other than in accordance with relevant accounting rules and as otherwise stated, all translations of Renminbi into U.S. dollars in this Annual Report were made at the rate of RMB 7.0651 to USD1.00, the noon buying rate on June 30, 2020, as set forth in the H.10 statistical release of the U.S. Federal Reserve Board. Where we make period-on-period comparisons of operational metrics, such calculations are based on the Renminbi amount and not the translated U.S. dollar equivalent. We make no representation that the Renminbi or U.S. dollar amounts referred to in this Annual Report could have been or could be converted into U.S. dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate or at all.

 

iii

 

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This Annual Report contains “forward-looking statements” that represent our beliefs, projections and predictions about future events. All statements other than statements of historical fact are “forward-looking statements” including any projections of earnings, revenue or other financial items, any statements of the plans, strategies and objectives of management for future operations, any statements concerning proposed new projects or other developments, any statements regarding future economic conditions or performance, any statements of management’s beliefs, goals, strategies, intentions and objectives, and any statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. Words such as “may”, “will”, “should”, “could”, “would”, “predicts”, “potential”, “continue”, “expects”, “anticipates”, “future”, “intends”, “plans”, “believes”, “estimates” and similar expressions, as well as statements in the future tense, identify forward-looking statements.

 

These statements are necessarily subjective and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause our actual results, performance or achievements, or industry results, to differ materially from any future results, performance or achievements described in or implied by such statements. Actual results may differ materially from expected results described in our forward-looking statements, including with respect to correct measurement and identification of factors affecting our business or the extent of their likely impact, the accuracy and completeness of the publicly available information with respect to the factors upon which our business strategy is based for the success of our business.

 

Forward-looking statements should not be read as a guarantee of future performance or results, and will not necessarily be accurate indications of whether, or the times by which, our performance or results may be achieved. Forward-looking statements are based on information available at the time those statements are made and management’s belief as of that time with respect to future events, and are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual performance or results to differ materially from those expressed in or suggested by the forward-looking statements. Important factors that could cause such differences include, but are not limited to, those factors discussed under the headings “Risk Factors”, “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects,” “Information on the Company” and elsewhere in this Annual Report.

 

This Annual Report should be read in conjunction with our audited financial statements and the accompanying notes thereto, which are included in Item 18 of this Annual Report.

 

iv

 

 

PART I

 

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

 

Not required.

 

ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

 

Not required.

 

ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION

 

  A. Selected financial data

 

The following selected consolidated financial data as of and for the years ended June 30, 2020, 2019 and 2018 have been derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of the Company included in this Annual Report. This information is only a summary and should be read together with the consolidated financial statements, the related notes, the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and other financial information included in this Annual Report. The Company’s results of operations in any period may not necessarily be indicative of the results that may be expected for any future period. See “Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this Annual Report.

 

The following table presents our summary consolidated statements of comprehensive (loss) income for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

 

Selected Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive (Loss) Income

 

    For the years ended June 30,  
    2020     2019     2018  
                         
Revenues   $ 89,415,798     $ 64,932,937     $ 48,938,593  
Less: Cost of revenues     (58,296,097 )     (41,178,356 )     (31,277,255 )
Gross profit     31,119,701       23,754,581       17,661,338  
                         
Operating expenses:                        
Selling and marketing expenses     3,059,877       2,179,029       2,225,702  
Research and development expenses     10,436,975       7,978,883       7,837,873  
General and administrative expenses     16,343,936       17,384,393       5,871,622  
Total operating expenses     29,840,788       27,542,305       15,935,197  
Income (loss) from operation     1,278,913       (3,787,724 )     1,726,141  
Subsidies and other income, net     2,535,868       779,508       960,784  
Other expenses     (107,322 )     (92,429 )     (84,155 )
                         
Income (loss) before income tax and share of loss in equity investees     3,707,459       (3,100,645 )     2,602,770  
Provision (benefits) for income taxes     835,444       186,615       (112,128 )
Income (loss) before share of income (loss) in equity investees     2,872,015       (3,287,260 )     2,714,898  
Share of income (loss) in equity investees, net of tax     207,363       (145,329 )     -  
Net income (loss)     3,079,378       (3,432,589 )     2,714,898  
Less: Net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interests     141,139       (162,813 )     280,435  
Net income (loss) attributable to CLPS Incorporation’s shareholders   $ 2,938,239     $ (3,269,776 )   $ 2,434,463  
                         
Other comprehensive income (loss)                        
Foreign currency translation (loss) gain   $ (571,943 )   $ (429,348 )   $ 55,793  
Less: foreign currency translation (loss) gain attributable to non-controlling interest     (22,928 )     (17,375 )     10,200  
Other comprehensive (loss) gain attributable to CLPS Incorporation’s shareholders   $ (549,015 )   $ (411,973 )   $ 45,593  
                         
Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to                        
CLPS Incorporation shareholders   $ 2,389,224     $ (3,681,749 )   $ 2,480,056  
Non-controlling interests     118,211       (180,188 )     290,635  
    $ 2,507,435     $ (3,861,937 )   $ 2,770,691  
                         
Basic earnings (loss) per common share*     0.20       (0.24 )     0.21  
Weighted average number of share outstanding – basic     14,689,224       13,843,764       11,517,123  
Diluted earnings (loss) per common share*     0.20       (0.24 )     0.21  
Weighted average number of share outstanding – diluted     14,692,299       13,843,764       11,636,367  
                         
Supplemental information:                        
Non-GAAP income before income tax     7,711,539       3,915,444       2,602,770  
Non-GAAP net income     7,083,458       3,583,500       2,714,898  
Non-GAAP net income attributable to CLPS Incorporation’s shareholders     6,942,319       3,746,313       2,434,463  
Non-GAAP basic earnings per common share     0.47       0.27       0.21  
Weighted average number of share outstanding – basic     14,689,224       13,843,764       11,517,123  
Non-GAAP diluted earnings per common share     0.47       0.27       0.21  
Weighted average number of share outstanding – diluted     14,692,299       13,969,436       11,636,367  

 

* The shares and per share data are presented on a retroactive basis to reflect the nominal share issuance.

1

 

 

The following table presents our summary consolidated balance sheet data as of June 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

 

    As of June 30,  
    2020     2019  
Cash and cash equivalents   $ 12,652,120     $ 6,601,335  
Short-term investments   $ 636,934     $ 1,791,697  
Accounts receivable, net   $ 25,753,856     $ 19,263,584  
Escrow receivable   $ -     $ 200,000  
Prepayments, deposits and other assets, net   $ 1,280,967     $ 1,028,154  
Prepaid income tax   $ 15,780     $ 630,790  
Amounts due from related parties   $ 169,185     $ 230,540  
Total Current Assets   $ 40,508,842     $ 29,746,100  
Property and equipment, net   $ 452,472     $ 566,591  
Intangible assets, net   $ 1,144,579     $ 427,769  
Goodwill   $ 2,118,700     $ 447,790  
Long-term investments   $ 680,131     $ 914,006  
Prepayments, deposits and other assets, net   $ 244,387     $ 222,507  
Deferred tax assets, net   $ 203,247     $ 338,221  
Total Assets   $ 45,352,358     $ 32,662,984  
Short-term bank loans   $ 2,161,239     $ 2,184,996  
Accounts payable and other current liabilities   $ 489,043     $ 196,832  
Tax payables   $ 1,426,614     $ 915,629  
Deferred subsidies   $ -     $ 109,250  
Deferred revenues   $ -     $ 124,192  
Contract liabilities   $ 755,178       -  
Salaries and benefits payable   $ 11,522,268     $ 7,735,487  
Long-term bank loans   $ 22,554       -  
Deferred tax liabilities   $ 163,163       -  
Unrecognized tax benefits   $ 194,939       -  
Total Liabilities   $ 16,734,998     $ 11,266,386  
Total CLPS Incorporation’s Shareholders’ Equity   $ 27,348,644     $ 20,788,436  
Non-controlling Interests   $ 1,268,716     $ 608,162  
Total Shareholders’ Equity   $ 28,617,360     $ 21,396,598  
Total Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity   $ 45,352,358     $ 32,662,984  

 

The following table sets forth information concerning exchange rates between the RMB and the U.S. dollar for the periods indicated. On September 30, 2020, the buying rate announced by the Federal Reserve Statistical Release was RMB 6.7896 to $1.00.

 

    Spot Exchange Rate  
    Period
Ended
    Average
(1)
    Low     High  
Period   (RMB per US$1.00)  
2018     6.8755       6.6090       6.2649       6.9737  
2019     6.9618       6.9081       6.6822       7.1786  
2020                                
January     6.9161       6.9184       6.8589       6.9749  
February     6.9906       6.9967       6.9650       7.0286  
March     7.0808       7.0205       6.9244       7.1099  
April     7.0622       7.0708       7.0341       7.0989  
May     7.1348       7.1016       7.0622       7.1681  
June     7.0651       7.0816       7.0575       7.0575  
July     6.9744       7.0041       6.9744       7.0703  
August     6.8474       6.9301       6.8474       6.9799  
September     6.7896       6.8106       6.7529       6.8474  

  

Source: https://www.federalreserve.gov/releases/h10/hist/default.htm.

 

(1) Annual averages, lows, and highs are calculated from month-end rates. Monthly averages, lows, and highs are calculated using the average of the daily rates during the relevant period.

 

  B. Capitalization and Indebtedness

 

Not required.

 

2

 

 

  C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

 

Not required.

 

  D. Risk factors

 

You should carefully consider the following risk factors, together with all of the other information included in this Annual Report. Investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below together with all of the other information included in this Annual Report before making an investment decision. The risks and uncertainties described below represent our known material risks to our business. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition or results of operations could suffer. In that case, you may lose all or part of your investment.

 

Risks Related to Our Business

 

We may be unable to effectively manage our rapid growth, which could place significant strain on our management personnel, systems and resources. We may not be able to achieve anticipated growth, which could materially and adversely affect our business and prospects.

 

We have significantly grown and expanded our business recently. Our revenues grew from $48.9 million in fiscal 2018 to $64.9 million in fiscal 2019 and to $89.4 million in fiscal 2020. We maintain 18 delivery and/or R&D centers, of which ten are located in Mainland China (Shanghai, Beijing, Dalian, Tianjin, Baoding Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Hangzhou, and Suzhou) and eight are located globally (Hong Kong SAR, USA, UK, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, and India, to serve different customers in various geographic locations. The number of our total employees grew from 1,655 in fiscal 2018 to 2,085 in fiscal 2019. As of June 30, 2020 we had 2,746 full-time employees. We are actively looking for additional locations to establish new offices and expand our current offices and sales and delivery centers. We intend to continue our expansion in the foreseeable future to pursue existing and potential market opportunities. Our growth has placed and will continue to place significant demands on our management and our administrative, operational and financial infrastructure. Continued expansion increases the challenges we face in:

 

  recruiting, training, developing and retaining sufficient IT talent and management personnel;

 

  creating and capitalizing upon economies of scale;

 

  managing a larger number of clients in a greater number of industries and locations;

 

  maintaining effective oversight of personnel and offices;

 

  coordinating work among offices and project teams and maintaining high resource utilization rates;

 

  integrating new management personnel and expanded operations while preserving our culture and core values;

 

  developing and improving our internal administrative infrastructure, particularly our financial, operational, human resources, communications and other internal systems, procedures and controls; and

 

  adhering to and further improving our high quality and process execution standards and maintaining high levels of client satisfaction.

 

Moreover, as we introduce new services or enter into new markets, we may face new market, technological and operational risks and challenges with which we are unfamiliar, and it may require substantial management efforts and skills to mitigate these risks and challenges. As a result of any of these challenges associated with expansion, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected. Furthermore, we may not be able to achieve anticipated growth, which could materially and adversely affect our business and prospects.

 

3

 

 

Adverse changes in the economic environment, either in China or globally, could reduce our clients’ purchases from us and increase pricing pressure, which could materially and adversely affect our revenues and results of operations.

 

The IT services industry is particularly sensitive to the economic environment, whether in China or globally, and tends to decline during general economic downturns. Accordingly, our results of operations, financial condition and prospects are subject to a significant degree to the economic environment, especially for regions in which we and our clients operate. During an economic downturn, our clients may cancel, reduce or delay their IT spending or change their IT outsourcing strategy, and reduce their purchases from us. The recent global economic slowdown and any future economic slowdown, and the resulting reduction in IT spending, could also lead to increased pricing pressure from our clients. The occurrence of any of these events could materially and adversely affect our revenues and results of operations.

 

We face intense competition from onshore and offshore IT services companies, and, if we are unable to compete effectively, we may lose clients, and our revenues may decline.

 

The market for IT services is highly competitive, and we expect competition to persist and intensify. We believe that the principal competitive factors in our markets are industry expertise, breadth and depth of service offerings, quality of the services offered, reputation and track record, marketing and selling skills, scalability of infrastructure and price. In addition, the trend towards offshore outsourcing, international expansion by foreign and domestic competitors and continuing technological changes will result in new and different competitors entering our markets. In the IT outsourcing market, clients tend to engage multiple outsourcing service providers instead of using an exclusive service provider, which could reduce our revenues to the extent that clients obtain services from other competing providers. Clients may prefer service providers that have facilities located globally or that are based in countries more cost-competitive than in China. Our ability to compete also depends in part on a number of factors beyond our control, including the ability of our competitors to recruit, train, develop and retain highly skilled professionals, the price at which our competitors offer comparable services and our competitors’ responsiveness to client needs. Therefore, we cannot assure you that we will be able to retain our clients while competing against such competitors. Increased competition, our inability to compete successfully against competitors, pricing pressures or loss of market share could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Due to intense competition for highly skilled personnel, we may fail to attract and retain enough sufficiently trained personnel to support our operations; as a result, our ability to bid for and obtain new projects may be negatively affected and our revenues could decline.

 

The IT services industry relies on skilled personnel, and our success depends to a significant extent on our ability to recruit, train, develop and retain qualified personnel, especially experienced middle and senior level management. The IT services industry in China has experienced significant levels of employee attrition. Our attrition rates were 16% per annum in 2018 and 2019, respectively; in 2020, this rate was 16.6%. We may encounter higher attrition rates in the future, particularly if China continues to experience strong economic growth. There is significant competition in China for skilled personnel, especially experienced middle and senior level management, with the skills necessary to perform the services we offer to our clients. Increased competition for these personnel, in the IT industry or otherwise, could have an adverse effect on us. Spearheaded by the institution that provides continuing education to all CLPS staff and develop new talents from partner universities to further drive the Company’s growth (“CLPS Academy”), we have established Talent Creation Program (“TCP”) and Talent Development Program (“TDP”) programs to increase our human capital and employee loyalty, however, a significant increase in our attrition rate could decrease our operating efficiency and productivity and could lead to a decline in demand for our services. Additionally, failure to recruit, train, develop and retain personnel with the qualifications necessary to fulfill the needs of our existing and future clients or to assimilate new personnel successfully could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Failure to retain our key personnel on client projects or find suitable replacements for key personnel upon their departure may lead to termination of some of our client contracts or cancellation of some of our projects, which could materially and adversely affect our business.

 

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Our success depends substantially on the continuing efforts of our senior executives and other key personnel, and our business may be severely disrupted if we lose their services.

 

Our future success heavily depends upon the continued services of our senior executives and other key employees. In particular, we rely on the expertise, experience, client relationships and reputation of Xiao Feng Yang, our Chairman of the Board. We currently do not maintain key-man life insurance for any of the senior members of our management team or other key personnel. If one or more of our senior executives or key employees are unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, it could disrupt our business operations, and we may not be able to replace them easily or at all. In addition, competition for senior executives and key personnel in our industry is intense, and we may be unable to retain our senior executives and key personnel or attract and retain new senior executive and key personnel in the future, in which case our business may be severely disrupted, and our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. If any of our senior executives or key personnel joins a competitor or forms a competing company, we may lose clients, suppliers, know-how and key professionals and staff members to them. Also, if any of our business development managers, who generally keep a close relationship with our clients, joins a competitor or forms a competing company, we may lose clients, and our revenues may be materially and adversely affected. Additionally, there could be unauthorized disclosure or use of our technical knowledge, practices or procedures by such personnel. Most of our executives and key personnel have entered into employment agreements with us that contain non-competition provisions, non-solicitation and nondisclosure covenants. However, if any dispute arises between our executive officers and key personnel and us, such non-competition, non-solicitation and nondisclosure provisions might not provide effective protection to us, especially in China in light of the uncertainties with China’s legal system.

 

We generate a significant portion of our revenues from a relatively small number of major clients and loss of business from these clients could reduce our revenues and significantly harm our business.

 

We believe that in the foreseeable future we will continue to derive a significant portion of our revenues from a small number of major clients. For the years ended June 30, 2020, 2019 and 2018, Citibank and its affiliates accounted for 21.5%, 25.7% and 30.8% of the Company’s total revenues, respectively. For fiscal 2019 and 2018, substantially all the service provided by the Company to Citibank was IT consulting services and billed through time-and-expense contracts. The Company has not entered into any material long term contracts with Citibank. Our ability to maintain close relationships with these and other major clients is essential to the growth and profitability of our business. However, the volume of work performed for a specific client is likely to vary from year to year, especially since we are generally not our clients’ exclusive IT services provider, and we do not have long-term commitments from any of our clients to purchase our services. The typical term for our service agreements is between 1 and 3 years. A major client in one year may not provide the same level of revenues for us in any subsequent year. The IT services we provide to our clients, and the revenues and income from those services, may decline or vary as the type and quantity of IT services we provide change over time. In addition, our reliance on any individual client for a significant portion of our revenues may give that client a certain degree of pricing leverage against us when negotiating contracts and terms of service. In addition, a number of factors other than our performance could cause the loss of or reduction in business or revenues from a client, and these factors are not predictable. These factors may include corporate restructuring, pricing pressure, changes to its outsourcing strategy, switching to another services provider or returning work in-house. In the future, a small number of customers may continue to represent a significant portion of our total revenues in any given period. The loss of any of our major clients could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

If we are unable to collect our receivables from our clients, our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.

 

Our business depends on our ability to successfully obtain payment from our clients of the amounts they owe us for work performed. As of June 30, 2020 and 2019, our accounts receivable balance, net of allowance, amounted to approximately $25.8 million and $19.3 million, respectively. As of the years ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, Citibank accounted for 30.1% and 30.0% of the Company’s total accounts receivable balance. Since we generally do not require collateral or other security from our clients, we establish an allowance for doubtful accounts based upon estimates, historical experience and other factors surrounding the credit risk of specific clients. However, actual losses on client receivables balance could differ from those that we anticipate and as a result we might need to adjust our allowance. There is no guarantee that we will accurately assess the creditworthiness of our clients. Macroeconomic conditions, including related turmoil in the global financial system, could also result in financial difficulties for our clients, including limited access to the credit markets, insolvency or bankruptcy, and as a result could cause clients to delay payments to us, request modifications to their payment arrangements that could increase our receivables balance, or default on their payment obligations to us. As a result, an extended delay or default in payment relating to a significant account will have a material and adverse effect on the aging schedule and turnover days of our accounts receivable. If we are unable to collect our receivables from our clients in accordance with the contracts with our clients, our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.

 

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The growth and success of our business depends on our ability to anticipate and develop new services and enhance existing services in order to keep pace with rapid changes in technology and in the industries we focus on.

 

The market for our services is characterized by rapid technological changes, evolving industry standards, changing client preferences and new product and service introductions. Our future growth and success depend significantly on our ability to anticipate developments in IT services, develop and offer new product and service lines to meet our clients’ evolving needs. We may not be successful in anticipating or responding to these developments in a timely manner, or if we do respond, the services or technologies we develop may not be successful in the marketplace. The development of some of the services and technologies may involve significant upfront investments, and the failure of these services and technologies may result in our being unable to recover these investments, in part or in full. Further, services or technologies that are developed by our competitors may render our services uncompetitive or obsolete. In addition, new technologies may be developed that allow our clients to more cost-effectively perform the services that we provide, thereby reducing demand for our services. Should we fail to adapt to the rapidly changing IT services market, or if we fail to develop suitable services to meet the evolving and increasingly sophisticated requirements of our clients in a timely manner, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

 

We may be unsuccessful in entering into strategic alliances or identifying and acquiring suitable acquisition candidates, which could impede our growth and negatively affect our revenues and net income.

 

We have pursued and may continue to pursue strategic alliances and strategic acquisition opportunities to increase our scale and geographic presence, expand our service offerings and capabilities and enhance our industry and technical expertise. However, it is possible that in the future we may not succeed in identifying suitable alliances or acquisition candidates. Even if we identify suitable candidates, we may not be able to consummate these arrangements on terms commercially acceptable to us or to obtain necessary regulatory approvals in the case of acquisitions. Many of our competitors are likely to be seeking to enter into similar arrangements or acquire the same targets that we are looking to enter into or acquire. Such competitors may have substantially greater financial resources than we do and may be more attractive to our strategic partners or be able to outbid us for the targets. In addition, we may also be unable to timely deploy our existing cash balances to effect a potential acquisition, as use of cash balances located onshore in China may require specific governmental approvals or result in withholding and other tax payments. If we are unable to enter into suitable strategic alliances or complete suitable acquisitions, our growth strategy may be impeded, and our revenues and net income could be negatively affected.

 

If we fail to integrate or manage acquired companies efficiently, or if the acquired companies do not perform to our expectations, we may not be able to realize the benefits envisioned for such acquisitions, and our overall profitability and growth plans may be adversely affected.

 

Historically, we have expanded our service capabilities and gained new clients through selective acquisitions. Our ability to successfully integrate an acquired entity and realize the benefits of any acquisition requires, among other things, successful integration of technologies, operations and personnel. Challenges we face in the acquisition and integration process include:

 

  integrating operations, services and personnel in a timely and efficient manner;

 

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  unforeseen or undisclosed liabilities;

 

  generating sufficient revenue and net income to offset acquisition costs;

 

  potential loss of, or harm to, employee or client relationships;

 

  properly structuring our acquisition consideration and any related post-acquisition earn-outs and successfully monitoring any earn-out calculations and payments;

 

  retaining key senior management and key sales and marketing and research and development personnel;

 

  potential incompatibility of solutions, services and technology or corporate cultures;

 

  consolidating and rationalizing corporate, information technology and administrative infrastructures;

 

  integrating and documenting processes and controls;

 

  entry into unfamiliar markets; and

 

  increased complexity from potentially operating additional geographically dispersed sites, particularly if we acquire a company or business with facilities or operations outside of China.

 

In addition, the primary value of many potential targets in the outsourcing industry lies in their skilled professionals and established client relationships. Transitioning these types of assets to our business can be particularly difficult due to different corporate cultures and values, geographic distance and other intangible factors. For example, some newly acquired employees may decide not to work with us or to leave shortly after their move to our company and some acquired clients may decide to discontinue their commercial relationships with us. These challenges could disrupt our ongoing business, distract our management and employees and increase our expenses, including causing us to incur significant one-time expenses and write-offs, and make it more difficult and complex for our management to effectively manage our operations. If we are not able to successfully integrate an acquired entity and its operations and to realize the benefits envisioned for such acquisition, our overall growth and profitability plans may be adversely affected.

 

If we do not succeed in attracting new clients for our services and or growing revenues from existing clients, we may not achieve our revenue growth goals.

 

We plan to significantly expand the number of clients we serve to diversify our client base and grow our revenues. Revenues from a new client often rise quickly over the first several years following our initial engagement as we expand the services we provide to that client. Therefore, obtaining new clients is important for us to achieve rapid revenue growth. We also plan to grow revenues from our existing clients by identifying and selling additional services to them. Our ability to attract new clients, as well as our ability to grow revenues from existing clients, depends on a number of factors, including our ability to offer high quality services at competitive prices, the strength of our competitors and the capabilities of our sales and marketing teams. If we are not able to continue to attract new clients or to grow revenues from our existing clients in the future, we may not be able to grow our revenues as quickly as we anticipate or at all.

 

As a result of our significant recent growth, evaluating our business and prospects may be difficult and our past results may not be indicative of our future performance.

 

Our future success depends on our ability to significantly increase revenue and maintain profitability from our operations. Our business has grown and evolved significantly in recent years. Our growth in recent years makes it difficult to evaluate our historical performance and makes a period-to-period comparison of our historical operating results less meaningful. We may not be able to achieve a similar growth rate or maintain profitability in future periods. Therefore, you should not rely on our past results or our historic rate of growth as an indication of our future performance. You should consider our future prospects in light of the risks and challenges encountered by a company seeking to grow and expand in a competitive industry that is characterized by rapid technological change, evolving industry standards, changing client preferences and new product and service introductions. These risks and challenges include, among others:

 

  the uncertainties associated with our ability to continue our growth and maintain profitability;

 

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  preserving our competitive position in the IT services industry in China;

 

  offering consistent and high-quality services to retain and attract clients;

 

  implementing our strategy and modifying it from time to time to respond effectively to competition and changes in client preferences;

 

  managing our expanding operations and successfully expanding our solution and service offerings;

 

  responding in a timely manner to technological or other changes in the IT services industry;

 

  managing risks associated with intellectual property; and

 

  recruiting, training, developing and retaining qualified managerial and other personnel.

 

If we are unsuccessful in addressing any of these risks or challenges, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We face risks associated with having a long selling and implementation cycle for our services that require us to make significant resource commitments prior to realizing revenues for those services.

 

We have a long selling cycle for our technology services, which requires significant investment of capital, human resources and time by both our clients and us. In our consulting service request, we collect service fees on monthly and quarterly basis; in our solution services segment – by performance obligation fulfillment. Before committing to use our services, potential clients require us to expend substantial time and resources educating them on the value of our services and our ability to meet their requirements. Therefore, our selling cycle is subject to many risks and delays over which we have little or no control, including our clients’ decision to choose alternatives to our services (such as other providers or in-house resources) and the timing of our clients’ budget cycles and approval processes. Implementing our services also involves a significant commitment of resources over an extended period of time from both our clients and us. Our clients may experience delays in obtaining internal approvals or delays associated with technology, thereby further delaying the implementation process. Our current and future clients may not be willing or able to invest the time and resources necessary to implement our services, and we may fail to close sales with potential clients to which we have devoted significant time and resources, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

 

Our profitability will suffer if we are not able to maintain our resource utilization levels and continue to improve our productivity levels.

 

Our gross margin and profitability are significantly impacted by our utilization levels of human resources as well as other resources, such as computers, IT infrastructure and office space, and our ability to increase our productivity levels. We have expanded our operations significantly in recent years through organic growth and external acquisitions, which has resulted in a significant increase in our headcount and fixed overhead costs. We may face difficulties maintaining high levels of utilization, especially for our newly established or newly acquired businesses and resources. The master service agreements with our clients typically do not impose a minimum or maximum purchase amount and allow our clients to place service orders from time to time at their discretion. Client demand may fall to zero or surge to a level that we cannot cost-effectively satisfy. Although we try to use all commercially reasonable efforts to accurately estimate service orders and resource requirements from our clients, we may overestimate or underestimate, which may result in unexpected cost and strain or redundancy of our human capital and adversely impact our utilization levels. In addition, some of our professionals are specially trained to work for specific clients or on specific projects, and some of our sales and delivery center facilities are dedicated to specific clients or specific projects. Our ability to continually increase our productivity levels depends significantly on our ability to recruit, train, develop and retain high-performing professionals, staff projects appropriately and optimize our mix of services and delivery methods. If we experience a slowdown or stoppage of work for any client or on any project for which we have dedicated professionals or facilities, we may not be able to efficiently reallocate these professionals and facilities to other clients and projects to keep their utilization and productivity levels high. If we are not able to maintain high resource utilization levels without corresponding cost reductions or price increases, our profitability will suffer.

 

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A significant portion of our income is generated, and will in the future continue to be generated, on a project basis with a fixed price; we may not be able to accurately estimate costs and determine resource requirements in relation to our projects, which would reduce our margins and profitability.

 

A significant portion of our income is generated, and will in the future continue to be generated, from fees we receive for our projects with a fixed price. Our projects often involve complex technologies, entail the coordination of operations and workforces in multiple locations, utilizing workforces with different skill sets and competencies and geographically distributed service centers, and must be completed within compressed timeframes and meet client requirements that are subject to change and increasingly stringent. In addition, some of our fixed-price projects are multi-year projects that require us to undertake significant projections and planning related to resource utilization and costs. If we fail to accurately assess the time and resources required for completing projects and to price our projects profitably, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

 

Increases in wages for professionals in China could prevent us from sustaining our competitive advantage and could reduce our profit margins.

 

Our most significant costs are the salaries and other compensation expenses for our professionals and other employees. Wage costs for professionals in China are lower than those in more developed countries and India. However, because of rapid economic growth, increased productivity levels, and increased competition for skilled employees in China, wages for highly skilled employees in China, in particular middle- and senior-level managers, are increasing at a faster rate than in the past. We may need to increase the levels of employee compensation more rapidly than in the past to remain competitive in attracting and retaining the quality and number of employees that our business requires. Increases in the wages and other compensation we pay our employees in China could reduce our competitive advantage unless we are able to increase the efficiency and productivity of our professionals as well as the prices we can charge for our services. In addition, any appreciation in the value of the Renminbi relative to U.S. dollar and other foreign currencies will cause an increase in the relative wage levels in China, which could further reduce our competitive advantage and adversely impact our profit margin.

 

The international nature of our business exposes us to risks that could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

We conduct our business throughout the world in multiple locations. As a result, we are exposed to risks typically associated with conducting business internationally, many of which are beyond our control. These risks include:

 

  significant currency fluctuations between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar and other currencies in which we transact business;

 

  legal uncertainty owing to the overlap and inconsistencies of different legal regimes, problems in asserting contractual or other rights across international borders and the burden and expense of complying with the laws and regulations of various jurisdictions;

 

  potentially adverse tax consequences, such as scrutiny of transfer pricing arrangements by authorities in the countries in which we operate;

 

  current and future tariffs and other trade barriers, including restrictions on technology and data transfers;

 

  unexpected changes in regulatory requirements; and

 

  terrorist attacks and other acts of violence or war.

 

The occurrence of any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

 

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Our net revenues and results of operations are affected by seasonal trends.

 

Our business is affected by seasonal trends. In particular, our net revenues are typically progressively higher in the second, third and fourth quarters of each year compared to the first quarter of each year due to seasonal trends, such as: (i) a general slowdown in business activities and a reduced number of working days for our professionals during the first quarter of each year as a result of the Chinese New Year holiday period, and (ii) our customers in general tend to spend their IT budgets in the second half of the year and in particular the fourth quarter. Other factors that may cause our quarterly operating results to fluctuate include, among others, changes in general economic conditions in China and the impact of unforeseen events. We believe that our net revenues will continue to be affected in the future by seasonal trends. As a result, you may not be able to rely on period to period comparisons of our operating results as an indication of our future performance, and we believe it is more meaningful to evaluate our business on an annual basis.

 

We may be forced to reduce the prices of our services due to increased competition and reduced bargaining power with our clients, which could lead to reduced revenues and profitability.

 

The services outsourcing industry in China is developing rapidly, and related technology trends are constantly evolving. This results in the frequent introduction of new services and significant price competition from our competitors. We may be unable to offset the effect of declining average sales prices through increased sales volumes and/or reductions in our costs. Furthermore, we may be forced to reduce the prices of our services in response to offerings made by our competitors. Finally, we may not have the same level of bargaining power we have enjoyed in the past when it comes to negotiating the prices of our services.

 

If we cause disruptions to our clients’ businesses or provide inadequate service, our clients may have claims for substantial damages against us, and as a result our profits may be substantially reduced.

 

If our professionals make errors in the course of delivering services to our clients or fail to consistently meet service requirements of a client, these errors or failures could disrupt the client’s business, which could result in a reduction in our net revenues or a claim for substantial damages against us. In addition, a failure or inability to meet a contractual requirement could seriously damage our reputation and affect our ability to attract new business. The services we provide are often critical to our clients’ businesses. We generally provide customer support from three months to one year after our customized application is delivered. Certain of our client contracts require us to comply with security obligations including maintaining network security and back-up data, ensuring our network is virus-free, maintaining business continuity planning procedures, and verifying the integrity of employees that work with our clients by conducting background checks. Any failure in a client’s system or breach of security relating to the services we provide to the client could damage our reputation or result in a claim for substantial damages against us. Any significant failure of our equipment or systems, or any major disruption to basic infrastructure like power and telecommunications in the locations in which we operate, could impede our ability to provide services to our clients, have a negative impact on our reputation, cause us to lose clients, reduce our revenues and harm our business. Under our contracts with our clients, our liability for breach of our obligations is in some cases limited to a certain percentage of contract price. Such limitations may be unenforceable or otherwise may not protect us from liability for damages. In addition, certain liabilities, such as claims of third parties for which we may be required to indemnify our clients, are generally not limited under our contracts. We currently do not have commercial general or public liability insurance. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Even if such assertions against us are unsuccessful, we may incur reputational harm and substantial legal fees.

 

We may be liable to our clients for damages caused by unauthorized disclosure of sensitive and confidential information, whether through our employees or otherwise.

 

We are typically required to manage, utilize and store sensitive or confidential client data in connection with the services we provide. Under the terms of our client contracts, we are required to keep such information strictly confidential. We use network security technologies, surveillance equipment and other methods to protect sensitive and confidential client data. We also require our employees and subcontractors to enter into confidentiality agreements to limit access to and distribution of our clients’ sensitive and confidential information as well as our own trade secrets. We can give no assurance that the steps taken by us in this regard will be adequate to protect our clients’ confidential information. If our clients’ proprietary rights are misappropriated by our employees or our subcontractors or their employees, in violation of any applicable confidentiality agreements or otherwise, our clients may consider us liable for those acts and seek damages and compensation from us. Any such acts could cause us to lose existing and future business and damage our reputation in the market. In addition, we currently do not have any insurance coverage for mismanagement or misappropriation of such information by our subcontractors or employees. Any litigation with respect to unauthorized disclosure of sensitive and confidential information might result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention.

 

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We may not be able to prevent others from unauthorized use of intellectual property of our clients, which could harm our business and competitive position.

 

We rely on software licenses from our clients with respect to certain projects. To protect proprietary information and other intellectual property of our clients, we require our employees, subcontractors, consultants, advisors and collaborators to enter into confidentiality agreements with us. These agreements may not provide effective protection for trade secrets, know-how or other proprietary information in the event of any unauthorized use, misappropriation or disclosure of such trade secrets, know-how or other proprietary information. Implementation of intellectual property-related laws in China has historically been lacking, primarily because of ambiguities in the PRC laws and difficulties in enforcement. Accordingly, protection of intellectual property rights and confidentiality in China may not be as effective as that in the United States or other developed countries. Policing unauthorized use of proprietary technology is difficult and expensive. The steps we have taken may be inadequate to prevent the misappropriation of proprietary technology of our clients. Reverse engineering, unauthorized copying or other misappropriation of proprietary technologies of our clients could enable third parties to benefit from our or our clients’ technologies without paying us and our clients for doing so, and our clients may hold us liable for that act and seek damages and compensation from us, which could harm our business and competitive position.

 

We may not be able to prevent others from unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could cause a loss of clients, reduce our revenues and harm our competitive position.

 

We rely on a combination of copyright, trademark, software registration, anti-unfair competition and trade secret laws, as well as confidentiality agreements and other methods to protect our intellectual property rights. To protect our trade secrets and other proprietary information, employees, clients, subcontractors, consultants, advisors and collaborators are required to enter into confidentiality agreements. These agreements might not provide effective protection for the trade secrets, know-how or other proprietary information in the event of any unauthorized use, misappropriation or disclosure of such trade secrets, know-how or other proprietary information. Implementation of intellectual property-related laws in China has historically been lacking, primarily because of ambiguities in the PRC laws and difficulties in enforcement. Accordingly, intellectual property rights and confidentiality protections in China may not be as effective as those in the United States or other developed countries, and infringement of intellectual property rights continues to pose a serious risk of doing business in China. Policing unauthorized use of proprietary technology is difficult and expensive. The steps we have taken may be inadequate to prevent the misappropriation of our proprietary technology. Reverse engineering, unauthorized copying, other misappropriation, or negligent or accidental leakage of our proprietary technologies could enable third parties to benefit from our technologies without obtaining our consent or paying us for doing so, which could harm our business and competitive position. Though we are not currently involved in any litigation with respect to intellectual property, we may need to enforce our intellectual property rights through litigation. Litigation relating to our intellectual property may not prove successful and might result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention.

 

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We may face intellectual property infringement claims that could be time-consuming and costly to defend. If we fail to defend ourselves against such claims, we may lose significant intellectual property rights and may be unable to continue providing our existing services.

 

Our success largely depends on our ability to use and develop our technology and services without infringing the intellectual property rights of third parties, including copyrights, trade secrets and trademarks. We may be subject to litigation involving claims of violation of other intellectual property rights of third parties. We typically indemnify clients who purchase our services and solutions against potential infringement of intellectual property rights underlying our services and solutions, which subjects us to the risk of indemnification claims. The holders of other intellectual property rights potentially relevant to our service offerings may make it difficult for us to acquire a license on commercially acceptable terms. Also, we may be unaware of intellectual property registrations or applications relating to our services that may give rise to potential infringement claims against us. There may also be technologies licensed to and relied on by us that are subject to infringement or other corresponding allegations or claims by third parties which may damage our ability to rely on such technologies. We are subject to additional risks as a result of our recent and proposed acquisitions and the hiring of new employees who may misappropriate intellectual property from their former employers. Parties making infringement claims may be able to obtain an injunction to prevent us from delivering our services or using technology involving the allegedly infringing intellectual property. Intellectual property litigation is expensive and time-consuming and could divert management’s attention from our business. A successful infringement claim against us, whether with or without merit, could, among others things, require us to pay substantial damages, develop non-infringing technology, or re-brand our name or enter into royalty or license agreements that may not be available on acceptable terms, if at all, and cease making, licensing or using products that have infringed a third party’s intellectual property rights. Protracted litigation could also result in existing or potential clients deferring or limiting their purchase or use of our products until resolution of such litigation, or could require us to indemnify our clients against infringement claims in certain instances. Any intellectual property claim or litigation in this area, whether we ultimately win or lose, could damage our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.

 

We may need additional capital and any failure by us to raise additional capital on terms favorable to us, or at all, could limit our ability to grow our business and develop or enhance our service offerings to respond to market demand or competitive challenges.

 

We believe that our current cash, cash flow from operations and the available lines of credit from financial institutions should be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash needs for at least the next 12 months. We may, however, require additional cash resources due to changed business conditions or other future developments, including any investments or acquisitions we may decide to pursue. If these resources are insufficient to satisfy our cash requirements, we may seek to sell additional equity or debt securities or obtain a credit facility. The sale of additional equity securities could result in dilution to our shareholders. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased debt service obligations and could require us to agree to operating and financing covenants that would restrict our operations. Our ability to obtain additional capital on acceptable terms is subject to a variety of uncertainties, including:

 

  investors’ perception of, and demand for, securities of technology services outsourcing companies;

 

  conditions of the U.S. and other capital markets in which we may seek to raise funds;

 

  our future results of operations and financial condition;

 

  PRC government regulation of foreign investment in China;

 

  economic, political and other conditions in China; and

 

  PRC government policies relating to the borrowing and remittance outside China of foreign currency.

 

Financing may not be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all. Any failure by us to raise additional funds on terms favorable to us, or at all, could limit our ability to grow our business and develop or enhance our product and service offerings to respond to market demand or competitive challenges.

 

Failure to adhere to regulations that govern our clients’ businesses could result in breaches of contracts with our clients. Failure to adhere to the regulations that govern our business could result in our being unable to effectively perform our services.

 

Our clients’ business operations are subject to certain rules and regulations in China or elsewhere. Our clients may contractually require that we perform our services in a manner that would enable them to comply with such rules and regulations. Failure to perform our services in such a manner could result in breaches of contract with our clients and, in some limited circumstances, civil fines and criminal penalties for us. In addition, we are required under various Chinese laws to obtain and maintain permits and licenses to conduct our business. If we do not maintain our licenses or other qualifications to provide our services, we may not be able to provide services to existing clients or be able to attract new clients and could lose revenues, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

 

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We may incur losses resulting from business interruptions resulting from occurrence of natural disasters, health epidemics and other outbreaks or events.

 

Our operational facilities may be damaged in natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, heavy rains, and storms, tsunamis and cyclones, or other events such as fires. Such natural disasters or other events may lead to disruption of information systems and telephone service for sustained periods. Damage or destruction that interrupts our provision of outsourcing services could damage our relationships with our clients and may cause us to incur substantial additional expenses to repair or replace damaged equipment or facilities. We may also be liable to our clients for disruption in service resulting from such damage or destruction. Prolonged disruption of our services as a result of natural disasters or other events may also entitle our clients to terminate their contracts with us. We currently do not have insurance against business interruptions.

 

Our results of operations may be negatively impacted by the COVID-19 outbreak.

 

In December 2019, the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) surfaced in Wuhan, China. The World Health Organization declared a global emergency on January 30, 2020 with respect to the outbreak then characterized it as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. The outbreak has spread throughout Europe and the Middle East, and there have been many cases of COVID-19 in Canada and the United States, causing companies and various international jurisdictions to impose restrictions, such as quarantines, closures, cancellations and travel restrictions. While these effects are expected to be temporary, the duration of the business disruptions internationally and related financial impact cannot be reasonably estimated at this time. Similarly, we cannot estimate whether or to what extent this outbreak and potential financial impact may extend to countries outside of those currently impacted. At this point, the extent to which the coronavirus may impact our results is uncertain; however, it is possible that our consolidated results in 2020 may be negatively impacted by this event. The impacts of the outbreak are unknown and rapidly evolving.

 

Fluctuation in the value of the Renminbi and other currencies may have a material adverse effect on the value of your investment.

 

Our financial statements are expressed in U.S. dollars. However, a majority of our revenues and expenses are denominated in Renminbi (RMB). Our exposure to foreign exchange risk primarily relates to the limited cash denominated in currencies other than the functional currencies of each entity and limited revenue contracts dominated in Singapore dollar, Hong Kong dollar and Indian rupee in certain of our operating subsidiaries. We do not believe that we currently have any significant direct foreign exchange risk and have not hedged exposures denominated in foreign currencies or any other derivative financial instruments. However, the value of your investment in our common shares will be affected by the foreign exchange rate between U.S. dollars and RMB because the primary value of our business is effectively denominated in RMB, while the common shares will be traded in U.S. dollars. The value of the RMB against the U.S. dollar and other currencies is affected by, among other things, changes in China’s political and economic conditions and China’s foreign exchange policies. The People’s Bank of China regularly intervenes in the foreign exchange market to limit fluctuations in RMB exchange rate and achieve certain exchange rate targets, and through such intervention kept the U.S. dollar-RMB exchange rate relatively stable.

 

As we may rely on dividends paid to us by our PRC subsidiaries, any significant revaluation of the RMB may have a material adverse effect on our revenues and financial condition, and the value of any dividends payable on our common shares in foreign currency terms. For example, to the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars we maintain into RMB, appreciation of the RMB against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the RMB amount we receive from the conversion. Conversely, if we decide to convert our RMB into U.S. dollars for the purpose of making payments for dividends on our common shares or for other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the RMB would have a negative effect on the U.S. dollar amount available to us. Furthermore, appreciation or depreciation in the value of the RMB relative to the U.S. dollar would affect our financial results reported in U.S. dollar terms without giving effect to any underlying change in our business or results of operations. We cannot predict the impact of future exchange rate fluctuations on our results of operations and may incur net foreign exchange losses in the future. In addition, our foreign currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert into foreign currencies.

 

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Fluctuations in exchange rates could adversely affect our business and the value of our securities.

 

Changes in the value of the RMB against the U.S. dollar, euro and other foreign currencies are affected by, among other things, changes in China’s political and economic conditions. Any significant revaluation of the RMB may have a material adverse effect on our revenues and financial condition, and the value of, and any dividends payable on our shares in U.S. dollar terms. Conversely, if we decide to convert our RMB into U.S. dollar for the purpose of paying dividends on our common stock or for other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the RMB would have a negative effect on the U.S. dollar amount available to us. Since July 2005, the RMB is no longer pegged to the U.S. dollar, although the People’s Bank of China regularly intervenes in the foreign exchange market to prevent significant short-term fluctuations in the exchange rate, the RMB may appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against the U.S. dollar in the medium to long term. Moreover, it is possible that in future, PRC authorities may lift restrictions on fluctuations in the RMB exchange rate and lessen intervention in the foreign exchange market. Very limited hedging transactions are available in China to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. To date, we have not entered into any hedging transactions. While we may enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these transactions may be limited, and we may not be able to successfully hedge our exposure at all. In addition, our foreign currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert RMB into foreign currencies.

 

Legislation in certain countries in which we have clients may restrict companies in those countries from outsourcing work to us.

 

Offshore outsourcing is a politically sensitive issue in the United States. For example, many organizations and public figures in the United States have publicly expressed concern about a perceived association between offshore outsourcing providers and the loss of jobs in their home countries. A number of U.S. states have passed legislation that restricts state government entities from outsourcing certain work to offshore service providers. Other U.S. federal and state legislation has been proposed that, if enacted, would provide tax disincentives for offshore outsourcing or require disclosure of jobs outsourced abroad. Similar legislation could be enacted in other countries in which we have clients. Any expansion of existing laws or the enactment of new legislation restricting or discouraging offshore outsourcing by companies in the United States, or other countries in which we have clients could adversely impact our business operations and financial results. In addition, from time to time there has been publicity about negative experiences associated with offshore outsourcing, such as theft and misappropriation of sensitive client data. As a result, current or prospective clients may elect to perform such services themselves or may be discouraged from transferring these services from onshore to offshore providers. Any slowdown or reversal of existing industry trends towards offshore outsourcing in response to political pressure or negative publicity would harm our ability to compete effectively with competitors that operate out of onshore facilities and adversely affect our business and financial results.

 

Disruptions in telecommunications or significant failure in our IT systems could harm our service model, which could result in a reduction of our revenue.

 

A significant element of our business strategy is to continue to leverage and expand our sales and delivery centers strategically located in China. We believe that the use of a strategically located network of sales and delivery centers will provide us with cost advantages, the ability to attract highly skilled personnel in various regions of the country and the world, and the ability to service clients on a regional and global basis. Part of our service model is to maintain active voice and data communications, financial control, accounting, customer service and other data processing systems between our main offices in Shanghai, our clients’ offices, and our other deliveries centers and support facilities. Our business activities may be materially disrupted in the event of a partial or complete failure of any of these IT or communication systems, which could be caused by, among other things, software malfunction, computer virus attacks, conversion errors due to system upgrading, damage from fire, earthquake, power loss, telecommunications failure, unauthorized entry or other events beyond our control. Loss of all or part of the systems for a period of time could hinder our performance or our ability to complete client projects on time which, in turn, could lead to a reduction of our revenue or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business and business reputation. We may also be liable to our clients for breach of contract for interruptions in service.

 

Our computer networks may be vulnerable to security risks that could disrupt our services and adversely affect our results of operations.

 

Our computer networks may be vulnerable to unauthorized access, computer hackers, computer viruses and other security problems caused by unauthorized access to, or improper use of, systems by third parties or employees. A hacker who circumvents security measures could misappropriate proprietary information or cause interruptions or malfunctions in our operations. Although we intend to continue to implement security measures, computer attacks or disruptions may jeopardize the security of information stored in and transmitted through our computer systems. Actual or perceived concerns that our systems may be vulnerable to such attacks or disruptions may deter our clients from using our solutions or services. As a result, we may be required to expend significant resources to protect against the threat of these security breaches or to alleviate problems caused by these breaches. Data networks are also vulnerable to attacks, unauthorized access and disruptions. For example, in a number of public networks, hackers have bypassed firewalls and misappropriated confidential information. It is possible that, despite existing safeguards, an employee could misappropriate our clients’ proprietary information or data, exposing us to a risk of loss or litigation and possible liability. Losses or liabilities that are incurred as a result of any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 

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If we fail to implement and maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may be unable to accurately report our results of operations, meet our reporting obligations on a timely basis, or prevent fraud, and investor confidence and the market price of our shares may be materially and adversely affected. 

 

We are required to evaluate the effectiveness of disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. As defined in standards established by the United States Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or the PCAOB, a “material weakness” is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. In the course of auditing our consolidated financial statements as of June 30, 2019 and for the year ended June 30, 2019, we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified one material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting as well as other control deficiencies. The material weakness identified is the Company’s lack of sufficient financial accounting and reporting personnel with requisite knowledge and experience in the application of the United States generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) and Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) rules and lack of sufficient controls and procedures that are commensurate with U.S. GAAP and SEC reporting requirements.

 

We have implemented a number of measures to improve our internal control over financial reporting to address the material weakness that have been identified. For details about remediation, refer to “Item 15. Controls and Procedures.” As of June 30, 2020, based on an assessment performed by our management on the performance of the remediation measures, we determined that the material weakness previously identified in our internal control over financial reporting had been remediated.

 

Our independent registered public accounting firm has not conducted an audit of our internal control over financial reporting. It is possible that, had our independent registered public accounting firm conducted an audit of our internal control over financial reporting, such firm might have identified additional material weaknesses and deficiencies.

 

We are a public company in the United States subject to the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002. Section 404 of the Sarbanes Oxley Act, or Section 404, requires us to include a report from management on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting in our annual report on Form 20-F. Our management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting is effective as of June 30, 2020. In addition, once we cease to be an “emerging growth company” as such term is defined in the JOBS Act, our independent registered public accounting firm must attest to and report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective in the future, our independent registered public accounting firm, after conducting its own independent testing, may issue an adverse opinion if it is not satisfied with our internal controls or the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed, or if it interprets the relevant requirements differently from us. In addition, our reporting obligations may place a significant strain on our management, operational and financial resources and systems for the foreseeable future. We may be unable to timely complete our evaluation testing and any required remediation.

 

During the course of documenting and testing our internal control procedures, in order to satisfy the requirements of Section 404, we may identify other weaknesses and deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, if we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, as these standards are modified, supplemented or amended from time to time, we may not be able to conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404. Moreover, our internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect all errors and fraud. A control system, no matter how well it is designed and operated, cannot provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud will be detected.

 

If we fail to achieve and maintain an effective internal control environment, we could suffer material misstatements in our financial statements and fail to meet our reporting obligations, which would likely cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information. This could in turn limit our access to capital markets, harm our results of operations, and lead to a decline in the market price of our common shares. Additionally, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose us to increased risk of fraud or misuse of corporate assets and subject us to potential delisting from the stock exchange on which we list, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions. We may also be required to restate our financial statements from prior periods.

 

Our insurance coverage may be inadequate to protect us against losses.

 

Although we maintain property insurance coverage for certain of our facilities and equipment, we do not have any loss of data or business interruption insurance coverage for our operations. If any claims for damage are brought against us, or if we experience any business disruption, litigation or natural disaster, we might incur substantial costs and diversion of resources.

 

Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure

 

We will likely not pay dividends in the foreseeable future.

 

Dividend policy is subject to the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on, among other things, our earnings, financial condition, capital requirements and other factors. There is no assurance that our Board of Directors will declare dividends even if we are profitable. The payment of dividends by entities organized in China is subject to limitations as described herein. Under Cayman Islands law, we may only pay dividends from profits of the Company, or credits standing in the Company’s share premium account, and we must be solvent before and after the dividend payment in the sense that we will be able to satisfy our liabilities as they become due in the ordinary course of business; and the realizable value of assets of our Company will not be less than the sum of our total liabilities, other than deferred taxes as shown on our books of account, and our capital. Pursuant to the Chinese enterprise income tax law, dividends payable by a foreign investment entity to its foreign investors are subject to a withholding tax of 10%. Similarly, dividends payable by a foreign investment entity to its Hong Kong investor who owns 25% or more of the equity of the foreign investment entity is subject to a withholding tax of 5%. The payment of dividends by entities organized in China is subject to limitations, procedures and formalities. Regulations in China currently permit payment of dividends only out of accumulated profits as determined in accordance with accounting standards and regulations in China. The transfer to this reserve must be made before distribution of any dividend to shareholders.

 

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Our business may be materially and adversely affected if any of our Chinese subsidiaries declare bankruptcy or become subject to a dissolution or liquidation proceeding.

 

The Enterprise Bankruptcy Law of China provides that an enterprise may be liquidated if the enterprise fails to settle its debts as and when they fall due and if the enterprise’s assets are, or are demonstrably, insufficient to clear such debts. Our Chinese subsidiaries hold certain assets that are important to our business operations. If any of our Chinese subsidiaries undergoes a voluntary or involuntary liquidation proceeding, unrelated third-party creditors may claim rights to some or all of these assets, thereby hindering our ability to operate our business, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our WOFE is required to allocate a portion of its after-tax profits to the statutory reserve fund, and as determined by its board of directors, to the staff welfare and bonus funds, which may not be distributed to equity owners.

 

Pursuant to Company Law of P.R. China (2018 Revision), Foreign Investment Law of the People’s Republic of China (2020) and Implementing Regulations of the Foreign Investment Law of the People’s Republic of China (2020) Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprise (“WOFE”) Law of the P.R. China (2016 Revision) and Implementing Rules for the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Wholly Foreign Owned Enterprises (2014 Revision), our WOFE entity is required to allocate a portion of its after-tax profits, to the statutory reserve fund, and in its discretion, to the staff welfare and bonus funds. No lower than 10% of an enterprise’s after tax-profits should be allocated to the statutory reserve fund. When the statutory reserve fund account balance is equal to or greater than 50% of the WOFE’s registered capital, no further allocation to the statutory reserve fund account is required. WOFE determines, in its own discretion, the amount contributed to the staff welfare and bonus funds. These reserves represent appropriations of retained earnings determined according to Chinese law.

 

Our failure to obtain prior approval of the China Securities Regulatory Commission (“CSRC”) for the listing and trading of our common shares on a foreign stock exchange could have a material adverse effect upon our business, operating results, reputation and trading price of our common shares.

 

On August 8, 2006, six Chinese regulatory agencies, including the Ministry of Commerce of the People’s Republic of China (“MOFCOM”), jointly issued the Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, which was amended on June 22, 2009 (the “M&A Rule”). The M&A Rule contains provisions that require that an offshore special purpose vehicle (“SPV”) formed for listing purposes and controlled directly or indirectly by Chinese companies or individuals shall obtain the approval of the CSRC prior to the listing and trading of such SPV’s securities on an overseas stock exchange. On September 21, 2006, the CSRC published procedures specifying documents and materials required to be submitted to it by an SPV seeking CSRC approval of overseas listings. However, the application of the M&A Rule remains unclear with no consensus currently existing among leading Chinese law firms regarding the scope and applicability of the CSRC approval requirement. The CSRC has not issued any such definitive rule or interpretation, and we have not chosen to voluntarily request approval under the M&A Rule. We may face regulatory actions or other sanctions from the CSRC or other Chinese regulatory authorities. These authorities may impose fines and penalties upon our operations in China, limit our operating privileges in China, delay or restrict the repatriation of the IPO proceeds into China, or take other actions that could have a material adverse effect upon our business, financial condition, results of operations, reputation and prospects, as well as the trading price of our common shares.

 

If the chops of our PRC companies and subsidiaries are not kept safely, are stolen or are used by unauthorized persons or for unauthorized purposes, the corporate governance of these entities could be severely and adversely compromised.

 

In China, a company chop or seal serves as the legal representation of the company towards third parties even when unaccompanied by a signature. Each legally registered company in China is required to maintain a company chop, which must be registered with the local Public Security Bureau. In addition to this mandatory company chop, companies may have several other chops which can be used for specific purposes. The chops of our PRC subsidiaries are generally held securely by personnel designated or approved by us in accordance with our internal control procedures. To the extent those chops are not kept safely, are stolen or are used by unauthorized persons or for unauthorized purposes, the corporate governance of these entities could be severely and adversely compromised and those corporate entities may be bound to abide by the terms of any documents so chopped, even if they were chopped by an individual who lacked the requisite power and authority to do so. In addition, if the chops are misused by unauthorized persons, we could experience disruption to our normal business operations. We may have to take corporate or legal action, which could involve significant time and resources to resolve while distracting management from our operations.

 

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If we fail to maintain continuing compliance with the PRC state regulatory rules, policies and procedures applicable to our industry, we may risk losing certain preferential tax and other treatments which may adversely affect the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.

 

According to the Guidelines on Foreign Investment issued by the State Council in 2002 and the Catalogue of Industries for Encouraging Foreign Investment (2019) issued by the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Commerce, IT services fall into the category of industries in which foreign investment is encouraged. The State Council has promulgated several notices since 2000 to launch favorable policies for IT services, such as preferential tax treatments and credit support. Under rules and regulations promulgated by various Chinese government agencies, enterprises that have met specified criteria and are recognized as software enterprises by the relevant government authorities in China are entitled to preferential treatment, including financing support, preferential tax rates, export incentives, discretion and flexibility in determining employees’ welfare benefits and remuneration. Software enterprise qualifications are subject to annual examination. Enterprises that fail to meet the annual examination standards will lose the favorable enterprise income tax treatment. Enterprises exporting software or producing software products that are registered with the relevant government authorities are also entitled to preferential treatment including governmental financial support, preferential import, export policies and preferential tax rates. If and to the extent we fail to maintain compliance with such applicable rules and regulations, our operations and financial results may be adversely affected.

 

Risks Related to Doing Business in China

 

Adverse changes in political, economic and other policies of the Chinese government could have a material adverse effect on the overall economic growth of China, which could materially and adversely affect the growth of our business and our competitive position.

 

The majority of our business operations are conducted in China. Accordingly, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects are affected significantly by economic, political and legal developments in China. Although the PRC economy has been transitioning from a planned economy to a more market-oriented economy since the late 1970s, the PRC government continues to exercise significant control over China’s economic growth through direct allocation of resources, monetary and tax policies, and a host of other government policies such as those that encourage or restrict investment in certain industries by foreign investors, control the exchange between the Renminbi and foreign currencies, and regulate the growth of the general or specific market. While the Chinese economy has experienced significant growth in the past 30 years, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy. Furthermore, the current global economic crisis is adversely affecting economies throughout the world. As the PRC economy has become increasingly linked to the global economy, China is affected in various respects by downturns and recessions of major economies around the world. The various economic and policy measures enacted by the PRC government to forestall economic downturns or bolster China’s economic growth could materially affect our business. Any adverse change in the economic conditions in China, in policies of the PRC government or in laws and regulations in China could have a material adverse effect on the overall economic growth of China and market demand for our outsourcing services. Such developments could adversely affect our businesses, lead to reduction in demand for our services and adversely affect our competitive position.

 

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Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could have a material adverse effect on us.

 

The PRC legal system is based on written statutes. Prior court decisions may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value. Since the late 1970s, the PRC government has been building a comprehensive system of laws and regulations governing economic matters in general. The overall effect has been to significantly enhance the protections afforded to various forms of foreign investments in China. We conduct our business primarily through our subsidiaries established in China. These subsidiaries are generally subject to laws and regulations applicable to foreign investment in China. However, since these laws and regulations are relatively new and the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involves uncertainties, which may limit legal protections available to us. In addition, some regulatory requirements issued by certain PRC government authorities may not be consistently applied by other government authorities (including local government authorities), thus making strict compliance with all regulatory requirements impractical, or in some circumstances impossible. For example, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce the legal protection that we enjoy either by law or contract. However, since PRC administrative and court authorities have discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to predict the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. These uncertainties may impede our ability to enforce the contracts we have entered into with our business partners, clients and suppliers. In addition, such uncertainties, including any inability to enforce our contracts, together with any development or interpretation of PRC law that is adverse to us, could materially and adversely affect our business and operations. Furthermore, intellectual property rights and confidentiality protections in China may not be as effective as in the United States or other more developed countries. We cannot predict the effect of future developments in the PRC legal system, including the promulgation of new laws, changes to existing laws or the interpretation or enforcement thereof, or the preemption of local regulations by national laws. These uncertainties could limit the legal protections available to us and other foreign investors, including you. In addition, any litigation in China may be protracted and result in substantial costs and diversion of our resources and management attention.

 

U.S. regulators’ ability to conduct investigations or enforce rules in China is limited.

 

The majority of our operations are conducted outside of the U.S. As a result, it may not be possible for the U.S. regulators to conduct investigations or inspections, or to effect service of process within the U.S. or elsewhere outside China on us, our subsidiaries, officers, directors and shareholders, and others, including with respect to matters arising under U.S. federal or state securities laws. China does not have treaties providing for reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments of courts with the U.S. and many other countries. As a result, recognition and enforcement in China of these judgments in relation to any matter, including U.S. securities laws and the laws of the Cayman Islands, may be difficult or impossible.

 

We face uncertainty regarding the PRC tax reporting obligations and consequences for certain indirect transfers of the stock of our operating company.

 

Pursuant to the Announcement of the State Administration of Taxation on Several Issues Concerning the Enterprise Income Tax on Indirect Property Transfer by Non-Resident Enterprises, which became effective in February 2015, or Circular 7, Announcement of the State Administration of Taxation on Issues Concerning the Withholding of Non-resident Enterprise Income Tax at Source, which became effective in December 2017, or Circular 37, Law of the People’s Republic of China on Enterprise Income Tax on December 29, 2018 and Regulations on the Implementation of Enterprise Income Tax Law on January 1, 2008, where a non-resident enterprise indirectly transfers properties such as equity in Chinese resident enterprises without any justifiable business purposes with the aim of avoiding to pay enterprise income tax, such indirect transfer shall be reclassified as a direct transfer of equity in Chinese resident enterprise in accordance with Article 47 of the Enterprise Income Tax Law. The PRC tax authority will examine the true nature of such transfer, and the gains derived from such transfer may be subject to PRC withholding tax at the rate of up to 10%. In addition, the PRC resident enterprise is supposed to provide necessary assistance to support the enforcement of the Laws and Circulars. The PRC tax authorities may make claims against our PRC subsidiary as being indirectly liable for unpaid taxes, if any, arising from Indirect Transfers by shareholders who did not obtain their shares in the public offering of our shares.

 

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PRC regulations relating to the establishment of offshore special purpose companies by PRC residents may subject our PRC resident shareholders to personal liability and limit our ability to acquire PRC companies or to inject capital into our PRC subsidiaries, limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to distribute profits to us, or otherwise materially and adversely affect us.

 

The PRC State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, issued a public notice in 2014 known as Circular 37 that requires PRC residents, including both legal persons and natural persons, to register with an appropriate local SAFE branch before establishing or controlling any company outside of China, referred to as an offshore special purpose company, for the purpose of acquiring any assets of or equity interest in PRC companies and raising funds from overseas. When a PRC resident contributes the assets or equity interests it holds in a PRC company into the offshore special purpose company, or engages in overseas financing after contributing such assets or equity interests into the offshore special purpose company, such PRC resident must modify its SAFE registration in light of its interest in the offshore special purpose company and any change thereof. Moreover, failure to comply with the above SAFE registration requirements could result in liabilities under PRC laws for evasion of foreign exchange restrictions.

 

We are committed to complying with the Circular 37 requirements and to ensuring that our shareholders who are PRC citizens or residents comply with them. We believe that all of our current PRC citizen or resident shareholders and beneficial owners have completed their required registrations with SAFE. However, we may not at all times be fully aware or informed of the identities of all our beneficial owners who are PRC citizens or residents, and we may not always be able to compel our beneficial owners to comply with the Circular 37 requirements. As a result, we cannot assure you that all of our shareholders or beneficial owners who are PRC citizens or residents will at all times comply with, or in the future make or obtain any applicable registrations or approvals required by, Circular 37 or other related regulations. Failure by any such shareholders or beneficial owners to comply with Circular 37 could subject us to fines or legal sanctions, restrict our overseas or cross-border investment activities, limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to make distributions or pay dividends or affect our ownership structure, which could adversely affect our business and prospects.

 

In addition, the PRC National Development and Reform Commission promulgated a rule in 2017 requiring its approval for overseas investment projects made by PRC entities. However, there exist extensive uncertainties as to the interpretation of this rule with respect to its application to a PRC individual’s overseas investment and, in practice, we are not aware of any precedents that a PRC individual’s overseas investment has been either approved by the National Development and Reform Commission or challenged by the National Development and Reform Commission based on the absence of its approval. Our current beneficial owners who are PRC individuals did not apply for the approval of the National Development and Reform Commission for their investment in us. We cannot predict how and to what extent this will affect our business operations or future strategy.

 

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PRC regulation of loans and direct investment by offshore holding companies to PRC entities may delay or prevent us from making loans or additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

 

We may make loans to our PRC subsidiaries and controlled PRC affiliate, or we may make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries. Any loans to our PRC subsidiaries or controlled PRC affiliate are subject to PRC regulations and approvals. For example, loans by us to our PRC subsidiaries in China, each of which is a foreign-invested enterprise, to finance their activities cannot exceed statutory limits and must be registered with SAFE or its local counterpart.

 

We may also decide to finance our PRC subsidiaries through capital contributions. These capital contributions must be approved by the Ministry of Commerce in China or its local counterpart. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain these government registrations or approvals on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to future loans by us to our PRC subsidiaries or controlled PRC affiliate or capital contributions by us to our subsidiaries or any of their respective subsidiaries. If we fail to receive such registrations or approvals, our ability to capitalize our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could adversely and materially affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

 

In 2015, SAFE promulgated Circular 19, a notice regulating the conversion by a foreign-invested enterprise of foreign currency into Renminbi by restricting how the converted Renminbi may be used. Circular 19 requires that Renminbi converted from the foreign currency-denominated capital of a foreign-invested enterprise shall be truthfully used for the enterprise’s own operational purposes within the scope of business and only the foreign-invested enterprise whose main business is investment (including a foreign-invested investment company, foreign-invested venture capital enterprise or foreign-invested equity investment enterprise) is allowed to directly settle its foreign exchange capital or transfer the RMB funds under its Account for Foreign Exchange Settlement Pending Payment to the account of an invested enterprise according to the actual amount of investment, provided that the relevant domestic investment project is real and compliant.

 

We cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the necessary government registrations or obtain the necessary government approvals on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to future loans by us to our PRC subsidiaries or controlled PRC affiliate or with respect to future capital contributions by us to our PRC subsidiaries. If we fail to complete such registrations or obtain such approvals, our ability to capitalize or otherwise fund our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could adversely and materially affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

 

Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to use our revenues effectively and the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to obtain financing.

 

The PRC government imposes control on the convertibility of the RMB into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. We receive a majority of our revenues in Renminbi, which currently is not a freely convertible currency. Restrictions on currency conversion imposed by the PRC government may limit our ability to use revenues generated in Renminbi to fund our expenditures denominated in foreign currencies or our business activities outside China. Under China’s existing foreign exchange regulations, Renminbi may be freely converted into foreign currency for payments relating to current account transactions, which include among other things dividend payments and payments for the import of goods and services, by complying with certain procedural requirements. Our PRC subsidiaries are able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to us without prior approval from SAFE, by complying with certain procedural requirements. Our PRC subsidiaries may also retain foreign currency in their respective current account bank accounts for use in payment of international current account transactions. However, we cannot assure you that the PRC government will not take measures in the future to restrict access to foreign currencies for current account transactions. Conversion of Renminbi into foreign currencies, and of foreign currencies into Renminbi, for payments relating to capital account transactions, which principally includes investments and loans, generally requires the approval of SAFE and other relevant PRC governmental authorities. Restrictions on the convertibility of the Renminbi for capital account transactions could affect the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to make investments overseas or to obtain foreign currency through debt or equity financing, including by means of loans or capital contributions from us. We cannot assure you that the registration process will not delay or prevent our conversion of Renminbi for use outside of China.

 

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We may be classified as a “resident enterprise” for PRC enterprise income tax purposes; such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders.

 

The Enterprise Income Tax Law provides that enterprises established outside of China whose “de facto management bodies” are located in China are considered PRC tax resident enterprises and will generally be subject to the uniform 25% PRC enterprise income tax rate on their global income. In addition, a tax circular issued by the State Administration of Taxation on April 22, 2009 regarding the standards used to classify certain Chinese-invested enterprises established outside of China as resident enterprises clarified that dividends and other income paid by such resident enterprises will be considered to be PRC source income, subject to PRC withholding tax, currently at a rate of 10%, when recognized by non-PRC enterprise shareholders. This recent circular also subjects such resident enterprises to various reporting requirements with the PRC tax authorities. Under the implementation rules to the Enterprise Income Tax Law, a de facto management body is defined as a body that has material and overall management and control over the manufacturing and business operations, personnel and human resources, finances and other assets of an enterprise. In addition, the tax circular mentioned above details that certain Chinese-invested enterprises will be classified as resident enterprises if the following are located or resident in China: senior management personnel and departments that are responsible for daily production, operation and management; financial and personnel decision making bodies; key properties, accounting books, company seal, and minutes of board meetings and shareholders’ meetings; and half or more of the senior management or directors having voting rights.

 

Currently, there are no detailed rules or precedents governing the procedures and specific criteria for determining de facto management bodies which are applicable to our company or our overseas subsidiary. If our company or any of our overseas subsidiaries is considered a PRC tax resident enterprise for PRC enterprise income tax purposes, a number of unfavorable PRC tax consequences could follow. First, our company or our overseas subsidiary will be subject to the uniform 25% enterprise income tax rate as to our global income as well as PRC enterprise income tax reporting obligations. Second, although under the Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementing rules dividends paid to us from our PRC subsidiaries would qualify as tax-exempted income, we cannot assure you that such dividends will not be subject to a 10% withholding tax, as the PRC foreign exchange control authorities, which enforce the withholding tax, have not yet issued guidance with respect to the processing of outbound remittances to entities that are treated as resident enterprises for PRC enterprise income tax purposes. Finally, dividends payable by us to our investors and gain on the sale of our shares may become subject to PRC withholding tax. It is possible that future guidance issued with respect to the new resident enterprise classification could result in a situation in which a withholding tax of 10% for our non-PRC enterprise investors or a potential withholding tax of 20% for individual investors is imposed on dividends we pay to them and with respect to gains derived by such investors from transferring our shares. In addition to the uncertainty in how the new resident enterprise classification could apply, it is also possible that the rules may change in the future, possibly with retroactive effect. If we are required under the Enterprise Income Tax law to withhold PRC income tax on our dividends payable to our foreign shareholders, or if you are required to pay PRC income tax on the transfer of our shares under the circumstances mentioned above, the value of your investment in our shares or ADSs may be materially and adversely affected. It is unclear whether, if we are considered a PRC resident enterprise, holders of our shares would be able to claim the benefit of income tax treaties or agreements entered into between China and other countries or areas.

 

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The M&A Rules and certain other PRC regulations establish complex procedures for some acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign investors, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China.

 

The Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Companies by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, adopted by six PRC regulatory agencies in August 2006 and amended in 2009, requires an overseas special purpose vehicle formed for listing purposes through acquisitions of PRC domestic companies and controlled by PRC companies or individuals to obtain the approval of the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC, prior to the listing and trading of such special purpose vehicle’s securities on an overseas stock exchange. In September 2006, the CSRC published a notice on its official website specifying documents and materials required to be submitted to it by a special purpose vehicle seeking CSRC approval of its overseas listings. The application of the M&A Rules remains unclear. These M&A Rules and some other regulations and rules concerning mergers and acquisitions established additional procedures and requirements that could make merger and acquisition activities by foreign investors more time consuming and complex, including requirements in some instances that the MOC be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise. Moreover, the Anti-Monopoly Law requires that the MOC shall be notified in advance of any concentration of undertaking if certain thresholds are triggered. In addition, the security review rules issued by the MOC that became effective in September 2011 specify that mergers and acquisitions by foreign investors that raise “national defense and security” concerns and mergers and acquisitions through which foreign investors may acquire de facto control over domestic enterprises that raise “national security” concerns are subject to strict review by the MOC, and the rules prohibit any activities attempting to bypass a security review, including by structuring the transaction through a proxy or contractual control arrangement. In the future, we may grow our business by acquiring complementary businesses. Complying with the requirements of the above-mentioned regulations and other relevant rules to complete such transactions could be time consuming, and any required approval processes, including obtaining approval from the MOC or its local counterparts may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.

 

Any failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding the registration requirements for employee stock incentive plans may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.

 

In February 2012, SAFE promulgated the Notices on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plans of Overseas Publicly-Listed Companies, replacing earlier rules promulgated in March 2007. Pursuant to these rules, PRC citizens and non-PRC citizens who reside in China for a continuous period of not less than one year who participate in any stock incentive plan of an overseas publicly listed company, subject to a few exceptions, are required to register with SAFE through a domestic qualified agent, which could be the PRC subsidiary of such overseas listed company, and complete certain other procedures. In addition, an overseas entrusted institution must be retained to handle matters in connection with the exercise or sale of stock options and the purchase or sale of shares and interests. We and our executive officers and other employees who are PRC citizens or who have resided in the PRC for a continuous period of not less than one year and who are granted options or other awards under the equity incentive plan will be subject to these regulations as an overseas listed company. Failure to complete the SAFE registrations may subject them to fines and legal sanctions and may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital into our PRC subsidiary and limit our PRC subsidiary’ ability to distribute dividends to us. We also face regulatory uncertainties that could restrict our ability to adopt additional incentive plans for our directors, executive officers and employees under PRC law.

 

Enhanced scrutiny over acquisition transactions by the PRC tax authorities may have a negative impact on potential acquisitions we may pursue in the future.

 

The PRC tax authorities have enhanced their scrutiny over the direct or indirect transfer of certain taxable assets, including, in particular, equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise, by a non-resident enterprise by promulgating and implementing SAT Circular 59, Announcement of the State Administration of Taxation on Several Issues Concerning the Enterprise Income Tax on Indirect Property Transfer by Non-Resident Enterprises, which became effective in February 2015, or Circular 7 and Announcement of the State Administration of Taxation on Issues Concerning the Withholding of Non-resident Enterprise Income Tax at Source, which became effective in December 2017, or Circular 37.

 

Under the Enterprise Income Tax Law, Regulations on the Implementation of Enterprise Income Tax Law, Circular 7 and Circular 37, where a non-resident enterprise indirectly transfers properties such as equity in Chinese resident enterprises without any justifiable business purposes with the aim of avoiding to pay enterprise income tax, such indirect transfer shall be reclassified as a direct transfer of equity in Chinese resident enterprise in accordance with Article 47 of the Enterprise Income Tax Law. The non-resident enterprise, being the transferor, may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax, if the indirect transfer is considered to be an abusive use of company structure without reasonable commercial purposes. As a result, gains derived from such indirect transfer may be subject to PRC tax at a rate of up to 10%.

 

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In February 2015, the SAT issued Circular 7 to replace the rules relating to indirect transfers in Circular 698. Circular 7 has introduced a new tax regime that is significantly different from that under Circular 698. Circular 7 extends its tax jurisdiction to not only indirect transfers set forth under Circular 698 but also transactions involving transfer of other taxable assets, through the offshore transfer of a foreign intermediate holding company. In addition, Circular 7 provides clearer criteria than Circular 698 on how to assess reasonable commercial purposes and has introduced safe harbors for internal group restructurings and the purchase and sale of equity through a public securities market. Circular 7 also brings challenges to both the foreign transferor and transferee (or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer) of the taxable assets. Where a non-resident enterprise conducts an “indirect transfer” by transferring the taxable assets indirectly by disposing of the equity interests of an overseas holding company, the non-resident enterprise being the transferor, or the transferee, or the PRC entity which directly owned the taxable assets may report to the relevant tax authority such indirect transfer. Using a “substance over form” principle, the PRC tax authority may disregard the existence of the overseas holding company if it lacks a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of reducing, avoiding or deferring PRC tax. As a result, gains derived from such indirect transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax, and the transferee or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer is obligated to withhold the applicable taxes, currently at a rate of 10% for the transfer of equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise.

 

We face uncertainties on the reporting and consequences on future private equity financing transactions, share exchange or other transactions involving the transfer of shares in our company by investors that are non-PRC resident enterprises. The PRC tax authorities may pursue such non-resident enterprises with respect to a filing or the transferees with respect to withholding obligation, and request our PRC subsidiaries to assist in the filing. As a result, we and non-resident enterprises in such transactions may become at risk of being subject to filing obligations or being taxed, under Circular 59 and Circular 7, and may be required to expend valuable resources to comply with Circular 59 and Circular 7 or to establish that we and our non-resident enterprises should not be taxed under these circulars, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

The PRC tax authorities have the discretion under SAT Circular 59, and Circular 7 to make adjustments to the taxable capital gains based on the difference between the fair value of the taxable assets transferred and the cost of investment. Although we currently have no plans to pursue any acquisitions in China or elsewhere in the world, we may pursue acquisitions in the future that may involve complex corporate structures. If we are considered a non-resident enterprise under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and if the PRC tax authorities make adjustments to the taxable income of the transactions under SAT Circular 59 or Circular 7, our income tax costs associated with such potential acquisitions will be increased, which may have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

We may rely on dividends paid by our subsidiaries for our cash needs, and any limitation on the ability of our subsidiaries to make payments to us could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business.

 

As a holding company, we conduct substantially all of our business through our consolidated subsidiaries incorporated in China. We may rely on dividends paid by these PRC subsidiaries for our cash needs, including the funds necessary to pay any dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders, to service any debt we may incur and to pay our operating expenses. The payment of dividends by entities established in China is subject to limitations. Regulations in China currently permit payment of dividends only out of accumulated profits as determined in accordance with accounting standards and regulations in China. Each of our PRC subsidiaries is required to set aside at least 10% of its after-tax profit based on PRC accounting standards each year to its general reserves or statutory capital reserve fund until the aggregate amount of such reserves reaches 50% of its respective registered capital. As a result, our PRC subsidiaries are restricted in their ability to transfer a portion of their net assets to us in the form of dividends. In addition, if any of our PRC subsidiaries incurs debt on its own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict its ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to us. Any limitations on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to transfer funds to us could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our business, pay dividends and otherwise fund and conduct our business.

 

Our current employment practices may be restricted under the PRC Labor Contract Law and our labor costs may increase as a result.

 

The PRC Labor Contract Law and its implementing rules impose requirements concerning contracts entered into between an employer and its employees and establishes time limits for probationary periods and for how long an employee can be placed in a fixed-term labor contract. Because the Labor Contract Law and its implementing rules have not been in effect very long and because there is lack of clarity with respect to their implementation and potential penalties and fines, it is uncertain how it will impact our current employment policies and practices. We cannot assure you that our employment policies and practices do not, or will not, violate the Labor Contract Law or its implementing rules and that we will not be subject to related penalties, fines or legal fees. If we are subject to large penalties or fees related to the Labor Contract Law or its implementing rules, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. In addition, according to the Labor Contract Law and its implementing rules, if we intend to enforce the non-compete provision with an employee in a labor contract or non-competition agreement, we have to compensate the employee on a monthly basis during the term of the restriction period after the termination or ending of the labor contract, which may cause extra expenses to us. Furthermore, the Labor Contract Law and its implementation rules require certain terminations to be based upon seniority rather than merit, which significantly affects the cost of reducing workforce for employers. In the event we decide to significantly change or decrease our workforce in the PRC, the Labor Contract Law could adversely affect our ability to enact such changes in a manner that is most advantageous to our circumstances or in a timely and cost effective manner, thus our results of operations could be adversely affected.

 

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The audit report included in this annual report is prepared by an auditor who is not inspected by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, and as such, you are deprived of the benefits of such inspection. 

 

Our independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit report included in this annual report, as auditors of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or the PCAOB, is required by the laws of the United States to undergo regular inspections by the PCAOB to assess its compliance with the laws of the United States and professional standards. Since our auditors are located in China, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB is currently unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the Chinese authorities, our auditors are not currently inspected by the PCAOB. On December 7, 2018, the SEC and the PCAOB issued a joint statement highlighting continued challenges faced by the U.S. regulators in their oversight of financial statement audits of U.S.-listed companies with significant operations in China. The joint statement reflects a heightened interest in an issue that has vexed U.S. regulators in recent years. However, it remains unclear what further actions the SEC and PCAOB will take to address the problem.

 

Inspections of other firms that the PCAOB has conducted outside of China have identified deficiencies in those firms’ audit procedures and quality control procedures, which may be addressed as part of the inspection process to improve future audit quality. This lack of PCAOB inspections in China prevents the PCAOB from regularly evaluating our auditor’s audits and its quality control procedures. As a result, investors may be deprived of the benefits of PCAOB inspections.

 

The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our auditor’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to PCAOB inspections. Investors may lose confidence in our reported financial information and procedures and the quality of our financial statements.

 

As part of a continued regulatory focus in the United States on access to audit and other information currently restricted by China’s own law, in June 2019 a bipartisan group of lawmakers introduced bills in both houses of the U.S. Congress, which if passed, would require the SEC to maintain a list of issuers for which PCAOB is not able to inspect or investigate an auditor report issued by a foreign public accounting firm. The proposed Ensuring Quality Information and Transparency for Abroad-Based Listings on our Exchanges (EQUITABLE) Act prescribes increased disclosure requirements for these issuers and, beginning in 2025, the delisting from U.S. national securities exchanges such as the NYSE of issuers included on the SEC’s list for three consecutive years. Enactment of this legislation or other efforts to increase U.S. regulatory access to audit information could cause investor uncertainty for affected issuers, including us, and the market price of our shares could be adversely affected. It is unclear if this proposed legislation would be enacted. Furthermore, there has been recent media reports on deliberations within the U.S. government regarding potentially limiting or restricting China-based companies from accessing U.S. capital markets. If any such deliberations should materialize, the resulting legislation may have material and adverse impact on the stock performance of China-based issuers listed in the United States including us.

 

On April 21, 2020, the SEC and the PCAOB issued another joint statement reiterating the greater risk that disclosures will be insufficient in many emerging markets, including China, compared to those made by U.S. domestic companies. In discussing the specific issues related to the greater risk, the statement again highlights the PCAOB’s inability to inspect audit work and practices of accounting firms in China with respect to their audit work of U.S. reporting companies. Inspections of other accounting firms that the PCAOB has conducted have identified deficiencies in those firms’ audit procedures and quality control procedures, which may be addressed as part of the inspection process to improve future audit quality. The lack of PCAOB inspections of audit work undertaken in China prevents the PCAOB from regularly evaluating our auditor’s audits and its quality control procedures. As a result, investors of our ordinary shares do not derive the benefits of PCAOB inspections, and may lose confidence in our reported financial information and procedures and the quality of our financial statements.

 

If additional remedial measures are imposed on the Big Four PRC-based accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, in administrative proceedings brought by the SEC alleging the firms’ failure to meet specific criteria set by the SEC, we could be unable to timely file future financial statements in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act.

 

Ernst & Young Hua Ming LLP, our auditor, is required under U.S. law to undergo regular inspections by the PCAOB. However, without approval from the Chinese government authorities, the PCAOB is currently unable to conduct inspections of the audit work and practices of PCAOB-registered audit firms within the PRC on a basis comparable to other non-U.S. jurisdictions. Since we have substantial operations in the PRC, our auditor and its audit work are currently not fully inspected by the PCAOB.

 

Inspections of other auditors conducted by the PCAOB outside of China have at times identified deficiencies in those auditors’ audit procedures and quality control procedures, which may be addressed as part of the inspection process to improve future audit quality. The inability of the PCAOB to conduct full inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our auditor’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to PCAOB inspections.

 

The SEC previously instituted proceedings against mainland Chinese affiliates of the “big four” accounting firms, including the affiliate of our auditor, for failing to produce audit work papers under Section 106 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act because of restrictions under PRC law. Each of the “big four” accounting firms in mainland China agreed to a censure and to pay a fine to the SEC to settle the dispute and stay the proceedings for four years, until the proceedings were deemed dismissed with prejudice on February 6, 2019. It remains unclear whether the SEC will commence a new administrative proceeding against the four mainland China-based accounting firms. Any such new proceedings or similar action against our audit firm for failure to provide access to audit work papers could result in the imposition of penalties, such as suspension of our auditor’s ability to practice before the SEC. If our independent registered public accounting firm, or its affiliate, was denied, even temporarily, the ability to practice before the SEC, and it was determined that our financial statements or audit reports were not in compliance with the requirements of the U.S. Exchange Act, we could be at risk of delisting or become subject to other penalties that would adversely affect our ability to remain listed on the Nasdaq.

 

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In recent years, U.S. regulators have continued to express their concerns about challenges in their oversight of financial statement audits of U.S.-listed companies with significant operations in China. More recently, as part of increased regulatory focus in the U.S. on access to audit information, on May 20, 2020, the U.S. Senate passed the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCA Act, which includes requirements for the SEC to identify issuers whose audit reports are prepared by auditors that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely because of a restriction imposed by a non-U.S. authority in the auditor’s local jurisdiction. If the HFCA Act or any similar legislation were enacted into law, our securities may be prohibited from trading on the Nasdaq or other U.S. stock exchanges if our auditor is not inspected by the PCAOB for three consecutive years, and this ultimately could result in our ordinary shares being delisted. Delisting of our ordinary shares would force our U.S.-based shareholders to sell their shares. The market prices of our ordinary shares could be adversely affected as a result of anticipated negative impacts of the HFCA Act upon, as well as negative investor sentiment towards, China-based companies listed in the United States, regardless of whether the HFCA Act is enacted and regardless of our actual operating performance.

 

Furthermore, on June 4, 2020, the U.S. President issued a memorandum ordering the President’s Working Group on Financial Markets (“PWG”) to submit a report to the President within 60 days of the memorandum that includes recommendations for actions that can be taken by the executive branch, the SEC, the PCAOB or other federal agencies and departments with respect to Chinese companies listed on U.S. stock exchanges and their audit firms, in an effort to protect investors in the United States. On August 6, 2020, PWG released its Report on Protecting United States Investors from Significant Risks from Chinese Companies (“PWG Report”). The PWG Report includes five recommendations for the Securities and Exchange Commission. In particular, to address companies from jurisdictions, such as China, that do not provide the PCAOB with sufficient access to fulfill its statutory mandate, the PWG recommends enhanced listing standards on U.S. exchanges. This would require, as a condition to initial and continued exchange listing, PCAOB access to work papers of the principal audit firm for the audit of the listed company. Companies unable to satisfy this standard as a result of governmental restrictions on access to audit work papers and practices in these countries may satisfy this requirement by providing a co-audit from an audit firm with comparable resources and experience where the PCAOB determines it has sufficient access to audit work papers and practices to conduct an appropriate inspection of the co-audit firm. The PWG Report permits the new listing standards to provide for a transition period until January 1, 2022 for listed companies. The recommendations are to include actions that could be taken under current laws and rules as well as possible new rulemaking recommendations. Any resulting actions, proceedings or new rules could adversely affect the listing and compliance status of China-based issuers listed in the United States, such as our company, and may have a material and adverse impact on the trading prices of the securities of such issuers, including our ordinary shares, and substantially reduce or effectively terminate the trading of our ordinary shares in the United States.

We may not meet continued listing standards on the NASDAQ Global Market. 

If our shares are delisted from the NASDAQ Global Market at some later date, our shareholders could find it difficult to sell our shares. In addition, if our common shares are delisted from the NASDAQ Global Market at some later date, we may apply to have our common shares quoted in the OTC Markets, otherwise they would automatically begin Quotation or in the “pink sheets” maintained by the National Quotation Bureau, Inc. The OTC Markets and the “pink sheets” are less efficient markets than the NASDAQ Global Market. In addition, if our common shares are delisted at some later date, our common shares may be subject to the “penny stock” regulations. These rules impose additional sales practice requirements on broker-dealers that sell low-priced securities to persons other than established customers and institutional accredited investors and require the delivery of a disclosure schedule explaining the nature and risks of the penny stock market. As a result, the ability or willingness of broker-dealers to sell or make a market in our common shares might decline. If our common shares are delisted from the NASDAQ Global Market at some later date or become subject to the penny stock regulations, it is likely that the price of our shares would decline and that our shareholders would find it difficult to sell their shares. 

The market price for our shares may be volatile. 

The trading prices of our common shares are likely to be volatile and could fluctuate widely due to factors beyond our control. This may happen because of broad market and industry factors, like the performance and fluctuation in the market prices or the underperformance or deteriorating financial results of internet or other companies based in China that have listed their securities in the United States in recent years. The securities of some of these companies have experienced significant volatility since their initial public offerings, including, in some cases, substantial decline in their trading prices. The trading performances of other Chinese companies’ securities after their offerings may affect the attitudes of investors toward Chinese companies listed in the United States, which consequently may impact the trading performance of our common shares, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, any negative news or perceptions about inadequate corporate governance practices or fraudulent accounting, corporate structure or other matters of other Chinese companies may also negatively affect the attitudes of investors towards Chinese companies in general, including us, regardless of whether we have conducted any inappropriate activities. In addition, securities markets may from time to time experience significant price and volume fluctuations that are not related to our operating performance, which may have a material adverse effect on the market price of our shares. In addition to the above factors, the price and trading volume of our common shares may be highly volatile due to multiple factors, including the following: 

  regulatory developments affecting us, our users, or our industry;

 

  regulatory uncertainties with regard to our variable interest entity arrangements;

 

  announcements of studies and reports relating to our service offerings or those of our competitors;

 

  actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations and changes or revisions of our expected results;

 

  changes in financial estimates by securities research analysts;

 

  announcements by us or our competitors of new product and service offerings, acquisitions, strategic relationships, joint ventures or capital commitments;

 

  additions to or departures of our senior management;

 

  detrimental negative publicity about us, our management or our industry;

 

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  fluctuations of exchange rates between the RMB and the U.S. dollar;

 

  release or expiry of lock-up or other transfer restrictions on our outstanding common shares; and

 

  sales or perceived potential sales of additional common shares.

 

We are a “foreign private issuer,” and our disclosure obligations differ from those of U.S. domestic reporting companies. As a result, we may not provide you the same information as U.S. domestic reporting companies or we may provide information at different times, which may make it more difficult for you to evaluate our performance and prospects. 

 

We are a foreign private issuer and, as a result, we are not subject to the same requirements as U.S. domestic issuers. Under the Exchange Act, we will be subject to reporting obligations that, to some extent, are more lenient and less frequent than those of U.S. domestic reporting companies. For example, we will not be required to issue quarterly reports or proxy statements. We will not be required to disclose detailed individual executive compensation information. Furthermore, our directors and executive officers will not be required to report equity holdings under Section 16 of the Exchange Act and will not be subject to the insider short-swing profit disclosure and recovery regime. As a foreign private issuer, we will also be exempt from the requirements of Regulation FD (Fair Disclosure) which, generally, are meant to ensure that select groups of investors are not privy to specific information about an issuer before other investors. However, we will still be subject to the anti-fraud and anti-manipulation rules of the SEC, such as Rule 10b-5 under the Exchange Act. Since many of the disclosure obligations imposed on us as a foreign private issuer differ from those imposed on U.S. domestic reporting companies, you should not expect to receive the same information about us and at the same time as the information provided by U.S. domestic reporting companies. 

 

We are a Cayman Islands company and, because judicial precedent regarding the rights of shareholders is more limited under Cayman Islands law than under U.S. law, you may have less protection for your shareholder rights than you would under U.S. law.

 

Our corporate affairs are governed by our Memorandum and Articles of Association, the Cayman Islands Companies Law (Revised) (the “Companies Law”) and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against the directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as that from English common law, which has persuasive, but not binding, authority on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a different body of securities laws than the United States. In addition, some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands. There is no statutory recognition in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the United States, although the courts of the Cayman Islands will in certain circumstances recognize and enforce a non-penal judgment of a foreign court of competent jurisdiction without retrial on the merits. As a result of all of the above, public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as shareholders of a U.S. public company.

 

Judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable.

 

We are a Cayman Islands company and all of our assets are located outside of the United States. Our current operations are based in China. In addition, our current directors and executive officers are nationals and residents of countries other than the United States. Substantially all of the assets of these persons are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for you to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the United States in the event that you believe that your rights have been infringed under the United States federal securities laws or otherwise. Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands and of China may render you unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers.

 

We are a foreign private issuer and, as a result, will not be subject to U.S. proxy rules and will be subject to more lenient and less frequent Exchange Act reporting obligations than a U.S. issuer.

 

We report under the Securities Exchange Act as a foreign private issuer. Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we will be exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. public companies, including:

 

  the sections of the Exchange Act that regulate the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;

 

  the sections of the Exchange Act that require insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and impose liability on insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and

 

  the rules under the Exchange Act that require the filing of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specified information and current reports on Form 8-K upon the occurrence of specified significant events.

 

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In addition, foreign private issuers are not required to file their annual report on Form 20-F until 120 days after the end of each fiscal year, while U.S. domestic issuers that are not large accelerated filers or accelerated filers are required to file their annual report on Form 10-K within 90 days after the end of each fiscal year. Foreign private issuers are also exempt from Regulation FD, aimed at preventing issuers from making selective disclosures of material information. There is no formal requirement under the Company’s memorandum and articles of association mandating that we hold an annual meeting of our shareholders. However, notwithstanding the foregoing, we intend to hold such meetings on our annual meeting to, among other things, elect our directors. As a result, you may not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are not foreign private issuers.

 

We may lose our foreign private issuer status in the future, which could result in significant additional costs and expenses.

 

The determination of our status as a foreign private issuer is made annually on the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter and, accordingly, the next determination will be made with respect to us on or after December 31, 2019. We would lose our foreign private issuer status if (1) a majority of our outstanding voting securities are directly or indirectly held of record by U.S. residents, and (2) a majority of our shareholders or a majority of our directors or management are U.S. citizens or residents, a majority of our assets are located in the United States, or our business is administered principally in the United States. If we were to lose our foreign private issuer status, the regulatory and compliance costs to us under U.S. securities laws as a U.S. domestic issuer may be significantly higher. We may also be required to modify certain of our policies to comply with corporate governance practices associated with U.S. domestic issuers, which would involve additional costs.

 

We will incur increased costs as a publicly-traded company.

 

As a company with publicly-traded securities, we will incur additional legal, accounting and other expenses not presently incurred. In addition, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, as well as rules promulgated by the SEC and the national securities exchange on which we list, requires us to adopt corporate governance practices applicable to U.S. public companies. These rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs.

 

We may be exposed to risks relating to evaluations of controls required by Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. 

 

Pursuant to Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, our management is required to report on, and our independent registered public accounting firm may in the future be required to attest to, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Our internal accounting controls may not meet all standards applicable to companies with publicly traded securities. If we fail to implement any required improvements to our disclosure controls and procedures, we may be obligated to report control deficiencies and, if required, our independent registered public accounting firm may not be able to certify the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. In either case, we could become subject to regulatory sanction or investigation. Further, these outcomes could damage investor confidence in the accuracy and reliability of our financial statements.

 

As an “emerging growth company” under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, or JOBS Act, we are permitted to, and intend to, rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements.

 

As an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act, we are permitted to, and intend to, rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements. We are an emerging growth company until the earliest of:

 

  the last day of the fiscal year during which we have total annual gross revenues of $1.07 billion or more;

  

  the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of our IPO;

 

  the date on which we have, during the previous 3-year period, issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt; or

  

  the date on which we are deemed a “large accelerated issuer” as defined under the federal securities laws.

 

For so long as we remain an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to public companies that are not “emerging growth companies” including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act for up to five fiscal years after the date of the IPO. We cannot predict if investors will find our common shares less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common shares less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common shares and the trading price of our common shares may be more volatile. In addition, our costs of operating as a public company may increase when we cease to be an emerging growth company.

 

We may be classified as a passive foreign investment company, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. holders of our common shares.

 

Based on the historical market price of our common shares since the IPO, and the composition of our income, assets and operations, we do not expect to be treated as a passive foreign investment company (“PFIC”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes for the current taxable year or in the foreseeable future. However, the application of the PFIC rules is subject to uncertainty in several respects, and we cannot assure you the U.S. Internal Revenue Service will not take a contrary position. Furthermore, this is a factual determination that must be made annually after the close of each taxable year. If we are a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. holder holds our common shares, certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences could apply to such U.S. Holder.

 

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If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the market price for our common shares and trading volume could decline.

 

The trading market for our common shares will depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If research analysts do not establish and maintain adequate research coverage or if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our common shares or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the market price for our common shares would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which, in turn, could cause the market price or trading volume for our common shares to decline.

 

Our corporate structure, together with applicable law, may impede shareholders from asserting claims against us and our principals.

 

All of our operations and records, and all of our senior management are located in the PRC. Shareholders of companies such as ours have limited ability to assert and collect on claims in litigation against such companies and their principals. In addition, China has very restrictive secrecy laws that prohibit the delivery of many of the financial records maintained by a business located in China to third parties absent Chinese government approval. Since discovery is an important part of proving a claim in litigation, and since most if not all of our records are in China, Chinese secrecy laws could frustrate efforts to prove a claim against us or our management. In addition, in order to commence litigation in the United States against an individual such as an officer or director, that individual must be served. Generally, service requires the cooperation of the country in which a defendant resides. China has a history of failing to cooperate in efforts to affect such service upon Chinese citizens in China.

 

If we become directly subject to the recent scrutiny involving U.S.-listed Chinese companies, we may have to expend significant resources to investigate and or defend the matter, which could harm our business operations, stock price and reputation and could result in a complete loss of your investment in us.

 

Recently, U.S. public companies that have substantially all of their operations in China have been the subject of intense scrutiny by investors, financial commentators and regulatory agencies. Much of the scrutiny has centered around financial and accounting irregularities and mistakes, a lack of effective internal controls over financial reporting and, in many cases, allegations of fraud. As a result of the scrutiny, the publicly traded stock of many U.S. listed China-based companies that have been the subject of such scrutiny has sharply decreased in value. Many of these companies are now subject to shareholder lawsuits and or SEC enforcement actions that are conducting internal and or external investigations into the allegations. If we become the subject of any such scrutiny, whether any allegations are true or not, we may have to expend significant resources to investigate such allegations and or defend our company. Such investigations or allegations will be costly and time-consuming and distract our management from our business plan and could result in our reputation being harmed and our stock price could decline as a result of such allegations, regardless of the truthfulness of the allegations.

 

Changes in general economic conditions, geopolitical conditions, U.S.-China trade relations and other factors beyond the Company’s control may adversely impact our business and operating results.

 

The Company’s operations and performance depend significantly on global and regional economic and geopolitical conditions. Changes in U.S.-China trade policies, and a number of other economic and geopolitical factors both in China and abroad could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. Such factors may include, without limitation:

 

  instability in political or economic conditions, including but not limited to inflation, recession, foreign currency exchange restrictions and devaluations, restrictive governmental controls on the movement and repatriation of earnings and capital, and actual or anticipated military or political conflicts, particularly in emerging markets;

 

  intergovernmental conflicts or actions, including but not limited to armed conflict, trade wars, retaliatory tariffs, and acts of terrorism or war; and

 

  interruptions to the Company’s business with its largest customers, distributors and suppliers resulting from but not limited to, strikes, financial instabilities, computer malfunctions or cybersecurity incidents, inventory excesses, natural disasters or other disasters such as fires, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes or explosions.

 

Any of the foregoing or similar factors could result in reduced demand for our services which, in turn, could have material adverse effects on our business and results of operations.

 

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ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

 

  A. History and Development of the Company

 

We are a global information technology (“IT”), consulting and solutions service provider focused on delivering services to global institutions in banking, insurance and financial sectors, both in China and globally. For more than ten years, we have served as an IT solutions provider to a growing network of clients in the global financial industry, including large financial institutions in the US, Europe, Australia, Southeast Asia, and Hong Kong and their PRC-based IT centers.

 

Since our inception, we have aimed to build one of the largest sales and service delivery platforms for IT services and solutions in China. The nature of our services is such that we provide a majority of services to our banking and credit card clients in order to build new or modify existing clients’ own proprietary systems. We are fully committed of providing digital transformation services with focused on financial and technology in the banking, wealth management, e-commerce, and automotive industries, among others, through the utilization of innovative technology to achieve our client’s goals. We maintain 18 delivery and/or R&D centers, of which ten are located in Mainland China (Shanghai, Beijing, Dalian, Tianjin, Baoding Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Hangzhou, and Suzhou) and eight are located globally (Hong Kong SAR, USA, UK, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, and India. By combining onsite (when we send our team to our client) or onshore (when we send our team to client’s overseas location) support and consulting with scalable and high-efficiency offsite (when we send our team to a location other than client’s location) or offshore (when we send our team to a location that is other than a client’s location overseas) services and processing, we are able to meet client demands in a cost-effective manner while retaining significant operational flexibility. By serving both Chinese and global clients on a common platform, we are able to leverage the shared resources, management, industry expertise and technological know-how to attract new business and remain cost competitive.

 

Corporate History and Background

 

CLPS Incorporation was incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands on May 11, 2017. Our share capital is US$10,000, which is divided into 100,000,000 common shares authorized, or US$0.0001 par value per share. On December 7, 2017, the Board of Directors approved a nominal issuance of the following shares to the existing shareholders: 5,000,000 shares to Qinrui Ltd., 5,000,000 shares to Qinhui Ltd., 430,823 shares to Qinlian Ltd., 430,804 shares to Qinmeng Ltd. and 428,373 shares to Qinyao Ltd. All of the five shareholders are incorporated in the British Virgin Islands.

 

The Company owns all of the outstanding capital stock of both Qinheng (incorporated on June 9, 2017) and Qiner (incorporated on April 21, 2017). Qinheng owns all of the outstanding capital stock of CLPS QC (WOFE) (incorporated on August 4, 2017). CLPS QC (WOFE) and Qiner respectively own 55.30% and 44.70% of the outstanding capital stock of CLPS Shanghai, the Company’s operating subsidiary based in Pudong New District, Shanghai, China, originally incorporated on August 30, 2005.

 

On August 30, 2005, CLPS Shanghai was established by Jingsu Pan and Xiaochun Deng as a PRC limited liability company. Jingsu Pan and Xiaochun Deng each actually paid RMB250,000 (approximately US$30,881) in cash for 50% of equity interest in CLPS Shanghai, and the total registered capital of CLPS Shanghai was RMB500,000 (approximately US$61,763).

 

On December 23, 2005, CLPS Shanghai increased its registered capital to RMB1,000,000 (approximately US$123,671). Jingsu Pan and Xiaochun Deng respectively made full payment for their subscribed capital to RMB500,000 (approximately US$61,835) on December 21, 2005.

 

On March 29, 2010, Yan Pan entered into a Share Purchase Agreement with Jingsu Pan to purchase all of Jingsu Pan’s shares in CLPS Shanghai. Pursuant to the Share Purchase Agreement, Yan Pan paid RMB500,000 (approximately US$61,835) for 50% shares of CLPS Shanghai. After this share transfer, Yan Pan and Xiaochun Deng respectively held 50% shares of CLPS Shanghai.

 

On October 19, 2010, Raymond Ming Hui Lin entered into a Share Purchase Agreement with Xiaochun Deng to purchase all of Xiaochun Deng’s shares in CLPS Shanghai. Pursuant to the Share Purchase Agreement, Raymond Ming Hui Lin paid RMB500,000 (approximately US$61,835) for 50% shares of CLPS Shanghai. After this share transfer, Yan Pan and Raymond Ming Hui Lin respectively held 50% shares of CLPS Shanghai. Since Raymond Ming Hui Lin is a Hong Kong resident, CLPS Shanghai changed its form in a Sino-foreign equity joint venture.

 

On October 31, 2012, CLPS Shanghai increased its registered capital to RMB5,000,000 (approximately US$799,987). Yan Pan and Raymond Ming Hui Lin each increased their subscribed capital to RMB2,500,000 (approximately US$399,993). Yan Pan actually paid RMB1,000,000 (approximately US$159,997) and Raymond Ming Hui Lin actually paid RMB1,008,120 (approximately US$161,296) for the capital contributions on October 18, 2012.

 

On October 30, 2013, Xiao Feng Yang entered into a Share Purchase Agreement with Yan Pan to purchase all of Yan Pan’s shares in CLPS Shanghai. Pursuant to the Share Purchase Agreement, Xiao Feng Yang paid RMB2,500,000 (approximately US$399,993) for 50% shares of CLPS Shanghai. After this share transfer, Xiao Feng Yang and Raymond Ming Hui Lin respectively held 50% shares of CLPS Shanghai.

 

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On June 24, 2014, CLPS Shanghai increased its registered capital to RMB30,000,000 (approximately US$4,759,004). Xiao Feng Yang and Raymond Ming Hui Lin respectively increased their subscribed capital to RMB15,000,000 (approximately US$2,379,502).

 

On April 23, 2015, Raymond Ming Hui Lin paid RMB6,163,560 (approximately US$994,523) for the capital contribution that he has made.

 

On May 27, 2015, Raymond Ming Hui Lin paid RMB3,391,883 (approximately US$546,980) for the capital contribution that he has made.

 

On May 29, 2015, Xiao Feng Yang paid RMB4,400,000 (approximately US$709,906), plus with his cash dividends for the capital contribution that he has made.

 

On August 5, 2015, Raymond Ming Hui Lin paid RMB3,894,060 (approximately US$627,103) for the capital contribution that he has made.

 

On August 27, 2015, Raymond Ming Hui Lin paid RMB42,377 (approximately US$6,615) for the capital contribution that he has made.

 

On July 21, 2015, Xiao Feng Yang paid RMB1,100,000 (approximately US$177,147) for the capital contribution that he has made.

 

On August 14, 2015, Xiao Feng Yang paid RMB8,000,000 (approximately US$1,251,799), plus with his cash dividends for the capital contribution that he has made.

 

On December 15, 2015, CLPS Shanghai changed its form into a PRC joint stock limited company. The share capital of CLPS Shanghai was RMB30,000,000, which was divided into 30,000,000 shares of RMB1.00 per share.

 

On May 26, 2016, three limited partnerships subscribed new shares issued by CLPS Shanghai and became shareholders of CLPS Shanghai. These three limited partnerships were: Shanghai Qinyao Investment Partnership (LLP), Shanghai Qinzhi Investment Partnership (LLP) and Shanghai Qinshang Software Technology Counsel Partnership (LLP). After the above-mentioned subscription, the shareholding structure of CLPS Shanghai was as follows:

 

INVESTORS   PLACE OF REGISTRATION   SHARES  
Xiao Feng Yang   PRC     15,000,000  
Raymond Ming Hui Lin   Hong Kong     15,000,000  
Shanghai Qinyao Investment Partnership (LLP)   PRC     1,700,000  
Shanghai Qinzhi Investment Partnership (LLP)   PRC     1,270,000  
Shanghai Qinshang Software Technology Counsel Partnership (LLP)   PRC     900,000  
Total:         33,870,000  

 

On June 5, 2017, Qinheng was established by CLPS Incorporation in Hong Kong. The total amount of share capital of Qinheng to be subscribed by CLPS Incorporation was HKD 10,000.00 and CLPS Incorporation held 100% of equity interest in Qinheng.

 

In July 2017, three of the abovementioned limited partnerships transferred all of their equity interest in CLPS Shanghai to their individual partners according to the proportion of each partner’s capital contribution. A total of 47 individuals became shareholders of CLPS Shanghai.

 

In August 2017, Qiner entered into three Share Purchase Agreements with three non-Chinese individual shareholders of CLPS Shanghai. The three non-Chinese individual shareholders are Raymond Ming Hui Lin (Hong Kong), Limpiada Zosimo (Philippines) and Lin James De-Mou (Taiwan). Including, Raymond Ming Hui Lin sold 15,000,000 shares, Limpiada Zosimo sold 71,229 shares and Lin James De-Mou sold 67,510 shares. The aforementioned share transfer was part of reorganization of the group. 

 

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On August 4, 2017, CLPS QC (WOFE) received a business license from China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone Administration for Industry and Commerce and was established by Qinheng as a PRC limited liability company. Qinheng subscribed USD 200,000 and held 100% of equity interest in CLPS QC (WOFE).

 

On October 31, 2017, CLPS Incorporation entered into a SOLD NOTE with Raymond Lin Ming Hui to purchase all of Raymond Lin Ming Hui’s shares in Qiner. After this transfer, CLPS Incorporation held 100% shares of Qiner. Qiner has become CLPS Incorporation’s wholly-owned subsidiary.

 

In October 2017, all Chinese individual shareholders of CLPS Shanghai completed the procedures for foreign exchange registration of overseas investments in accordance with the Circular of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Issues concerning Foreign Exchange Administration over the Overseas Investment and Financing and Round-trip Investment by Domestic Residents via Special Purpose Vehicles (SAFE 2014 No. 37). After these registrations, CLPS QC (WOFE) entered into 46 Share Purchase Agreements with all 46 Chinese individual shareholders of which the 46 Chinese individual shareholders in total held 18,731,261 shares of CLPS Shanghai. The aforementioned share transfer was part of a reorganization of the group.

 

On November 2, 2017, the transfer between the 46 Chinese individual shareholders and CLPS QC (WOFE) has completed the record-filing of changes of Foreign-invested Company and got the record receipt.

 

On September 15, 2020, Shanghai Qincheng Information Technology Co., Ltd. and Qiner Co., Limited subscribed new shares issued by CLPS Shanghai. After the above-mentioned subscription, the shareholding structure of CLPS Shanghai was as follows

 

INVESTORS   PLACE OF REGISTRATION   SHARES  
Shanghai Qincheng Information Technology Co., Ltd.   PRC     27,651,699  
Qiner Co., Limited   Hong Kong     22,348,301  
Total:         50,000,000  

 

As of the date of this Annual Report, CLPS Shanghai has three wholly-owned subsidiaries: CLPS RC, CLPS Huanyu, and CLPS Hangzhou Co., Ltd., Besides the three wholly-owned subsidiaries, CLPS Shanghai participated in the following investments:

 

  CLPS Beijing — CLPS Shanghai holds 49% of equity interest in CLPS Beijing, a PRC limited liability company

 

  Judge China — CLPS Shanghai holds a 60% of equity interest in Judge China, a PRC limited liability company

 

  CLPS Shenzhen — CLPS Shanghai holds 70% of equity interest in CLPS Shenzhen, a PRC limited liability company.

  

  CLPS Guangzhou — CLPS Shanghai holds 51% of equity interest in CLPS Guangzhou, a PRC limited liability company.

 

  CLPS Dalian — CLPS Shanghai holds 49% of equity interest in CLPS Dalian, a PRC limited liability company.
     
 

CLPS Lihong — CLPS Shanghai holds 7% of equity interest in CLPS Lihong, a PRC limited liability company.

 

  CLPS Guangdong Zhichuang — CLPS Shanghai holds 10% of equity interest in CLPS Guangdong Zhichuang, a PRC limited liability company.
     
 

CLPS Shenzhen Robotics — CLPS Shanghai holds 10% of equity interest in CLPS Shenzhen Robotics, a PRC limited liability company.

 

IT consulting services primarily includes application development services for banks and institutions in the financial industry and which are billed for on a time-and-expense basis. Customized IT solutions services primarily includes customized solution development and maintenance service for general enterprises and which are billed for on a fixed-price basis. The following entities provide either consulting or solution services or both, depending on where our clients are based. The entities are currently servicing one of the services might expand to both services if our clients’ needs arise:

 

  ●  CLPS Dalian provides both consulting and solution services. CLPS Dalian services clients in China’s north east region, including Dalian.

 

  CLPS RC provides consulting services. CLPS RC focuses on small and medium domestic financial institutions.
     
  CLPS Beijing provides both consulting and solution services. CLPS Beijing services clients in China’s central east region, including Beijing and Tianjin.

 

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  CLPS-Ridik AU currently only provides consulting services. CLPS-Ridik AU services clients in Australia.
     
  CLPS SG currently only provides consulting services. CLPS SG services clients in South East Asia region, including Singapore.
     
  Infogain currently only provides consulting services. Infogain services clients in South East Asia region, including Singapore.
     
  Judge China is a joint venture with The Judge Group in the US. Judge China continues to service The Judge Group’s clients in China. Judge China focuses on expanding its client bases with collaboration efforts with The Judge Group.
     
  CLPS Hong Kong currently only provides consulting services. CLPS Hong Kong services clients in East Asia region, including Hong Kong.
     
  CLPS Shenzhen currently only provides consulting services. CLPS Shenzhen services clients in Shenzhen.
     
  CLPS Guangzhou currently only provides consulting services. CLPS Guangzhou services clients in Guangzhou.

 

  Ridik Pte currently only provides consulting services. Ridik Pte services in South East Asia region, including Singapore.
     
  Ridik Software Pte currently only provides consulting services. Ridik Software Pte services in South East Asia region, including Singapore.
     
  Ridik Sdn currently only provides consulting services. Ridik Sdn services in South East Asia region, including Malaysia.

 

  CLPS Shanghai holds 100% of equity interest in Huanyu which was incorporated in September 2017 for the purposes of providing Internet technology services and products to clients. CLPS Shanghai, CLPS Dalian, CLPS RC, CLPS Beijing and Judge China all contribute material amounts of the Company’s total revenues.

 

Corporate Information

 

On May 2020, we relocated our principal executive office to Unit 702, 7th Floor, Millennium City II, 378 Kwun Tong Road, Kwun Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR from 2nd Floor, Building 18, Shanghai Pudong Software Park, 498 Guoshoujing Road, Pudong District, Shanghai, PRC. Our telephone number is (852)3707-3600. Our website is as follows www.clpsglobal.com. The information on our website is not part of this Annual Report.

 

The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure:

 

 

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The Initial Public Offering

 

On May 24, 2018, the Company completed its initial public offering of 2,000,000 common shares, $0.0001 par value per share. The common shares were sold at an offering price of $5.25 per share, generating gross proceeds of approximately $10.5 million, and net proceeds of approximately $9.5 million. The registration statement relating to this IPO also covered the underwriters’ common stock purchase warrants and the common shares issuable upon the exercise thereof in the total amount of 83,162 common shares. Each five-year warrant entitles the warrant holder to purchase the Company’s shares at the exercise price of $6.30 per share and is not be transferable for a period of 180 days from May 23, 2018. On June 8, 2018, the Company closed on the exercise in full of the over-allotment option to purchase an additional 300,000 common shares of the Company by The Benchmark Company, LLC, the representative of the underwriters in connection with and the book running manager of the Company’s IPO, at the IPO price of $5.25 per share. As a result, the Company raised gross proceeds of approximately $1.58 million, in addition to the IPO gross proceeds of approximately $10.5 million, or combined gross IPO proceeds of approximately $12.08 million, before underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses. Our common shares began trading on the NASDAQ Capital Market on May 24, 2018 under the ticker symbol “CLPS”.

 

We have earmarked and have been using the proceeds of the initial public offering as follows: approximately $4.41 million for global expansion, i.e., to expand our existing locations to develop new clients by hiring more qualified personnel, system integration and marketing effort; approximately $3.31 million for working capital and general corporate purposes; approximately $2.21 million for R&D; and approximately $1.09 million for talent development.

 

  B. Business Overview

 

Overview

 

We are a global information technology (“IT”), consulting and solutions service provider focused on delivering services to global institutions in banking, insurance and financial sectors, both in China and globally. For more than ten years, we have served as an IT solutions provider to a growing network of clients in the global financial industry, including large financial institutions from the US, Europe, Australia, Southeast Asia and Hong Kong, and their PRC-based IT centers. We have created and developed a particular market niche by providing turn-key financial solution. Since our inception, we have aimed to build one of the largest sales and service delivery platforms for IT services and solutions in China. We are fully committed of providing digital transformation services with focused on financial and technology in the banking, wealth management, e-commerce, and automotive industries, among others, through the utilization of innovative technology to achieve our client’s goals. We maintain 18 delivery and/or R&D centers, of which ten are located in Mainland China (Shanghai, Beijing, Dalian, Tianjin, Baoding Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Hangzhou, and Suzhou) and eight are located globally (Hong Kong SAR, USA, UK, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, and India. By combining onsite or onshore support and consulting with scalable and high-efficiency offsite or offshore services and processing, we are able to meet client demands in a cost-effective manner while retaining significant operational flexibility. We believe that maintaining our Company as a proven, reliable partner to our financial industry clients both in China and globally positions us well to capture greater opportunities in the rapidly evolving global market for IT consulting and solutions.

 

Industry and Market Background

 

China’s Banking Industry

 

According to the 2019 annual report of China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission (CBIRC), China’s banking financial institutions had total assets of RMB 282.5 trillion (USD 40.6 trillion) at the end of 2019, a year-on-year increase of RMB 14.3 trillion (USD 2.1 trillion), or 8.1%. Total liabilities equalled to RMB 258.2 trillion (USD 37.1 trillion), a year-on-year increase of RMB 11.6 trillion (USD 1.7 trillion), or 7.6%. The total assets of banking financial institutions were RMB 27.6 trillion (USD 4.0 trillion) in 2003. Over the past 10 years, total assets of China’s banking financial institutions grew at a compound annual growth rate of nearly 20%. However, the banking industry is facing many challenges, such as the competition with private capital, the participation of technological enterprises, changes in the financial market, the tightening of regulatory policies, and more diversified deposit substitute products, among others. Following the 2006 repeal of geographical and customer restrictions on foreign banks, the CBIRC continued the policies to open China’s banking industry for entry by foreign competitors to promote healthy competition in the industry. By May 2020, 217 foreign banks in 54 countries and regions are now presents in China, with headquarters, branches, sub-branches and a complete service network with certain coverage and market depth, with more than 993 outlets.

  

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Software and Information Technology Service Industry in China

 

According to the 2019 Economic Performance of the Software Industry report of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT), China’s software and information technology service industry shows a steady development trend, with rapid growth in income and profits and steady increase in the number of employees. Information technology services accelerate the development of cloud, software application servitization, platform trend is obvious; The software industry in the central region grows rapidly, while the eastern region maintains a concentrated and leading development trend.

 

China’s software and information technology services industry has developed and grown rapidly in recent years. The MIIT data shows that the industry’s revenue reached RMB 7.2 trillion (USD 1.03 trillion) in 2019, an increase of 15.4% compared to 2018, with the same growth rate. Industry profits grew steadily. In 2019, the industry achieved a total profit of RMB 936 billion (USD 134.4 billion), an increase of 9.9% over the previous year.

  

 

 

Data Source: The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, National Bureau of Statistics of China.

 

 

The development of China’s software and IT service industry is generally characterized by:

 

  Information technology services —Stayed ahead and continued to evolve towards cloud computing. In 2019, the industry’s revenue from information technology services reached RMB 4.3 trillion (USD 617 billion), an increase of 18.4% over the previous year. The growth rate was 3% higher than the industry’s average, accounting for 59.3% of the industry’s revenue. Among them, e-commerce platform technical services revenues reached RMB 0.8 trillion (USD 114 billion), an increase of 28.1% over the previous year.

 

  Software products —In 2019, the industry’s revenue from software products reached RMB 2.01 trillion (USD 288 billion), an increase of 12.5% over the previous year, accounting for 28.0% of the industry’s revenue. Among them, the revenues from industrial software products are RMB 172.0 billion (USD 24.7 billion), an increase of 14.6%. playing an important role in supporting the independent and controllable development of the industrial sector.

 

  Embedded system software –The revenue of embedded system software reached RMB 782.0 billion (USD 112.3 billion), an increase of 7.8% over the previous year, accounting for 10.9% of the industry’s revenue. Embedded system software has become a key driving technology for digital transformation of products and equipment and intelligent value-added in various fields.

 

  Development on regional level —The eastern region has developed steadily, and the software industry in the central and western regions increased. In 2019, revenue from software business completed in eastern regions reached RMB 5.7 trillion (USD 818 billion), with a growth rate of 15.0% year-on-year, accounting for 79.6% of the national software industry. Revenue from software business completed in central and western regions was RMB 365.5 billion (USD 52.5 billion) and RMB 860.7 billion (USD 123.6 billion), with a growth rate of 22.2% and 18.1%, accounting for 5.1% and 12.0 % of the national software industry, respectively, an increase of 0.1% and 0.6% from the previous year. Software business revenue in northeast China reached RMB 235.0 billion (USD 33.8 billion), accounting for 3.3% of the national software industry, an increase of 5.5% year-on-year.

 

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Financial institutions/banking IT solutions refer to the software or IT related services provided by professional IT service providers who use their own experience and technology to meet each bank’s needs in business development, strategic development, and management efficiency. The market share of China’s Banking IT Solution Industry from 2010 are shown as below:

 

Data Source: IDC data

 

According to IDC’s 2019 China Banking IT Solution Market Share report, the year-on-year growth rate of China’s banking IT solution market has increased with stable and healthy development. The operating environment of China’s banking industry has undergone extensive transformation. Banks are in different stages of architectural transformation and upgrade. Although the demand for software and information technology services remains strong, the demand of various banks depends on their IT solution needs.

 

* The People’s Bank of China established the financial science and technology commission in 2017, after that, issued “FinTech Development Plan (2019-2021)” on August 22, 2019, fully highlighted the positive attention and support in the field of financial technology in China. For the financial industry, it is a powerful drive to accelerate the applications of technologies. With the highest informationization level of financial sector, banking is affected by the Plan.

 

* Under the trend of deepening the application of financial technology, the practice cases of distributed, cloud computing, big data, artificial intelligence, blockchain and other emerging technologies in the banking industry are increasingly rich, especially the wave of distributed architecture transformation, leading a new round of IT construction business cycle in the banking industry. On the one hand, the traditional centralized core business system is facing the dual pressure of cost and performance, institutions need to evaluate their own business needs and selectively transform and replace the core system; on the other hand, the core system connects with many types of peripheral systems, such as credit system, payment system, channel system, management system, etc., under the influence of core system reformation, banks will release a large number of demands in transforming peripheral system.

 

In 2019, the overall market size of China’s banking IT solution market reached RMB 42.58 billion (USD 6.1 billion), an increase of 23.9% over 2018. In this annual report, IDC made an overall adjustment to historical data based on changes in statistical caliber, which brought the overall market size of China’s banking IT solution market to RMB 34.37 billion (USD 4.9 billion) in 2018. IDC predicts that by 2024, the scale of China’s banking IT solution market will reach RMB 127.35 billion (USD 18.3 billion).

 

With the introduction of “FinTech Development Plan”, the commercialization practice of emerging technologies has become more and more abundant. In the environment of comprehensive promotion of digital transformation, banks need to support business innovation transformation through technical route transformation, and the investment determination and strength in IT construction and transformation have been significantly improved. The banking industry is accelerating the exploration of distributed innovation, and most manufacturers have launched a new generation of solutions that support both centralized and distributed applications. The overall competitive ecology of supply and demand sides of the industry is reshaping, and the future incremental market of banking IT solutions is expected.

 

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Our primary focus is in the following key operational areas:

 

Banking

 

Providing professional IT consulting and solutions for the banking industry is one of the traditional competitive advantages of CLPS. With more than 15 years of experience in helping leading global banks to implement banking systems, CLPS is committed to innovating and optimizing traditional banking system by utilizing cutting-edge fintech technology to enable institutions embrace banking.

 

CLPS has formed strategic partnerships with several global financial MNCs to provide banking IT services, help leading global banks to implement banking system and to enable them to test and enhance multiple functions such as loans, saving, deposit, general ledger, account management, anti-money-laundering, risk control and credit card system. Whether traditional or online banking, CLPS has a wide array of business modules at its disposal.

 

CLPS has a deep understanding of the market supply and demand buoyed by its more than a decade experience in traditional banking business. CLPS provides IT services in the banking industry, including but not limited to bank channel services such as mobile banking and online banking; business services such as marketing and risk control, among others; management services such as customer relationship management, business intelligence, and information security management, to name a few.

 

By integrating its internal resources, CLPS has been able to continue to invest and develop series of R&D products, including credit card system, integrated transaction acquiring platform, reward points terminal, and virtual bank training platform, among others. These products have achieved positive feedback from the market.

 

For the year ended June 30, 2020, revenues from our banking area were approximately $44.5 million compared to $33.1 million for the year ended June 30,2019. Revenues from our banking area accounted for 49.8% and 51.2% of our total revenues in fiscal 2020 and 2019 respectively.

 

Significant portion of our services caters the banking clients.

 

Credit Card Area

 

Most of the global credit card issuers maintain branches and supporting technical infrastructure in China. The development, testing, support and maintenance of these platforms require in-depth understanding and knowledge of business processes supported by IT. There is a significant demand for such IT consulting services among large-scale credit card platforms because many of such institutions experience shortage of qualified personnel and resources. We offer more than ten years of experience in IT consulting services across key credit card business areas, including credit card applications, account setup, authorization and activation, settlement, collection, promotion, point system, anti-fraud, statement, reporting and risk management. In the past years, we have successfully helped our China and global clients manage their credit card IT systems such as VisionPLUS. We offer expertise in customizing these credit card tools and platforms to suit a variety of business models. Our highly experienced team possesses the requisite expertise in providing service in the credit card area. The IT consulting professional teams provides service in the credit card area from Shanghai, Dalian and Hong Kong. We offer this experience and expertise in various currencies, across different geographical regions, including, but not limited to China, Singapore, UK, Philippines, Indonesia, and Latin America. In addition, we have developed a series of credit card solutions in order to meet the needs of our clients better.

 

For the year ended June 30, 2020, revenues from our credit card area were approximately $9.5 million compared to $3.5 million for the year ended June 30,2019. Revenues from our credit card area accounted for 21.3% and 10.4% of our banking revenues in fiscal 2020 and 2019 respectively.

 

Core Banking Area

 

We are one of China’s largest core banking system services providers for global banks. Most global banks establish their IT development centers and gradually expand their business in China. Those banks require significant core banking IT services. We offer more than ten years of experience in providing leading global banks with the support and expertise needed to implement their core banking system, including business analysis, system design, development, testing services, system maintenance, and global operation support. We provide services across multiple functions including loans, deposit, general ledger, wealth management, debit card, anti-money-laundering, statement and reporting, and risk management. We also provide architecture consulting services for core banking systems and online and mobile banking. We successfully transformed the centralized core banking system for one of our US-based clients to a service-oriented architecture and integrated it into a global unified version, which successfully satisfied its business needs in various markets. In addition, we engage the cloud-native solution of core banking system with micro services architecture, which can serve both Chinese and global banks to meet the ever-changing demands of the market with high flexibility, high scalability, high reliability and multichannel connectivity.

 

For the year ended June 30, 2020, revenues from our core banking area were approximately $35.0 million compared to $29.7 million for the year ended June 30,2019.

 

Wealth Management

 

In this annual report, “wealth management” refers to the segments of financial industry except banking, including but not limited to investment banking, funds, insurance, securities, futures, clearing, consumer financing, online financing, and supply chain financing. CLPS has in-depth industry knowledge and solutions in the field of wealth management, and constantly develops and innovates according to the needs of clients.

 

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In the past years, we have successfully developed and managed a variety of IT systems for Chinese and global clients, including the development of asset management system, core insurance system, pension system for well-known international investment bank, large international insurance group, and leading asset management corporation. We also provided development, operation, and maintenance for data analysis and business management systems of China’s national financial information platform, China’s national clearing house, stock exchange, and several large security institutions in China. In addition, we have developed mobile terminal for multiple comprehensive financial service providers and consumer finance platforms both in China and globally.

 

For the year ended June 30, 2020, revenues from our wealth management area were approximately $19.2 million compared to $14.5 million for the year ended June 30,2019. Revenues from our wealth management area accounted for 21.5% and 22.4% of our total revenues in fiscal 2020 and 2019 respectively.

 

E-Commerce

 

By constantly improving our capabilities, we have gradually extended our main service offerings from banking and financial institutions to e-Commerce industry. We have rapidly developed and accumulated certain skills in online platforms, cross-border e-commerce, logistics, and back-end technology such as big data analysis, and intelligent decision-making among others. In the past years, we have successfully provided IT system development delivery for domestic and international clients, including a global online trading project for a top US e-Commerce company. We have also developed the global terminal, payment, and risk control system for a well-known online ticketing website. In addition, CLPS has developed the website and product market data analysis for a leading and international travel e-commerce platform, and the e-Commerce platform for a large investment holding group in China.

 

For the year ended June 30, 2020, revenues from our e-Commerce area were approximately $11.1 million compared to $8.7 million for the year ended June 30,2019. Revenues from our e-Commerce area accounted for 12.4% and 13.4% of our total revenues in fiscal 2020 and 2019, respectively.

 

Automotive

 

With the extensive experience of CLPS in the IT services application in the financial and e-commerce industries, and its innovative implementation of cutting-edge technology such as big data, artificial intelligence and robotic process automation (RPA), it has also extended its business to automotive industry.

 

There is a high demand of intelligent technology application in automobile industry in the recent years. Aside from providing internal management system development for several international automobile enterprises, we also get deeply involved in the development of autonomous driving, automatic control, and other AI-driven technology projects with several major clients. This includes the development of a new-energy vehicle intelligent platform for a large automotive group company in China and a car’s multimedia software for a Chinese automotive information system company. Moreover, we also provide development of internet auto finance platform for several Chinese enterprises.

 

For the year ended June 30, 2020, revenues from our automotive area were approximately $3.6 million compared to $2.0 million for the year ended June 30,2019. Revenues from our automotive area accounted for 4.1% and 3.2% of our total revenues in fiscal 2020 and 2019 respectively.

 

Our business scope in terms of services:

 

Consulting Services

 

Revenues from consulting services are recognized from time-and-expense basis contracts as the related services are rendered assuming all other basic revenue recognition criteria are met. Under time-and-expense basis contracts, the Company is reimbursed for actual hours incurred at pre-agreed negotiated hourly billing rates. Clients may terminate the contracts at any time before the work is completed but are obligated to pay the actual service hours incurred through the termination date at the contract billing rate.

 

We provide consulting services to our clients in the banking, wealth management, e-commerce, and automotive industries, among others.

 

For the years ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, revenues from our IT consulting services were approximately USD 87.1 million and USD 61.8 million, respectively. Revenues from our IT consulting services accounted for 97.5% and 95.1% of our total revenues in fiscal 2020 and 2019, respectively.

 

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Solution Services

 

Revenues from fixed-price customized solution contracts require the Company to perform services for systems design, planning and integrating based on customers’ specific needs which requires significant production and customization. The required customization work period is generally less than one year. Upon delivery of the services, customer acceptance is generally required. In the same contract, the Company is generally required to provide post-contract customer support (“PCS’) for a period from three months to one year (“PCS period”) after the customized application is delivered. The type of service for PCS clause is generally not specified in the contract or stand-ready service on when-and-if-available basis.

 

CLPS provides customized solution services to our clients in the banking, wealth management, e-commerce, and automotive industries, among others.

 

We are also an IT solution services provider in China and globally. We offer our clients over a decade of experience providing Chinese and global financial institutions with business and technological know-how including cloud computing and big data. We have accumulated an in-depth knowledge base that enables us to provide end-to-end customized solutions for our clients. The performance from our R&D center supports our ability to offer our clients creative solution design, especially in the areas of new information technology such as blockchain.

 

We offer software project development, maintenance and testing solution services, including COBOL, Java, .NET, Mobile and other technology applications. Specifically, we assist our clients in three aspects: (i) adopting and applying the most suitable technologies to ensure that software solutions are designed with information security and intellectual property rights protection in mind, (ii) building and managing a dedicated or leveraged software development, maintenance and testing quality, and efficiency testing, and (iii) providing onshore and offshore IT solution services to ensure turn-key delivery.

 

We have been working with a number of Chinese domestic banks to assist them in leveraging blockchain technology. Using this technology, a loyalty reward solution for the bank’s customers was developed allowing domestic banks to track and trace transactions in real-time. It was recently implemented in Jiangnan Rural Commercial Bank. Also, the pilot phase of this solution was completed for Taicang Rural Commercial Bank.

 

We have also signed a blockchain-related contract with a leading university of finance and economics in Shanghai. The project utilizes blockchain technology in the university’s online technical training platform for finance majors. In addition, this project also applies blockchain technology to the teaching management system for students. The management system offers an incentive mechanism that motivates students towards better study habits. This concept is similar to the loyalty reward programs offered in the financial industry. The project passed the testing conducted by the university on December 18, 2018.

 

The solution sets up a consortium chain platform using blockchain technology. When a bank or a merchant joins the consortium, it becomes a node of the consortium chain. This allows the bank’s customers to manage and use their rewards among different banks and merchants, as well as share rewards among different customers. There are four layers in the overall architecture in this solution which includes the blockchain core layer, the blockchain SDK layer, the application system layer and the front-end layer. The consensus mechanism, P2P protocol, distributed ledger and storage mechanism of core layer are used to record transactions and prevent fraud. We will continue to develop our new IT solutions to meet the evolving needs of our Chinese and global financial institutional clientele drawing upon the forward-looking research of our R&D center.

 

For the years ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, revenues from our customized IT solution services were approximately USD 1.8 million and USD3.0 million, respectively. Revenues from our customized IT solution services accounted for 2.1% and 4.7% of our total revenues in fiscal years 2020 and 2019, respectively.

 

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Other Services

 

CLPS Virtual Banking Platform (CLB)

 

CLB is a unique and successful training platform for IT talents owned by CLPS. For more than ten years, we have been focusing on recruiting, training, developing and retaining human capital and talents. We have been developing and continuously upgrading our CLB to train specialized financial IT personnel in order to differentiate ourselves from general IT developers. CLB is one of the crucial components of our TCP. It contains a full set of banking application modules covering areas such as core banking, credit cards, and wealth management, incorporated with cutting-edge technologies, such as JAVA, Android & iOS, HTML, blockchain, cloud computing and big data.

 

Recruitment and Headhunting

 

As per client’s request, we are capable of providing the most suitable person for a position. The Company maintains more than 100 talent acquisition staff with rich industry background and knowledge. Our recruitment centers are well equipped of advanced technology, such as cloud platforms, big data, and robotic process automation (RPA), to accelerate the talent acquisition process. As a result, CLPS obtains qualified talent, reduce talent acquisition costs, meet the growing demands of talent from its existing and potential clients, and achieve meaningful growth.

 

Fee-For-Service Training

 

Under the fee-for-service training, we incur charges for clients based on their training needs. Generally, it includes domain knowledge, technology skills, data security and management compliance training, soft skills for personnel; and English language skills including verbal and business correspondence for all level, especially for those who need to communicate with global customers directly on a daily basis. However, the training content and approach can be customized based on the client’s training needs.

 

Our Strategies

 

We have developed and intend to implement the following strategies to expand and grow the revenue, the number of employees, and the number of service locations of our Company:

 

  Grow revenue with existing and new clients — We intend to pursue additional revenue opportunities from existing Chinese and global clients, which include many of the leading companies in our financial industry. We will focus on continuing to deliver high quality services and solutions and identifying additional opportunities with existing clients as they will continue to constitute a significant portion of our revenues and medium-term growth. We will also continue to target certain new Chinese and global clients, using our comprehensive service and solution offerings, combined with increasingly deep domain expertise in finance industry. Furthermore, we will continue to invest in a delivery platform that benefits both Chinese and global clients, capturing synergies between the China and global markets to benefit both groups of clients.

 

  Continue to invest in research and development, deepen domain expertise and develop specific solutions for target industry verticals — We will continue to enhance our domain knowledge in the financial industry and relevant business-specific processes. As we grow our industry and service area expertise, we intend to leverage the domain knowledge accumulated in our work with our Chinese and global clients to more effectively address their business-specific needs. In addition, we plan to continue investing in R&D, focusing on developing solutions that leverage our industry experience and R&D capabilities, to combine proprietary applications with our services to best address client needs.

 

  Continue to invest in training and development of our world-class human capital base — We place a high priority on attracting, training, developing and retaining our human capital base to be increasingly competitive. Spearheaded by the CLPS Academy, we will continue to build our professional talent pool through our TCP and TDP” to ensure the sustainable supply of financial IT talent resources. These programs are the result of our collaboration with Shanda University and utilization of a technical curriculum and professional certifications developed and maintained by our Company. We will continue to develop our scalable human capital platform by implementing resource planning and staffing systems and by attracting, training and developing high-quality professionals to form CLPS’s large talent pool in order to meet ever-changing clients’ needs. We will build on and leverage existing training programs and leverage the CLPS Academy, which we intend to expand to other key cities and other industries, such as the insurance sector, to tap deeper into CLPS’s talent pool. In addition to our dedicated training centers, we expect to open additional training centers overseas as we anticipate increasing demand for our services and solutions. We will continue to strengthen our collaboration with leading domestic universities to improve our on-campus recruiting results and help to better prepare graduates for work in our industry. Spearheaded by the CLPS Academy, the strength of our TCP/TDP program adds to our recognition in the industry by competitors and customers alike.

 

  Drive efficiencies through ongoing improvements in operational excellence — We strive to gain significant operating efficiencies by leveraging historical and ongoing investments in infrastructure, research and development and human capital. We operate our business on a single, integrated platform, with centralized functions which provide significant economies of scale across our business both domestically and globally, as well as cross service offerings. We also expect to continue investing in our own IT infrastructure and more advanced technologies, such as cloud computing, to allow us to enhance our scalability and continue to grow in a more cost-effective fashion. As part of expanding our scale, we intend to continue building up training centers tailored to our human capital needs to deploy human capital more efficiently, thereby improving overall resource utilization and productivity.

 

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  Capture new growth opportunities through strategic alliances and acquisitions — We will continue to pursue selective alliances and acquisitions in order to enhance our industry-specific technology and service delivery capabilities by building on our track record of successfully acquiring and integrating targeted companies. We will continue to identify and assess opportunities to enhance our abilities to serve our clients. We will focus on enhancing our technology capabilities, deepening our penetration into key clients, expanding our portfolio of service offerings and expanding our operations geographically.

 

 

Continue to implement our global expansion strategy — We remain focused on investing in our long-term sustainable growth and delivering on our dual-engine strategy of horizontal and vertical expansion. We will continue to pursue growth in our global footprint and market share as well as in technological and talent development. By delivering on our strategy, we expect to drive shareholder value.

 

Our Competitive Strengths

 

We believe that the principal competitive factors in our markets are industry expertise, breadth and depth of service offerings, quality of the services offered, strategic engagement with blue-chip clients, reputation and track record, marketing and selling skills, scalability of infrastructure and price.

 

We believe that there are several key strengths that differentiate us from our competitors and will continue to contribute to our growth and success.

 

1. Breadth and depth of digital transformation service offerings

 

CLPS provides staffing-based consulting services, turn-key financial solutions, and implementation of advanced technologies, enabling clients to build new or enhance their existing systems. We are fully committed of providing digital transformation services with focused on financial and technology in the banking, wealth management, e-commerce, and automotive industries, among others, through the utilization of innovative technology to achieve our client’s goals.

 

We are dedicated to providing a full range of services and solutions across technology needs in finance. We are able to provide both development and implementation of core banking, credit card, online and e-commerce systems, as well as expertise across technology stacks. More recently, we have tested and piloted leading edge technologies including cloud transitions, robotic process automation, big data and blockchain. We are also exploring applications in artificial intelligence.

 

2. Talent Creation Program and Talent Development Program

 

Spearheaded by the CLPS Academy, we have established employee loyalty through the core engine of TCP and TDP programs both are integral parts of our supply chain which supports our service lines. Since 2008, our talent training services have offered training courses in five areas, including domain knowledge, technology skills, data security and management compliance training, soft skills for personnel; and English language skills including verbal and business correspondence for all level, especially for those who need to communicate with global customers directly on a daily basis. We believe that the depth and comprehensive nature of our talent training services are key features that distinguish us from our competitions. For more than ten years, the Company has been recruiting, training, developing and retaining human capital and talents. We have been developing and upgrading our CLPS Virtual Banking Platform (CLB) to train specialized financial IT professionals. CLB is one of the crucial components which enables our Talent Creation Program. It contains a full set of banking application modules covering areas such as core banking, credit cards and wealth management incorporated with cutting-edge technologies, such as JAVA, Android & iOS, HTML and big data. We select more than 200 students each year to participate in our training program. During their junior and senior years, the students learn to implement the concepts covered by our TCP platform along with their other computer science theory and coursework. Thereafter, the students join us as interns to continue improving their software development skills and will eventually become part of our development teams. As a result, graduates have an equivalent of nine months’ worth of “on the job” training and experience. In 2017, we collaborated with Global Business College of Australia (GCBA) to set up a Financial Innovation Center (FIC) on its campus to offer our TCP training program to GCBA students with a specific interest in banking industry.

 

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Our TDP program is a continuous internal training program for our skilled-professionals in order to serve our clients better. The TDP program increases our professionals’ skillsets and business knowledge in their respective domain and technical fields. Our joint effort with Fudan University has established support to our senior staff to earn a financial-IT oriented master’s degree in Software Engineering (MSE). Since 2005, through our TCP and TDP programs, we have trained and retained a large pool of specialized personnel skilled in serving financial-related industry clients.

 

As a result of our employee loyalty programs, we have established an ecosystem of loyal client relationships. Employee satisfaction and enhanced career development have resulted in better service to our clients. Client satisfaction in return motivates our employees to continue to provide excellent service to our clients. In addition to the above-mentioned benefits, our Company’s strengths include the following:

 

  core competency particularly in banking and insurance industry;

 

  deep domain knowledge and solutions in financial industry verticals;

 

  strategic engagements with financial blue-chip clients most of whom have been with us since our inception;

 

  comprehensive service offerings including financial IT solutions & consulting as well as other services;

 

  experienced senior management team with proven track record of success.

 

3. Leading provider of human capital in the financial and technology industry

 

CLPS is a leading provider of IT professionals in the financial and technology industry, such in banking, wealth management, e-commerce, automotive, and others. We create, develop, and maintain a large pool of qualified and rich experienced talents, with bilingual or multilingual capability so support the client’s communication need, which is vital for a business’ success.

 

Our greatest edge in terms of human capital is our employees’ English communication skills capability and are familiar with international financial business environment. In terms of our overall IT skills, we maintain even distribution and relatively adequate resources of talent pool with capabilities in Java, Cobol, quality control, and other cutting-edge technology such as data analysis.

 

Customers

 

Our clients include large corporations headquartered in China and globally which include, among others:

 

  Banking or their China-based IT centers — Citibank, Standard Chartered Bank (China) Ltd., ANZ Bank, and Bank of Communications.

 

  Wealth Management — AIA, China Life Insurance, First Data, Haitong Securities, and Orient Securities.

 

 

E-Commerce — eBay and PayPal.

 

Automotive and Technology — SAIC Motors, Sony, Cisco, CRIF Information Technology, Experian, AGFA Healthcare, Neusoft, and Kodak.

 

By serving both Chinese and global clients on a common platform, we are able to leverage the shared resources, management, industry expertise and technology know-how to attract new business and remain cost competitive.

 

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Sales and Marketing

 

We have invested in building a broad sales force and marketing team. As of June 30, 2020, our business development teams consisted of 28 full-time sales and marketing personnel, including 22 sales managers, each of whom is responsible for a designated sales region or client account. We plan to enhance our sales efforts by recruiting more sales personnel both domestically and overseas.

 

Competition

 

The market for IT services is highly competitive and we expect competition to intensify. We believe that the principal competitive factors in our markets are industry expertise, breadth and depth of service offerings, quality of the services offered, reputation and track record, marketing skills and price. Domestically, we face competition from the following major competitors: Shenzhen Forms Syntron Information Co., Ltd., Sunline Tech, Amarsoft and CSII. These competitors are all domestic listed companies and possess a considerable market share in IT services industry. Shenzhen Forms Syntron Information Co., Ltd. is committed to provide professional IT service outsourcing and consulting for large domestic commercial banks. Sunline Tech, Amarsoft and CSII have the similar business model who are engaged in providing IT solutions and services mainly for domestic banks and other financial institutions. While compared with above competitors, as an IT solution and consulting services provider, we’ve been specializing in industry demands analysis and focusing on delivering services to global institutions in banking, insurance and financial sectors, both in China and globally. As one of the earliest companies engaging in Banking IT services in China, we have accumulated rich industrial experience and successful cases during more than 10 years of business development and our market share is gradually increased. With the interest marketization and rise of Internet Finance, banking industry market grows more competitive. Since Core Banking Business is occupying a key position in the overall banking IT services market, we will enhance our core market competence by taking advantage of our current technology; internationally, our competitors include Wipro, TCS Consultancy, and Infosys Limited. To date, we do not typically compete directly with the larger global consulting and outsourcing firms, such as Accenture, Capgemini, Hewlett-Packard and IBM, who are typically engaged in conjunction with large global projects. However, we may compete with these firms if they seek smaller engagements, particularly in conjunction with a strategy to enter the domestic Chinese market. In addition, the trend towards offshore outsourcing, international expansion by foreign and domestic competitors and continuing technological innovation will result in new and different competitors entering our markets. We believe that our delivery capabilities are competitive with companies such as these, and that our domestic China market experience and know-how provides us with a competitive advantage in serving our clients.

 

Research and Development

 

Officially named the CLPS Innovation Lab (“CLPS i-Lab)”, our R&D is an integral part of our continued growth. In order to serve our Chinese and global clients’ needs better, we are fully committed on researching and developing cutting-edge technology including distributed application systems, cloud computing, micro services, open API, robotic process automation (RPA), blockchain, and big data, among other technologies, with a focus on continuous scientific and technological innovation to provide clients with more comprehensive and efficient IT services.

 

For instance, we applied the DevOps methodology and tools in our project delivery process and platform. This methodology has greatly enhanced the development, operational efficiency and project quality. We focus on blockchain, big data and cloud native applications. We have developed a loyalty reward solution based on a blockchain platform and implemented this solution with several China-based banks. With micro services architecture, we engage the cloud-native solution of core banking system, and have developed the first pilot business module to be tested on the client side. By utilizing big data technology, we research, develop and apply new features to existing credit scoring and anti-fraud solutions. We have invested a significant amount of capital in technology research and solution development. As a result, we have expanded our technological capabilities, improved efficiency of project delivery, and enhanced our solution offerings by improving existing solutions and inventing new solutions, which drive new revenue opportunities and improve our core competencies.

 

We upgraded our credit card system product, and it is currently in its final phase of testing. Through the joint effort of CLPS Innovation Lab and Credit Card Service teams, the essential parts of the system will be migrated to the cloud platform. After the upgrade, the new product platform will leverage the advantages of cloud computing. Combined with the micro-service application, it paves the way to achieve dynamic horizontal and vertical expansions, resulting in improved performance, reliability, utilization of resources, and significantly reduced infrastructure costs. It also improves the display interface, gated launch and other features that enhance the user experience. In addition, the new product platform adopts the Open-API, or Application Program Interface, concept to provide ample APIs to facilitate the connection between channels, merchants and enterprises. The upgrade also includes an integrated monitoring platform that covers comprehensive monitoring and an early warning signal of basic settings and business transactions which allow clients to quickly locate and solve problems.

 

We ran a successful internal pilot test of Robotic Process Automation (RPA), aiming to automate the in-house human resources department’s business processes, which cover more than 2,000 employees. Instead of manual work, the RPA mimics human activity that streamlines the internal management system and improve efficiency.

 

We integrated the Company’s successful applications of advanced technologies, such as cloud platforms, big data, and robotic process automation (RPA), to our recruitment centers, which enables the acceleration of talent acquisition process. As a result, CLPS will be able to obtain qualified talent, reduce talent acquisition costs, meet the growing demands of talent from its existing and potential clients, and achieve meaningful growth.

 

CLPS i-Lab adheres to our strategy of promoting our products and solutions based on new technology and new research, application innovations, and our leading talent pool, while improving our technological innovation capability and market competitiveness. As the center of our research and development efforts, it will continue to be one of the most important drivers of CLPS’s growth.

 

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Employees

 

We believe resource management and planning is critically important to supporting our growth, and we are committed to effectively recruiting, training, developing and retaining our human capital. Our total number of employees has grown from 2,085 employees in fiscal 2019 to 2,746 employees as of June 30, 2020. Approximately 66.5% of our personnel are dedicated to serving our foreign financial institution clients. Such personnel maintain up to date financial domain knowledge, technical development and testing skills in Java, .Net, C, C++, testing tools, android or IOS app, blockchain, big data, cloud computing and mainframe COBOL. None of our employees are represented by a labor union or collective bargaining agreements. We consider our employee relations to be good. We believe that attracting and retaining highly experienced associates and sales and marketing personnel is a key to our success. In addition, we believe that we maintain a good working relationship with our employees and we have not experienced any significant labor disputes or any difficulty in recruiting staff for our operations.

 

Intellectual Property Rights

 

The PRC has domestic laws for the protection of rights in copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets. The PRC is also a signatory to all of the world’s major intellectual property conventions, including:

 

  Convention establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization (June 3, 1980);

 

  Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (March 19, 1985);

 

  Patent Cooperation Treaty (January 1, 1994); and

 

  Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (November 11, 2001).

 

The PRC Trademark Law, adopted in 1982 and revised in 2019, protects registered trademark. The Trademark Office of the State Administration of Industry and Commerce of the PRC, handles trademark registrations and grants trademark registrations for a term of ten years.

 

Our intellectual property rights are important to our business. We rely on a combination of trade secrets, confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions to protect our intellectual property. We also rely on and protect unpatented proprietary expertise, recipes and formulations, continuing innovation and other trade secrets to develop and maintain our competitive position. We enter into confidentiality agreements with most of our employees and consultants, and control access to and distribution of our documentation and other licensed information. Despite these precautions, it may be possible for a third party to copy or otherwise obtain and use our technology without authorization, or to develop similar technology independently. Since the Chinese legal system in general, and the intellectual property regime in particular, is relatively weak, it is often difficult to enforce intellectual property rights in China. Policing unauthorized use of our technology is difficult and the steps we take may not prevent misappropriation or infringement of our proprietary technology. In addition, litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets or to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our resources and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. We require our employees to enter into non-disclosure agreements to limit access to and distribution of our proprietary and confidential information. These agreements generally provide that any confidential or proprietary information developed by us or on our behalf must be kept confidential. These agreements also provide that any confidential or proprietary information disclosed to third parties in the course of our business must be kept confidential by such third parties. In the event of trademark infringement, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce has the authority to fine the infringer and to confiscate or destroy the infringing products.

 

Our primary trademark portfolio consists of nine trademarks, five of which are registered and four of which are pending review. Our trademarks are valuable assets that reinforce the brand and our consumers’ favorable perception of our products. The current registrations of these trademarks are effective for varying periods of time and may be renewed periodically, provided that we, as the registered owner, comply with all applicable renewal requirements including, where necessary, the continued use of the trademarks in connection with similar goods. In addition to trademark protection, we own 3 URL designations and domain names, including clps.com.cn, clpsglobal.com, and clpsgroup.com.cn.

 

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We have registered for the following trademarks:

 

Mark   Country of Registration   Application Number   Class/Description   Current Owner   Status

 

  China   19288958   Class 9: Recorded computer programs (programs); Recorded computer operating programs Computer peripherals; Computer software (recorded); Connector (data processing equipment); Monitor program (computer program); Electronic publications (downloadable); Computer program (downloadable software); Downloadable computer application software; Computer hardware   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   Registered
                     
  China   19289112   Class 38: Information transmission; Computer terminal communication; Computer-aided information and image transmission; Information transmission equipment rental; Provide telecommunications link services to connect with the global computer network; Telecommunications routing and junction services; Provide access service for global computer network users; Provide database access service; Digital file transfer Teleconference call service   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   Registered
                     
  China   19289503   Class 9: Recorded computer programs (programs); Recorded computer operating programs; Computer peripherals; Computer software (recorded); Connector (data processing equipment); Monitor program (computer program); Electronic publications (downloadable); Computer program (downloadable software); Downloadable computer application software; Computer hardware   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   Registered
                     
  China   19289341   Class 42: Technical research; Research or develop new products for others; Computer programming; Computer software design; Computer hardware design and development consulting; Computer software rental; Computer software maintenance; Computer system analysis; Computer software installation; Computer software consulting   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   Registered
                     
 

China

 

19289214

 

Class 41: Teaching; Education; Training; Practical training (demonstration); Employment guidance (education or training consultants); Arrange and organize academic seminars; Arrange and organize meetings; Arrange and organize general meeting; Arrange and organize symposium; Arrange and organize training classes

 

ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.

 

Registered

 

44

 

 

We have applied to register the following trademarks:

 

Mark

 

Country of Registration

 

Application Number

 

Class/Description

 

Current Owner

 

Status

  China   19289066   Class 35: Advertising; Advertising agency Advertising space rental; Online advertising on the computer network; Advertisement layout design; Business management assistance; Business inquiry; Business information agency; Business management and organization consulting; Business management consulting   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   Pending
                     
3   China   19289175   Class 42: Technical research; Research or develop new products for others; Computer programming; Computer software design; Computer hardware design and development consulting; Computer software rental; Computer software maintenance; Computer system analysis; Computer software installation; Computer software consulting   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   Pending
                     
  China   19289492   Class 38: Information transmission; Computer terminal communication; Computer-aided information and image transmission; Information transmission equipment rental; Provide telecommunications link services to connect with the global computer network; Telecommunications routing and junction services; Provide access service for global computer network users; Provide database access service; Digital file transfer; Teleconference call service   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   Pending
                     
  China   19289420   Class 41: Teaching; Education; Training; Practical training (demonstration); Employment guidance (education or training consultants); Arrange and organize academic seminars; Arrange and organize meetings; Arrange and organize general meeting; Arrange and organize symposium; Arrange and organize training classes   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   Pending

 

45

 

 

The following is a list of the Company’s copyrights:

 

Software Name

 

Country of Registration

 

Registration Number

 

Current Owner

 

Approval Date

 

Status

CLPS HR Management Platform Software V1.0   China   2009SR015975   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   29th April 2009   Registered
CLPS Food and Beverage Report Analysis and Management Platform Software V1.0   China   2009SR060110   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   28th December 2009   Registered
CLPS Apparel Industry POS Management Platform Software V1.0   China   2009SR060102   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   28th December 2009   Registered
CLPS Express Information Interactive Platform Software V1.0   China   2009SR060112   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   28th December 2009   Registered
CLPS Chain Store Information Interactive Platform Software V1.0   China   2009SR060108   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   28th December 2009   Registered
CLPS Project Analysis and Management Platform Software V1.0   China   2009SR060169   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   28th December 2009   Registered
CLPS Payroll Accounting System Platform Software V1.0   China   2010SR043564   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   25th August 2010   Registered
CLPS Fast Moving Consumer Goods Frontline Staff Management Platform Software V1.0   China   2010SR043561   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   25th August 2010   Registered
CLPS Staff Management Platform Software V1.0   China   2010SR043562   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   25th August 2010   Registered
CLPS Coal Mining Enterprise Information System Management Platform Software V1.0   China   2010SR045449   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   1st September 2010   Registered
CLPS Campus Expense Card Web Service System Platform Software V1.0   China   2010SR045441   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   1st September 2010   Registered
CLPS Campus Expense Card Bathroom Management Service Software V1.0   China   2010SR045444   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   1st September 2010   Registered
CLPS Machinery Industry ERP Management Platform Software V1.0   China   2010SR045802   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   2nd September 2010   Registered
CLPS Assignment and Task Management Platform Software (short name: Assignment and Task Management System) V1.0   China   2011SR076863   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   25th October 2011   Registered
CLPS Marketing Assistant System Platform Software V1.0   China   2012SR096727   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   15th October 2012   Registered
CLPS Outsourcing Service Staff Management System Platform Software V1.0   China   2012SR096666   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   15th October 2012   Registered
CLPS Outsourcing Service Staff System Background Management Software V1.0   China   2012SR096731   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   15th October 2012   Registered

 

46

 

 

Software Name

 

Country of Registration

 

Registration Number

 

Current Owner

 

Approval Date

 

Status

CLPS Logistics Terminal Distribution Platform Software V1.0   China   2012SR096668   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   15th October 2012   Registered
CLPS HR Background Support Management System V1.0   China   2012SR098440   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   19th October 2012   Registered
CLPS HR Management System Platform Software (short name: HR Management System) V1.0   China   2012SR098429   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   19th October 2012   Registered
CLPS Outsourcing Service Staff Resume Entry System Platform Software V1.0   China   2012SR098687   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   19th October 2012   Registered
CLPS Bank Document Business Management Software (short name: Document Management) V1.0   China   2013SR054800   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   5th June 2013   Registered
CLPS Bank Monetary Transaction Management Software (short name: Monetary Transaction Management) V1.0   China   2013SR054796   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   5th June 2013   Registered
CLPS Bank Expense Management Software V1.0   China   2014SR168125   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   4th November 2014   Registered
CLPS Bank Repayment Process Software V1.0   China   2014SR168130   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   4th November 2014   Registered
CLPS Bank Point Accumulative Management Software V1.0   China   2014SR168132   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   4th November 2014   Registered
CLPS Bank Interest Process Software V1.0   China   2014SR168136   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   4th November 2014   Registered
CLPS Bank Credit Application Software V1.0   China   2014SR168138   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   4th November 2014   Registered
CLPS Credit Card Risk Management Software V1.0   China   2015SR028695   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   10th February 2015   Registered
CLPS Credit Card Account Establishment and Card Making Software V1.0   China   2015SR029015   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   10th February 2015   Registered
CLPS Credit Card Customer Service Management Software V1.0   China   2015SR029012   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   10th February 2015   Registered
CLPS Credit Card Cleaning Management Software V1.0   China   2015SR028884   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   10th February 2015   Registered
CLPS Credit Card Authorization Management Software V1.0   China   2015SR028914   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   10th February 2015   Registered
CLPS Mortgage Loan Plan Spreadsheet Tool Software (short name: Loan Spreadsheet) V1.0   China   2015SR198772   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   16th October 2015   Registered
CLPS Bank Product Management Software V1.0   China   2015SR198610   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   16th October 2015   Registered

 

47

 

 

Software Name

 

Country of Registration

 

Registration Number

 

Current Owner

 

Approval Date

 

Status

CLPS Bank Deposit and Withdrawal Services Management Software V1.0   China   2015SR198176   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   16th October 2015   Registered
CLPS Bank Loan Application Management Software V1.0   China   2015SR198654   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   16th October 2015   Registered
CLPS Bank Repayment Management Software V1.0   China   2015SR198649   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   16th October 2015   Registered
CLPS Bank Exchange Rate Management Software V1.0   China   2015SR198774   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   16th October 2015   Registered
CLPS Bank Interest Settlement Software V1.0   China   2015SR198246   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   16th October 2015   Registered
CLPS Bank Foreign Exchange Transaction Software V1.0   China   2015SR198240   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   16th October 2015   Registered
CLPS Bank Investment Management Securities Business Software V1.0   China   2016SR376924   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   16th December 2016   Registered
CLPS Bank Big Data Decision-making Platform Customer Portrayal Software V1.0   China   2016SR382920   ChinaLink Professional Services Ca, Ltd.   20th December 2016   Registered
CLPS Internet Financial Cloud Mobile Banking Software V2.0   China   2016SR398821   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   27th December 2016   Registered
CLPS Wantong Calculus Mall Software V2.0   China   2017SR118507   CLPS Beijing Hengtong Co., Ltd.   17th April 2017   Registered
CLPS RC Rules Engine Software   China   2017SR169307   CLPS Ruicheng Co., Ltd.   9th May 2017   Registered
CLPS Internet Financing Collection Management Software V2.0   China   2017SR119266   CLPS Ruicheng Co., Ltd.   17th April 2017   Registered
CLPS Points Management Platform Software   China   2017SR119078   CLPS Ruicheng Co., Ltd.   17th April 2017   Registered
CLPS Full-web Order Receiving Unified Platform Management Software V2.0   China   2017SR202535   CLPS Ruicheng Co., Ltd.   24th May 2017   Registered
CLPS Quanxi Intelligent Marketing Platform Clients Growth Center Software V2.0   China   2017SR565576   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   13th October 2017   Registered
CLPS Enterprise Recruitment Intelligent Cooperation Platform Software V2.0   China   2017SR646712   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   24th November 2017   Registered
CLPS Intelligent Online Training Test Instructional Management Software V1.0   China   2017SR646507   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   24th November 2017   Registered
CLPS Enterprise Internet Qinqin Loan Background Management Software V1.0   China   2017SR647634   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   24th November 2017   Registered

 

48

 

 

Software Name

 

Country of Registration

 

Registration Number

 

Current Owner

 

Approval Date

 

Status

CLPS Blockchain Based Virtual Credits Background Management Software V2.0   China   2017SR645676   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   24th November 2017   Registered
CLPS Enterprise Talent Information Intelligent Management Software V2.0   China   2017SR645650   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   24th November 2017   Registered
CLPS Credit Card Big Data Integrated Management Background Software V2.0   China   2017SR645763   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   24th November 2017   Registered
CLPS Enterprise Recruitment Intelligent Cooperation Platform Software V2.0   China   2017SR647190   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   24th November 2017   Registered
CLPS General Points Platform and Business Center Software V1.0   China   2019SR0004653   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   2nd January 2019   Registered
CLPS Online Financial Microloan Software V1.0   China   2019SR0004669   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   2nd January 2019   Registered
CLPS Bank Customer Management Software V1.0   China   2019SR0004663   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   2nd January 2019   Registered
CLPS Online Financial Management Software V1.0   China   2019SR0140935   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   14th February 2019   Registered
CLPS Talent Training One-Stop Platform Software V1.0   China   2020SR0094641   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   19th January 2020   Registered
CLPS Project Management Software [PMS]V2.0   China   2020SR0095716   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   19th January 2020   Registered
CLPS Online Financial Management Software V2.0   China   2020SR0095716   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   19th January 2020   Registered
CLPS Online Financial Microloan Software V3.0   China   2020SR0094745   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   19th January 2020   Registered
CLPS Bank Customer Management Software V3.0   China   2020SR0095318   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   19th January 2020   Registered
CLPS Online Financial Accounting Management Software V1.0   China   2020SR0095725   ChinaLink Professional Services Co., Ltd.   19th January 2020   Registered

 

49

 

 

Properties

 

On May 2020, we relocated our principal executive office to Unit 702, 7th Floor, Millennium City II, 378 Kwun Tong Road, Kwun Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR from 2nd Floor, Building 18, Shanghai Pudong Software Park, 498 Guoshoujing Road, Pudong District, Shanghai, PRC. We lease the premise and the lease term expires on May 5, 2021. 

 

In addition, the Company manages and operates several other facilities. We rent office space in Tianjin, Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Dalian, Chengdu, Beijing, Baoding, Australia, Singapore, and Hong Kong. Rent expenses amounted to $944,645, $827,593, and $730,705 for the years ended June 30, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. We believe our facilities are adequate for our current needs.

 

Facility   Address   Space (m2)  
Shanghai Office   2nd Floor, Building 18, Shanghai Pudong Software Park, 498 Guoshoujing Road, Pudong District, Shanghai, PRC     1,259.94  
             
Shanghai Office   Room 302, 3rd Floor, Building 10, Shanghai Pudong Software Park, 498 Guoshoujing Road, Pudong District, Shanghai, PRC     741.16  
             
Shanghai Office   1st Floor, Building 18, Shanghai Pudong Software Park, 498 Guoshoujing Road, Pudong District, Shanghai, PRC     914.62  
             
Dalian Office   Room 01-03, 1/F, 1 Huixian Garden, New & High-tech Industrial Park, Dalian, Liaoning Province, PRC     611.82  
             
Dalian Office   Room 07-12, 7/F, 1 Huixian Garden, New & High-tech Industrial Park, Dalian, Liaoning Province, PRC     917.11  
             
Tianjin Office   Room 5601-8, F6, Building No.5, Xinhuan West Road, TEDA, Tianjin, PRC     56.07  
             
Shenzhen Office   Room 2007-2010, Anhui Building, Shennan Avenue, Futian District, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, PRC     234.16  
             
Guangzhou Office   708-709A, 242 Tianhe Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, PRC     137  
             
Guangzhou Office  

Room 4006, Central District, 298 Yanjiang Road, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, PRC

   

86.34

 
             
Chengdu Office   Unit 10, 29/Floor, Tower 2, 88 Jitai 5th Road, Gaoxin District, Chengdu, Sichuan District, PRC     59.74  
             
Beijing Office   Room 1329-1332, 13th Floor, Building 2, Yard 26, Chengtong Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing, PRC    

222.88

 
             
Baoding Office   Room 710-712, 7th Floor, Building A, Zhongguancun Innovation Center, 1799 North Chaoyang Street, Baoding, PRC     243  
             
Australia Office   Part Tenancy 3, Part Level 9, 276 Flinders Street, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia     90.5  
             
Singapore Office  

10 UBI Crescent, #03-29, UBI Techpark, Singapore, 408564

   

84

 
             
Singapore Office   141 Cecil Street, #06-07, Tung Ann Association Building, Singapore, 069541    

300

 
             
Hong Kong Office  

Unit 702, Level 7, Millennium City II, 378 Kwun Tong Road, Kwun Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong

   

92.53

 
             

Japan Office

  Room 304 Tennsyou Ochanomizu Building, Awajityou 1-9-5, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo, Japan, 101-0063    

7.75

 
             

India Office

  Unit No. 222, DLF Cybercity, Idco Info Park, Technology Corridor, Chandaka Industrial Estate, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India, 751024    

170

 
             
US Office   1161 Mission Street, San Francisco, CA 94103     6  

 

50

 

 

Legal Proceedings

 

We are currently not involved in any legal proceedings; nor are we aware of any claims that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

 

Government Regulation

 

Regulations Relating to PRC Information Technology Service Industry

 

According to the Guidelines on Foreign Investment issued by the State Council in 2002 and the Catalogue of Industries for Encouraging Foreign Investment (2019) issued by the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Commerce, IT services fall into the category of industries in which foreign investment is encouraged. The State Council has promulgated several notices since 2000 to launch favorable policies for IT services, such as preferential tax treatments and credit support.

 

Under rules and regulations promulgated by various Chinese government agencies, enterprises that have met specified criteria and are recognized as software enterprises by the relevant government authorities in China are entitled to preferential treatment, including financing support, preferential tax rates, export incentives, discretion and flexibility in determining employees’ welfare benefits and remuneration. Software enterprise qualifications are subject to annual examination. Enterprises that fail to meet the annual examination standards will lose the favorable enterprise income tax treatment. Enterprises exporting software or producing software products that are registered with the relevant government authorities are also entitled to preferential treatment including governmental financial support, preferential import, export policies and preferential tax rates.

 

In 2009, the Ministry of Commerce and the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology jointly promulgated a rule aiming to protect a fair competition environment in the PRC service outsourcing industry. This rule requires that each of the domestic enterprises which provides IT and technological BPO services and each of its shareholders, directors, supervisors, managers and employees should not violate the service outsourcing contract to disclose, use or allow others to use the confidential information of its client. Such enterprises are also required to establish an information protection system and take various measures to protect clients’ confidential information, including causing their employees and third parties who have access to clients’ confidential information to sign confidentiality agreements and or non-competition agreements.

 

Regulations on Intellectual Property Rights

 

The PRC Copyright Law, as amended, together with various regulations and rules promulgated by the State Council and the National Copyright Administration, protect software copyright in China. These laws and regulations establish a voluntary registration system for software copyrights administered by the Copyright Protection Center of China. Unlike patent and trademark registration, copyrighted software does not require registration for protection. Although such registration is not mandatory under PRC law, software copyright owners are encouraged to go through the registration process and registered software may receive better protection. The PRC Trademark Law, as amended, together with its implementation rules, protect registered trademarks. The Trademark Office of the State Administration for Industry and Commerce handles trademark registrations and grants a renewable protection term of 10 years to registered trademarks.

 

51

 

 

Regulation of Foreign Currency Exchange and Dividend Distribution

 

Foreign Currency Exchange. The principal regulations governing foreign currency exchange in China are the Foreign Exchange Administration Regulations (1996), as amended on August 5, 2008, the Administration Rules of the Settlement, Sale and Payment of Foreign Exchange (1996) and the Interim Measures on Administration on Foreign Debts (2003). Under these regulations, Renminbi are freely convertible for current account items, including the distribution of dividends, interest payments, trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, but not for most capital account items, such as direct investment, loans, repatriation of investment and investment in securities outside China, unless the prior approval of SAFE or its local counterparts is obtained. In addition, any loans to an operating subsidiary in China that is a foreign invested enterprise, cannot, in the aggregate, exceed the difference between its respective approved total investment amount and its respective approved registered capital amount. Furthermore, any foreign loan must be registered with SAFE or its local counterparts for the loan to be effective. Any increase in the amount of the total investment and registered capital must be approved by the PRC Ministry of Commerce or its local counterpart. We may not be able to obtain these government approvals or registrations on a timely basis, if at all, which could result in a delay in the process of making these loans.

 

The dividends paid by the subsidiary to its shareholder are deemed shareholder income and are taxable in China. Pursuant to the Administration Rules of the Settlement, Sale and Payment of Foreign Exchange (1996), foreign-invested enterprises in China may purchase or remit foreign exchange, subject to a cap approved by SAFE, for settlement of current account transactions without the approval of SAFE. Foreign exchange transactions under the capital account are still subject to limitations and require approvals from, or registration with, SAFE and other relevant PRC governmental authorities.

 

Dividend Distribution. The principal regulations governing the distribution of dividends by foreign holding companies include the Company Law of the PRC (1993), as amended in 2018, the Foreign Investment Law of the People’s Republic of China (2020), and the Implementing Regulations of the Foreign Investment Law of the People’s Republic of China (2020).

 

Under these regulations, wholly foreign-owned investment enterprises in China may pay dividends only out of their retained profits, if any, determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, wholly foreign-owned investment enterprises in China are required to allocate at least 10% of their respective retained profits each year, if any, to fund certain reserve funds unless these reserves have reached 50% of the registered capital of the enterprises. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends, and a wholly foreign-owned enterprise is not permitted to distribute any profits until losses from prior fiscal years have been offset.

 

Circular 37. On July 4, 2014, SAFE issued Circular 37, which became effective as of July 4, 2014. According to Circular 37, PRC residents shall apply to SAFE and its branches for going through the procedures for foreign exchange registration of overseas investments before contributing the domestic assets or interests to a SPV. An amendment to registration or filing with the local SAFE branch by such PRC resident is also required if the registered overseas SPV’s basic information such as domestic individual resident shareholder, name, operating period, or major events such as domestic individual resident capital increase, capital reduction, share transfer or exchange, merger or division has changed. Although the change of overseas funds raised by overseas SPV, overseas investment exercised by overseas SPV and non-cross-border capital flow are not included in Circular 37, we may be required to make foreign exchange registration if required by SAFE and its branches. Moreover, Circular 37 applies retroactively. As a result, PRC residents who have contributed domestic assets or interests to a SPV, but failed to complete foreign exchange registration of overseas investments as required prior to implementation of Circular 37, are required to send a letter to SAFE and its branches for explanation. Under the relevant rules, failure to comply with the registration procedures set forth in Circular 37 may result in receiving a warning from SAFE and its branches, and may result in a fine of up to RMB 300,000 for an organization or up to RMB 50,000 for an individual. In the event of failing to register, if capital outflow occurred, a fine up to 30% of the illegal amount may be assessed. PRC residents who control our company are required to register with SAFE in connection with their investments in us. If we use our equity interest to purchase the assets or equity interest of a PRC company owned by PRC residents in the future, such PRC residents will be subject to the registration procedures described in Circular 37.

 

52

 

 

New M&A Regulations and Overseas Listings

 

On August 8, 2006, six PRC regulatory agencies, including the Ministry of Commerce, the State Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, the State Administration for Taxation, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, CSRC and SAFE, jointly issued the Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the New M&A Rule, which became effective on September 8, 2006 and was amended on June 22, 2009. This New M&A Rule, among other things, includes provisions that purport to require that an offshore special purpose vehicle formed for purposes of overseas listing of equity interests in PRC companies and controlled directly or indirectly by PRC companies or individuals obtain the approval of CSRC prior to the listing and trading of such special purpose vehicle’s securities on an overseas stock exchange.

 

On September 21, 2006, CSRC published on its official website procedures regarding its approval of overseas listings by special purpose vehicles. The CSRC approval procedures require the filing of a number of documents with the CSRC and it would take several months to complete the approval process. The application of this new PRC regulation remains unclear with no consensus currently existing among leading PRC law firms regarding the scope of the applicability of the CSRC approval requirement.

 

Our PRC counsel has advised us that, based on their understanding of the current PRC laws and regulations, that the corporate structure of the Group Companies shall not be deemed as “a foreign investor’s merger and acquisition of a domestic enterprise” as specified in the Article 2 of the New M&A Rule, so the Company is not required to obtain approval from the CSRC for listing and trading of its shares. However, uncertainties still exist as to how the New M&A Rule will be interpreted and implemented and our opinion stated above is subject to any new laws, rules and regulations or detailed implementations and interpretations in any form relating to the New M&A Rule.

 

Regulations on Offshore Parent Holding Companies’ Direct Investment in and Loans to Their PRC Subsidiaries

 

An offshore company may invest equity in a PRC company, which will become the PRC subsidiary of the offshore holding company after investment. Such equity investment is subject to a series of laws and regulations generally applicable to any foreign-invested enterprise in China, which include the Foreign Investment Law of the People’s Republic of China (2020) all as amended from time to time, and their respective implementing rules; the Administrative Provisions on Foreign Exchange in Domestic Direct Investment by Foreign Investors; and the Notice of the State Administration on Foreign Exchange on Further Improving and Adjusting Foreign Exchange Administration Policies for Direct Investment. Under the aforesaid laws and regulations, the increase of the registered capital of a foreign-invested enterprise is subject to the prior approval by the original approval authority of its establishment. In addition, the increase of registered capital and total investment amount shall both be registered with SAIC and SAFE. Shareholder loans made by offshore parent holding companies to their PRC subsidiaries are regarded as foreign debts in China for regulatory purpose, which is subject to a number of PRC laws and regulations, including the PRC Foreign Exchange Administration Regulations, the Interim Measures on Administration on Foreign Debts, the Tentative Provisions on the Statistics Monitoring of Foreign Debts and its implementation rules, and the Administration Rules on the Settlement, Sale and Payment of Foreign Exchange. Under these regulations, the shareholder loans made by offshore parent holding companies to their PRC subsidiaries shall be registered with SAFE. Furthermore, the total amount of foreign debts that can be borrowed by such PRC subsidiaries, including any shareholder loans, shall not exceed the difference between the total investment amount and the registered capital amount of the PRC subsidiaries, both of which are subject to the governmental approval.

 

53

 

 

ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

 

Overview

 

We are a global information technology (“IT”), consulting and solutions service provider focused on delivering services to global institutions in banking, insurance and financial sectors, both in China and globally. For more than ten years, we have served as an IT solutions provider to a growing network of clients in the global financial industry, including large financial institutions from the US, Europe, Australia, Southeast Asia. and Hong Kong, and their PRC-based IT centers. We have created and developed a particular market niche by providing turn-key financial solutions. Since our inception, we have aimed to build one of the largest sales and service delivery platforms for IT services and solutions in China. We are fully committed of providing digital transformation services with focused on financial and technology in the banking, wealth management, e-commerce, and automotive industries, among others, through the utilization of innovative technology to achieve our client’s goals. We maintain 18 delivery and/or R&D centers, of which ten are located in Mainland China (Shanghai, Beijing, Dalian, Tianjin, Baoding Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Hangzhou, and Suzhou) and eight are located globally (Hong Kong SAR, USA, UK, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, and India. By combining onsite or onshore support and consulting with scalable and high-efficiency offsite or offshore services and processing, we are able to meet client demands in a cost-effective manner while retaining significant operational flexibility. We believe that maintaining our Company as a proven, reliable partner to our financial industry clients both in China and globally positions us well to capture greater opportunities in the rapidly evolving global market for IT consulting and solutions.

 

Basis of Presentation

 

The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“US GAAP”) and pursuant to the rules and requirements of the Securities Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of CLPS and its consolidated subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated upon consolidation.

 

54

 

  

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results and the timing of selected events could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report.

 

Overview of Company

 

CLPS Incorporation (“CLPS” or the “Company”), is a company that was established under the laws of the Cayman Islands on May 11, 2017 as a holding company. The Company, through its subsidiaries, designs, builds, and delivers IT services, solutions and other services to clients in the financial services industry. The Company customizes its services to specific industries with customer service teams typically based on-site at the customer locations. The Company’s solutions enable its clients to meet the changing demands of an increasingly global, internet-driven, and competitive marketplace. Mr. Xiao Feng Yang, the Company’s Chairman of the Board, together with Mr. Raymond Ming Hui Lin, the Company’s Chief Executive Officer and Director are the controlling shareholders of the Company (the “Controlling Shareholders”).

 

A reorganization of the Company’s legal structure was completed on November 2, 2017. The reorganization involved the incorporation of CLPS, a Cayman Islands holding company; Qinheng Co., Limited (“Qinheng”) and Qiner Co., Limited (“Qiner”), two holding companies established in Hong Kong, and Shanghai Qincheng Information Technology Co., Ltd. (“CLPS QC” or “WOFE”) established in the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”); and the transfer of ChinaLink Professional Service Co., Ltd. (“CLPS Shanghai”) from the Controlling Shareholders to CLPS QC.

 

Prior to the reorganization, CLPS Shanghai’s equity interests were 100% controlled by the same group of Controlling Shareholders of CLPS. CLIVST and FDT-CL are subsidiaries of Qinheng. JQ Technology Co., Limited (“JQ”) and JIALIN Technology Limited (“JL”) are subsidiaries of Qiner since October 17, 2017. CLPS Dalian Co., Ltd. (“CLPS Dalian”), CLPS Ruicheng Co., Ltd. (“CLPS RC”), CLPS Beijing Hengtong Co., Ltd. (“CLPS Beijing”), CLPS Technology (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. (“CLPS SG”), CLPS Technology (Australia) Pty Ltd. (“CLPS-Ridik AU”), CLPS Technology (Hong Kong) Co., Limited (“CLPS Hong Kong”), Judge (Shanghai) Co., Ltd. (“Judge China”), Judge (Shanghai) Human Resource Co., Ltd. (“Judge HR”), CLPS Shenzhen Co., Ltd. (“CLPS Shenzhen”) and CLPS Guangzhou Co., Ltd. (“CLPS Guangzhou”) are all subsidiaries of CLPS Shanghai.

 

On July 25, 2017, the Company incorporated CLIVST, as a holding company, in BVI. On September 27, 2017 and October 24, 2017, the Company incorporated CLPS Guangzhou in Guangzhou, PRC and FDT-CL in Hong Kong. FDT-CL was liquidated on March 15, 2019. CLIVST was liquidated on June 20, 2019.

 

On September 27, 2017, the Company and a non-controlling interest shareholder of CLPS Beijing incorporated Tianjin Huanyu Qinshang Network Technology Co., Ltd. (“Huanyu”). The Company subscribed 30% of equity interest in Huanyu for $0.15 million (RMB 1,000,000). On May 24, 2019, the Company purchased the remaining 70% equity interest of Huanyu for consideration of $0.07 million (RMB 462,000) and waived the receivables due from the other shareholder in the amount of $29,133 (RMB200,000). The consideration was paid on May 28, 2019. As of June 30, 2019, the Company held 100% of Huanyu’s equity and Huanyu became our wholly-owned subsidiary since May 24, 2019.

 

On October 17, 2017, the Company acquired 55% of JQ equity interest and its 100% owned subsidiary – JL for a cash consideration of approximately $0.07 million to operate a software consulting business in Taiwan. In November 2018, the Company sold all the equity interest of JQ and JL for the consideration of $0.05 million (425,290 Hong Kong dollars) to the non-controlling shareholder of JQ and no consideration was paid due to the Company’s waiver.

 

On November 2, 2017, the Controlling Shareholders transferred their 100% ownership interests in CLPS Shanghai to CLPS QC and Qiner, which are 100% owned by Qinheng and CLPS. On October 31, 2017, the Controlling Shareholders transferred 100% of their equity interests in Qiner to CLPS. After the reorganization, CLPS owns 100% equity interests of the entities mentioned above. On December 7, 2017, the Board of Directors approved an amendment of the Article of Association of CLPS and a nominal share issuance to the existing shareholders. As a result, the existing shareholders own the same percentage of ownership in CLPS as their ownership interests in CLPS Shanghai prior to the reorganization. Since the Company and its subsidiaries are controlled by the same group of the shareholders before and after the reorganization. The above-mentioned transactions were accounted for as a recapitalization. The consolidation of the Company and its subsidiaries has been accounted for at historical cost and prepared on the basis as if the aforementioned transactions had become effective for all the periods presented in the consolidated financial statements.

 

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On June 5, 2018, the Company incorporated CLPS US to develop business in related areas. On January 2, 2020, CLPS US incorporated CLPS Technology (California) Inc. (“CLPS California”) to develop the business in related areas.

 

On June 13, 2018, the Company purchased a 2.7% equity interest in CLPS Lihong in Shanghai for consideration of $0.2 million (or approximately RMB 1,000,000) to develop business in the related area. On January 25, 2019, the above investment agreement of CLPS Lihong was terminated. On March 1, 2019, the Company purchased a 36.84% equity interest in CLPS Lihong at a cash consideration of $0.15 (RMB 1). In May 2019, the Company made capital contribution to CLPS Lihong of $1.01 million (RMB 7 million). In April 2020, the Company sold an 18.42% equity interest in CLPS Lihong for the consideration of $995,605 (RMB 7 million) to the third party and the consideration has been received as of June 30, 2020. After the third party’s capital increase in CLPS Lihong in April 2020, the Company’s remaining equity interest in CLPS Lihong was diluted to 7% as of June 30, 2020.

 

Prior to June 2018, the Company held a 70% equity interest of CLPS Beijing which primarily engages in software development. On June 27, 2018, Qiner entered into a new share purchase agreement and purchased the remaining 30% equity interest of CLPS Beijing for consideration of $0.6 million, holding 100% of CLPS Beijing’s equity interest. The consideration was paid on July 5, 2018. Prior to June 2018, the remaining 30% equity interest of CLPS Beijing was recorded as a non-controlling interest on the balance sheet. The Company engaged an independent valuation firm to assist management in assessing the enterprise value of CLPS Beijing. The enterprise value of CLPS Beijing as of June 27, 2018 was $1.94 million based on the evaluation report.

 

On August 15, 2018, the shareholders of CLPS SG and CLPS-Ridik AU were changed to Qiner from CLPS Shanghai pursuant to the share purchase agreements. Qiner purchased the 100% equity interest of CLPS SG and CLPS-Ridik AU from CLPS Shanghai for consideration of $0.6 million (or approximately 850,000 Singapore dollars) and $0.1 million (or approximately 200,000 Australian dollars), respectively. These transactions did not change the holding company’s ownership of these entities.

 

On August 20, 2018, CLPS SG acquired an 80% interest in Infogain Solutions PTE. Ltd. (“Infogain”) located in Singapore from Sharma Devendra Prasad and Deepak Malhotra with the final purchase price of $0.4 million (or approximately 576,000 Singapore dollars).

 

On April 3, 2019, Qiner purchased a 30% equity interest of Economic Modeling Information Technology Co., Ltd.(“EMIT”). The consideration is zero amount. Qiner subsequently made a capital contribution of $0.44 million (RMB 3 million) to EMIT directly. There is remaining capital contribution of $0.21 million not paid as of June 30, 2020.

 

On July 31, 2019, the Company incorporated CLPS Hangzhou Co., Ltd. (“CLPS Hangzhou”), to develop the business in related areas. 

 

On September 13, 2019, the Company incorporated CLPS Technology Japan (“CLPS Japan”) to develop business in related areas.

 

On September 26, 2019, Qiner acquired an 80% interest in Ridik Pte. Ltd. (“Ridik Pte.”) located in Singapore from Srustijeet Mishra and Routray Sibashis with the final purchase price of $2,462,580 (3,402,304 Singapore dollars), in the form of cash of $2,026,043 (2,799,180 Singapore dollars) and the Company’s common shares valued at $436,537 (603,123 Singapore dollars), respectively. Ridik Sdn. Bhd. (“Ridik Sdn.”), Ridik Software Solutions Pte. Ltd. (“Ridik Software Pte.”) and Ridik Software Solutions Ltd. (“Ridik Software”) are all subsidiaries of Ridik Pte.

 

Prior to December 2019, CLPS Shanghai held a 70% equity interest of CLPS Shenzhen and an 80% equity interest of CLPS Hong Kong, which held the remaining 30% equity interest of CLPS Shenzhen. And the remaining 20% equity interest of CLPS Hong Kong and remaining 6% equity interest of CLPS Shenzhen were recorded as non-controlling interests on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet. On December 9, 2019, Qiner acquired the remaining 20% equity interest of CLPS Hong Kong from non-controlling shareholder with the consideration of the Company’s 100,000 common shares, and became the sole shareholder of CLPS Hong Kong and CLPS Shenzhen.

 

On December 31, 2019, the Company incorporated Qinson Credit Card Services Limited (“Qinson”) to develop business in related areas.

 

On January 6, 2020, Ridik Pte. acquired 100% equity interest in Ridik Consulting Private Limited (“Ridik Consulting”) from third-party selling shareholders with the final purchase price of $5,520 (396,700 Indian Rupees).

 

The Company is dedicated to providing a full range of services and solutions across technology needs in finance. In recent years, we have both one of the largest IBM mainframe teams, and the largest VisionPLUS team in China, providing both development and implementation of core banking, credit card, online and e-commerce systems, as well as expertise across technology stacks including J2EE, .Net, C, C++ and mobile. We are ISO9001:2008 and CMMI 5 certified, and have been granted certificates of recognition by the Shanghai government, including Enterprise Software Certification, High-tech Enterprise, Little Giant Company for Science and Technology and Professional Talent Development Training Camp. In addition, the Company was recognized as one of the recipients of 2017 IDC China Top 25 FinTech Pioneers during the award ceremony spearheaded by IDC on August 25, 2017. The Company has also received the 2018 Fintech Brand Leadership Award at the China Finance Summit Winter Forum on November 30, 2018, in Beijing, China.

 

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Our operations are primarily based in China, where we derive a substantial portion of our revenues. For the years ended June 30, 2020, 2019 and 2018, our revenues were $89.4 million, $64.9 million and $48.9 million, respectively. Revenues generated outside of China were approximately $10.6 million, $4.5 million and $1.7 million for fiscal 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. We had a net income of $3.1 million in fiscal 2020, a net loss of $3.4 million in fiscal 2019, and a net income of $2.7 million in fiscal 2018, respectively. We had a non-GAAP net income of $7.1 million in fiscal 2020. Our total assets as of June 30, 2020 were $45.4 million of which cash and cash equivalent amounted to $12.7 million. Our total liabilities as of June 30, 2020 were $16.7 million.

 

Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations

 

We believe the most significant factors that affect our business and results of operations include the following:

 

  Our ability to obtain new clients and repeat business from existing clients. Revenues from individual clients typically grow over time as we seek to increase the number and scope of services provided to each client, and as clients increase the complexity and scope of the work outsourced to us. Therefore, our ability to obtain new clients, as well as our ability to maintain and increase business from our existing clients, has a significant effect on our results of operations and financial condition. During fiscal 2020, our revenue derived from our IT consulting services increased by 41.1% or $25.3 million from fiscal 2019, mainly attributable to revenue growth from our existing clients. IT consulting services revenue from new clients amounted to approximately $9.4 million in fiscal 2020. During fiscal 2019, our revenue derived from our IT consulting services increased by 30.9% or $14.6 million from fiscal 2018, mainly attributable to revenue growth from our existing clients. IT consulting services revenue from new clients amounted to approximately $4.9 million in fiscal 2019.

 

  Our ability to expand our portfolio of service offerings. We intend to increase our revenues by continuing to expand our service offerings, providing quality service to our existing customers and attracting new customers. Through research and development, targeted hiring and strategic acquisitions, we have proactively invested in broadening our existing service lines, including those for serving our specific industry verticals.

 

  Our ability to attract, retain and motivate qualified employees. Our ability to attract, train and retain a large and cost-effective pool of qualified professionals, including our ability to leverage and expand our proprietary database of qualified IT professionals, to develop additional joint training programs with universities, and our employees’ job satisfaction, will affect our financial performance.

 

We use the following key operating metrics to oversee and manage the Company’s business: (i) developing new business, (ii) spearheaded by the CLPS Academy, focusing on the TCP/TDP training programs to provide highly trained and qualified employees to the clients; and (iii) retaining employees to continue to meet client ever-changing needs.

 

Our objective is to create value for both our customers and shareholders by enhancing our position as a leading IT services provider in the banking industry in China. We believe our strategic initiatives will continue to generate our sales growth, allow us to focus on managing capital, leveraging costs and driving margins to produce profitability and return on investment for our stockholders.

 

Acquisitions and Investments

 

Acquisition of Judge China

 

On November 9, 2016, CLPS Shanghai acquired 60% of Judge China and its 70% owned subsidiary Judge HR from Judge Company Asia Limited (“Judge Asia”) with the final purchase price of $480,061 (RMB 3.25 million). The Company funded the acquisition with cash consideration of $454,388 (RMB 3.05 million) and a payable to Judge Asia of $128,928 (RMB 0.9 million), of which $103,255 (RMB 0.7 million) was subsequently offset with the Company’s receivables from Judge Asia.

 

The transaction was accounted for as a business combination using the purchase method of accounting. The purchase price allocation of the transaction was determined by the Company with the assistance of an independent appraisal firm based on the estimated fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed as of the acquisition date. The purchase price allocation to assets acquired and liabilities assumed as of the date of acquisition was as follows:

 

    Amounts  
Cash acquired   $ 268,014  
Accounts receivable, net     325,888  
Prepayments, deposits and other assets, net     67,570  
Property and equipment, net     1,875  
Intangible assets, net     339,883  
Salaries and benefits payable     (86,483 )
Tax payables     (16,147 )
Accounts payable and other current liabilities     (259,361 )
Deferred tax liabilities     (65,264 )
Non-controlling interests     (290,994 )
Goodwill     195,080  
Total consideration   $ 480,061  

 

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The intangible assets include customer contracts of $339,883, which were acquired by Judge China in 2013 with an estimated useful life of 10 years. The goodwill is mainly attributable to the excess of the consideration paid over the fair value of the net assets acquired that cannot be recognized separately as identifiable assets under U.S. GAAP, and comprises (a) the assembled work force and (b) the expected but unidentifiable business growth as a result of the synergy resulting from the acquisition.

 

Investment in Huanyu

 

On September 27, 2017, the Company made an investment of $0.15 million (RMB 1,000,000) for a 30% of equity interest in Huanyu which was accounted for as an equity method investment. On May 24, 2019, the Company purchased the remaining 70% equity interest of Huanyu for $0.07 million (RMB 462,000) and became the sole shareholder of Huanyu.

 

The transaction was accounted for as a business combination using the purchase method of accounting. As the business combination was achieved in stages, the Company remeasured its previously held 30% of equity interest in Huanyu at its acquisition date fair value of $152,312. A loss of $19,682 was recognized in subsidies and other income net in relation to the remeasurement. The valuation considered a discount for lack of control premium and lack of marketability applied to the fair value of the acquired business of Huanyu, which was determined using the income approach.

 

The purchase price allocation of the transaction was determined by the Company with the assistance of an independent appraisal firm based on the estimated fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed as of the acquisition date. The purchase price allocation to assets acquired and liabilities assumed as of the date of acquisition was as follows:

 

    Amounts  
Cash acquired   $ 79,156  
Accounts receivable, net     87,674  
Prepayments, deposits and other assets, net     7,707  
Accounts payable and other current liabilities     (5,310 )
Goodwill     50,045  
Previous held equity interests     152,312  
Cash consideration     66,960  
Total consideration   $ 219,272  

 

The goodwill is mainly attributable to the excess of the consideration paid over the fair value of the net assets acquired that cannot be recognized separately as identifiable assets under U.S. GAAP, and comprise the expected but unidentifiable business growth as a result of the synergy resulting from the acquisition. The goodwill is not tax deductible. No intangible assets were identified from the acquisition.

  

For the period from July 1, 2018 to the acquisition date of May 24, 2019 and for the year ended June 30, 2018, 30% of Huanyu’s results of operations was income of $35,049 (RMB 239,073) and loss of $8,684 (RMB56,461), respectively.

 

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In November 2018, the Company sold all the equity interest of JQ and JL for the consideration of $0.05 million (425,290 Hong Kong dollars) to the non-controlling shareholder of JQ and no consideration was paid due to the Company’s waiver. 

 

Acquisition of Infogain

 

On August 20, 2018, CLPS SG acquired an 80% equity in Infogain located in Singapore from Sharma Devendra Prasad and Deepak Malhotra with the final purchase price of $0.4 million (or approximately 576,000 Singapore dollars).

 

The transaction was accounted for as a business combination using the purchase method of accounting. The purchase price allocation of the transaction was determined by the Company with the assistance of an independent appraisal firm based on the estimated fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed as of the acquisition date. The most significant variables in the valuation are discount rate, terminal value, the number of years on which to base the cash flow projections, as well as the assumptions and estimates used to determine the cash inflows and outflows. The purchase price allocation to assets acquired and liabilities assumed as of the date of acquisition was as follows:

 

    Amounts  
Cash acquired   $ 6,843  
Accounts receivable     458,943  
Prepayment and other receivable     14,454  
Property and equipment, net     1,190  
Intangible assets, net     337,685  
Other payable and other current liabilities     (504,235 )
Deferred tax liabilities     (57,406 )
Non-controlling interests     (64,879 )
Goodwill     227,506  
Total consideration   $ 420,101  

 

Identifiable intangible assets acquired include customer contracts, which were valued using an income approach and determined to carry estimated remaining useful lives of approximately three years. The goodwill recognized represents the expected synergies and is not tax deductible.

  

Investment in CLPS Lihong

 

On March 1, 2019, the Company purchased a 36.84% equity interest in CLPS Lihong at a cash consideration of $0.15 (RMB 1) on the condition that the Company could inject capital of $1.01 million (RMB 7 million) into CLPS Lihong. In May 2019, the Company made capital contribution to CLPS Lihong of $1.01 million (RMB 7 million). The Company accounts for the investment in CLPS Lihong as an equity method investment due to its significant influence over the entity. For the year ended June 30, 2019, the Company’s share of CLPS Lihong’s results of operations was loss of $176,148 (RMB 1,201,523).

 

In April 2020, the Company sold an 18.42% equity interest in CLPS Lihong to the third party for the consideration of $995,605 (RMB 7 million) which was received as of June 30, 2020. Concurrently CLPS Lihong raised additional capital from other third party investors, and the Company’s remaining equity interest in CLPS Lihong was diluted to 7% as of June 30, 2020. The Company recognized the remaining equity interest in CLPS Lihong as equity investment without readily determined fair value since May 2020. For the period from July 1, 2019 to April 30, 2020, the Company’s share of CLPS Lihong’s results of operations was income of $250,290 (RMB 1,759,764).

 

Investment in CLPS Beijing

 

Prior to June 2018, the Company held a 70% equity interest of CLPS Beijing which primarily engages in software development. On June 27, 2018, Qiner entered into a new share purchase agreement and purchased the remaining 30% equity interest of CLPS Beijing for consideration of $0.6 million and became the sole shareholder of CLPS Beijing. The consideration was paid on July 5, 2018. Prior to June 2018, the remaining 30% equity interest of CLPS Beijing was recorded as non-controlling interests on the balance sheet. The Company engaged an independent valuation firm to assist management in assessing the enterprise value of CLPS Beijing. The enterprise value of CLPS Beijing as of June 27, 2018 was $1.94 million based on the third-party valuation report.

 

Investment in EMIT

 

On April 3, 2019, Qiner purchased a 30% equity interest of EMIT at nil consideration. with a committed to invest $445,454.14 (RMB 3,000,000.00) in total within 20 years. During the years ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, the Company made capital contribution to EMIT of $143,299 (RMB 1,000,000.00) and $73,593 (RMB500,000.00), respectively. The Company accounts for the investment in EMIT as an equity method investment due to its significant influence over the entity. For the years ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, the Company’s share of EMIT’s results of operations was a loss of $42,927 (RMB 301,878) and $4,230 (RMB 28,853), respectively. As the end of June 30, 2020 and 2019, the committed but not yet made investment in EMIT was $228,561 (RMB 1,500,000.00) and $371,860 (RMB 2,500,000.00), respectively.

 

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Acquisition of Ridik Pte. and Ridik Consulting

 

On September 26, 2019, Qiner acquired an 80% equity interest in Ridik Pte. Ltd. (“Ridik Pte.”) located in Singapore from third-party selling shareholders with the final purchase price of $2,462,580 (3,402,304 Singapore dollars), in the form of cash of $2,026,043 (2,799,180 Singapore dollars) and the Company’s common shares valued at $436,537 (603,123 Singapore dollars), respectively. Ridik Sdn. Bhd. (“Ridik Sdn.”), Ridik Software Solutions Pte. Ltd. (“Ridik Software Pte.”) and Ridik Software Solutions Ltd. (“Ridik Software”) are all subsidiaries of Ridik Pte.

 

The transactions were accounted for as business combinations using the purchase method of accounting. The purchase price allocations of the transactions were determined by the Company with the assistance of an independent appraisal firm based on the estimated fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed as of the acquisition dates. The most significant variables in the valuation are discount rates, terminal value, the number of years on which to base the cash flow projections, as well as the assumptions and estimates used to determine the cash inflows and outflows. The purchase price allocation to assets acquired and liabilities assumed as of the date of acquisition was as follows:

 

    Amounts  
Cash acquired   $ 474,323  
Accounts receivable, net     618,144  
Prepayments, deposits and other assets, net     103,697  
Property and equipment, net     1,493  
Customer relationship     904,748  
Short-term bank loans     (48,103 )
Accounts payable and other current liabilities     (128,688 )
Tax payables     (102,978 )
Salaries and benefits payable     (431,548 )
Long-term bank loans     (44,201 )
Deferred tax liabilities     (162,855 )
Non-controlling interests     (411,351 )
Goodwill     1,689,899  
Total consideration   $ 2,462,580  

 

Identifiable intangible assets acquired included customer relationship, which was valued using an income approach and determined to carry estimated remaining useful life of approximately ten years.

 

On January 6, 2020, Ridik Pte. acquired 100% equity interest in Ridik Consulting Private Limited (“Ridik Consulting”) from third-party selling shareholders with the final purchase price of $5,520 (396,700 Indian Rupees). The fair value of the net liabilities acquired was $3,839 (275,800 Indian Rupees) and goodwill was recognized at $9,359 (672,500 Indian Rupees).

 

The goodwill recognized represents the expected synergies and is not tax deductible.

   

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Results of Operations

 

Results of Operations for Continuing Operations

 

The following table sets forth a summary of our consolidated statements of operations for the periods indicated.

 

    For the years ended June 30,  
    2020     2019     2018  
                   
Revenues   $ 89,415,798     $ 64,932,937     $ 48,938,593  
Less: Cost of revenues     (58,296,097 )     (41,178,356 )     (31,277,255 )
Gross profit     31,119,701       23,754,581       17,661,338  
                         
Operating expenses:                        
Selling and marketing expenses     3,059,877       2,179,029       2,225,702  
Research and development expenses     10,436,975       7,978,883       7,837,873  
General and administrative expenses     16,343,936       17,384,393       5,871,622  
Total operating expenses     29,840,788       27,542,305       15,935,197  
Income (loss) from operation     1,278,913       (3,787,724 )     1,726,141  
Subsidies and other income, net     2,535,868       779,508       960,784  
Other expenses     (107,322 )     (92,429 )     (84,155 )
                         
Income (loss) before income tax and share of loss in equity investees     3,707,459       (3,100,645 )     2,602,770  
Provision (benefits) for income taxes     835,444       186,615       (112,128 )
Income (loss) before share of income (loss) in equity investees     2,872,015       (3,287,260 )     2,714,898  
Share of income (loss) in equity investees, net of tax    

207,363

      (145,329 )     -  
Net income (loss)     3,079,378       (3,432,589 )     2,714,898  
Less: Net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interests     141,139       (162,813 )     280,435  
Net income (loss) attributable to CLPS Incorporation’s shareholders   $ 2,938,239     $ (3,269,776 )   $ 2,434,463  
                         
Basic earnings (loss) per common share     0.20       (0.24 )     0.21  
Weighted average number of share outstanding – basic     14,689,224       13,843,764       11,517,123  
Diluted earnings (loss) per common shar     0.20       (0.24 )     0.21  
Weighted average number of share outstanding – diluted     14,692,299       13,843,764       11,636,367  
                         
Supplemental information:                        
Non-GAAP income before income tax     7,711,539       3,915,444       2,602,770  
Non-GAAP net income     7,083,458       3,583,500       2,714,898  
Non-GAAP net income attributable to CLPS Incorporation’s shareholders     6,942,319       3,746,313       2,434,463  
Non-GAAP basic earnings per common share     0.47       0.27       0.21  
Weighted average number of share outstanding – basic     14,689,224       13,843,764       11,517,123  
Non-GAAP diluted earnings per common share     0.47       0.27       0.21  
Weighted average number of share outstanding – diluted     14,692,299       13,969,436       11,636,367  

 

Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures

 

The consolidated financial information is prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”), except that the consolidated statement of changes in shareholders’ equity, consolidated statements of cash flows, and the detailed notes have not been presented. The Company uses non-GAAP income before income tax and share of loss of equity investees, non-GAAP net income attributable to the Company, and basic and diluted non-GAAP net income per share, which are non-GAAP financial measures. Non-GAAP income before income tax and share of loss of equity investees is income before income tax and share of loss of equity investees excluding share-based compensation expenses. Non-GAAP net income attributable to the Company is net income attributable to the Company excluding share-based compensation expenses. Basic and diluted non-GAAP net income per share is non-GAAP net income attributable to common shareholders divided by weighted average number of shares used in the calculation of basic and diluted net income per share. The Company believes that separate analysis and exclusion of the non-cash impact of share-based compensation expenses clarity to the constituent parts of its performance. The Company reviews these non-GAAP financial measures together with GAAP financial measures to obtain a better understanding of its operating performance. It uses the non-GAAP financial measure for planning, forecasting and measuring results against the forecast. The Company believes that non-GAAP financial measures are useful supplemental information for investors and analysts to assess its operating performance without the effect of non-cash share-based compensation expenses, which have been and will continue to be significant recurring expenses in its business. However, the use of non-GAAP financial measures has material limitations as an analytical tool. One of the limitations of using non-GAAP financial measures is that they do not include all items that impact the Company’s net income for the period. In addition, because non-GAAP financial measures are not measured in the same manner by all companies, they may not be comparable to other similar titled measures used by other companies. In light of the foregoing limitations, you should not consider non-GAAP financial measure in isolation from or as an alternative to the financial measure prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

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The presentation of these non-GAAP financial measures is not intended to be considered in isolation from, or as a substitute for, the financial information prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The following table sets forth a reconciliation of non-GAAP general and administrative expense, non-GAAP income before income tax and share of loss of equity investees, non-GAAP net income, non-GAAP net income attributable to CLPS Incorporation’s shareholders, and non-GAAP Basic and diluted earnings per common share for the periods indicated:

 

    For the year ended
June 30,
2020
 
       
Cost of revenues     58,296,097  
Less: share-based compensation expenses     14,110  
         
Non-GAAP cost of revenues     58,281,987  
         
Selling and marketing expenses     3,059,877  
Less: share-based compensation expenses     211,573  
         
Non-GAAP selling and marketing expenses     2,848,304  
         
General and administrative expenses     16,343,936  
Less: share-based compensation expenses     3,778,397  
         
Non-GAAP general and administrative expenses     12,565,539  
         
Income before income tax     3,707,459  
Add: share-based compensation expenses     4,004,080  
         
Non-GAAP income before income tax and share of income of equity investees     7,711,539  
         
Net income     3,079,378  
Add: share-based compensation expenses     4,004,080  
         
Non-GAAP net income     7,083,458  
         
Net income attributable to CLPS Incorporation’s shareholders     2,938,239  
Add: share-based compensation expenses     4,004,080  
         
Non-GAAP net income attributable to CLPS Incorporation’s shareholders     6,942,319  
         
Weighted average number of share outstanding used in computing GAAP and non-GAAP basic earnings     14,689,224  
GAAP basic earnings per common share     0.20  
Add: share-based compensation expenses     0.27  
Non-GAAP basic earnings per common share     0.47  
         
Weighted average number of share outstanding used in computing GAAP diluted earnings     14,692,299  
Add: effect of dilutive securities     -  
Weighted average number of share outstanding used in computing non-GAAP diluted earnings     14,692,299  
         
GAAP diluted earnings per common share     0.20  
Add: share-based compensation expenses     0.27  
Non-GAAP diluted earnings per common share     0.47  

 

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For the Years Ended June 30, 2020 and 2019

 

Revenues 

 

We derive revenues by providing integrated IT services and solutions, including: (i) IT consulting services, which primarily includes application development services for banks and institutions in the financial industry, which are billed on a time-and-expense basis, (ii) customized IT solutions services, which primarily includes customized solution development and maintenance service for general enterprises with acceptance requirement, which are billed either on a time-and-expense basis with enforceable right to payment or on a fixed-price basis, and (iii) other revenue from product and third-party software sales, training and headhunting.

 

Our customer contracts may be categorized by pricing model into time-and-expense contracts and fixed-price contracts. Under time-and-expense contracts, we are compensated for actual time incurred by our IT professionals at negotiated daily billing rates. We are also entitled to charge overtime fees in addition to the daily billing rates under some time-and-expense contracts.  Fixed-price contracts require us to develop customized IT solutions throughout the contractual period, and we are paid in installments upon completion of specified milestones under the contracts.

 

The following table presents our revenues by our service lines.

 

    For the Year ended June 30,  
    2020     2019              
    Revenue     % of total
Revenue
    Revenue     % of total
Revenue
    Variance    

Variance

%

 
                                     
IT consulting services   $ 87,136,754       97.5 %   $ 61,755,355       95.1 %   $ 25,381,399       41.1 %
Customized IT solution services     1,844,891       2.1 %     3,041,482       4.7 %     (1,196,591 )     (39.3 )%
Other     434,153       0.5 %     136,100       0.2 %     298,053       219.0 %
Total   $ 89,415,798       100.0 %   $ 64,932,937       100.0 %   $ 24,482,861       37.7 %

  

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Our total revenues increased by approximately $24.5 million, or 37.7%, to approximately $89.4 million for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2020 from approximately $64.9 million for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2019. The overall growth in our revenues reflects an increase in revenues from our IT consulting services and derived primarily from existing customers.

 

For the year ended June 30, 2020, revenue derived from our IT consulting services increased by 41.1% to $87.1 million from $61.8 million in fiscal 2019, primarily reflecting the increasing demands for our IT consulting services from banks and other financial institutions. For fiscal 2020 and 2019, 40.0% and 47.5% of our IT consulting services revenue were from international banks, respectively. In fiscal 2020, we strengthened our expertise in the financial industry to leverage our existing industry knowledge and grew our customer base of local Chinese financial institutions.

  

Revenue from customized IT solution services decreased by $1.2 million, or 39.3%, to $1.8 million for the year ended June 30, 2020, from $3.0 million in the same period of the previous year. The decrease was primarily due to decreasing demand from existing clients.

 

Revenue from other services increased by $0.3 million, or 219.0%, to $0.4 million for the year ended June 30, 2020, from $0.1 million in the prior year period.

 

The number of clients increased by 53, or 30%, to 227 for the year ended June 30, 2020 from 174 in the prior year period. Revenues from top five clients accounted for 47.3% and 50.7% of the Company’s total revenues for fiscal 2020 and 2019, respectively, which reflects decreased in revenue dependence from major clients.

 

Revenue generated outside of mainland China for the year ended June 30, 2020 accounted for 11.8% of total revenue compared to 7.0% in the prior year period. The increase in revenue generated outside of mainland China reflects the Company’s successful and continuous global expansion strategy.

 

Cost of revenues

 

Our cost of revenues mainly consisted of compensation benefit expenses for our IT professionals, travel expenses and material costs. Our cost of revenues increased by $17.1 million or 41.6% to approximately $58.3 million in fiscal 2020 from approximately $41.2 million in fiscal 2019 primarily as a result of increased revenue, therefore resulting in increased headcount, expanded office facilities and increase of depreciation and amortization expenses to enable and match the growth of our business revenue. As a percentage of revenues, our cost of revenues was 65.2% and 63.4% for fiscal 2020 and 2019, respectively. Our total number of employees grew from 2,085 employees as of June 30, 2019 to 2,746 employees as of June 30, 2020.

 

Gross profit and gross margin

 

Our gross profit increased by $7.3 million, or 31.0%, to approximately $31.1 million in fiscal 2020 from approximately $23.8 million in fiscal 2019. The higher gross profit in fiscal 2020 was primarily attributable to the increase in our billing rates of both IT consulting services and customized IT solution services. Also, customized IT solution services contribute favorably to our client retention and understanding of our clients’ businesses and provide opportunities to cross-sell our other services. Gross margin decreased to 34.8% in fiscal 2020 from 36.6% for the same period of last year.

 

Selling and marketing expenses

 

Selling and marketing expenses primarily consisted of salary and compensation expenses relating to our sales and marketing personnel, and also included entertainment, travel and transportation, and other expenses relating to our marketing activities.

 

Selling and marketing expenses increased by $0.9 million or 40.4% from $2.2 million in fiscal 2019 to $3.1 million in fiscal 2020. Accordingly, as a percentage of sales, our selling expenses were 3.4% of revenues in fiscal 2020 same as 3.4% in fiscal 2019. We expect our selling and marketing expenses to increase as we continue our business expansion, we expect these expenses to remain relatively steady as a percentage of our net revenues to support our business growth in the future.

 

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Research and development (“R&D”) expenses

 

R&D expenses primarily consisted of compensation and benefit expenses relating to our research and development personnel as well as office overhead and other expenses relating to our R&D activities. Our R&D expenses were $10.4 million in fiscal 2020, which increased by $2.4 million or 30.8% compared to $8.0 million in fiscal 2019, representing 11.7% and 12.3% of our total revenues for fiscal 2020 and 2019, respectively. We expect to keep our investment in research and development relatively stable to enhance our industry knowledge, improve our competitiveness and enable us to identify attractive market opportunities for new and enhanced services and solutions.

 

General and administrative expenses 

 

General and administrative expenses primarily consisted of salary and compensation expenses relating to our finance, legal, human resources and executive office personnel, and included share-based compensation expenses, rental expenses, depreciation and amortization expenses, office overhead, professional service fees and travel and transportation costs.

 

General and administrative expenses decreased by $1.1 million, or 6.0%, to $16.3 million in fiscal 2020 from $17.4 million in the prior year. After the deduction of $3.8 million non-cash share-based compensation expenses related to the grants under the 2017 and 2019 Incentive Compensation Plan, non-GAAP general and administrative expenses increased by $2.1 million, or 20.5%, to $12.6 million in fiscal 2020 from $10.4 million in the same period of the previous year. The increase in non-GAAP administrative expenses was primarily due to an increase in administrative personnel and M&A related expenses as a result of business expansion.

 

Subsidies and other income, net

 

Subsidies and other income, net primarily included government subsidies which represented amounts granted by local government authorities as a general incentive for us to promote development of the local technology industry. The Company records government subsidies in subsidies and other income upon received and when there is no further performance obligation. Total government subsidies amounted to $1.8 million and $0.7 million for the years ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

 

Income (loss) before income taxes and share of income (loss) in equity investees

 

Income (loss) before income taxes and share of income (loss) in equity investees increased by $6.8 million to a $3.7 million income in fiscal 2020 from a loss of $3.1 million in fiscal 2019. After the deduction of non-cash share-based compensation expenses, non-GAAP income before income taxes and share of income in equity investees increased by $3.8 million, or 97%, to $7.7 million in fiscal 2020 from $3.9 million in the same period of the previous year.

 

Provision (benefits) for income taxes 

 

Our provision for income taxes in fiscal 2020 increased by $0.6 million to $0.8 million from $0.2 million benefit for income taxes in fiscal 2019, mainly due to the increase of Company’s income before tax and the reversal of the beginning balances of deferred tax assets related to the net operating losses for some of the Company’s subsidiaries.

 

Share of income (loss) in equity investees, net of tax

 

The share of income in equity investees, net of tax in fiscal 2020 was net equity investment income of Lihong and EMIT. The share of loss in equity investees, net of tax in fiscal 2019 was equity investment loss of Huanyu, Lihong and EMIT.

 

Net income (loss) 

 

Net income increased by $6.5 million to an income of $3.1 million in fiscal 2020 from a loss of $3.4 million in fiscal 2019. After the deduction of $4.0 million non-cash share-based compensation expenses, non-GAAP net income increased by $3.5 million, or 97.7%, to $7.1 million in fiscal 2020 from $3.6 million in the previous year.

 

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Other comprehensive income (loss)

 

Foreign currency translation adjustments amounted to loss of $0.5 and $0.4 million for the years ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The balance sheet amounts with the exception of equity as of June 30, 2020 were translated at 7.0651 RMB to 1.00 USD as compared to 6.8650 RMB to 1.00 USD as of June 30, 2019. The equity accounts were stated at their historical rate. The average translation rates applied to the income statements accounts for the years ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 were 7.0309 RMB to 1.00 USD and 6.8211 RMB to 1.00 USD, respectively. The change in the value of the RMB relative to the U.S. dollar may affect our financial results reported in the U.S, dollar terms without giving effect to any underlying change in our business or results of operation.

 

For the Years Ended June 30, 2019 and 2018

 

Revenues 

 

We derive revenues by providing integrated IT services and solutions, including: (i) IT consulting services, which primarily includes application development services for banks and institutions in the financial industry, which are billed on a time-and-expense basis, (ii) customized IT solutions services, which primarily includes customized solution development and maintenance service for general enterprises, which are billed on a fixed-price basis, and (iii) other revenue from product and third-party software sales.

 

Our customer contracts may be categorized by pricing model into time-and-expense contracts and fixed-price contracts. Under time-and-expense contracts, we are compensated for actual time incurred by our IT professionals at negotiated daily billing rates. We are also entitled to charge overtime fees in addition to the daily billing rates under some time-and-expense contracts.  Fixed-price contracts require us to develop customized IT solutions throughout the contractual period, and we are paid in installments upon completion of specified milestones under the contracts with enforceable right to payments.

 

For fiscal 2019 and 2018, most of our time-and-expense contracts were generated by our IT consulting services for clients in the financial industry. In comparison, all of our fixed-price contracts were generated by our customized IT solution business for clients in the financial industry and others.

 

The following table presents our revenues by our service lines.

 

 

    For the Year ended June 30,  
    2019     2018              
    Revenue     % of total
Revenue
    Revenue     % of total
Revenue
    Variance     Variance
%
 
                                     
IT consulting services   $ 61,755,355       95.1 %   $ 47,159,651       96.4 %   $ 14,595,704       30.9 %
Customized IT solution services     3,041,482       4.7 %     1,634,100       3.3 %     1,407,382       86.1 %
Other     136,100       0.2 %     144,842       0.3 %     (8,742 )     (6.0 )%
Total   $ 64,932,937       100.0 %   $ 48,938,593       100.0 %   $ 15,994,344       32.7 %

 

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Our total revenues increased by approximately $16.0 million, or 32.7%, to approximately $64.9 million for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2019 from approximately $48.9 million for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2018. The overall growth in our revenues reflects an increase in revenues from our IT consulting services and derived primarily from existing customers.

 

For the year ended June 30, 2019, revenue derived from our IT consulting services increased by 30.9% to $61.8 million from $47.2 million in fiscal 2018, primarily reflecting the increasing demands for our IT consulting services from banks and other financial institutions. For fiscal 2019 and 2018, 47.5% and 46.8% of our IT consulting services revenue were from international banks. In fiscal 2019, we strengthened our expertise in the financial industry to leverage our existing industry knowledge and grew our customer base of local Chinese financial institutions.

 

Cost of revenues

 

Our cost of revenues mainly consisted of compensation benefit expenses for our IT professionals, travel expenses and material costs. Our cost of revenues increased by $9.9 million or 31.7% to approximately $41.2 million in fiscal 2019 from approximately $31.3 million in fiscal 2018 primarily as a result of increased revenue, therefore resulting in increased headcount, expanded office facilities and increase of depreciation and amortization expenses to enable and match the growth of our business revenue. As a percentage of revenues, our cost of revenues was 63.4% and 63.9% for fiscal 2019 and 2018, respectively. Our total number of employees grew from 1,655 employees as of June 30, 2018 to 2,085 employees as of June 30, 2019.

 

Gross profit and gross margin

 

Our gross profit increased by $6.1 million, or 34.5%, to approximately $23.8 million in fiscal 2019 from approximately $17.7 million in fiscal 2018. The higher gross profit in fiscal 2019 was primarily attributable to the increase in our billing rates of both IT consulting services and customized IT solution services. Also, customized IT solution services contribute favorably to our client retention and understanding of our clients’ businesses and provide opportunities to cross-sell our other services. Gross margin increased to 36.6% in fiscal 2019 from 36.1% for the same period of last year.

 

Selling and marketing expenses

 

Selling and marketing expenses primarily consisted of salary and compensation expenses relating to our sales and marketing personnel, and also included entertainment, travel and transportation, and other expenses relating to our marketing activities.

 

Selling and marketing expenses decreased by $0.05 million or 2.1% from $2.23 million in fiscal 2018 to $2.18 million in fiscal 2019. Accordingly, as a percentage of sales, our selling expenses were 3.4% of revenues in fiscal 2019 as compared to 4.5% in fiscal 2018. While we expect our selling and marketing expenses to increase as we continue our business expansion, we expect these expenses to remain relatively steady as a percentage of our net revenues to support our business growth in the future.

 

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Research and development (“R&D”) expenses

 

R&D expenses primarily consisted of compensation and benefit expenses relating to our research and development personnel as well as office overhead and other expenses relating to our R&D activities. Our R&D expenses were $8.0 million in fiscal 2019, which was stable compared to $7.8 million in fiscal 2018, representing 12.3% and 16.0% of our total revenues for fiscal 2019 and 2018, respectively. We expect to increase our investment in research and development to enhance our industry knowledge, improve our competitiveness and enable us to identify attractive market opportunities for new and enhanced services and solutions.

 

General and administrative expenses 

 

General and administrative expenses primarily consisted of salary and compensation expenses relating to our finance, legal, human resources and executive office personnel, and included share-based compensation expenses, rental expenses, depreciation and amortization expenses, office overhead, professional service fees and travel and transportation costs.

 

General and administrative expenses increased by $11.5 million, or 196.1%, to $17.4 million in fiscal 2019 from $5.9 million in the prior year. The increase was primarily due to an addition of $7.0 million non-cash share-based compensation expenses related to the grants under the 2017 Incentive Compensation Plan. After the deduction of non-cash share-based compensation expenses, non-GAAP general and administrative expenses increased by $4.5 million, or 77.5%, to $10.4 million in fiscal 2019 from $5.9 million in the same period of the previous year. The increase in Non-GAAP general and administrative expenses was primarily due to routine expenses incurred after going public and due to a year-over-year increase in salary and compensation expenses.

 

Subsidies and other income, net

 

Subsidies and other income, net primarily included government subsidies which represented amounts granted by local government authorities as a general incentive for us to promote development of the local technology industry. The Company records government subsidies in subsidies and other income upon received and when there is no further performance obligation. Total government subsidies amounted to $0.7 million and $0.9 million for the years ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

 

Income (loss) before income taxes and share of loss in equity investees

 

Income (loss) before income taxes and share of loss in equity investees decreased by $5.7 million to a $3.1 million loss in fiscal 2019 from an income of $2.6 million in fiscal 2018. After the deduction of non-cash share-based compensation expenses, non-GAAP income before income taxes and share of loss in equity investees increased by $1.3 million, or 50.4%, to $3.9 million in fiscal 2019 from $2.6 million in the same period of the previous year.

 

Provision (benefits) for income taxes 

 

Our provision for income taxes in fiscal 2019 increased by $0.3 million to $0.2 million from $0.1 million benefit for income taxes in fiscal 2018, mainly due to the Company’s reversal of the beginning balances of deferred tax assets related to the net operating losses for some of the Company’s subsidiaries.

 

Share of loss in equity investees, net of tax

 

The share of loss in equity investees, net of tax in fiscal 2019 was equity investment loss of Huanyu, Lihong and EMIT.

 

Net income (loss)

 

Net income decreased by $6.1million to a loss of $3.4 million in fiscal 2019 from an income of $2.7 million in fiscal 2018. The decrease in net income was due to the increase in non-cash share-based compensation expenses. After the deduction of non-cash share-based compensation expenses, non-GAAP net income increased by $0.9 million, or 32.0%, to $3.6 million in fiscal 2019 from $2.7 million in the previous year.

 

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Other comprehensive income (loss)

 

Foreign currency translation adjustments amounted to a loss of $0.4 million and a gain of $0.06 million for the years ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively. The balance sheet amounts with the exception of equity as of June 30, 2019 were translated at 6.8650 RMB to 1.00 USD as compared to 6.6171 RMB to 1.00 USD as of June 30, 2018. The equity accounts were stated at their historical rate. The average translation rates applied to the income statements accounts for the years ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 were 6.8211 RMB to 1.00 USD and 6.5023 RMB to 1.00 USD, respectively. The change in the value of the RMB relative to the U.S. dollar may affect our financial results reported in the U.S, dollar terms without giving effect to any underlying change in our business or results of operation.

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

As of June 30, 2020, we had cash and cash equivalents of approximately $12.7 million. Our current assets were approximately $40.5 million, and our current liabilities were approximately $16.5 million. Total shareholders’ equity as of June 30, 2020 was approximately $28.6 million. We believe that we will have sufficient working capital to operate our business for the next 12 months from the issuance date of this report.

 

Substantially all of our operations are conducted in China and all of our revenue, expenses, cash and cash equivalents are denominated in RMB. RMB is subject to the exchange control regulation in China, and, as a result, we may have difficulty distributing any dividends outside of China due to PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert RMB into U.S. dollars. As of June 30, 2020, cash and cash equivalents of approximately $11,027,764, $940,854, $8,350, $516,816, $1,496, $58,789 and $98,051 were held by the Company and its subsidiaries in Mainland China, Singapore, Australia, Hong Kong, India, Malaysia and Japan, respectively. We would need to accrue and pay withholding taxes if we were to distribute funds from our subsidiaries in China to our offshore subsidiaries. We do not intend to repatriate such funds in the foreseeable future, as we plan to use existing cash balance in PRC for general corporate purposes.

 

In assessing our liquidity, we monitor and analyze our cash on hand, our ability to generate sufficient revenue sources in the future and our operating and capital expenditure commitments. The Company plans to fund working capital through its operations, bank borrowings and additional capital contribution from shareholders. Our operating cash flow was positive for the year ended June 30, 2020. We have historically funded our working capital needs primarily from operations, advance payments from customers and loans from shareholders. Our working capital requirements are affected by the efficiency of our operations, the numerical volume and dollar value of our sales contracts, the progress or execution on our customer contracts, and the timing of accounts receivable collections.

 

The following table sets forth summary of our cash flows for the periods indicated:

 

    For the Years Ended June 30,  
    2020     2019     2018  
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities   $ 5,931,124     $ 401,107     $ (4,772,610 )
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities     173,229       (3,862,360 )     (492,672 )
Net cash provided by financing activities     125,362       466,782       10,103,240  
Effect of exchange rate change     (178,930 )     (147,080 )     90,360  
Net increase (decrease) in cash     6,050,785       (3,141,551 )     4,928,318  
Cash and cash equivalents at the beginning of the year     6,601,335       9,742,886       4,814,568  
Cash and cash equivalents at the end of the year   $ 12,652,120     $ 6,601,335     $ 9,742,886  

  

Operating Activities

 

Net cash provided by operating activities was approximately $5.9 million in fiscal 2020, including net income of $3.1 million, adjusted for non-cash items of $4.4 million and negative adjustments for changes in operating assets and liabilities of $1.6 million. The adjustments for changes in operating assets and liabilities mainly included the increase in accounts receivable of $6.6 million due to increased sales in fiscal 2020. During fiscal 2020, our accounts receivable turnover was 91 days, stable with 99 days in fiscal 2019. The adjustments for changes in operating assets and liabilities also included offset with an increase in salaries and benefits payable of $3.6 million due to unpaid employee compensation and benefits, and an increase in accounts payable and other payables of $0.1 million in fiscal 2020.

 

Net cash provided by operating activities was approximately $0.4 million in fiscal 2019, including net loss of $3.4 million, adjusted for non-cash items of $7.6 million and negative adjustments for changes in operating assets and liabilities of $3.8 million. The adjustments for changes in operating assets and liabilities mainly included an increase in accounts receivable of $3.1 million in fiscal 2019. During fiscal 2019, our accounts receivable turnover was 99 days, increased from 84 days in fiscal 2018 due to the longer payment approval process of the major customers compared with payment time of fiscal 2018. The adjustments for changes in operating assets and liabilities also included offset with an increase in salaries and benefits payable of $0.6 million due to unpaid employee compensation and benefits, and a decrease in accounts payable and other payables of $0.8 million in fiscal 2019.

 

Net cash used in operating activities was approximately $4.8 million in fiscal 2018, including net income of $2.7 million, adjusted for non-cash items of $0.1 million and negative adjustments for changes in operating assets and liabilities of $7.6 million. The adjustments for changes in operating assets and liabilities mainly included an increase in accounts receivable of $9.8 million due to increased sales in fiscal 2018. During fiscal 2018, our accounts receivable turnover was 84 days, increased from 65 days in fiscal 2017 due to the longer payment approval process of the major customers compared with payment time of fiscal 2017. The adjustments for changes in operating assets and liabilities also included offset with an increase in salaries and benefits payable of $1.8 million due to unpaid employee compensation and benefits, an increase in prepayments and other assets of $0.6 million and an increase in tax payable of $0.3 million due to increased revenue in fiscal 2018.

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Investing Activities

 

Net cash provided by investing activities was approximately $0.2 million in fiscal 2020, primarily due to our purchase of office equipment and furniture of $0.2 million, disposition of long term investment of $1.0 million, our business acquisition of $1.6 million and short-term investments of $1.1 million in fiscal 2020, to better manage opportunities and capitalize on the growth potential in the human resource related industry. In fiscal 2020, we paid $1,844,380 (2,496,000 Singapore dollars) and the Company’s common shares valued at $461,096 (624,000 Singapore dollars) for an 80% of equity interest in Ridik Pte. The Company also injected $0.14 million (RMB 1,000,000) in EMIT. The Company sold an 18.42% equity interest in CLPS Lihong for the consideration of $995,605 (RMB 7 million) to the third party.

 

Net cash used in investing activities was approximately $3.9 million in fiscal 2019, primarily due to our purchase of office equipment and furniture of $0.5 million, long term investment of $1.1 million, our business acquisition of $0.4 million and short-term investments of $1.8 million in fiscal 2019, to better manage opportunities and capitalize on the growth potential in the human resource related industry. In fiscal 2019, we paid $0.07 million (RMB 462,000) for a 70% of equity interest in Huanyu, and $0.4 million (576,000 Singapore dollars) for an 80% of equity interest in Infogain, respectively. The Company also injected $0.07 million (RMB 500,000) in EMIT and $1.0 million (RMB 7,000,000) in CLPS Lihong, respectively.

 

Net cash used in investing activities was approximately $0.5 million in fiscal 2018, primarily due to our purchase of office equipment and furniture of $0.2 million, our acquisition of Judge China of $0.1 million (RMB 700,000) and our acquisition of Tianjin Huanyu Qinshang Network Technology Co., Ltd. (“Huanyu”) of $0.15 million (RMB 1,000,000) in fiscal 2018, to better manage opportunities and capitalize on the growth potential in the human resource related industry in China. On September 27, 2017, the Company and a non-controlling interest shareholder of CLPS Beijing incorporated Huanyu. The Company paid $0.15 million (RMB 1,000,000) for a 30% of equity interest in Huanyu in fiscal 2018.

 

Financing Activities

 

Net cash provided by financing activities was approximately $0.1 million in fiscal 2020. During the fiscal 2020, we had bank loans of approximately $3.8 million, repaid loans of approximately $3.9 million, and received the over-allotment proceeds of $0.2 million.

 

Net cash provided by financing activities was approximately $0.5 million in fiscal 2019. During the fiscal 2019, we had bank loans of approximately $3.6 million, repaid loans of approximately $3.9 million, and received the over-allotment proceeds of $1.5 million and paid $0.6 million for purchase of non-controlling interests in CLPS Beijing.

 

Net cash provided by financing activities was approximately $10.1 million in fiscal 2018. During the fiscal 2018, we had bank loans of approximately $5.7 million, repaid loans of approximately $3.1 million, and paid $0.6 million of dividends to our existing shareholders. On May 24, 2018, CLPS consummated its initial public offering, or IPO, of 2,000,000 shares, $0.0001 par value per share. The units were sold at an offering price of $5.25 per unit, generating total gross proceeds of $10.5 million. Net proceeds from the IPO were $9.5 million. On June 8, 2018, CLPS closed on the over-allotment option on the additional 300,000 common shares at the IPO price of $5.25 per share. As a result, the Company raised additional gross proceeds of approximately $1.58 million, in addition to the IPO gross proceeds of approximately $10.5 million, or combined gross proceeds in this IPO of approximately $12.08 million, before underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses. Net proceeds from the IPO and the over-allotment were approximately $11.0 million. 

 

Capital Expenditures

 

The Company made capital expenditures of $0.2 million, $0.5 million and $0.2 million for the years ended June 30, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. In these periods, our capital expenditures were mainly used for purchases of office equipment. The Company will continue to make capital expenditures to meet the expected growth of its business.

 

Impact of Inflation

 

We do not believe the impact of inflation on our company is material. Our operations are in China and China’s inflation rates have been relatively stable over the last two years: 2.1% in 2019 and 1.9% in 2018.

 

Contractual Obligations

 

The Company’s subsidiaries lease office spaces under various operating leases. Operating lease expense amounted to $944,645, $827,593 and $730,705 for the years ended June 30, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. The following table sets forth our contractual obligations and commercial commitments as of June 30, 2020:

 

    Payment Due by Period  
    Total     Less than
1 Year
    1-3 Years     More than
3 Years
 
                         
Operating lease arrangements   $ 957,245     $ 775,891     $ 181,354     $          -  
Bank loans     2,183,793       2,161,239       22,554       -  
Total   $ 3,141,038     $ 2,937,130     $ 203,908     $ -  

 

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Subsequent Events

 

On July 27, 2020, the Company and a third-party company incorporated CLPS Guangdong Zhichuang Software Technology Co., Ltd. (“CLPS Guangdong Zhichuang”) in Shenzhen. The Company holds 10% of equity interest in CLPS Guangdong Zhichuang for $0.14 million (RMB 1,000,000). On August 13, 2020, the Company injected $28,571 (RMB 200,000) to CLPS Guangdong Zhichuang. 

On August 28, 2020, the Company, the Chairman of the Company and a third-party incorporated CLPS Shenzhen Robotics Co. Ltd (“CLPS Shenzhen Robotics”) in Shenzhen. The Company holds 10% of equity interest in CLPS Shenzhen Robotics for $0.14 million (RMB 1,000,000). On September 15, 2020, the Company injected $147,451 (RMB1,000,000) to CLPS Shenzhen Robotics. 

Critical Accounting Policies 

We prepare our consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP, which requires us to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect our reported amount of assets, liabilities, revenue, costs and expenses, and any related disclosures. Although there were no material changes made to the accounting estimates and assumptions in the past two years, we continually evaluate these estimates and assumptions based on the most recently available information, our own historical experience and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Since the use of estimates is an integral component of the financial reporting process, actual results could differ from our expectations as a result of changes in our estimates. 

We believe that the following accounting policies involve a higher degree of judgment and complexity in their application and require us to make significant accounting estimates. Accordingly, these are the policies we believe are the most critical to understanding and evaluating our consolidated financial condition and results of operations. 

Revenue recognition 

Effective July 1, 2019, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2014-09, Revenue from contracts with Customers (Topic 606) (“ASC 606”) using the modified retrospective approach, which requires the recognition of a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the date of adoption and applies the adoption only to contracts not completed as of July 1, 2019. Prior periods were not retrospectively adjusted. The Company does not disclose the value of unsatisfied performance obligations for (i) contracts with an original expected length of one year or less and (ii) contracts for which the Company recognizes revenue at the amount to which it has the right to invoice for services performed. 

 

The Company provides a comprehensive range of IT services and solutions, which primarily are on a time-and-expense basis, or fixed-price basis. Commencing on July 1, 2019, revenue is recognized when control of promised goods or services is transferred to the Company’s customers in an amount of consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for those services. 

The cumulative effect of initially applying the new revenue standard resulted in a decrease to opening retained earnings of $138,644, with the impact primarily related to the Company’s customized IT solution services. Under ASC 605, the IT solution services were recognized using the percentage of completion method of accounting; while under ASC 606, the IT solution services are recognized at a point in time when the control of service is obtained by the customer represented by the customer acceptance received by the Company. Whereas the Company has the enforceable right to payment for performance completed to date, revenue is recognized over time, using the output method.

Time-and-expense basis contracts 

Prior to the adoption of ASC 606, revenues is considered realizable and earned in accordance with ASC 605 when all of the following criteria are met: persuasive evidence of a sales arrangement exists; delivery has occurred or services have been rendered; the price is fixed or determinable; and collectability is reasonably assured. Accordingly, revenues from time-and-expense basis contracts are recognized as the related services are rendered assuming all other basic revenue recognition criteria are met. The Company is reimbursed for actual hours incurred at pre-agreed negotiated hourly billing rates. Customers may terminate the contracts at any time before the work is completed but are obligated to pay the actual service hours incurred through the termination date at the contract billing rates. Under ASC 606, the series of IT services are substantially the same from day to day, and each day of the service is considered to be distinct and separately identifiable as it benefits the customer daily. Further, the uncertainty related to the service consideration is resolved on a daily basis as the Company satisfies its obligation to perform IT service daily with enforceable right to payment for performance completed to date. Thus, revenue is recognized as service is performed and the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits from the service daily.

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Fixed-price basis contracts

 

Revenues from fixed-price customized solution contracts require the Company to perform services for systems design, planning and integrating based on customers’ specific needs which requires significant production and customization. The required customization work period is generally less than one year. Upon delivery of the services, customer acceptance is generally required. In the same contract, the Company is generally required to provide post-contract customer support (“PCS’) for a period from three months to one year (“PCS period”) after the customized application is delivered. The type of service for PCS clause is generally not specified in the contract or stand-ready service on when-and-if-available basis.

 

Prior to the adoption of ASC 606, the Company recognizes revenue proportionally over the term of the contract in accordance with ASC 605. Revenue is recognized as the service is performed using the percentage of completion method of accounting, under which the total value of revenue is recognized on the basis of the percentage that total labor cost to date bears to the total expected labor costs. Under ASC 606, there are two performance obligations identified in the fixed-price basis contracts: the delivery of customized IT solution service and the completion of the PCS. The transaction price is allocated between the two performance obligations based on the relative standalone selling price, estimated using the cost plus method.

 

The Company recognizes revenue for the delivery of customized IT solution service at a point in time when the system is implemented and accepted by the customer. Where the Company has enforceable right to payment for performance completed to date, revenue is recognized over time, using the output method. Revenue for PCS is recognized ratably over time as the customer simultaneously receive and consume the benefits throughout the PCS period.

  

Differences between the timing of billings and the recognition of revenues are recorded as contract assets which is included in the Prepayments, deposits and other assets, net, or contract liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets. Contract assets are classified as current assets and the full balance is reclassified to accounts receivables when the right to payment becomes unconditional.

 

Costs incurred in advance of revenue recognition arising from direct and incremental staff costs in respect of services provided under the fixed fee contracts according to the customer’s requirements prior to the delivery of services are recorded as deferred contract costs which is included in the Prepayments, deposits and other assets, net on the consolidated balance sheets. Such deferred contract costs will be recognized upon the recognition of the related revenues.

  

Revenue includes reimbursements of travel and out-of-pocket expense, with equivalent amounts of expense recorded in cost of revenues.

 

The Company is subject to value added tax (the “VAT”) that is imposed on and concurrent with the revenues earned for services provided in the PRC. The Company’s applicable value added tax rate is 6%. VAT are recorded as reduction of revenues when incurred.

 

Accounts receivable and allowance for doubtful accounts

 

Accounts receivable are carried at net realizable value. An allowance for doubtful accounts is recorded in the period when loss is probable. The Company determines the adequacy of a reserve for doubtful accounts based on individual account analysis and historical collection trends. The Company establishes a provision for doubtful receivables when there is objective evidence that the Company may not be able to collect amounts due. The allowance is based on management’s best estimates of specific losses on individual customer exposures, as well as the historical trends of collections. Delinquent account balances are written-off against the allowance for doubtful accounts after management has determined that the likelihood of collection is not probable.

 

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Business combination

 

The Company accounts for all business combinations under the purchase method of accounting in accordance with ASC 805, Business Combinations. The purchase method of accounting requires that the consideration transferred to be allocated to net assets including separately identifiable assets and liabilities the Company acquired, based on their estimated fair value. The consideration transferred in an acquisition is measured as the aggregate of the fair values at the date of exchange of the assets given, liabilities incurred, and equity instruments issued as well as the contingent considerations and all contractual contingencies as of the acquisition date. The costs directly attributable to the acquisition are expensed as incurred. Identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities acquired or assumed are measured separately at their fair value as of the acquisition date, irrespective of the extent of any non-controlling interests. The excess of (i) the total of the cost of the acquisition, fair value of the non-controlling interests and acquisition date fair value of any previously held equity interest in the acquiree over (ii) the fair value of the identifiable net assets of the acquiree is recorded as goodwill. If the cost of acquisition is less than the fair value of the identifiable net assets of the acquiree, the difference is recognized directly in earnings. The Company adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 802): Clarifying the Definition of a Business, in determining whether it has acquired a business from July 1, 2019 on a prospective basis and there was no material impact on the consolidated financial statements.

 

The determination and allocation of fair values to the identifiable net assets acquired, liabilities assumed and non-controlling interest is based on various assumptions and valuation methodologies requiring considerable judgment from management. The most significant variables in these valuations are discount rates, terminal values, the number of years on which to base the cash flow projections, as well as the assumptions and estimates used to determine the cash inflows and outflows. The Company determines discount rates to be used based on the risk inherent in the acquiree’s current business model and industry comparisons. Although the Company believes that the assumptions applied in the determination are reasonable based on information available at the date of acquisition, actual results may differ from forecasted amounts and the differences could be material.

 

Goodwill

 

Goodwill represents the excess of the consideration over the fair value of the net assets acquired at the date of acquisition. Goodwill is not amortized but rather tested for impairment at least annually at the reporting unit level by applying a fair-value based test in accordance with accounting and disclosure requirements for goodwill. This test is performed by management annually or more frequently if the Company believes impairment indicators are present. The Company had only one reporting unit (that also represented the Company’s single operating segment) as of June 30, 2020 and 2019. Goodwill was allocated 100% to the single reporting unit as of June 30, 2020 and 2019. The Company has the option to assess qualitative factors first to determine whether it is necessary to perform the two-step test in accordance with ASC 350-20, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other. If the Company believes, as a result of the qualitative assessment, that it is more-likely-than-not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, the two-step quantitative impairment test described above is required. Otherwise, no further testing is required. In the qualitative assessment, the Company considers primary factors such as industry and market considerations, overall financial performance of the reporting unit, and other specific information related to the operations.

 

In performing the two-step quantitative impairment test, the first step compares the carrying amount of the reporting unit to the fair value of the reporting unit based on estimated fair value using a combination of the income approach and the market approach. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds the carrying value of the reporting unit, goodwill is not impaired and the Company is not required to perform further testing. If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds the fair value of the reporting unit, then the Company must perform the second step of the impairment test in order to determine the implied fair value of the reporting unit’s goodwill. The fair value of the reporting unit is allocated to its assets and liabilities in a manner similar to a purchase price allocation in order to determine the implied fair value of the reporting unit goodwill. If the carrying amount of the goodwill is greater than its implied fair value, the excess is recognized as an impairment loss in general and administrative expenses.

 

No impairment loss was provided for the years ended June 30, 2020, 2019 and 2018.

  

Impairment of long-lived assets

 

The Company reviews its long-lived assets, other than goodwill including property and equipment and intangible assets with definite lives for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may no longer be recoverable.  When these events occur, the Company measures impairment by comparing the carrying values of the long-lived assets to the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of the assets and their eventual disposition.  If the sum of the expected undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying amounts of the assets, the Company would recognize an impairment loss based on the excess of the carrying value over the fair value of the assets. Fair value is generally determined by discounting the cash flows expected to be generated by the asset, when the market prices are not readily available. The adjusted carrying amount of the asset becomes the new cost basis and depreciated over the asset’s remaining useful live. Long-lived assets are grouped with other assets and liabilities at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities for the purpose of the impairment testing.

 

No impairment loss was provided for the years ended June 30, 2020, 2019 and 2018.

 

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Income taxes

 

The Company accounts for current income taxes in accordance with the laws of the relevant tax authorities. Deferred income taxes are recognized when temporary differences exist between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts in the consolidated financial statements. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period including the enactment date. Valuation allowances are established, to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized, when it is more-likely-than-not that some portion, or all, of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.

 

The Company accounts for uncertainties in income taxes in accordance with ASC 740. An uncertain tax position is recognized as a benefit only if it is “more likely than not” that the tax position would be sustained in a tax examination. The amount recognized is the largest amount of tax benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized on examination. For tax positions not meeting the “more likely than not” test, no tax benefit is recorded. Penalties and interest incurred related to underpayment of income tax are classified as income tax expense in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss) in the period incurred. No significant penalties or interest relating to income taxes have been incurred during the years ended June 30, 2020, 2019 and 2018. All of the tax returns of the Company’s subsidiaries in China remain subject to examination by the tax authorities for five years from the date of filing through year 2024, and the examination period was extended to 10 years for entities qualified as High and New Technology Enterprises (“HNTEs”) in 2018 and thereafter. 

 

Warrants

 

The Company issued warrants to certain consultants and underwriters in May 2018 in connection with the closing of the IPO. The warrants carry a term of five years expiring in May 2023 and are exercisable during the five-year period. The warrants are classified as equity contracts and measured at the grant date fair value. Subsequent changes in fair value are not recognized as long as the contract continues to be classified in equity. The Company, with the assistance of an independent third party valuation firm, used the Black-Scholes pricing model to estimate the fair value of warrants. The determination of estimated fair value of warrants on the grant date was mainly affected by the Company’s stock price as well as assumptions regarding a number of subjective variables. These variables include the Company’s expected stock price volatility over the expected term of the awards, a risk-free interest rate and any expected dividends.

 

Share-based payment

 

Share awards issued to employees and directors, including employee stock option plans (“ESOPs”) and restricted share units (“RSUs”) are measured at fair value at the grant date. The Company, with the assistance of an independent third-party valuation firm, determined the fair value of the share options granted to employees. The Company uses the binomial lattice model to estimate the fair value of ESOPs, and uses the closing stock price at the grant date to measure the fair value of RSUs. The Company recognizes compensation expenses, net of forfeitures, using the accelerated method over the requisite service periods. 

 

Forfeitures are estimated at the time of grant and revised in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. The Company uses historical data to estimate pre-vesting ESOPs and RSUs’ forfeitures and records share-based compensation expense only for those awards that are expected to vest.

  

A change in any of the terms or conditions of share-based payment awards is accounted for as a modification of awards. The Company measures the incremental compensation cost of a modification as the excess of the fair value of the modified awards over the fair value of the original awards immediately before its terms are modified, based on the share price and other pertinent factors at the modification date. For vested awards, the Company recognizes incremental compensation cost in the period the modification occurred. For unvested awards, the Company recognizes, over the remaining requisite service period, the sum of the incremental compensation cost and the remaining unrecognized compensation cost for the original award on the modification date.

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

The Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (“JOBS Act”) provides that an emerging growth company (“EGC”) as defined therein can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This allows an EGC to delay adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. The Company has adopted the extended transition period. 

 

For detailed discussion on recent accounting pronouncements, please see Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report.

 

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ITEM 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

 

  A. Directors and senior management

 

The following table sets forth our executive officers and directors, their ages and the positions held by them, as of the date of this Annual Report:

 

Name   Age   Position
Xiao Feng Yang   57   Chairman of the Board
Raymond Ming Hui Lin   56   Chief Executive Officer and Director
Rui Yang   37   Acting Chief Financial Officer
Li Li   44   Chief Operating Officer
Jin He Shao(1)(4)   53   Independent Director
Zhao Hui Feng(3)   50   Independent Director
Kee Chong Seng(2)   68   Independent Director

 

(1) Chair of the Audit Committee.

 

(2) Chair of the Compensation Committee.

 

(3) Chair of the Nominating Committee.

 

(4) Audit Committee Financial Expert.

 

Xiao Feng Yang is the chairman of the board of the Company. Mr. Yang has over 20 years of executive management and operational experience in the IT services business. From October 2012 to August 2020, Mr. Yang served as chairman and president of CLPS. From April 2009 to October 2012, Mr. Yang served as deputy general manager of ADP China managing the service operations of HR BPO in China. Prior to 2002, Mr. Yang was the Human Resource Director of Phillips. Mr. Yang graduated from Tongji University, Shanghai, China, with a Bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering. Mr. Yang received his MBA degree both from Shanghai University of Finance and Webster University (US).

 

Raymond Ming Hui Lin, is the chief executive officer and director of the Company. Mr. Lin joined CLPS in February 2009 as chief executive officer. From January 2008 to January 2009, Mr. Lin was a business consultant of VanceInfo. After VanceInfo acquired A-IT Software (Shanghai) Co. Ltd., Mr. Lin acted as the general manager of A-IT Software (Shanghai) Co. Ltd. from April 2002 to December 2007. Mr. Lin is an IT outsourcing service veteran with a deep understanding of IT talent acquisition, training, development and service delivery. He has developed and pioneered the first kind of training programs for mainframe and VisionPLUS (a credit card processing solution) in China, which has made CLPS as one of the largest mainframe resource powerhouse and the VisionPLUS project team in Greater China. In 2015, Mr. Lin became the MSE senior advisor in Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

 

Rui Yang Ms. Yang has over 10 years of financial experiences in the financial and IT industry. Ms. Yang joined the Company in August 2015 as Vice President for finance controller. From December 2014 to August 2015, Ms. Yang served as financial analyst supervisor at Shanghai Origin International Logistics Co., Ltd. From February 2010 to July 2014, Ms. Yang served as senior financial analyst at Pactera Technology International Ltd. Ms. Yang holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Management from Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University and a Master’s Degree in Economics from Shanghai University of Finance and Economics. Ms. Yang holds the PRC Certified Public Accountant certificate.

 

Li Li is the chief operating officer of the Company. Mr. Li was appointed as the COO in June 2019. Mr. Li has 20 years of professional and IT experience in the financial and IT industry. From June 2017 to June 2019, Mr. Li served as Director, Head of Business Analysis & Quality Engineering at a major credit card payment processing company in China. From July 2013 to June 2017, Mr. Li served as Executive Manager, Head of Business Solution and Quality Assurance at Commonwealth Bank of Australia China. Mr. Li graduated from Tianjin University, Tianjin China, with a Bachelor’s degree in Computer Science. Mr. Li holds MSE degree from Fu Dan University, Shanghai China.

 

Jin He Shao is an independent director of the Company. From January 2002 to present, Mr. Shao has been a partner at Shanghai Huajin Accounting & Consulting Professional Services. From August 1995 to December 2001, he served as senior tax manager at Phillips (China) Investment Co., Ltd. Mr. Shao received a joint MBA degree from Shanghai University of Finance & Economics and The Webster University. Mr. Shao holds the PRC equivalent of the CPA license. In addition, Mr. Shao attended Shanghai Grain College where he majored in finance and accounting, and STV University where he majored in auditing.

 

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Zhao Hui Feng is an independent director of the Company. From March 2017 to present, Mr. Feng has been the general manager at Dalian Wanda Commercial Properties Co., Ltd. From February 2016 to March 2017, Mr. Feng served as the founder and chief executive officer at Shanghai Gold Education Data System Ltd., Co. From December 2013 to January 2016, Mr. Feng served as the general manager and chief operating officer at Beijing Zhide Chuanghui Network Technology Inc. Mr. Feng received a Master’s Degree in Computer Science from Southern Illinois University and a Bachelor’s Degree in Computer Science and Technology from the University of Science and Technology of China.

 

Kee Chong Seng is an independent director of the Company. Mr. Kee spent a career in the information technology industry, most recently as an operation manager at Citibank from 2003 until his full retirement in 2015.

 

None of the events listed in Item 401(f) of Regulation S-K has occurred during the past ten years that is material to the evaluation of the ability or integrity of any of our directors, director nominees or executive officers.

 

Limitation on Liability and Other Indemnification Matters

 

The Companies Law does not limit the extent to which Memorandum and Articles of Association may provide for indemnification of officers and directors, except to the extent any such provision may be held by the Cayman Islands courts to be contrary to public policy, such as to provide indemnification against civil fraud or the consequences of committing a crime. Our Memorandum and Articles of Association permit indemnification of officers and directors for losses, damages, costs and expenses incurred in their capacities as such unless such losses or damages arise from dishonesty of such directors or officers willful default of fraud. This standard of conduct is generally the same as permitted under the Delaware General Corporation Law for a Delaware corporation.

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers or persons controlling us under the foregoing provisions, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

 

  B. Compensation

 

Executive Compensation

 

The following table shows the annual compensation paid by us for the years ended June 30, 2020, 2019, and 2018.

 

Name/principal position   Year   Salary     Equity Compensation     All Other Compensation     Total Paid