As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on January 20, 2021

Registration No. 333-[     ]

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM F-3

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

SOS Limited

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Cayman Islands   N/A
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

 

Room 8888, Jiudingfeng Building, 888 Changbaishan Road,

Qingdao Area, China (Shandong) Pilot Free Trade Zone

People’s Republic of China

+86 0311-80910921

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

Puglisi & Associates

850 Library Avenue

Suite 204

Newark, Delaware 19711

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)  

 

Copies to:

Joan Wu Esq.

Hunter Taubman Fischer & Li, LLC

800 Third Avenue, Suite 2800

New York, NY 10022

Tel: (212) 530-2210

Facsimile: (212) 202-6380

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of the registration statement.

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. 

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. 

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. 

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. 

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.C. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.C. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933.

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.

 

†The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

 

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered(1)   Amount
to be
Registered(3)
    Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering
Price
    Amount of
Registration
Fee(7)
 
Primary Offering                  
Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share, represented by American Depositary Shares(2)                        
Preferred shares, par value US$0.0001 per share(4)                        
Debt Securities                        
Warrants(5)                        
Units                        
Rights(6)                        
Total Primary Offering           $ 300,000,000     $ 32,730  
                         
Secondary Offering                        
Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share, represented by American Depositary Shares issuable upon exercise of ADS purchase warrants     238,800,000     $ 51,103,200 (9)   $ 5,575.36  
Warrants to purchase ADS underlying warrants(8)     -       -       -  
Total     238,800,000     $ 351,103,200     $ 38,305.36  

 

(1) Securities registered hereunder may be sold separately, together or as units with other securities registered hereunder.
(2) The Class A ordinary shares, par value $0.0001 per share, will be represented by American Depositary Shares, or ADSs, evidenced by American Depositary Receipts, issuable upon deposit of Class A ordinary shares of SOS Limited, or the Registrant which have been registered pursuant to a separate registration statement on Form F-6 (Registration No. 333-217079). Pursuant to Rule 416(a) under the Securities Act, this registration statement shall be deemed to cover any additional number of Class A ordinary shares that may be issued from time to time to prevent dilution as result of a distribution, split, share dividend or similar transaction. Each ADS represents ten (10) Class A ordinary shares.
(3) There are being registered under this registration statement such indeterminate number of securities as may be offered by the Registrant from time to time at indeterminate prices, which shall have an aggregate offering price not to exceed $300,000,000. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, the ADSs being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of ADSs as may be issuable with respect to the Class A ordinary shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.
(4) The preferred shares registered hereby may be represented by the Registrant’s American Depositary Shares, or preferred ADSs, each of which represent a specified number of preference shares. Preferred ADSs issuable upon deposit of the preference shares registered hereby will be registered under a separate registration statement on Form F-6.
(5) Warrants may be exercised to purchase any of the other securities registered hereby.
(6) Consisting of some or all of the securities listed above, in any combination, including ADSs, preferred shares, warrants and units.
(7) Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities act of 1933, as amended.
(8) Pursuant to Rule 457(g) of the Act, no separate registration fee is required for the Warrants because the Warrants are being registered in the same registration statement as the Class A ordinary shares represented by ADSs of the Registrant issuable upon exercise of the Warrants.
(9) Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(c) under the Securities Act, based on the closing price of the Registrant’s ADSs on January 20, 2021, as reported on the NYSE.

 

The Registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment that specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED JANUARY 20, 2021

 

PROSPECTUS 

 

SOS Limited

 

$300,000,000

Class A Ordinary Shares,

Class A Ordinary Shares in the Form of American Depositary Shares,

Preferred Shares,

Preferred Shares in the Form of American Depositary Shares,

Debt Securities,

Warrants,

Units, and

Rights

 

23,880,000 American Depositary Shares

Representing 238,800,000 Class A Ordinary Shares Underlying Warrants

Offered by the Selling Securityholders

 

We may, from time to time in one or more offerings, offer and sell up to $300,000,000 of any combination, together or separately, of Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share; Class A ordinary shares in the form of American Depositary Shares, or ADSs; preferred shares, par value US$0.0001 per share; preferred shares in the form of ADSs; debt securities; warrants; units; rights; or any combination thereof as described in this prospectus. Any ADS will represent a specified number of ordinary shares or preference shares. The warrants may be convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for ordinary shares or preferred shares or debt securities, the preferred shares may be convertible into or exchangeable for ordinary shares and the debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for ordinary shares or preference shares or other debt securities. The prospectus supplement for each offering of securities will describe in detail the plan of distribution for that offering. For general information about the distribution of securities offered, please see “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus.

 

This prospectus provides a general description of the securities we may offer. We will provide the specific terms of the securities offered in one or more supplements to this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read carefully this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as the documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference, before you invest in any of our securities. This prospectus may not be used to offer or sell any securities unless accompanied by the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

 

 

 

This prospectus also relates to the offer and resale of up to an aggregate of 23,880,000 ADSs representing 238,800,000 Class A ordinary shares, or the Resale ADSs, issuable upon exercise of certain ADSs Purchase Warrants held by the security holder identified as the Selling Securityholders in the section of this prospectus entitled “SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS.” The Resale ADSs include 23,880,000 ADSs issuable upon exercise of the Company’s ADSs purchase warrants issued on January 20, 2021, to certain investors.

 

The registration of the Resale ADSs on behalf of the Selling Securityholders does not necessarily mean that the Selling Securityholders will offer or sell their Resale ADSs pursuant to this prospectus or at any time in the near future. The Selling Securityholders will be responsible for all discounts, selling commissions and other costs related to the offer and sale of the Resale ADSs. If required, the number of Resale ADSs to be sold, the public offering price of those Resale ADSs, the names of any broker-dealers and any applicable commission or discount will be included in a supplement to this prospectus. The Selling Securityholders and any participating broker-dealers may be deemed to be “underwriters” within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, in connection with such sales. In such event, any commissions received by such broker-dealers or agents and any profit on the resale of the Resale ADSs purchased by them may be deemed to be underwriting compensation under the Securities Act. We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of the Resale ADSs being offered by the Selling Securityholders, although we may receive proceeds from cash exercises of the warrants.

 

Pursuant to General Instruction I.B.5. of Form F-3, in no event will we sell the securities covered hereby in a public primary offering with a value exceeding more than one-third of the aggregate market value of our ADSs in any 12-month period so long as the aggregate market value of our outstanding ordinary shares held by non-affiliates remains below $75,000,000. During the 12 calendar months prior to and including the date of this prospectus, we have not offered or sold any securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.5 of Form F-3.

 

Our ADSs are listed on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the symbol “SOS.” On January 20, 2021, the last reported sale price of our ADS on the NYSE, was $2.14 per ADS. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to other listings, if any, on the NYSE or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the prospectus supplement.

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” on page 4 of this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, as updated in the applicable prospectus supplement, any related free writing prospectus and other future filings we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, for a discussion of the factors you should consider carefully before deciding to purchase our securities.

 

We may sell these securities directly to investors, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus. If any underwriters are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such underwriters and any applicable commissions or discounts will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The date of this prospectus is January [    ], 2021.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

  Page 
   
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS ii
   
COMMONLY USED DEFINED TERMS ii
   
NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS iii
   
OUR BUSINESS 1
   
RISK FACTORS 4
   
USE OF PROCEEDS 19
   
DILUTION 20
   
DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL 21
   
DESCRIPTION OF THE AMERICAN DEPOSITARY SHARES 28
   
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES 37
   
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS 42
   
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS 45
   
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION OF THE PRIMARY OFFERING 46
   
SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS 48
   
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION OF SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS 50
   
LEGAL MATTERS 51
   
EXPERTS 51
   
FINANCIAL INFORMATION 51
   
INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE 52
   
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION 52
   
ENFORCEABILITY OF CIVIL LIABILITIES 53
   
INDEMNIFICATION FOR SECURITIES ACT LIABILITIES 53

 

i

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may, from time to time, sell the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings, up to a total dollar amount of $300,000,000. We have provided to you in this prospectus a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities under this shelf registration, we will, to the extent required by law, provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in any documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus and the prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement or the related free writing prospectus; provided that if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date – for example, a document filed after the date of this prospectus and incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus – the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

 

We have not authorized any dealer, agent or other person to give any information or to make any representation other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, or any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you. You must not rely upon any information or representation not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or an accompanying prospectus supplement, or any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you. This prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement, if any, do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, nor do this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate on any date subsequent to the date set forth on the front of the document or that any information we have incorporated by reference is correct on any date subsequent to the date of the document incorporated by reference (as our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date), even though this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is delivered or securities are sold on a later date.

 

As permitted by SEC rules and regulations, the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part includes additional information not contained in this prospectus. You may read the registration statement and the other reports we file with the SEC at its website or at its offices described below under “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

Unless the context otherwise requires, all references in this prospectus to “SOS,” “SOS Ltd.,” “we,” “us,” “our,” “the Company” or similar words refer to SOS Limited together with our subsidiaries.

 

COMMONLY USED DEFINED TERMS

 

“ADSs” refers to our American depositary shares, each of which represents ten (10) Class A ordinary shares;

 

“China,” “Chinese” and “PRC,” are references to the People’s Republic of China;

 

“Class A Ordinary Shares” refers to Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share of SOS Limited;

 

“Class B Ordinary Shares” refers to Class B ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share of SOS Limited;

 

“Inner Mongolia SOS” refers to Inner Mongolia SOS Insurance Agency Co., Ltd., a PRC company organized under the laws of PRC and a wholly-owned subsidiary of SOS Information;

 

“SOS Information” refers to SOS Information Technology Co., Ltd, a PRC company organized under the laws of PRC and a variable interest entity controlled by YBT;

 

SOS,” “SOS Ltd.,” “we,” “us,” “our,” “the Company” are references to the combined business of SOS Limited and its wholly-owned subsidiaries;

 

“Wei Bao Enterprise Consulting” refers to Wei Bao Enterprise Consulting Management (Shijiazhuang) Co., Ltd., a PRC company organized under the laws of PRC and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Yong Bao Two; and

 

“Yong Bao Two” or “YBT” refers to Yong Bao Two Limited, a British Virgin Islands company organized under the laws of British Virgin Islands and a wholly-owned subsidiary of SOS.

 

ii

 

 

NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus and our SEC filings that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus contain or incorporate by reference forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. All statements other than statements of historical fact are “forward-looking statements,” including any projections of earnings, revenue or other financial items, any statements of the plans, strategies and objectives of management for future operations, any statements concerning proposed new projects or other developments, any statements regarding future economic conditions or performance, any statements of management’s beliefs, goals, strategies, intentions and objectives, and any statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. The words “believe,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “plan,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “could,” “should,” “potential,” “likely,” “projects,” “continue,” “will,” and “would” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. Forward-looking statements reflect our current views with respect to future events, are based on assumptions and are subject to risks and uncertainties. We cannot guarantee that we actually will achieve the plans, intentions or expectations expressed in our forward-looking statements and you should not place undue reliance on these statements. There are a number of important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated or implied by forward-looking statements. These important factors include those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and in the applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus we may authorize for use in connection with a specific offering. These factors and the other cautionary statements made in this prospectus should be read as being applicable to all related forward-looking statements whenever they appear in this prospectus. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

 

iii

 

 

OUR BUSINESS

 

Our History

 

We were formed in Delaware on July 12, 2004 as China Risk Finance LLC. We began our credit analytics service provider business in 2001. We developed our proprietary, advanced technology over the past 18 years, during which our founders and management team advised many of China’s largest banks in analyzing consumer credit to issue over one hundred million credit cards to consumers. On April 28, 2017, our ADSs commenced trading on the NYSE under the symbol “XRF.” In May 2017, we completed our IPO in which we sold a total of 11,500,000 of our ADSs, each representing one Class A ordinary shares and listing of our ADSs on the NYSE. In the third quarter 2018, due to regulatory changes that made it cost-prohibitive, and in some ways very risky from the regulatory compliance perspective, to own and operate our legacy marketplace lending platform, we decided to cease the customer acquisition and loan facilitation at our legacy marketplace lending platform and started to transition our business to other industries.

 

On May 5, 2020, we entered into a set of agreements with YBT, the shareholders of YBT (the “YBT Shareholders”), eight individual investors introduced by YBT (collectively with the YBT Shareholders, the “Investors”) and True North Financial, LLC to acquire YBT, which controls its variable interest entity SOS Information. The transaction was consummated on May 15, 2020. As a result, we now own 100% of YBT, which controls its variable interest entity, SOS Information. The shares issued to the Investors were relied on exemption from registration in accordance with Regulation S and/or Rule 4(a)(2) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. Accordingly, we started our newly acquired data mining and targeted marketing services business through SOS Information.

 

On August 3, 2020, we entered into certain share purchase agreement (the “Disposition SPA”) with Hantu (Hangzhou) Asset Management Co., Ltd. (the “Purchaser”). Pursuant to the Disposition SPA, the Purchaser agreed to purchase CRF China Holding Co. Limited, a Hong Kong limited company, China Capital Financial LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, CRF China Limited, a British Virgin Islands company, CRF Technology LLC, a California limited liability company, and HML China LLC, a Delaware limited liability company (collectively, the “XRF Subsidiaries”) in exchange for cash consideration of $3.5 million. Upon the closing of the transaction (the “Disposition”) contemplated by the Disposition SPA, the Purchaser will become the sole shareholder of the XRF Subsidiaries and as a result, assume all assets and liabilities of all the subsidiaries and variable interest entities owned or controlled by the XRF Subsidiaries. The Disposition closed on August 6, 2020. As a result of the Disposition, we ceased our legacy peer-to-peer lending business and have since focused on becoming a leading high-technology services business with services including marketing data, technology and solutions for insurance companies and emergency rescue services in China. We also changed our trading symbol to “SOS.”

 

Business Overview

 

We provide a wide range of data mining and analysis services to our corporate and individual members, including providing marketing data, technology and solutions for insurance companies, emergency rescue services, and insurance product and health care information portal in China. Our mission is to make it easier, safer and more efficient for our clients to obtain and process the data of their target customers.

We primarily address the large unmet demand for marketing-related data for clients such as insurance companies, financial institutions, medical institutions, healthcare providers and other service providers in the emergency rescue services industry by creating a SOS cloud emergency rescue service software as a service (SaaS) platform.

 

Furthermore, we have also established a data warehouse with 120 million active customer records as of the date of this report. Our data collection covers a wide variety of sources and are mainly from offline third party purchases, online subscription, AI recognition and cold calls, which account for approximately 75%, 18% and 7% of our data inventory, respectively.

 

We also aim to start our infrastructure services in blockchain security for our big data insurance marketing and rescue services as well as provide insurance and banking services for digital assets and cryptocurrencies by entering an employment agreement with Dr. Eric H. Yan, our vice president and an expert in cryptocurrency mining, security and insurance technologies in China.

 

1

 

 

Our Products and Services

 

We currently focused on four product offerings, including insurance marketing, 10086 hot-line, bank card call center and SaaS services. Currently insurance marketing represents 96.2% of our total revenue, with 10086 hot-line, bankcard call center and SaaS individually accounting for 3.3%, 0.3% and 0.2% of our total revenue, respectively.

 

We anticipate to utilize a new subsidiary to apply blockchain-based security and insurance technologies in the safeguard of cryptocurrencies and digital assets, and upgrade our existing portfolios of products and services.

 

Insurance marketing

 

We purchase data from our suppliers, including Shandong Subao IT Ltd., Jiangxi Chacha IT Ltd. and Liaoning Tianzheng Ltd. With a stable supply of data, we use data mining and analytics technologies to find patterns and valuable data within the large amounts of data we collect. We then provide specific data point recommendations to our clients.

 

Our strong data mining capabilities lay a solid foundation for the solutions to our clients, which we believe differentiate us from many other competitors in the same market. We have an experienced team of data experts in this field and we have a well-established data infrastructure system, ranging from mining, to processing and distribution. SOS warehouses its data through a subscription to Tencent’s iCloud service.

 

Our main competitors include Jiutian Speed Rescue Technology Co., Ltd., which provides rescue services through operators and sells membership cards, and Beijing Yuanbao Technology Co., Ltd. and Beijing Yuanshanbao Technology Co., Ltd., which provide insurance marketing services.

 

We currently only possess an insurance agent license for operations within Inner Mongolia, China. As such, as of the date of this prospectus, our revenues are mainly generated through various insurance agents. We primarily work with two agents, Beijing Sense Time Information Technology Co., Ltd. (“BSIT”), which generates the majority of our insurance marketing revenues, as well as Beijing Ruijing Hengbao Insurance Agency Ltd.

 

Insurance companies such as People’s Insurance Company (Group) of China, Ltd. (“PICC”), or Ping An Insurance (Group) Company of China, Ltd. (“Ping An”) will request shortlists from these insurance agents. The insurance agents will then subcontract the task to various vendors such as SOS Information, and SOS Information will collect raw data from third parties or from its own data warehouse and utilize its data mining and analytics technologies to process the data, creating a shortlist and selling it to the agents. The agents will then provide the list to insurance companies. We charge information service fee from these insurance agents based on the amount of insurance policy orders placed by insurance companies through these agents. Our service model is represented by the following diagram:

 

 

2

 

 

10086 Hot-line

 

SOS Information is contracted with China Mobile Limited as its outsourced service center and operates the 10086 hot-line for the Hebei Province, charging China Mobile by customer call-in time.

Bank Card Call Center

 

SOS Information operates a promotional center for Guangdong Bank of Development and charges by the number of successfully registered accounts.

 

SaaS service

 

The three major SaaS offerings by SOS Information are as follows:

 

basic cloud system (Medical Rescue Card, Auto Rescue Card, Financial Rescue Card and Life Rescue Card)

 

cooperative cloud system (information rescue center, intelligent big data, intelligent software and hardware)

 

information cloud system (Information Today and E-commerce Today)

 

SOS Information provides warehouse access to insurance companies, financial institution and medical institutions etc., and generates revenues through a monthly subscription fee.

 

The following diagram illustrates our current corporate structure:

 

 

Corporate Information

 

Our principal executive office is located at Room 8888, Jiudingfeng Building, 888 Changbaishan Road, Qingdao Area, China (Shandong) Pilot Free Trade Zone, People’s Republic of China. Our telephone number is +86 0311-80910921. We maintain a website at http://www.sosyun.com/ that contains information about our Company, though no information contained on our website is part of this prospectus.

 

3

 

 

RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risk factors set forth under “Risk Factors” described in our most recent annual report on Form 20-F, filed on June 15, 2020, as supplemented and updated by subsequent current reports on Form 6-K that we have filed with the SEC, together with all other information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement and in any related free writing prospectus in connection with a specific offering, before making an investment decision. Each of the risk factors could materially and adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition and prospects, as well as the value of an investment in our securities, and the occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment.

 

In addition to the risk factors referenced above, as described in our most recent annual report on Form 20-F, we want to disclose the additional risk factors below.

 

Risks Related to Our Data Mining and Analysis Business

 

Development of data warehouses is capital intensive. We may not be able to generate sufficient capital or obtain additional capital to meet our future capital needs, on favorable terms or at all, which may lead to significant disruption to our business expansion and adversely affect our financial position.

 

Expanding and developing data warehouses and data mining capabilities are capital intensive. We are required to fund the costs of expanding and developing our data warehouses and data mining capacity with cash deriving from operations. There can be no assurance that our future revenues would be sufficient to offset increases in these costs, or that our business operations will generate capital sufficient to meet our anticipated capital requirements. If increase in our future revenues would not be sufficient to offset the increased costs, or we cannot generate sufficient capital to meet our anticipated capital requirements, our financial condition, business expansion and future prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

 

To fund our future growth, we may need to raise additional funds through equity or debt financing in the future in order to meet our operating and capital needs, which may not be available on favorable terms, or at all. If we raise additional funds through issuances of equity or equity-linked securities, our existing shareholders could suffer significant dilution in their ownership percentage of our company, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences, and privileges senior to those of holders of our ordinary shares. In addition, any debt financing that we may obtain in the future could have restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. Our inability to obtain additional debt and/or equity financing or to generate sufficient cash from operations may require us to prioritize projects or curtail capital expenditures and could adversely affect our results of operations.

 

4

 

 

The market in which we participate is competitive. Failure to compete effectively may result in loss of our market share and a decrease in our revenues and profitability.

 

We compete with other wide range of data mining providers in the markets we participate. Some of our current and future competitors may have advantages over us, including greater name recognition, longer operating histories, pre-existing relationships with current or potential clients, significantly greater financial, marketing and other resources and more ready access to capital, all of which allow them to offer competitive prices and respond more quickly to new or changing opportunities. Many of these competitors own capabilities similar to ours in the same markets in which our business targets, or in markets where the cost to operate a data warehouse and data mining capacity is less than the costs to our operation. Many of our competitors and new entrants to the data mining market are developing additional data warehouses space and data mining capacity in the markets that we serve.

 

We face pricing pressure for our services. Prices for our services are affected by a variety of factors, including supply and demand conditions and pricing pressures from our competitors. A buildup of new data warehouse and data mining capacity or reduced demand for data warehouse services and data mining capacity could result in an oversupply of data warehouse space and data mining capacity in the markets where we operate. Excess data warehouse or data mining capacity could cause downward pricing pressure and limit the number of economically attractive markets that are available to us for expansion, which could negatively impact our business and results of operations. In addition, our competitors may offer services that are more competitively priced compared to ours. We may be required to lower our prices to remain competitive, which may decrease our margins and adversely affect our business prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We will also face increased competition as we expand our operations, and our competitors in new markets we expand into may have more experience than us in operating in those markets. If we fail to compete effectively, our business, financial performance and prospects will be materially and adversely affected.

 

Our revenues are highly dependent on a limited number of major clients, and the loss of any such client or any other significant client, or the inability of any such client or any other significant client to make payments to us as due, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

We have in the past derived, and believe that we will continue to derive, a significant portion of our revenues from a limited number of clients. 96.2% of our revenues generated in six months ended June 30, 2020, are from insurance marketing business, which we highly rely on two key clients or agents to dispatch insurance data mining business to us from. Revenues from Beijing Sense Time Information Technology Co., Ltd. (“BSIT”) accounted for 90% and 96% of our total revenues in 2019 and for the six months ended June 30, 2020. Revenues from Beijing Ruijing Hengbao Insurance Agency Ltd. accounted for 4% and 2% of our total revenues in 2019 and for the six months ended June 30, 2020. No other client accounted for 10% or more of our total revenues in 2019 and for the six months ended June 30, 2020. As a data mining solution provider, we expect our revenues will continue to be highly dependent on a limited number of clients who account for a large percentage of our contractually committed capacity. If one or more of our significant clients fail to make payments to us or does not honor their contractual commitments, our revenues and results of operations would be materially and adversely affected. In addition, some contracts we entered into with our significant clients provide that they have early termination options if we breach the terms of contracts, subject to payment of liquidated damages. If any of our significant clients exercises any applicable early termination options or we are unable to renew our existing contracts with them on similar terms or at all, and we are unable to find new clients to utilize the space to be vacated in a timely manner or at the same fee levels, our results of operations will be adversely affected. For example, certain of our agreements with BSIT will expire in September, 2021, and we may not be able to renew them at favorable terms to us, or at all. As of the date of this prospectus, none of our clients have exercised their early termination options which we believe would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. However, we cannot provide any assurance that they will not do so in the future.

 

There are a number of factors that could cause us to lose major clients. Because many of our contracts involve services that are mission-critical to our clients, any failure by us to meet a client’s expectations could result in cancellation or non-renewal of the contract. Our contracts usually allow our clients or agents to terminate their contracts with us before the end of the contract period under certain specified circumstances, including our failure to deliver services as required under such agreements. In addition, our clients may decide to reduce spending on our services in response to a challenging economic environment or other factors, both internal and external, relating to their business such as corporate restructuring or changing their outsourcing strategy by moving more facilities in-house or outsourcing to other service providers. Some of our clients may choose to develop or expand their own data warehouse facilities and data mining capacities in the future, which may result in a decline in our existing or potential clients.

 

In addition, our reliance on any individual significant client may give that client a degree of pricing leverage against us when negotiating contracts and terms of services with us. The loss of any of our major clients, or a significant decrease in the extent of the services that they outsource to us or the level of prices we offer, could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Any of our clients could experience a downturn in their business, which in turn could result in their inability or failure to make timely payments to us pursuant to their contracts with us. In the event of any client default, our liquidity could be adversely impacted and we may experience delays in enforcing our rights and may incur substantial costs in protecting our investment. These risks would be particularly significant if one of our major clients were to experience adverse effects to its business and defaults under their contracts with us. The inability of any significant client to meet its payment obligations could impact us negatively and significantly.

 

5

 

 

If we do not succeed in attracting new clients or agents for our services and/or growing revenues from existing clients or agents, our business and results of operation may be adversely affected.

 

We have been expanding our client base to cover more insurance companies and different types of insurance category. We are highly relying on our agents to dispatch data mining business of insurance company to us. Our ability to attract new clients, as well as our ability to grow revenues from our existing clients, depends on a number of factors, including our data warehouse capacity, our ability to offer high-quality services at competitive prices, the strength of our competitors and the capabilities of our client acquisition team to attract new clients. If we fail to attract new clients, we may not be able to grow our revenue as quickly as we anticipate or at all.

 

In addition, as our client base grows and diversifies into other types of insurance category, we may be unable to provide services that cater to their changing needs, which could result in client dissatisfaction, decreased overall demand for our services and loss of expected revenues. Moreover, our inability to meet client expectations may damage our reputation and could consequently limit our ability to retain existing clients and attract new clients, which would adversely affect our ability to generate revenues and negatively impact our results of operations.

 

Factors that adversely affect the industries in which our clients operate or information technology spending in these industries, particularly in the Internet and cloud service industries and insurance industries, may adversely affect our business.

 

Our clients are primarily technology companies in the Internet, cloud, software and other technology-based industries. The end-users of our data mining products are primarily large insurance companies in China. Our clients, some of whom have experienced rapid changes in their business, substantial price competition and pressures on their profitability, may request price reductions or decrease their demand for our data mining analysis, which could harm our financial performance. Furthermore, a decline in the technology industry or the demand for cloud-based services, or the desire of any of these companies, including our client and the end-user insurance companies, to outsource their data warehouse and data mining needs, could lead to a decrease in the demand for space in our data warehouses and data mining analysis business, which would have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition. We also are susceptible to adverse developments in the industries in which our clients operate, such as decreases in demand for their products or services, business layoffs or downsizing, industry slowdowns, relocations of businesses, costs of complying with government regulations or increased regulation and other factors. We also may be materially adversely affected by any downturns in the market for data warehouses and data mining due to, among other things, oversupply of or reduced demand for space or a slowdown in the technology industry. Also, a lack of demand for data warehouse space and data mining by enterprise clients could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. If any of these events happen, we may lose clients or have difficulties in selling our services, which would materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

 

We purchase a significant portion of our meta data from a small number of data suppliers. A significant disruption in any of such data suppliers could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

We purchase a significant portion of our raw data from a small number of data suppliers and a significant disruption to any single location could materially and adversely affect our operations. We highly rely on three data suppliers, Shandong Shubao IT Ltd., Jiangxi Chacha IT Ltd., and Liaoning Tianzheng Ltd. to provide large amounts of data that we need, in which we conducted data mining and data analysis. The occurrence of a catastrophic event, or a prolonged disruption in any of these data providers, could materially and adversely affect our operations.

 

6

 

 

If we do not succeed in maintaining business relationship with our data suppliers, our business and results of operation may be adversely affected.

 

We have been purchasing a significant portion of our raw data from a small number of data suppliers and termination of business relationship with them could materially and adversely affect our business. We are highly relying on our data suppliers to provide us large amounts of data that we need. Our business to conduct data mining analysis, as well as our ability to sell our insurance marketing information to our agents, depends on a number of factors, including a consistent and reliable data supply by our data suppliers. If we fail to maintain our business relationship with our data suppliers, or the costs of gaining data from our data suppliers increase, we may not be able to grow our revenue as quickly as we anticipate or at all.

 

If we are unable to adapt to new technologies or industry standards in a timely and cost-effective manner, our business, financial performance and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

 

The markets for the data warehouses and data mining facilities we own and operate, as well as certain of the insurance industry in which our end-use clients operate, are characterized by rapidly changing technologies, evolving industry standards, and frequent new service introductions. As a result, the infrastructure at our data warehouses and data mining facilities may become obsolete or unmarketable due to demand for new processes and technologies, including new technology that permits higher levels of critical load and heat removal than our data warehouses are currently designed to provide. In addition, the systems that connect our data warehouses and data mining facilities to the Internet and other external networks may become outdated, including with respect to latency, reliability and diversity of connectivity. When clients demand new processes or technologies, we may not be able to upgrade our data warehouse facilities and data mining capacities on a cost-effective basis, or at all, due to, among other things, increased expenses to us that cannot be passed on to clients or insufficient revenues to fund the necessary capital expenditures. The obsolescence of our power and cooling systems and/or our inability to upgrade our data mining capacities, including associated connectivity, could reduce revenues at our data mining and analysis and could have a material adverse effect on us. To be successful, we must adapt to our rapidly changing market by continually improving the performance, features and reliability of our services and modifying our business strategies accordingly, which could cause us to incur substantial costs. We may not be able to adapt to changing technologies in a timely and cost-effective manner, if at all, which would adversely impact our ability to sustain and grow our business. If we are unable to purchase the hardware or obtain a license for the software that our services depend on, our business could be significantly and adversely affected.

 

Furthermore, potential future regulations that apply to industries we serve may require us, our data suppliers, or our clients to seek specific requirements from their data operations that we are unable to provide. If such regulations were adopted, we could lose clients or be unable to attract new clients in certain industries, which could have a material adverse effect on us.

 

In addition, new technologies or industry standards have the potential to replace or provide lower cost alternatives to our services. We focus primarily on providing data mining services and solutions through data warehouses. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to identify the emergence of all the new service alternatives successfully, modify our services accordingly, or develop and bring new services to market in a timely and cost-effective manner to address these changes. If and when we do identify the emergence of new service alternatives and introduce new services to market, those new services may need to be made available at lower profit margins than our then-current services. Failure to provide services to compete with new technologies or the obsolescence of our services could lead us to lose current and potential clients or could cause us to incur substantial costs, which would harm our operating results and financial condition. Our introduction of new alternative services that have lower price points than our current offerings may also result in our existing clients switching to the lower cost products, which could reduce our revenues and have a material adverse effect on our results of operation.

 

7

 

 

Any significant or prolonged failure in the data warehouse facilities and data mining facilities we operate or services we provide, including events beyond our control, would lead to significant costs and disruptions and would reduce the attractiveness of our facilities, harm our business reputation and have a material adverse effect on our results of operation.

 

The data warehouse facilities and data mining facilities we operate are subject to failure. Any significant or prolonged failure in any data warehouse and data mining facilities we operate or services that we provide, including a breakdown in critical plant, equipment or services, such as the generators, backup batteries, routers, switches, or other equipment, power supplies, or network connectivity, whether or not within our control, could result in service interruptions and data losses for our clients as well as equipment damage, which could significantly disrupt the normal business operations of our clients and harm our reputation and reduce our revenues. Any failure or downtime in one of the data warehouse and data mining facilities that we operate could affect many of our clients. The total destruction or severe impairment of any of the data warehouse and data mining facilities we operate could result in significant downtime of our services and catastrophic loss of client data. Since our ability to attract and retain clients depends on our ability to provide highly reliable service, even minor interruptions in our service could harm our reputation and cause us to incur financial penalties. The services we provide are subject to failures resulting from numerous factors, including, but not limited to, human error or accident, natural disasters and security breaches, whether accidental or willful.

 

We may in the future experience interruptions in service, power outages and other technical failures or be otherwise unable to satisfy the requirements of the agreements we have with clients for reasons outside of our control. As our services are critical to many of our clients’ business operations, any significant or prolonged disruption in our services could result in lost profits or other indirect or consequential damages to our clients and subject us to lawsuits brought by the clients for potentially substantial damages. Furthermore, these interruptions in service, regardless of whether they result in breaches of the agreements we have with clients, may negatively affect our relationships with clients and lead to clients terminating their agreements with us or seeking damages from us or other compensatory actions. We have taken and continue to take steps to improve our infrastructure to prevent service interruptions and satisfy the requirements of the agreements we have with clients, including upgrading our electrical and mechanical infrastructure and sourcing, designing the best facilities possible and implementing rigorous operational procedures to maintenance programs to manage risk. Service interruptions continue to be a significant risk for us and could affect our reputation, damage our relationships with clients and materially and adversely affect our business. Any breaches of the agreements we have with clients will damage our relationships with clients and materially and adversely affect our business.

 

Security breaches or alleged security breaches of our data warehouses could disrupt our operations and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operation.

 

A security breach of our data warehouse facilities could result in the misappropriation of our or our clients’ information, and may cause interruptions or malfunctions in our operations or the operations of our clients. As we and our data warehouse service provider commit to implementing effective security measures to safeguard our data warehouses, such a compromise could be particularly harmful to our brand and reputation. We may be required to expend significant capital and resources to protect against such threats or to alleviate problems caused by breaches in security. Security risks and deficiencies may also be identified in the course of government inspections, which could subject us to fines and other sanctions. As techniques used to breach security change frequently and are often not recognized until launched against a target, we may not be able to implement new security measures in a timely manner or, if and when implemented, we may not be certain whether these measures could be circumvented. Any breaches that may occur could expose us to increased risk of lawsuits, regulatory penalties, loss of existing or potential clients, harm to our reputation and increases in our security costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

In addition, any assertions of alleged security breaches or systems failure made against us, whether true or not, could harm our reputation, cause us to incur substantial legal fees and have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations.

 

8

 

 

Our subscription agreements for data warehouses could be terminated early and we may not be able to renew our existing leases on commercially acceptable terms or our rent or payment under the agreements could increase substantially in the future, which could materially and adversely affect our operations.

 

We enter into certain data warehouse subscription agreements with Tencent Cloud Computing (Beijing) Co., Ltd. for our data warehouses. Upon the expiration of such subscription agreements, we may not be able to renew these subscription agreements on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. Under certain subscription agreements, the data warehouse service provider may terminate the agreement by giving prior notice and paying default penalties to us. However, such default penalties may not be sufficient to cover our losses. Even though the data warehouse service provider for our data warehouses generally do not have the right of unilateral early termination unless they provide the required notice, the subscription agreements may nonetheless be terminated early if we are in material breach of the subscription agreements. We may assert claims for compensation against the data warehouse service provider if they elect to terminate a subscription agreement early and without due cause. Although there is no substantial barriers to renew subscription agreements we want to renew, and we do not believe that any of our subscription agreements will be terminated early in the future, there can be no assurance that the data warehouse service provider will not terminate any of our subscription agreements prior to its expiration date. If the data warehouse subscription agreements were terminated early prior to their expiration date, notwithstanding any compensation we may receive for early termination of such leases, or if we are not able to renew such subscription agreements, or if we are unable to find suitable alternative data warehouses in a timely manner, we may have to incur significant costs related to relocation of our data. Any relocation could also affect our ability to provide continuous uninterrupted services to our customers and harm our reputation. Furthermore, rent or payment under such leases in the future may increase substantially in the future. Any of the foregoing could have an adverse impact on our business and results of operations.

 

We may face claims of privacy infringement and other related claims, which could be time-consuming and costly to defend and may result in an adverse impact over our operations.

 

We cannot assure you that our operations or any aspects of our business do not or will not infringe upon or violate privacy rights owned or held by third parties. We may also be subject to legal or administrative proceedings and claims relating to privacy rights of third parties in the future. If we become liable to third parties for infringing upon their privacy rights, we could be required to pay a substantial damage award. We may also be subject to injunctions that prohibit us from using such data and require us to alter our processes or methodologies, which may not be technically or commercially feasible and may cause us to expend significant resources. Any claims or litigation in this area, whether we ultimately win or lose, could be time-consuming and costly, could cause the diversion of management’s attention and resources away from the operations of our business and could damage our reputation.

 

Although we purchase data from our data suppliers, we cannot assure you that our use of such data will not be subject to infringement litigation or proceeding. A third party who claims the ownership over data we purchase from our data suppliers may impeding our ability to use the data. As of the date of this prospectus, we had not encountered any legal claims brought by third parties relating to infringement or violation of any privacy rights which may have a material adverse effect on us. However, there can be no assurance that third parties holding ownership over the data and privacy would not take actions against us alleging infringement of such rights or otherwise assert their rights.

 

We face risks related to natural disasters, health epidemics and other catastrophes, which could significantly disrupt our business, operations, liquidity and financial condition.

 

Our business could be materially and adversely affected by natural disasters or other catastrophes, such as earthquakes, fire, floods, hail, windstorms, severe weather conditions, environmental accidents, power loss, communications failures, explosions, terrorist attacks and similar events. Our business could also be materially and adversely affected by public health emergencies, such as the outbreak of avian influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, Zika virus, Ebola virus, COVID-19 or other local health epidemics in China and worldwide. If any of our employees is suspected of having contracted any contagious disease, we may under certain circumstances be required to quarantine such employees and the affected areas of our premises. As a result, we may have to temporarily suspend part of or all our operations. Furthermore, authorities may impose restrictions on travel and transportation and implement other preventative measures in affected regions to contain a disease outbreak, which may lead to the temporary closure of our facilities and declining economic activity at large. A prolonged outbreak of any of these illness or other adverse public health developments in China or elsewhere in the world could have a material adverse effect on our business operations.

 

9

 

 

Our success depends substantially on the continued retention of certain key personnel and our ability to hire and retain qualified personnel in the future to support our growth and execute our business strategy.

 

Our success is, to a certain extent, attributable to the management, and research and development expertise and sales and marketing of key personnel. While we depend on the abilities and participation of our current management team generally, we are dependent on the services of Mr. Yandai Wang, Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Steven Li, Chief Financial Officer and Mr. Eric H. Han, our vice president of operation, for the continued growth and operation of our Company, and critical to our overall management, as well as the continued development of our strategic direction, due to their experience, personal and business contacts in cryptocurrency mining, security and insurance technologies.

 

If one or more of our senior executives or other key personnel are unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, our business may be disrupted and our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. The loss of the services of Mr. Wang and Mr. Han for any reason could significantly adversely impact our business and results of operations. Competition for senior management and senior technology personnel in the PRC is intense and the pool of qualified candidates is very limited. We cannot assure you that the services of our senior executives and other key personnel will continue to be available to us, or that we will be able to find a suitable replacement for them if they were to leave.

 

Risks Relating to the Planned Cryptocurrency Mining, Security and Insurance Business

 

Our cryptocurrency mining, security and insurance businesses are still under development, with many uncertainties in research of relevant technologies, which makes it hard for us to evaluate their ability to generate revenue through operations, and to date, each of them has not generated revenue from any commercially available blockchain-based products or services. 

 

Our cryptocurrency mining, security and insurance businesses were recently initiated in January 2021, in connection with Dr. Eric H. Yan’s joining us as our vice president of operation. Although Dr. Yan has deep experience in the research and development of cryptocurrency mining, protection and insurance, our limited operating history in these areas and the relative immaturity of the blockchain industry make it difficult for us to evaluate future prospects of these sectors. They may encounter and may continue to encounter, risks and difficulties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly developing and changing industries, including challenges in forecasting accuracy, determining appropriate uses of their limited resources, gaining market acceptance, managing a complex and evolving regulatory landscape and developing new products, especially in cryptocurrency industry, a highly volatile industry. Our future operating model of cryptocurrency mining, security and insurance is immature and may require many changes in order for them to scale their operations efficiently and be successful. Investors in our securities should consider the business and prospects of our new areas in China in light of the risks and difficulties they face as early-stage companies focused on developing products in the field of blockchain based technology.

 

Cryptocurrency mining relies on a steady and inexpensive power supply for operating mining farms and running mining hardware. Failure to access a large quantity of power at reasonable costs could significantly increase our operating expenses and adversely affect our demand for our mining machines.

 

Cryptocurrency mining consumes a significant amount of energy power to process the computations and cool down the mining hardware. Therefore, a steady and inexpensive power supply is critical to cryptocurrency mining. There can be no assurance that the operations of our planned cryptocurrency mining business will not be affected by power shortages or an increase in energy prices in the future. In addition, as we intend to establish and operate mining machines and engage in key mainstream cryptocurrencies mining activities, such as Bitcoin, in the near future, any increase in energy prices or a shortage in power supply in the area of our mining machines may be located will increase our potential mining costs and reduce the expected economic returns from our mining operation significantly.

 

In particular, the power supply could be disrupted by natural disasters, such as floods, mudslides and earthquakes, or other similar events beyond our control. Further, we may experience power shortages due to seasonal variations in the supply of certain types of power such as hydroelectricity. Power shortages, power outages or increased power prices could adversely affect our mining businesses. Under such circumstances, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

 

10

 

 

Shortages in, or rises in the prices of mining machines may adversely affect our business

 

Given the long production period to manufacture and assemble mining machines, there is no assurance that we can acquire enough mining machines for our planned cryptocurrency mining. We may rely on third parties to supply mining machines to us, and shortages of mining machines or any delay in delivery of our orders could seriously interrupt our operations. The scale of our cryptocurrency mining capacity depends on obtaining adequate mining machines on a timely basis and at competitive prices. Shortages of mining machines could result in reduced mining capacity, as well as an increase in operation costs, which could materially delay the completion of our mining capacity and commencement of our mining. As a result, our business, results of operations and reputation could be materially and adversely affected.

 

We may not be able to develop our cryptocurrency mining capacity, blockchain-based security and insurance technologies in the safeguard of digital assets because we may fail to anticipate or adapt to technology innovations in a timely manner, or at all.

 

The cryptocurrencies mining, security and insurance markets are experiencing rapid technological changes. Failure to anticipate technology innovations or adapt to such innovations in a timely manner, or at all, may result in our research becoming obsolete at sudden and unpredictable intervals and, accordingly, we may not successfully develop our mining capacity and cryptocurrency security products at all. To establish our cryptocurrency mining capacity, cryptocurrency protection and insurance products, we will invest heavily in technology research and development. The process of research and developing new technologies in cryptocurrency is inherently complex and involves significant uncertainties. There are a number of risks, including the following:

 

our research and development efforts may fail in resulting in the development or commercialization of new technologies or ideas in blockchain or cryptocurrency;

 

our research and development efforts may fail to translate new product plans into commercially feasible products;

 

our new technologies or new products may not be well received by the markets;

 

we may not have adequate funding and resources necessary for continual investments in research and development;

 

even assuming our technologies and products become marketable or profitable, they may become obsolete due to rapid advancements in technology and changes in the mainstream markets; and

 

our newly developed technologies may not be protected as proprietary intellectual property rights.

 

Our research and development efforts may not yield the expected results, or may prove to be futile due to the lack of market demand. Further, any failure to anticipate the next-generation technology roadmap or changes in the mainstream markets or to timely develop new or enhanced technologies in response could result in loss of our business.

 

Adverse changes in the regulatory environment in the PRC market could have a material adverse impact on our planned cryptocurrency related business.

 

Our planned cryptocurrency mining, protection and insurance will be in China. Our cryptocurrency related products business could therefore be significantly affected by, among other things, the regulatory developments in the PRC. Governmental authorities are likely to continue to issue new laws, rules and regulations governing the cryptocurrency industry that we plan to enter and enhance enforcement of existing laws, rules and regulations. For example, Xinjiang, an autonomous region in northwest China, warned local Bitcoin mining enterprises that were operating illegally to close their operations before August 30, 2018 and the People’s Bank of China, or the PBOC, imposed a ban in September 2017 prohibiting financial institutions from engaging in initial coin offering transactions. Some jurisdictions, including the PRC, restrict various uses of cryptocurrencies, including the use of cryptocurrencies as a medium of exchange, the conversion between cryptocurrencies and fiat currencies or between cryptocurrencies, the provision of trading and other services related to cryptocurrencies by financial institutions and payment institutions, and initial coin offerings and other means of capital raising based on cryptocurrencies. In addition, cryptocurrencies may be used by market participants for black market transactions, to conduct fraud, money laundering and terrorism-funding, tax evasion, economic sanction evasion or other illegal activities. As a result, governments may seek to regulate, restrict, control or ban the mining, use, holding and transferring of cryptocurrencies.

 

11

 

 

With advances in technology, cryptocurrencies are likely to undergo significant changes in the future. It remains uncertain whether cryptocurrencies will be able to cope with, or benefit from, those changes. In addition, as cryptocurrency mining employs sophisticated and high computing power devices that need to consume large amounts of electricity to operate, future developments in the regulation of energy consumption, including possible restrictions on energy usage in the jurisdictions where we intend to deploy our mining capacities, may also affect the development of our business plan. There has been negative public reaction to surrounding the environmental impact of Bitcoin mining, particularly the large consumption of electricity, and governments of various jurisdictions have responded.

 

Further, relevant restrictions from existing and future regulations on mining, holding, using, or transferring of cryptocurrencies may adversely affect our future business operations and results of operations. For example, although mining activities have not been explicitly prohibited by the PRC government, any further order of the PRC government to limit cryptocurrency mining may result in a crackdown on the cryptocurrency market and adversely affect our cryptocurrency-related business plans. If any jurisdictions impose limitations on the mining, use, holding or transferring of cryptocurrencies or any cryptocurrency-related activity, our business prospects, operations and financial results may be negatively impacted.

 

In addition, if cryptocurrencies or the mining of cryptocurrencies are regarded as securities by various governmental authorities, our planned cryptocurrency mining is likely to be deemed as issuance of cryptocurrencies to investors for financing purpose and thus prohibited under the PRC laws. Any such regulations, if implemented, will cause us to incur additional compliance costs and have a material adverse effect on our future business operations.

 

We may face intense industry competition.

 

Cryptocurrency mining, security, and insurance is in a highly competitive environment. Our competitors include companies that may have a longer history, larger market share, greater brand recognition, greater financial resources in research or other competitive advantages. We anticipate that competition will increase as cryptocurrencies gain greater acceptance and more players join the market of cryptocurrency mining and mining farm operations.

 

Strong competition in the market may require us to increase our marketing expenses and sales expenses, if any, or otherwise invest greater resources to gain market shares and expand our mining capacities as needed to adequately compete. Such efforts may negatively impact our profitability. If we are unable to effectively meet our business plans in the competitive landscape, our business, financial conditions and results of operations may be adversely affected.

 

Risks Relating to Doing Business in China

 

We may fail to obtain, maintain and update licenses and permits necessary to conduct our operations in the PRC, and our business may be materially and adversely affected as a result of any changes in the laws and regulations governing the VATS industry in the PRC.

 

The laws and regulations regarding value-added telecommunications services, or VATS, licenses in the PRC are relatively new and are still evolving, and their interpretation and enforcement involve significant uncertainties. Investment activities in the PRC by foreign investors are principally governed by the Industry Catalog Relating to Foreign Investment, or the Catalog. The Catalog divides industries into three categories: encouraged, restricted and prohibited. Industries not included in the Catalog are permitted industries. Industries such as VATS, including Internet data warehouse services, or IDC services, restrict foreign investment. Specifically, the Administrative Regulations on Foreign-Invested Telecommunications Enterprises restrict the ultimate capital contribution percentage held by foreign investor(s) in a foreign-invested VATS enterprise to 50% or less. Under the Telecommunications Regulations, telecommunications service providers are required to procure operating licenses prior to their commencement of operations. The Administrative Measures for Telecommunications Business Operating License, which took effect on April 10, 2009 and was amended on September 1, 2017, set forth the types of licenses required to provide telecommunications services in China and the procedures and requirements for obtaining such licenses.

 

12

 

 

As of the date of this prospectus, we have obtained a Telecommunications Business License and a Telecommunication Network Number Utilization Resource Certificate for our 10086 hot-line center and are currently applying for an ICP license from the Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology.

 

There can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain our existing licenses or permits necessary to provide our current IDC services in the PRC, renew any of them when their current term expires, or update existing licenses or obtain additional licenses necessary for our future business expansion. The failure to obtain, retain, renew or update any license or permit generally, and our IDC licenses in particular, could materially and adversely disrupt our business and future expansion plans.

 

In addition, if future PRC laws or regulations governing the VATS industry require that we obtain additional licenses or permits or update existing licenses in order to continue to provide our IDC services, there can be no assurance that we would be able to obtain such licenses or permits or update existing licenses in a timely fashion, or at all. If any of these situations occur, our business, financial condition and prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

 

We may rely principally on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our wholly foreign-owned entities, or WFOEs, to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have, and any limitation on the ability of our WFOEs to pay dividends to us could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business.

 

We are a holding company, and we may rely principally on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our WFOEs, which in turn relies on consulting and other fees paid to us by our variable interest entities, for our cash and financing requirements, including the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders and service any debt we may incur. If our WFOEs incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to us. In addition, the PRC tax authorities may require us to adjust our taxable income under the contractual arrangements our WFOEs currently have in place with our VIEs in a manner that would materially and adversely affect their ability to pay dividends and other distributions to us.

 

Under PRC laws and regulations, our WFOEs, as wholly foreign-owned enterprise in the PRC, may pay dividends only out of their accumulated profits as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, wholly foreign-owned enterprise, such as our WFOEs, is required to set aside at least 10% of its accumulated after-tax profits after making up the previous year’s accumulated losses each year, if any, to fund statutory reserve funds, until the aggregate amount of such fund reaches 50% of its registered capital. It may allocate a portion of its after-tax profits based on PRC accounting standards to discretionary reserve funds according to its shareholder’s decision. These statutory reserve funds and discretionary reserve funds are not distributable as cash dividends.

 

In addition, the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules provide that withholding tax rate of 10% will be applicable to dividends payable by PRC companies to non-PRC-resident enterprises unless otherwise exempted or reduced according to treaties or arrangements between the PRC central government and governments of other countries or regions where the non-PRC-resident enterprises are incorporated.

 

Any limitation on the ability of our WFOEs to pay dividends or make other distributions to us could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our business, pay dividends, or otherwise fund and conduct our business.

 

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Adverse changes in China’s economic, political and social conditions, as well as laws and government policies, may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

 

We conduct businesses in the PRC, and therefore our financial conditions and results of operations are subject to influences from PRC’s economic, political and social conditions to a great extent. The PRC economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many aspects, including, but not limited to, the degree of government involvement, control level of corruption, control of capital investment, reinvestment control of foreign exchange, allocation of resources, growth rate and development level. Although the PRC government has implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets, and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in China is still owned by the government. In addition, the PRC government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The PRC government also exercises significant control over China’s economic growth by allocating resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy, regulating financial services and institutions and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.

 

For approximately four decades, the PRC government has implemented economic reform measures to utilize market forces in the development of the PRC economy. We cannot predict whether changes in the PRC’s economic, political and social conditions and in its laws, regulations and policies will have any adverse effect on our current or future business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, many of the economic reforms carried out by the PRC government are unprecedented or experimental and are expected to be refined and improved over time. This refining and improving process may not necessarily have a positive effect on our operations and business development. For example, the PRC government has in the past implemented a number of measures intended to slow down certain segments of the economy, including the real property industry, which the government believed to be overheating. These actions, as well as other actions and policies of the PRC government, could cause a decrease in the overall level of economic activity in the PRC and, in turn, have an adverse impact on our business and financial condition.

 

Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.

 

We conduct a substantial portion of business operations in the PRC, and our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated VIEs are subject to laws, rules and regulations applicable to foreign investment in China. The PRC legal system is a civil law system based on written statutes. Unlike the common law system, prior court decisions may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value. The PRC legal system is evolving rapidly, and the interpretation of many laws, regulations and rules may contain inconsistencies and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involves uncertainties.

 

In 1979, the PRC government began to promulgate a comprehensive system of laws, rules and regulations governing economic matters in general. The overall effect of legislation over the past four decades has significantly enhanced the protections afforded to various forms of foreign investment in China. However, China has not developed a fully integrated legal system, and recently enacted laws, rules and regulations may not sufficiently cover all aspects of economic activities in China or may be subject to significant degrees of interpretation by PRC regulatory agencies. In particular, because these laws, rules and regulations are relatively new, and because of the limited number of published decisions and the nonbinding nature of such decisions, and because the laws, rules and regulations often give the relevant regulator significant discretion in how to enforce them, the interpretation and enforcement of these laws, rules and regulations involve uncertainties and can be inconsistent and unpredictable.

 

From time to time, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce our legal rights. However, since PRC judicial and administrative authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory provisions and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to predict the outcome of a judicial or administrative proceeding than that in more developed jurisdictions. Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based, in part, on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published in a timely manner, or at all, but which may have retroactive effects. As a result, we may not always be aware of any potential violation of these policies and rules. Such unpredictability towards our contractual, property (including intellectual property) and procedural rights could adversely affect our business and impede our ability to continue our operations.

 

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Failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding the registration requirements for employee share ownership plans or share option plans may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.

 

Pursuant to the Notice on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas Publicly Listed Company, issued by the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, in February 2012, employees, directors, supervisors and other senior management participating in any stock incentive plan of an overseas publicly listed company who are PRC citizens or who are non-PRC citizens residing in China for a continuous period of not less than one year, subject to a few exceptions, are required to register with SAFE through a domestic qualified agent, which could be a PRC subsidiaries of such overseas listed company, and complete certain other procedures. We and our directors, executive officers and other employees who are PRC citizens or who reside in the PRC for a continuous period of not less than one year and who have been granted restricted shares, restricted share units or options will be subject to these regulations if those employees exercise such restricted shares, restricted share units or options. Separately, SAFE Circular 37 also requires certain registration procedures to be completed if those employees exercise restricted shares, restricted share units or options before listing. Failure to complete the SAFE registrations may subject them to fines and legal sanctions and may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital into our wholly foreign-owned subsidiaries in China and limit these subsidiaries’ ability to distribute dividends to us. We also face regulatory uncertainties that could restrict our ability to adopt additional incentive plans for our directors and employees under PRC law.

 

In addition, the State Administration of Taxation, or the SAT has issued certain circulars concerning employee share options or restricted shares. Under these circulars, the employees working in the PRC who exercise share options or are granted restricted share units will be subject to PRC individual income tax. Our WFOEs have obligations to file documents related to employee share options or restricted shares with relevant tax authorities and to withhold individual income taxes of those employees who exercise their share options. If our employees fail to pay or we fail to withhold their income taxes according to relevant laws and regulations, we may face sanctions imposed by the tax authorities or other PRC government authorities.

 

Failure to make adequate contributions to various employee benefit plans as required by PRC regulations may subject us to penalties.

 

Companies operating in China are required to participate in various government-mandated employee benefit contribution plans, including certain social insurance, housing funds and other welfare plans, open and register accounts for social insurance accounts and housing funds, and contribute in their own names to the plans in amounts equal to certain percentages of salaries, including bonuses and allowances, of employees up to a maximum amount specified by the local government from time to time at locations where companies operate our businesses. The requirements of employee benefit contribution plans have not been implemented consistently by the local governments in China given the different levels of economic development in different geographical areas.

 

As of the date of this prospectus, certain of our PRC subsidiaries failed to open and register the accounts for social insurance and housing funds, and entrust third-party agencies to pay social insurance and housing provident fund for some of our employees. We may be required to make up the contributions for these welfare plans as well as late fees and fines. If we are subject to investigations or penalties related to non-compliance with labor laws, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

 

The enforcement of the Labor Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China, or the PRC Labor Contract Law, and other labor-related regulations in the PRC may increase our labor costs, impose limitations on our labor practices and adversely affect our business and our results of operations.

 

On June 29, 2007, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of China enacted the PRC Labor Contract Law, which became effective on January 1, 2008 and was amended on December 28, 2012. The PRC Labor Contract Law introduces specific provisions related to fixed-term employment contracts, part-time employment, probation, consultation with labor unions and employee assemblies, employment without a written contract, dismissal of employees, severance, and collective bargaining, which together represent enhanced enforcement of labor laws and regulations. According to the PRC Labor Contract Law, an employer is obliged to sign an unfixed-term labor contract with any employee who has worked for the employer for 10 consecutive years. Further, if an employee requests or agrees to renew a fixed-term labor contract that has already been entered into twice consecutively, the resulting contract must have an unfixed term, with certain exceptions. The employer must pay economic compensation to an employee where a labor contract is terminated or expires in accordance with the PRC Labor Contract Law, except for certain situations which are specifically regulated. In addition, the government has issued various labor-related regulations to further protect the rights of employees. According to such laws and regulations, employees are entitled to annual leave ranging from five to 15 days and are able to be compensated for any untaken annual leave days in the amount of three times their daily salary, subject to certain exceptions. In the event that we decide to change our employment or labor practices, the PRC Labor Contract Law and its implementation rules may also limit our ability to effect those changes in a manner that we believe to be cost-effective. In addition, as the interpretation and implementation of these new regulations are still evolving, our employment practices may not be at all times deemed in compliance with the new regulations. If we are subject to severe penalties or incur significant liabilities in connection with labor disputes or investigations, our business and financial conditions may be adversely affected.

 

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It may be difficult to effect service of process upon us, our directors or our executive officers that reside in China or to enforce any judgments obtained from non-PRC courts or bring actions against them or us in China.

 

Certain of our directors and most of our executive officers reside in China. In addition, most of our assets and those of our directors and executive officers are located in China. The PRC does not have treaties providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments of courts with the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan and many other jurisdictions. As a result, it may not be possible for investors to serve process upon us or those persons in China, or to enforce against us or them in China, any judgments obtained from non-PRC jurisdictions.

 

On July 14, 2006, the Supreme People’s Court of China and the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region signed an Arrangement on Reciprocal Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, or the 2006 Arrangement. Under such arrangement, where any designated People’s Court or any designated Hong Kong court has made an enforceable final judgment requiring payment of money in a civil and commercial case pursuant to a choice of court agreement, any party concerned may apply to the relevant People’s Court or Hong Kong court for recognition and enforcement of the judgment. On January 18, 2019, the Supreme Court of the People’s Republic of China and the Department of Justice under the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region signed the Arrangement on Reciprocal Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters by the Courts of the Mainland and of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, or the 2019 Arrangement. The 2019 Arrangement, for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters between the courts in mainland China and those in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, stipulates the scope and particulars of judgments, the procedures and ways of the application for recognition or enforcement, the review of the jurisdiction of the court that issued the original judgment, the circumstances where the recognition and enforcement of a judgment shall be refused, and the approaches towards remedies, among others. After a judicial interpretation has been promulgated by the Supreme People’s Court and the relevant procedures have been completed by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, both sides shall announce a date on which the 2019 Arrangement shall come into effect. The 2019 Arrangement shall apply to any judgment made on or after its effective date by the courts of both sides. The 2006 Arrangement shall be terminated on the same day when the 2019 Arrangement comes into effect. If a “written choice of court agreement” has been signed by parties according to the 2006 Arrangement prior to the effective date of the 2019 Arrangement, the 2006 Arrangement shall still apply. Although the 2019 Arrangement has been signed, its effective date has yet to be announced. Therefore, there are still uncertainties about the outcomes and effectiveness of enforcement or recognition of judgments under the 2019 Arrangement.

 

Shareholder claims that are common in the United States, including securities law class actions and fraud claims, generally are difficult to pursue as a matter of law or practicality in China. For example, in China, there are significant legal and other obstacles to obtaining information needed for shareholder investigations or litigation outside China or otherwise with respect to foreign entities. Although the local authorities in China may establish a regulatory cooperation mechanism with the securities regulatory authorities of another country or region to implement cross-border supervision and administration, such regulatory cooperation with the securities regulatory authorities in the United States has not been efficient in the absence of mutual and practical cooperation mechanism. According to Article 177 of the PRC Securities Law which became effective in March 2020, no overseas securities regulator is allowed to directly conduct investigation or evidence collection activities within the PRC. Accordingly, without the consent of the competent PRC securities regulators or other relevant authorities, no entity or individual may provide any documents and materials relating to securities business activities to foreign entities or government agencies.

 

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The recent joint statement by the SEC and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or the PCAOB, and an act signed into law all call for additional and more stringent criteria to be applied to emerging market companies upon assessing the qualification of their auditors, especially non-U.S. auditors who are not inspected by the PCAOB. These developments could add uncertainties to our offering, business operations, share price and reputation.

 

U.S. public companies that have substantially all of their operations in China have been the subject of intense scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity by investors, financial commentators and regulatory agencies, such as the SEC. Much of the scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity has centered on financial and accounting irregularities and mistakes, a lack of effective internal controls over financial accounting, inadequate corporate governance policies or a lack of adherence thereto and, in many cases, allegations of fraud.

 

On December 7, 2018, the SEC and the PCAOB issued a joint statement highlighting continued challenges faced by the U.S. regulators in their oversight of financial statement audits of U.S.-listed companies with significant operations in China. On April 21, 2020, SEC Chairman Jay Clayton and PCAOB Chairman William D. Duhnke III, along with other senior SEC staff, released a joint statement highlighting the risks associated with investing in companies based in or have substantial operations in emerging markets including China, reiterating past SEC and PCAOB statements on matters including the difficulty associated with inspecting accounting firms and audit work papers in China and higher risks of fraud in emerging markets and the difficulty of bringing and enforcing SEC, Department of Justice and other U.S. regulatory actions, including in instances of fraud, in emerging markets generally.

 

Enactment of the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act or other efforts to increase U.S. regulatory access to audit information could cause investor uncertainty for affected issuers, including us, and the market price of the ordinary shares could be adversely affected. In addition, enactment of the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act will result in prohibitions on the trading of the ordinary shares on NYSE or other U.S. exchange if our auditor fails to be inspected by the PCAOB for three consecutive years.

 

The lack of access to the PCAOB inspection in China prevents the PCAOB from fully evaluating audits and quality control procedures of the auditors based in China. As a result, investors may be deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections. The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of these accounting firms’ audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to the PCAOB inspections, which could cause existing and potential investors in our stock to lose confidence in our audit procedures and reported financial information and the quality of our financial statements.

 

As a result of these scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity, the publicly traded stock of many U.S. listed Chinese companies sharply decreased in value and, in some cases, has become virtually worthless. Many of these companies are now subject to shareholder lawsuits and SEC enforcement actions and are conducting internal and external investigations into the allegations. It is not clear what effect this sector-wide scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity will have on us, our offering, business and our share price. If we become the subject of any unfavorable allegations, whether such allegations are proven to be true or untrue, we will have to expend significant resources to investigate such allegations and/or defend our company. This situation will be costly and time consuming and distract our management from developing our growth. If such allegations are not proven to be groundless, we and our business operations will be severely affected and you could sustain a significant decline in the value of our share.

 

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Risk Relating to Being a Smaller Reporting and Foreign Private Issuer

 

Because we are a smaller reporting company, the requirements of being a public company, including compliance with the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Dodd-Frank Act, may strain our resources, increase our costs and distract management, and we may be unable to comply with these requirements in a timely or cost-effective manner.

 

As a public company with listed equity securities, we must comply with the federal securities laws, rules and regulations, including certain corporate governance provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) and the Dodd-Frank Act, related rules and regulations of the SEC and the NYSE, with which a private company is not required to comply. Complying with these laws, rules and regulations occupies a significant amount of the time of our Board of Directors and management and significantly increases our costs and expenses. Among other things, we must:

 

maintain a system of internal control over financial reporting in compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the related rules and regulations of the SEC and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board;

 

comply with rules and regulations promulgated by the NYSE;

 

prepare and distribute periodic public reports in compliance with our obligations under the federal securities laws;

 

maintain various internal compliance and disclosures policies, such as those relating to disclosure controls and procedures and insider trading in our ordinary shares;

 

involve and retain to a greater degree outside counsel and accountants in the above activities;

 

maintain a comprehensive internal audit function; and

 

maintain an investor relations function.

 

Future sales of our ADSs, whether by us or our shareholders, could cause our share price to decline

 

If our existing shareholders sell, or indicate an intent to sell, substantial amounts of our ADSs in the public market, the trading price of our ADSs could decline significantly. Similarly, the perception in the public market that our shareholders might sell of our ADSs could also depress the market price of our ADSs. A decline in the price of our ADSs might impede our ability to raise capital through the issuance of additional of our ADSs or other equity securities. In addition, the issuance and sale by us of additional of our ADSs or securities convertible into or exercisable for our ADSs, or the perception that we will issue such securities, could reduce the trading price for our ADSs as well as make future sales of equity securities by us less attractive or not feasible. The sale of ADSs issued upon the exercise of our outstanding options and warrants could further dilute the holdings of our then existing shareholders.

  

Securities analysts may not cover our Ordinary Shares or ADSs and this may have a negative impact on the market price of our ordinary shares

 

The trading market for our ADSs will depend, in part, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. We do not have any control over independent analysts (provided that we have engaged various non-independent analysts). We do not currently have and may never obtain research coverage by independent securities and industry analysts. If no independent securities or industry analysts commence coverage of us, the trading price for our ADSs would be negatively impacted. If we obtain independent securities or industry analyst coverage and if one or more of the analysts who covers us downgrades our ADSs, changes their opinion of our shares or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our share price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of us or fails to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our ADSs could decrease and we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause our share price and trading volume to decline.

 

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings or other equity issuances

 

We may in the future issue additional of our ADSs or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for of our ADSs. We cannot assure you that we will be able to sell of our ADSs or other securities in any other offering or other transactions at a price per share that is equal to or greater than the price per share paid by investors in this offering. The price per share at which we sell additional of our ADSs or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our ADSs in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share in this offering.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Except as described in any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered under this prospectus to fund the development and commercialization of our projects and the growth of our business, primarily working capital, and for general corporate purposes. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire or invest in technologies, products and/or businesses that we believe will enhance the value of our Company, although we have no current commitments or agreements with respect to any such transactions as of the date of this prospectus. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for the foregoing purposes. As a result, our management will have broad discretion in the allocation of the net proceeds and investors will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding the application of the proceeds of any sale of the securities. If a material part of the net proceeds is to be used to repay indebtedness, we will set forth the interest rate and maturity of such indebtedness in a prospectus supplement. Pending use of the net proceeds will be deposited in interest bearing bank accounts. 

 

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DILUTION

 

If required, we will set forth in a prospectus supplement the following information regarding any material dilution of the equity interests of investors purchasing securities in an offering under this prospectus:

 

  the net tangible book value per share of our equity securities before and after the offering;
     
  the amount of the increase in such net tangible book value per share attributable to the cash payments made by purchasers in the offering; and
     
  the amount of the immediate dilution from the public offering price which will be absorbed by such purchasers.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL

 

The following description of our share capital (which includes a description of securities we may offer pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus, as the same may be supplemented, forms a part) does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by our fifth Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association (“M&A”) and by the applicable provisions of Cayman Islands law.

 

Our authorized share capital is US$500,000 divided into 5,000,000,000 shares with a par value of US$0.0001 each (the “Ordinary Shares”), comprised of (1) 4,900,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares with a par value of $0.0001 each, and (2) 100,000,000 Class B Ordinary Shares with a par value of $0.0001 each. Our directors may, in their absolute discretion and without the approval of our shareholders, create and designate out of the unissued shares of our company (including unissued Class A Ordinary Shares) one or more classes or series of preferred shares, comprising such number of preferred shares, and having such designations, powers, preferences, privileges and other rights, including dividend rights, voting rights, conversion rights, terms of redemption and liquidation preferences, as our directors may determine.

 

The following description of our share capital is intended as a summary only and is qualified in its entirety by reference to our M&A, which have been filed previously with the SEC, and applicable provisions of Cayman Islands law.

 

We, directly or through agents, dealers or underwriters designated from time to time, may offer, issue and sell, together or separately, up to $300,000,000 in the aggregate of:

 

Class A Ordinary Shares, represented by ADS;

 

preferred shares;

 

secured or unsecured debt securities consisting of notes, debentures or other evidences of indebtedness which may be senior debt securities, senior subordinated debt securities or subordinated debt securities, each of which may be convertible into equity securities;

 

warrants to purchase our securities;

 

rights to purchase our securities; or

 

units comprised of, or other combinations of, the foregoing securities.

 

We may issue the debt securities as exchangeable for or convertible into Ordinary Shares, preferred shares or other securities. The preferred shares may also be exchangeable for and/or convertible into Ordinary Shares, another series of preferred shares or other securities. The debt securities, the preferred shares, the Ordinary Shares and the warrants are collectively referred to in this prospectus as the “securities.” When a particular series of securities is offered, a supplement to this prospectus will be delivered with this prospectus, which will set forth the terms of the offering and sale of the offered securities.

 

Ordinary Shares

 

As of the date of this prospectus, there are 625,479,485 Class A ordinary shares and 25,331,152 Class B ordinary shares issued and outstanding, held of record by approximately 318 and 16 shareholders, respectively. We have never paid dividends on our Ordinary Shares. While any future dividends will be determined by our directors after consideration of the earnings, financial condition, and other relevant factors, it is currently expected that available cash resources will be utilized in connection with our ongoing operations.

 

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Each outstanding Class A Ordinary Share entitles the holder thereof to one vote per share on all matters. Each outstanding Class B Ordinary Share entitles the holder thereof to ten (10) votes per share on all matters. Holders of shares of Class A Ordinary Shares and Class B Ordinary Shares shall, at all times, vote together as one class on all matters submitted to a vote for shareholders’ consent. Our M&A provides that elections for directors shall be by an ordinary resolution of our shareholders, which requires a simple majority of votes cast at a general meeting of our shareholders, or a written resolution approved in writing by two-thirds of our shareholders entitled to vote at a general meeting. Shareholders do not have preemptive rights to purchase shares in any future issuance of our Ordinary Shares. Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, and after payment of creditors and preferred shareholders, if any, our assets available for distribution will be distributed amongst our shareholders in proportion to the par value of the shares held by them at the commencement of the winding up, subject to a deduction from those shares in respect of which there are monies due, of all monies payable to our company for unpaid calls or otherwise.

 

The holders of our Ordinary Shares are entitled to dividends out of funds legally available when and as declared by our board of directors (the “Board”). The Board has never declared a dividend and does not anticipate declaring a dividend in the foreseeable future. Should we decide in the future to pay dividends, as a holding company, our ability to do so and meet other obligations depends upon the receipt of dividends or other payments from our operating subsidiaries and other holdings and investments. In addition, our operating subsidiaries, from time to time, may be subject to restrictions on their ability to make distributions to us, including as a result of restrictive covenants in loan agreements, restrictions on the conversion of local currency into U.S. dollars or other hard currency and other regulatory restrictions.

 

General. All of our issued and outstanding Ordinary Shares are fully paid and non-assessable. Our Ordinary Shares are issued in registered form, and are issued when registered in our register of members. Our shareholders who are nonresidents of the Cayman Islands may freely hold and vote their shares. Under our M&A, we may issue only non-negotiable shares and may not issue bearer or negotiable shares.

 

Dividends. The holders of our Ordinary Shares are entitled to such dividends as may be declared by our board of directors. In addition, our shareholders may by ordinary resolution declare a dividend, but no dividend may exceed the amount recommended by our directors. Under Cayman Islands law, dividends may be declared and paid only out of funds legally available therefor, namely out of either profit or our share premium account, provided that a dividend may not be paid if this would result in our company being unable to pay its debts as they fall due in the ordinary course of business.

 

Classes of Ordinary Shares. Our ordinary shares are divided into Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares. Except for conversion rights and voting rights, the Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares carry equal rights and rank pari passu with one another, including but not limited to the rights to dividends and other capital distributions.

 

Each Class B Ordinary Share is convertible into one Class A Ordinary Share at any time by the holder thereof. In addition, (i) each Class B Ordinary Shares shall automatically and immediately be converted into one Class A Ordinary Share if at any time the total number of the issued and outstanding Class B ordinary shares in aggregate is less than 5% of the total number of Class B ordinary shares of our company issued and outstanding immediately following the Company’s initial public offering, and (ii) upon any sale, transfer, assignment or disposition of any Class B Ordinary Shares by a holder thereof to any person or entity which is not an Affiliate (as defined in our M&A) of such holder, such Class B Ordinary Shares shall be automatically and immediately converted into an equal number of Class A Ordinary Shares. Class A Ordinary Shares are not convertible into Class B Ordinary Shares under any circumstances.

 

Voting Rights. Holders of our Ordinary Shares vote as a single class on all matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders, except as may otherwise be required by law. In respect of matters requiring shareholders’ vote, each Class A Ordinary Share is entitled to one vote and each Class B Ordinary Share is entitled to ten (10) votes. At any general meeting a resolution put to the vote of the meeting shall be decided by poll.

 

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An ordinary resolution to be passed by the shareholders requires the affirmative vote of a simple majority of the votes cast by those shareholders entitled to vote who are present in person or by proxy at a general meeting (or if passed as a resolution in writing, the approval of two-thirds of our shareholders entitled to vote at a general meeting of our company), while a special resolution requires the affirmative vote of no less than two-thirds of the votes cast by those shareholders entitled to vote who are present in person or by proxy at a general meeting (or if passed as a written resolution, the approval of all of our shareholders entitled to vote at a general meeting of our company). A special resolution is required for important matters such as a change of name or any amendment to our M&A. Holders of our Ordinary Shares may effect certain changes by ordinary resolution, including increasing the amount of our authorized share capital, consolidating all or any of our share capital into shares of larger amount than our existing shares, sub-dividing our shares or any of them into shares of an amount smaller than that fixed by our M&A, and cancelling any unissued shares.

 

General Meetings of Shareholders and Shareholder Proposals. As a Cayman Islands exempted company, we are not obliged by the Companies Law to call shareholders’ annual general meetings. Our M&A provides that we may, but are not obliged to, in each year hold a general meeting as our annual general meeting in which case we shall specify the meeting as such in the notices calling it, and the annual general meeting shall be held at such time and place as may be determined by our directors.

 

Shareholders’ annual general meetings and any other general meetings of our shareholders may be convened by our board of directors. Advance notice of at least ten (10) calendar days is required for the convening of our annual general shareholders’ meeting and any other general meeting of our shareholders. A quorum required for a general meeting of shareholders consists of one or more shareholders present in person or by proxy or, if a corporation or other non-natural person, by its duly authorized representative, who hold shares which represent, in aggregate, not less than one-third of the votes attaching to all issued and outstanding shares of our company entitled to vote at general meetings.

 

Cayman Islands law provides shareholders with only limited rights to requisition a general meeting, and does not provide shareholders with any right to put any proposal before a general meeting. However, these rights may be provided in a company’s articles of association. Our M&A allows any of our shareholders holding in aggregate not less than two-thirds of the aggregate number of votes attaching to all issued and outstanding shares of our company entitled to vote at general meetings, to requisition an extraordinary general meeting of the shareholders, in which case our directors are obliged to call such meeting and to put the resolutions so requisitioned to a vote at such meeting; however, our M&A does not provide our shareholders with any right to put any proposals before annual general meetings or extraordinary general meetings not called by such shareholders.

 

Transfer of Shares. Subject to the restrictions of our M&A set out below, as applicable, any of our shareholders may transfer all or any of his or her Ordinary Shares by an instrument of transfer in writing and in such usual or common form or such other form approved by our board of directors.

 

Our board of directors may, in its absolute discretion, and without assigning any reason, refuse to register any transfer of any ordinary share which is not fully paid up or upon which our company has a lien. Our directors may also decline to register any transfer of any ordinary share unless (a) the instrument of transfer is lodged with us, accompanied by the certificate for the ordinary shares to which it relates and such other evidence as our board of directors may reasonably require to show the right of the transferor to make the transfer; (b) the instrument of transfer is in respect of only one class of shares; (c) the instrument of transfer is properly stamped, if required; (d) in the case of a transfer to joint holders, the number of joint holders to whom the ordinary share is to be transferred does not exceed four; or (e) a fee of such maximum sum as the NYSE may determine to be payable, or such lesser sum as our board of directors may from time to time require, is paid to us in respect thereof.

 

If our directors refuse to register a transfer they shall, within two months after the date on which the instrument of transfer was lodged, send to each of the transferor and the transferee notice of such refusal. The registration of transfers may, on fourteen (14) days’ notice being given by advertisement in an appointed newspaper or any other newspapers or by any other means in accordance with the requirements of the NYSE to that effect, be suspended at such times and for such periods (not exceeding in the whole thirty (30) calendar days in any year) as our directors may determine.

 

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Liquidation. On a winding up of our company, if the assets available for distribution among our shareholders shall be more than sufficient to repay the whole of the share capital at the commencement of the winding up, the surplus shall be distributed among our shareholders in proportion to the par value of the shares held by them at the commencement of the winding up, subject to a deduction from those shares in respect of which there are monies due, of all monies payable to our company for unpaid calls or otherwise. If our assets available for distribution are insufficient to repay all of the paid-up capital, the assets will be distributed so that the losses are borne by our shareholders in proportion to the par value of the shares held by them.

 

Calls on Shares and Forfeiture of Shares. Our board of directors may from time to time make calls upon shareholders for any amounts unpaid on their shares in a notice served to such shareholders at least 14 days prior to the specified time and place of payment. The shares that have been called upon and remain unpaid on the specified time are subject to forfeiture.

 

Redemption, Purchase and Surrender of Shares. We may issue shares on terms that such shares are subject to redemption, at our option or at the option of the holders, on such terms and in such manner as our board of directors, before the issue of such shares, or our shareholders by special resolution may determine. We may also repurchase any of our shares provided that the manner and terms of such purchase have been approved by our board of directors or by ordinary resolution of our shareholders, or are otherwise authorized by our memorandum and articles of association. Under the Companies Law, the redemption or repurchase of any share may be paid out of our company’s profits or out of the proceeds of a fresh issue of shares made for the purpose of such redemption or repurchase, or out of capital (including share premium account and capital redemption reserve) if the company can, immediately following such payment, pay its debts as they fall due in the ordinary course of business. In addition, under the Companies Law no such share may be redeemed or repurchased (a) unless it is fully paid up, (b) if such redemption or repurchase would result in there being no shares outstanding, or (c) if the company has commenced liquidation. In addition, our company may accept the surrender of any fully paid share for no consideration.

 

Variations of Rights of Shares. If at any time, our share capital is divided into different classes of shares, the rights attached to any class of shares may be varied or abrogated either with the written consent of the holders of two-thirds of the issued shares of that class, or with the sanction of a special resolution passed at a general meeting of the holders of shares of that class. The rights conferred upon the holders of the shares of any class issued with preferred or other rights will not, unless otherwise expressly provided by the terms of issue of the shares of that class, be deemed to be varied by the creation or issue of further shares ranking pari passu with such existing class of shares.

 

Inspection of Books and Records. Holders of our ordinary shares have no general right under Cayman Islands law to inspect or obtain copies of our list of shareholders or our corporate records. However, at the discretion of our board of directors, we intend to provide our shareholders with annual audited financial statements.

 

Changes in Capital. Our shareholders may from time to time by ordinary resolution:

 

increase our share capital by such sum, to be divided into shares of such classes and amount, as the resolution shall prescribe;

 

consolidate or divide all or any of our share capital into shares of a larger or smaller amount than our existing shares;

 

sub-divide our existing shares, or any of them into shares of as amount smaller than that fixed by our memorandum; and

 

cancel any shares that, at the date of the passing of the resolution, have not been taken or agreed to be taken by any person and diminish the amount of our share capital by the amount of the shares so cancelled.

 

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Our shareholders may, by special resolution and subject to confirmation by the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands on an application by our company for an order confirming such reduction, reduce our share capital and any capital redemption reserve in any manner authorized by law.

 

Issuance of Additional Shares. Our M&A authorizes our board of directors to issue additional Ordinary Shares from time to time as our board of directors shall determine, to the extent there are available authorized but unissued shares.

 

Our M&A authorizes our board of directors to establish from time to time one or more series of convertible redeemable preferred shares and to determine, with respect to any series of convertible redeemable preferred shares, the terms and rights of that series, including:

 

designation of the series;

 

the number of shares of the series;

 

the dividend rights, conversion rights and voting rights; and

 

the rights and terms of redemption and liquidation preferences.

 

The issuance of convertible redeemable preferred shares may be used as an anti-takeover device without further action on the part of the shareholders. Issuance of these shares may dilute the voting power of holders of ordinary shares.

 

Anti-Takeover Provisions. Some provisions of M&A may discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of our company or management that shareholders may consider favorable, including provisions that:

 

authorize our board of directors to issue preferred shares in one or more series and to designate the price, rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of such preferred shares without any further vote or action by our shareholders; and

 

limit the ability of shareholders to requisition and convene general meetings of shareholders.

 

However, under Cayman Islands law, our directors may only exercise the rights and powers granted to them under our M&A for a proper purpose and for what they believe in good faith to be in the best interests of our company.

 

Exempted Company. We are an exempted company with limited liability under the Companies Law. The Companies Law distinguishes between ordinary resident companies and exempted companies. Any company that is registered in the Cayman Islands but conducts business mainly outside of the Cayman Islands may apply to be registered as an exempted company. The requirements for an exempted company are essentially the same as for an ordinary company except that an exempted company:

 

does not have to file an annual return of its shareholders with the Registrar of Companies;

 

is not required to open its register of members for inspection;

 

does not have to hold an annual general meeting;

 

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may issue negotiable or bearer shares or shares with no par value;

 

may obtain an undertaking against the imposition of any future taxation (such undertakings are usually given for 20 years in the first instance);

 

may register by way of continuation in another jurisdiction and be deregistered in the Cayman Islands;

 

may register as a limited duration company; and

 

may register as a segregated portfolio company.

 

Preferred Shares 

 

The Board is empowered to allot, issue, and dispose of shares (including, without limitation, preferred shares) (whether in certificated form or non-certificated form), to such persons, in such manner, on such terms and having such rights and being subject to such restrictions as they may from time to time determine. The Board may, without the approval of the shareholders, create and designate out of the unissued shares of the Company (including unissued Class A Ordinary Shares) one or more classes or series of preferred shares, comprising such number of preferred shares, and having such designations, powers, preferences, privileges and other rights, including dividend rights, voting rights, conversion rights, terms of redemption and liquidation preferences, as the Board may determine in their sole and absolute discretion.

 

You should refer to the prospectus supplement relating to the series of preferred shares being offered for the specific terms of that series, including:

 

title of the series and the number of shares in the series;

 

the price at which the preferred shares will be offered;

 

the dividend rate or rates or method of calculating the rates, the dates on which the dividends will be payable, whether or not dividends will be cumulative or noncumulative and, if cumulative, the dates from which dividends on the preferred shares being offered will cumulate;

 

the voting rights, if any, of the holders of preferred shares being offered;

 

the provisions for a sinking fund, if any, and the provisions for redemption, if applicable, of the preferred shares being offered, including any restrictions on the foregoing as a result of arrearage in the payment of dividends or sinking fund installments;

 

the liquidation preference per share;

 

the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which the preferred shares being offered will be convertible into our Ordinary Shares, including the conversion price, or the manner of calculating the conversion price, and the conversion period;

 

the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which the preferred shares being offered will be exchangeable for debt securities, including the exchange price, or the manner of calculating the exchange price, and the exchange period;

 

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any listing of the preferred shares being offered on any securities exchange;

 

a discussion of any material federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred shares being offered;

 

any preemptive rights;

 

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred shares being offered as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or the winding up of our affairs;

 

any limitations on the issuance of any class or series of preferred shares ranking senior or equal to the series of preferred shares being offered as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or the winding up of our affairs; and

 

any additional rights, preferences, qualifications, limitations and restrictions of the series.

 

Upon issuance, the preferred shares will be fully paid and nonassessable, which means that its holders will have paid their purchase price in full and we may not require them to pay additional funds.

 

Any preferred share terms selected by the Board could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to holders of our Ordinary Shares or adversely affect the rights and power, including voting rights, of the holders of our Ordinary Shares without any further vote or action by the stockholders. The rights of holders of our Ordinary Shares will be subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of any preferred shares that may be issued by us in the future. The issuance of preferred shares could also have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF THE AMERICAN DEPOSITARY SHARES

 

Citibank, N.A. as Depositary, will register and deliver ADSs. Each ADS represents ten (10) Class A Ordinary Shares. Citibank’s depositary offices are located at 388 Greenwich Street, New York, New York 10013. ADSs may be represented by certificates that are commonly known as American Depositary Receipts or ADRs. The Depositary typically appoints a custodian to safekeep the securities on deposit. In this case, the custodian is Citibank, N.A. - Hong Kong, located 10/F, Harbour Front (II), 22, Tak Fung Street, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

 

Each ADS represents the right to receive, and to exercise the beneficial ownership interests in, ten Class A ordinary shares that are on deposit with the Depositary and/or custodian. An ADS also represents the right to receive, and to exercise the beneficial interests in, any other property received by the Depositary or the custodian on behalf of the owner of the ADS but that has not been distributed to the owners of ADSs because of legal restrictions or practical considerations. We and the Depositary may agree to change the ADS-to-share ratio by amending the deposit agreement. This amendment may give rise to, or change, the depositary fees payable by ADS owners. The custodian, the Depositary and their respective nominees will hold all deposited property for the benefit of the holders and beneficial owners of ADSs. The deposited property does not constitute the proprietary assets of the Depositary, the custodian or their nominees. Beneficial ownership in the deposited property will under the terms of the deposit agreement be vested in the beneficial owners of the ADSs. The Depositary, the custodian and their respective nominees will be the record holders of the deposited property represented by the ADSs for the benefit of the holders and beneficial owners of the corresponding ADSs. A beneficial owner of ADSs may or may not be the holder of ADSs. Beneficial owners of ADSs will be able to receive, and to exercise beneficial ownership interests in, the deposited property only through the registered holders of the ADSs, the registered holders of the ADSs (on behalf of the applicable ADS owners) only through the Depositary, and the Depositary (on behalf of the owners of the corresponding ADSs) directly, or indirectly, through the custodian or their respective nominees, in each case upon the terms of the deposit agreement.

 

If you become an owner of ADSs, you will become a party to the deposit agreement and therefore will be bound to its terms and to the terms of any ADR that represents your ADSs. The deposit agreement and the ADR specify our rights and obligations as well as your rights and obligations as owner of ADSs and those of the Depositary. As an ADS holder, you appoint the Depositary to act on your behalf in certain circumstances. The deposit agreement and the ADRs are governed by New York law. However, our obligations to the holders of Class A Ordinary Shares will continue to be governed by the laws of the Cayman Islands, which may be different from the laws in the United States.

 

In addition, applicable laws and regulations may require you to satisfy reporting requirements and obtain regulatory approvals in certain circumstances. You are solely responsible for complying with such reporting requirements and obtaining such approvals. Neither the Depositary, the custodian, us or any of their or our respective agents or affiliates shall be required to take any actions whatsoever on your behalf to satisfy such reporting requirements or obtain such regulatory approvals under applicable laws and regulations.

 

As an owner of ADSs, we will not treat you as one of our shareholders and you will not have direct shareholder rights. The Depositary will hold on your behalf the shareholder rights attached to the Class A Ordinary Shares underlying your ADSs. As an owner of ADSs you will be able to exercise the shareholders rights for the Class A Ordinary Shares represented by your ADSs through the Depositary only to the extent contemplated in the deposit agreement. To exercise any shareholder rights not contemplated in the deposit agreement you will, as an ADS owner, need to arrange for the cancellation of your ADSs and become a direct shareholder.

 

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As an owner of ADSs, you may hold your ADSs either by means of an ADR registered in your name, through a brokerage or safekeeping account, or through an account established by the Depositary in your name reflecting the registration of uncertificated ADSs directly on the books of the Depositary, which is commonly referred to as the direct registration system or DRS. The direct registration system reflects the uncertificated (book-entry) registration of ownership of ADSs by the Depositary. Under the direct registration system, ownership of ADSs is evidenced by periodic statements issued by the Depositary to the holders of the ADSs. The direct registration system includes automated transfers between the Depositary and The Depository Trust Company, or the DTC, the central book-entry clearing and settlement system for equity securities in the United States. If you decide to hold your ADSs through your brokerage or safekeeping account, you must rely on the procedures of your broker or bank to assert your rights as ADS owner. Banks and brokers typically hold securities such as the ADSs through clearing and settlement systems such as DTC. The procedures of such clearing and settlement systems may limit your ability to exercise your rights as an owner of ADSs. Please consult with your broker or bank if you have any questions concerning these limitations and procedures. All ADSs held through DTC will be registered in the name of a nominee of DTC. This summary description assumes you have opted to own the ADSs directly by means of an ADS registered in your name and, as such, we will refer to you as the “holder.” When we refer to “you,” we assume the reader owns ADSs and will own ADSs at the relevant time.

 

The registration of the Class A Ordinary Shares in the name of the Depositary or the custodian shall, to the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, vest in the Depositary or the custodian the record ownership in the applicable Class A ordinary shares with the beneficial ownership rights and interests in such Class A Ordinary Shares being at all times vested with the beneficial owners of the ADSs representing the Class A Ordinary Shares. The Depositary or the custodian shall at all times be entitled to exercise the beneficial ownership rights in all deposited property, in each case only on behalf of the holders and beneficial owners of the ADSs representing the deposited property.

 

The following is a summary of the material provisions of the deposit agreement. For more complete information, you should read the entire deposit agreement and the form of ADR.

 

Dividends and Distributions

 

As a holder of ADSs, you generally have the right to receive the distributions we make on the securities deposited with the custodian. Your receipt of these distributions may be limited, however, by practical considerations and legal limitations. Holders of ADSs will receive such distributions under the terms of the deposit agreement in proportion to the number of ADSs held as of the specified record date, after deduction the applicable fees, taxes and expenses.

 

Distributions of Cash

 

Whenever we make a cash distribution for the securities on deposit with the custodian, we will deposit the funds with the custodian. Upon receipt of confirmation of the deposit of the requisite funds, the Depositary will arrange for the funds to be converted into U.S. dollars and for the distribution of the U.S. dollars to the holders, subject to the laws and regulations of the Cayman Islands.

 

The conversion into U.S. dollars will take place only if practicable and if the U.S. dollars are transferable to the United States. The Depositary will apply the same method for distributing the proceeds of the sale of any property (such as undistributed rights) held by the custodian in respect of securities on deposit.

 

The distribution of cash will be made net of the fees, expenses, taxes and governmental charges payable by holders under the terms of the deposit agreement. The Depositary will hold any cash amounts it is unable to distribute in a non-interest bearing account for the benefit of the applicable holders and beneficial owners of ADSs until the distribution can be effected or the funds that the Depositary holds must be escheated as unclaimed property in accordance with the laws of the relevant states of the United States.

 

Distributions of Class A Ordinary Shares

 

Whenever we make a free distribution of Class A Ordinary Shares for the securities on deposit with the custodian, we will deposit the applicable number of Class A Ordinary Shares with the custodian. Upon receipt of confirmation of such deposit, the Depositary will either distribute to holders new ADSs representing the Class A Ordinary Shares deposited or modify the ADS-to-share ratio, in which case each ADS you hold will represent rights and interests in the additional Class A Ordinary shares so deposited. Only whole new ADSs will be distributed. Fractional entitlements will be sold and the proceeds of such sale will be distributed as in the case of a cash distribution.

 

The distribution of new ADSs or the modification of the ADS-to-share ratio upon a distribution of Class A Ordinary Shares will be made net of the fees, expenses, taxes and governmental charges payable by holders under the terms of the deposit agreement. In order to pay such taxes or governmental charges, the Depositary may sell all or a portion of the new Class A Ordinary Shares so distributed.

 

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No such distribution of new ADSs will be made if it would violate a law (i.e., the U.S. securities laws) or if it is not operationally practicable. If the Depositary does not distribute new ADSs as described above, it may sell the Class A Ordinary Shares received upon the terms described in the deposit agreement and will distribute the proceeds of the sale as in the case of a distribution of cash.

 

Distributions of Rights

 

Whenever we intend to distribute rights to purchase additional Class A Ordinary Shares, we will give prior notice to the Depositary and we will assist the Depositary in determining whether it is lawful and reasonably practicable to distribute rights to purchase additional ADSs to holders.

 

The Depositary will establish procedures to distribute rights to purchase additional ADSs to holders and to enable such holders to exercise such rights if it is lawful and reasonably practicable to make the rights available to holders of ADSs, and if we provide all of the documentation contemplated in the deposit agreement (such as opinions to address the lawfulness of the transaction). You may have to pay fees, expenses, taxes and other governmental charges to subscribe for the new ADSs upon the exercise of your rights. The Depositary is not obligated to establish procedures to facilitate the distribution and exercise by holders of rights to purchase new Class A Ordinary Shares other than in the form of ADSs.

 

The Depositary will not distribute the rights to you if:

 

  We do not timely request that the rights be distributed to you or we request that the rights not be distributed to you; or

 

  We fail to deliver satisfactory documents to the Depositary; or

 

  It is not reasonably practicable to distribute the rights.

 

The Depositary will sell the rights that are not exercised or not distributed if such sale is lawful and reasonably practicable. The proceeds of such sale will be distributed to holders as in the case of a cash distribution. If the Depositary is unable to sell the rights, it will allow the rights to lapse.

 

Elective Distributions

 

Whenever we intend to distribute a dividend payable at the election of shareholders either in cash or in additional Class A Ordinary Shares, we will give prior notice thereof to the Depositary and will indicate whether we wish the elective distribution to be made available to you. In such case, we will assist the Depositary in determining whether such distribution is lawful and reasonably practicable.

 

The Depositary will make the election available to you only if it is reasonably practicable and if we have provided all of the documentation contemplated in the deposit agreement. In such case, the Depositary will establish procedures to enable you to elect to receive either cash or additional ADSs, in each case as described in the deposit agreement.

 

If the election is not made available to you, you will receive either cash or additional ADSs, depending on what a shareholder in the Cayman Islands would receive upon failing to make an election, as more fully described in the deposit agreement.

 

Other Distributions

 

Whenever we intend to distribute property other than cash, Class A Ordinary Shares or rights to purchase additional Class A Ordinary Shares, we will notify the Depositary in advance and will indicate whether we wish such distribution to be made to you. If so, we will assist the Depositary in determining whether such distribution to holders is lawful and reasonably practicable.

 

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If it is reasonably practicable to distribute such property to you and if we provide all of the documentation contemplated in the deposit agreement, the Depositary will distribute the property to the holders in a manner it deems practicable.

 

The distribution will be made net of fees, expenses, taxes and governmental charges payable by holders under the terms of the deposit agreement. In order to pay such taxes and governmental charges, the Depositary may sell all or a portion of the property received.

 

The Depositary will not distribute the property to you and will sell the property if:

 

  We do not request that the property be distributed to you or if we ask that the property not be distributed to you; or

 

  We do not deliver satisfactory documents to the Depositary; or

 

  The Depositary determines that all or a portion of the distribution to you is not reasonably practicable.

 

The proceeds of such a sale will be distributed to holders as in the case of a cash distribution.

 

Redemption

 

Whenever we decide to redeem any of the securities on deposit with the custodian, we will notify the Depositary in advance. If it is practicable and if we provide all of the documentation contemplated in the deposit agreement, the Depositary will provide notice of the redemption to the holders.

 

The custodian will be instructed to surrender the Class A Ordinary Shares being redeemed against payment of the applicable redemption price. The Depositary will convert the redemption funds received into U.S. dollars upon the terms of the deposit agreement and will establish procedures to enable holders to receive the net proceeds from the redemption upon surrender of their ADSs to the Depositary. You may have to pay fees, expenses, taxes and other governmental charges upon the redemption of your ADSs. If less than all ADSs are being redeemed, the ADSs to be retired will be selected by lot or on a pro rata basis, as the Depositary may determine.

 

Changes Affecting Class A Ordinary Shares

 

The Class A Ordinary Shares held on deposit for your ADSs may change from time to time. For example, there may be a change in nominal or par value, split-up, cancellation, consolidation or any other reclassification of such Class A Ordinary Shares or a recapitalization, reorganization, merger, consolidation or sale of assets of our company.

 

If any such change were to occur, your ADSs would, to the extent permitted by law, represent the right to receive the property received or exchanged in respect of the Class A Ordinary Shares held on deposit. The Depositary may in such circumstances deliver new ADSs to you, amend the deposit agreement, the ADRs and the applicable Registration Statement(s) on Form F-6, call for the exchange of your existing ADSs for new ADSs and take any other actions that are appropriate to reflect as to the ADSs the change affecting the Class A ordinary shares. If the Depositary may not lawfully distribute such property to you, the Depositary may sell such property and distribute the net proceeds to you as in the case of a cash distribution.

 

Issuance of ADSs upon Deposit of Class A Ordinary Shares

 

The Depositary will deliver ADSs if you or your broker deposits shares or evidence of rights to receive shares with the custodian. Upon payment of its fees and expenses and of any taxes or charges, such as stamp taxes or stock transfer taxes or fees, the Depositary will register the appropriate number of ADSs in the names you request and will deliver the ADSs to or upon the order of the person or persons that made the deposit.

 

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Transfer, Combination and Split Up of ADRs

 

As an ADR holder, you will be entitled to transfer, combine or split up your ADRs and the ADSs evidenced thereby. For transfers of ADRs, you will have to surrender the ADRs to be transferred to the Depositary and also must:

 

  ensure that the surrendered ADR is properly endorsed or otherwise in proper form for transfer;

 

  provide such proof of identity and genuineness of signatures as the Depositary deems appropriate;

 

  provide any transfer stamps required by the State of New York or the United States; and

 

  pay all applicable fees, charges, expenses, taxes and other government charges payable by ADR holders pursuant to the terms of the deposit agreement, upon the transfer of ADRs.

 

To have your ADRs either combined or split up, you must surrender the ADRs in question to the Depositary with your request to have them combined or split up, and you must pay all applicable fees, charges and expenses payable by ADR holders, pursuant to the terms of the deposit agreement, upon a combination or split up of ADRs.

 

Withdrawal of Class A Ordinary Shares Upon Cancellation of ADSs

 

As a holder, you will be entitled to present your ADSs to the Depositary for cancellation and then receive the corresponding number of underlying Class A Ordinary Shares at the custodian’s offices. Your ability to withdraw the Class A Ordinary Shares held in respect of the ADSs may be limited by U.S. and Cayman Islands law considerations applicable at the time of withdrawal. In order to withdraw the Class A Ordinary Shares represented by your ADSs, you will be required to pay to the Depositary the fees for cancellation of ADSs and any charges and taxes payable upon the transfer of the Class A Ordinary Shares. You assume the risk for delivery of all funds and securities upon withdrawal. Once canceled, the ADSs will not have any rights under the deposit agreement.

 

If you hold ADSs registered in your name, the Depositary may ask you to provide proof of identity and genuineness of any signature and such other documents as the Depositary may deem appropriate before it will cancel your ADSs. The withdrawal of the Class A Ordinary Shares represented by your ADSs may be delayed until the Depositary receives satisfactory evidence of compliance with all applicable laws and regulations. Please keep in mind that the Depositary will only accept ADSs for cancellation that represent a whole number of securities on deposit.

 

You will have the right to withdraw the securities represented by your ADSs at any time except for:

 

  Temporary delays that may arise because (i) the transfer books for the Class A Ordinary Shares or ADSs are closed, or (ii) Class A Ordinary shares are immobilized on account of a shareholders’ meeting or a payment of dividends.

 

  Obligations to pay fees, taxes and similar charges.

 

  Restrictions imposed because of laws or regulations applicable to ADSs or the withdrawal of securities on deposit.

 

The deposit agreement may not be modified to impair your right to withdraw the securities represented by your ADSs except to comply with mandatory provisions of law.

 

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Voting Rights

 

As a holder, you generally have the right under the deposit agreement to instruct the Depositary to exercise the voting rights for the Class A Ordinary Shares represented by your ADSs. The voting rights of holders of Class A Ordinary Shares are described in “Description of Share Capital.”

 

At our request, the Depositary will distribute to you any notice of shareholders’ meeting received from us together with information explaining how to instruct the Depositary to exercise the voting rights of the securities represented by ADSs.

 

If the Depositary timely receives voting instructions from a holder of ADSs, it will endeavor to cause the Class A Ordinary Shares on deposit to be voted in accordance with the voting instructions received from holders of ADSs. Class A Ordinary Shares in respect of which no timely voting instructions have been received from ADS holders will not be voted.

 

Securities for which no voting instructions have been received will not be voted (except as otherwise contemplated herein). Please note that the ability of the Depositary to carry out voting instructions may be limited by practical and legal limitations and the terms of the securities on deposit. We cannot assure you that you will receive voting materials in time to enable you to return voting instructions to the Depositary in a timely manner.

 

Fees and Charges

 

As an ADS holder, you will be required to pay the following fees under the terms of the deposit agreement:

 

Service   Fees
     
● Issuance of ADSs (i.e., an issuance of ADS upon a deposit of Class A ordinary shares or upon a change in the ADS-to-share ratio), excluding ADS issuances as a result of distributions of Class A ordinary shares   Up to U.S. 5¢ per ADS issued
     
● Cancellation of ADSs (i.e., a cancellation of ADSs for delivery of deposited property or upon a change in the ADS-to-share ratio)   Up to U.S. 5¢ per ADS cancelled
     
● Distribution of cash dividends or other cash distributions (i.e., upon a sale of rights and other entitlements)   Up to U.S. 5¢ per ADS held
     
● Distribution of ADSs pursuant to (i) stock dividends or other free stock distributions, or (ii) exercise of rights to purchase additional ADSs   Up to U.S. 5¢ per ADS held
     
● Distribution of securities other than ADSs or rights to purchase additional ADSs (i.e., upon a spin-off)   Up to U.S. 5¢ per ADS held
     
● ADS Services   Up to U.S. 5¢ per ADS held on the applicable record date(s) established by the Depositary

 

As an ADS holder you will also be responsible to pay certain charges such as:

 

  taxes (including applicable interest and penalties) and other governmental charges;

 

  the registration fees as may from time to time be in effect for the registration of Class A Ordinary Shares on the share register and applicable to transfers of Class A Ordinary Shares to or from the name of the custodian, the Depositary or any nominees upon the making of deposits and withdrawals, respectively;

 

  certain cable, telex and facsimile transmission and delivery expenses;

 

  the expenses and charges incurred by the Depositary in the conversion of foreign currency;

 

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  the fees and expenses incurred by the Depositary in connection with compliance with exchange control regulations and other regulatory requirements applicable to Class A Ordinary Shares, ADSs and ADRs; and

 

 

the fees and expenses incurred by the Depositary, the custodian, or any nominee in connection with the servicing or delivery of deposited property.

 

ADS fees and charges payable upon (i) the issuance of ADSs, and (ii) the cancellation of ADSs are charged to the person to whom the ADSs are issued (in the case of ADS issuances) and to the person whose ADSs are cancelled (in the case of ADS cancellations). In the case of ADSs issued by the Depositary into DTC, the ADS issuance and cancellation fees and charges may be deducted from distributions made through DTC, and may be charged to the DTC participant(s) receiving the ADSs being issued or the DTC participant(s) holding the ADSs being cancelled, as the case may be, on behalf of the beneficial owner(s) and will be charged by the DTC participant(s) to the account of the applicable beneficial owner(s) in accordance with the procedures and practices of the DTC participants as in effect at the time. ADS fees and charges in respect of distributions and the ADS service fee are charged to the holders as of the applicable ADS record date. In the case of distributions of cash, the amount of the applicable ADS fees and charges is deducted from the funds being distributed. In the case of (i) distributions other than cash and (ii) the ADS service fee, holders as of the ADS record date will be invoiced for the amount of the ADS fees and charges and such ADS fees and charges may be deducted from distributions made to holders of ADSs. For ADSs held through DTC, the ADS fees and charges for distributions other than cash and the ADS service fee may be deducted from distributions made through DTC, and may be charged to the DTC participants in accordance with the procedures and practices prescribed by DTC and the DTC participants in turn charge the amount of such ADS fees and charges to the beneficial owners for whom they hold ADSs.

 

In the event of refusal to pay the Depositary fees, the Depositary may, under the terms of the deposit agreement, refuse the requested service until payment is received or may set off the amount of the Depositary fees from any distribution to be made to the ADS holder. Certain of the depositary fees and charges (such as the ADS services fee) may become payable shortly after the closing of the ADS offering. Note that the fees and charges you may be required to pay may vary over time and may be changed by us and by the Depositary. You will receive prior notice of such changes. The Depositary may reimburse us for certain expenses incurred by us in respect of the ADR program, by making available a portion of the ADS fees charged in respect of the ADR program or otherwise, upon such terms and conditions as we and the Depositary agree from time to time.

 

Amendments and Termination

 

We may agree with the Depositary to modify the deposit agreement at any time without your consent. We undertake to give holders 30 days’ prior notice of any modifications that would materially prejudice any of their substantial rights under the deposit agreement. We will not consider to be materially prejudicial to your substantial rights any modifications or supplements that are reasonably necessary for the ADSs to be registered under the Securities Act or to be eligible for book-entry settlement, in each case without imposing or increasing the fees and charges you are required to pay. In addition, we may not be able to provide you with prior notice of any modifications or supplements that are required to accommodate compliance with applicable provisions of law.

 

You will be bound by the modifications to the deposit agreement if you continue to hold your ADSs after the modifications to the deposit agreement become effective. The deposit agreement cannot be amended to prevent you from withdrawing the Class A Ordinary Shares represented by your ADSs (except as permitted by law).

 

We have the right to direct the Depositary to terminate the deposit agreement. Similarly, the Depositary may in certain circumstances on its own initiative terminate the deposit agreement. In either case, the Depositary must give notice to the holders at least 30 days before termination. Until termination, your rights under the deposit agreement will be unaffected.

 

After termination, the Depositary will continue to collect distributions received (but will not distribute any such property until you request the cancellation of your ADSs) and may sell the securities held on deposit. After the sale, the Depositary will hold the proceeds from such sale and any other funds then held for the holders of ADSs in a non-interest bearing account. At that point, the Depositary will have no further obligations to holders other than to account for the funds then held for the holders of ADSs still outstanding (after deduction of applicable fees, taxes and expenses).

 

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In connection with any termination of the deposit agreement, the Depositary may make available to owners of ADSs a means to withdraw the Class A Ordinary Shares represented by ADSs and to direct the Depositary of such shares into an unsponsored American depositary share program established by the Depositary. The ability to receive unsponsored American depositary shares upon termination of the deposit agreement would be subject to satisfaction of certain U.S. regulatory requirements applicable to the creation of unsponsored American depositary shares and the payment of applicable depositary fees.

 

Books of Depositary

 

The Depositary will maintain ADS holder records at its depositary office. You may inspect such records at such office during regular business hours but solely for the purpose of communicating with other holders in the interest of business matters relating to the ADSs and the deposit agreement.

 

The Depositary will maintain in New York facilities to record and process the issuance, cancellation, combination, split-up and transfer of ADSs. These facilities may be closed from time to time, to the extent not prohibited by law.

 

Limitations on Obligations and Liabilities

 

The deposit agreement limits our obligations and the Depositary’s obligations to you. Please note the following:

 

  We and the Depositary are obligated only to take the actions specifically stated in the deposit agreement without negligence or bad faith.

 

  The Depositary disclaims any liability for any failure to carry out voting instructions, for any manner in which a vote is cast or for the effect of any vote, provided it acts in good faith and in accordance with the terms of the deposit agreement.

 

The Depositary disclaims any liability for any failure to determine the lawfulness or practicality of any action, for the content of any document forwarded to you on our behalf or for the accuracy of any translation of such a document, for the investment risks associated with investing in Class A ordinary shares, for the validity or worth of the Class A Ordinary Shares, for any tax consequences that result from the ownership of ADSs, for the creditworthiness of any third party, for allowing any rights to lapse under the terms of the deposit agreement, for the timeliness of any of our notices or for our failure to give notice.

 

  We and the Depositary will not be obligated to perform any act that is inconsistent with the terms of the deposit agreement.

 

  We and the Depositary disclaim any liability if we or the Depositary are prevented or forbidden from or subject to any civil or criminal penalty or restraint on account of, or delayed in, doing or performing any act or thing required by the terms of the deposit agreement, by reason of any provision, present or future of any law or regulation, or by reason of present or future provision of any provision of our memorandum and articles of association, or any provision of or governing the securities on deposit, or by reason of any act of God or war or other circumstances beyond our control.

 

  We and the Depositary disclaim any liability by reason of any exercise of, or failure to exercise, any discretion provided for in the deposit agreement or in our articles of incorporation or in any provisions of or governing the securities on deposit.

 

  We and the Depositary further disclaim any liability for any action or inaction in reliance on the advice or information received from legal counsel, accountants, any person presenting Class A Ordinary Shares for deposit, any holder of ADSs or authorized representatives thereof, or any other person believed by either of us in good faith to be competent to give such advice or information.

 
  We and the Depositary also disclaim liability for the inability by a holder to benefit from any distribution, offering, right or other benefit that is made available to holders of Class A Ordinary Shares but is not, under the terms of the deposit agreement, made available to you.

 

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  We and the Depositary may rely without any liability upon any written notice, request or other document believed to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper parties.

 

  We and the Depositary also disclaim liability for any consequential or punitive damages for any breach of the terms of the deposit agreement.

 

  No disclaimer of any Securities Act liability is intended by any provision of the deposit agreement.

 

Pre-Release Transactions

 

Subject to the terms and conditions of the deposit agreement, the Depositary may issue to broker/dealers ADSs before receiving a deposit of Class A Ordinary Shares or release Class A ordinary shares to broker/dealers before receiving ADSs for cancellation. These transactions are commonly referred to as “pre-release transactions,” and are entered into between the Depositary and the applicable broker/dealer. The deposit agreement limits the aggregate size of pre-release transactions (not to exceed 30% of the shares on deposit in the aggregate) and imposes a number of conditions on such transactions (i.e., the need to receive collateral, the type of collateral required, the representations required from brokers, etc.). The Depositary may retain the compensation received from the pre-release transactions.

 

Taxes

 

You will be responsible for the taxes and other governmental charges payable on the ADSs and the securities represented by the ADSs. We, the Depositary and the custodian may deduct from any distribution the taxes and governmental charges payable by holders and may sell any and all property on deposit to pay the taxes and governmental charges payable by holders. You will be liable for any deficiency if the sale proceeds do not cover the taxes that are due.

 

The Depositary may refuse to issue ADSs, to deliver, transfer, split and combine ADRs or to release securities on deposit until all taxes and charges are paid by the applicable holder. The Depositary and the custodian may take reasonable administrative actions to obtain tax refunds and reduced tax withholding for any distributions on your behalf. However, you may be required to provide to the Depositary and to the custodian proof of taxpayer status and residence and such other information as the Depositary and the custodian may require to fulfill legal obligations. You are required to indemnify us, the Depositary and the custodian for any claims with respect to taxes based on any tax benefit obtained for you.

 

Foreign Currency Conversion

 

The Depositary will arrange for the conversion of all foreign currency received into U.S. dollars if such conversion is practical, and it will distribute the U.S. dollars in accordance with the terms of the deposit agreement. You may have to pay fees and expenses incurred in converting foreign currency, such as fees and expenses incurred in complying with currency exchange controls and other governmental requirements.

 

If the conversion of foreign currency is not practical or lawful, or if any required approvals are denied or not obtainable at a reasonable cost or within a reasonable period, the Depositary may take the following actions in its discretion:

 

  Convert the foreign currency to the extent practical and lawful and distribute the U.S. dollars to the holders for whom the conversion and distribution is lawful and practical.

 

  Distribute the foreign currency to holders for whom the distribution is lawful and practical.

 

  Hold the foreign currency (without liability for interest) for the applicable holders.

 

Governing Law/Waiver of Jury Trial

 

The deposit agreement and the ADRs will be interpreted in accordance with the laws of the State of New York. The rights of holders of Class A Ordinary Shares (including Class A Ordinary Shares represented by ADSs) is governed by the laws of the Cayman Islands.

 

AS A PARTY TO THE DEPOSIT AGREEMENT, YOU WAIVE YOUR RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF THE DEPOSIT AGREEMENT OR THE ADRs AGAINST US AND/OR THE DEPOSITARY.

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

As used in this prospectus, the term “debt securities” means the debentures, notes, bonds and other evidences of indebtedness that we may issue from time to time. The debt securities will either be senior debt securities, senior subordinated debt or subordinated debt securities. We may also issue convertible debt securities. Debt securities issued under an indenture (which we refer to herein as an Indenture) will be entered into between us and a trustee to be named therein. It is likely that convertible debt securities will not be issued under an Indenture.

 

The Indenture or forms of Indentures, if any, will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

As you read this section, please remember that for each series of debt securities, the specific terms of your debt security as described in the applicable prospectus supplement will supplement and, if applicable, may modify or replace the general terms described in the summary below. The statement we make in this section may not apply to your debt security.

 

Events of Default Under the Indenture

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

  if we fail to pay the principal or premium, if any, when due and payable at maturity, upon redemption or repurchase or otherwise;

 

  if we fail to pay interest when due and payable and our failure continues for certain days;

 

  if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant contained in the Securities of a Series or in this Indenture, and our failure continues for certain days after we receive written notice from the trustee or holders of at least certain percentage in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series. The written notice must specify the Default, demand that it be remedied and state that the notice is a “Notice of Default”;

 

  if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur; and

 

if any other event of default provided with respect to securities of that series, which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate as defined in the Form of Indenture.

 

We covenant in the Form of Indenture to deliver a certificate to the trustee annually, within certain days after the close of the fiscal year, to show that we are in compliance with the terms of the indenture and that we have not defaulted under the indenture.

 

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Nonetheless, if we issue debt securities, the terms of the debt securities and the final form of indenture will be provided in a prospectus supplement. Please refer to the prospectus supplement and the form of indenture attached thereto for the terms and conditions of the offered debt securities. The terms and conditions may or may not include whether or not we must furnish periodic evidence showing that an event of default does not exist or that we are in compliance with the terms of the indenture.

 

The statements and descriptions in this prospectus or in any prospectus supplement regarding provisions of the Indentures and debt securities are summaries thereof, do not purport to be complete and are subject to, and are qualified in their entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the Indentures (and any amendments or supplements we may enter into from time to time which are permitted under each Indenture) and the debt securities, including the definitions therein of certain terms.

 

General

 

Unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement, the debt securities will be direct secured or unsecured obligations of our company. The senior debt securities will rank equally with any of our other unsecured senior and unsubordinated debt. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment to any senior indebtedness.

 

We may issue debt securities from time to time in one or more series, in each case with the same or various maturities, at par or at a discount. Unless indicated in a prospectus supplement, we may issue additional debt securities of a particular series without the consent of the holders of the debt securities of such series outstanding at the time of the issuance. Any such additional debt securities, together with all other outstanding debt securities of that series, will constitute a single series of debt securities under the applicable Indenture and will be equal in ranking.

 

Should an indenture relate to unsecured indebtedness, in the event of a bankruptcy or other liquidation event involving a distribution of assets to satisfy our outstanding indebtedness or an event of default under a loan agreement relating to secured indebtedness of our company or its subsidiaries, the holders of such secured indebtedness, if any, would be entitled to receive payment of principal and interest prior to payments on the senior indebtedness issued under an Indenture.

 

Prospectus Supplement

 

Each prospectus supplement will describe the terms relating to the specific series of debt securities being offered. These terms will include some or all of the following:

 

  the title of debt securities and whether they are subordinated, senior subordinated or senior debt securities;

 

  any limit on the aggregate principal amount of debt securities of such series;

 

  the percentage of the principal amount at which the debt securities of any series will be issued;

 

  the ability to issue additional debt securities of the same series;

 

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  the purchase price for the debt securities and the denominations of the debt securities;

 

  the specific designation of the series of debt securities being offered;

 

  the maturity date or dates of the debt securities and the date or dates upon which the debt securities are payable and the rate or rates at which the debt securities of the series shall bear interest, if any, which may be fixed or variable, or the method by which such rate shall be determined;

 

  the basis for calculating interest if other than 360-day year or twelve 30-day months;

 

  the date or dates from which any interest will accrue or the method by which such date or dates will be determined;

 

  the duration of any deferral period, including the maximum consecutive period during which interest payment periods may be extended;

 

  whether the amount of payments of principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the debt securities may be determined with reference to any index, formula or other method, such as one or more currencies, commodities, equity indices or other indices, and the manner of determining the amount of such payments;

 

  the dates on which we will pay interest on the debt securities and the regular record date for determining who is entitled to the interest payable on any interest payment date;

 

  the place or places where the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the debt securities will be payable, where any securities may be surrendered for registration of transfer, exchange or conversion, as applicable, and notices and demands may be delivered to or upon us pursuant to the applicable Indenture;

 

  the rate or rates of amortization of the debt securities;

 

  if we possess the option to do so, the periods within which and the prices at which we may redeem the debt securities, in whole or in part, pursuant to optional redemption provisions, and the other terms and conditions of any such provisions;

 

  our obligation or discretion, if any, to redeem, repay or purchase debt securities by making periodic payments to a sinking fund or through an analogous provision or at the option of holders of the debt securities, and the period or periods within which and the price or prices at which we will redeem, repay or purchase the debt securities, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation, and the other terms and conditions of such obligation;

 

  the terms and conditions, if any, regarding the option or mandatory conversion or exchange of debt securities;

 

  the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which any debt securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part at our option and, if other than by a board resolution, the manner in which any election by us to redeem the debt securities shall be evidenced;

 

  any restriction or condition on the transferability of the debt securities of a particular series;

 

  the portion, or methods of determining the portion, of the principal amount of the debt securities which we must pay upon the acceleration of the maturity of the debt securities in connection with any event of default if other than the full principal amount;

 

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  the currency or currencies in which the debt securities will be denominated and in which principal, any premium and any interest will or may be payable or a description of any units based on or relating to a currency or currencies in which the debt securities will be denominated;

 

  provisions, if any, granting special rights to holders of the debt securities upon the occurrence of specified events;

 

  any deletions from, modifications of or additions to the events of default or our covenants with respect to the applicable series of debt securities, and whether or not such events of default or covenants are consistent with those contained in the applicable Indenture;

 

  any limitation on our ability to incur debt, redeem stock, sell our assets or other restrictions;

 

  the application, if any, of the terms of the applicable Indenture relating to defeasance and covenant defeasance (which terms are described below) to the debt securities;

 

  what subordination provisions will apply to the debt securities;

 

  the terms, if any, upon which the holders may convert or exchange the debt securities into or for our Ordinary Shares, preferred shares or other securities or property;

 

  whether we are issuing the debt securities in whole or in part in global form;

 

  any change in the right of the trustee or the requisite holders of debt securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable because of an event of default;

 

  the depositary for global or certificated debt securities, if any;

 

  any material federal income tax consequences applicable to the debt securities, including any debt securities denominated and made payable, as described in the prospectus supplements, in foreign currencies, or units based on or related to foreign currencies;

 

  any right we may have to satisfy, discharge and defease our obligations under the debt securities, or terminate or eliminate restrictive covenants or events of default in the Indentures, by depositing money or U.S. government obligations with the trustee of the Indentures;

 

  the names of any trustees, depositories, authenticating or paying agents, transfer agents or registrars or other agents with respect to the debt securities;

 

  to whom any interest on any debt security shall be payable, if other than the person in whose name the security is registered, on the record date for such interest, the extent to which, or the manner in which, any interest payable on a temporary global debt security will be paid if other than in the manner provided in the applicable Indenture;

 

  if the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities is to be payable in one or more currencies or currency units other than as stated, the currency, currencies or currency units in which it shall be paid and the periods within and terms and conditions upon which such election is to be made and the amounts payable (or the manner in which such amount shall be determined);

 

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  the portion of the principal amount of any debt securities which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity of the debt securities pursuant to the applicable Indenture if other than the entire principal amount;

 

  if the principal amount payable at the stated maturity of any debt security of the series will not be determinable as of any one or more dates prior to the stated maturity, the amount which shall be deemed to be the principal amount of such debt securities as of any such date for any purpose, including the principal amount thereof which shall be due and payable upon any maturity other than the stated maturity or which shall be deemed to be outstanding as of any date prior to the stated maturity (or, in any such case, the manner in which such amount deemed to be the principal amount shall be determined); and

 

  any other specific terms of the debt securities, including any modifications to the events of default under the debt securities and any other terms which may be required by or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

 

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not be listed on any securities exchange. Holders of the debt securities may present registered debt securities for exchange or transfer in the manner described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as limited by the applicable Indenture, we will provide these services without charge, other than any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with the exchange or transfer.

 

Debt securities may bear interest at a fixed rate or a variable rate as specified in the prospectus supplement. In addition, if specified in the prospectus supplement, we may sell debt securities bearing no interest or interest at a rate that at the time of issuance is below the prevailing market rate, or at a discount below their stated principal amount. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement any special federal income tax considerations applicable to these discounted debt securities.

 

We may issue debt securities with the principal amount payable on any principal payment date, or the amount of interest payable on any interest payment date, to be determined by referring to one or more currency exchange rates, commodity prices, equity indices or other factors. Holders of such debt securities may receive a principal amount on any principal payment date, or interest payments on any interest payment date, that are greater or less than the amount of principal or interest otherwise payable on such dates, depending upon the value on such dates of applicable currency, commodity, equity index or other factors. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information as to how we will determine the amount of principal or interest payable on any date, as well as the currencies, commodities, equity indices or other factors to which the amount payable on that date relates and certain additional tax considerations.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

We may issue warrants to purchase our ADSs or preferred shares. Warrants may be issued independently or together with any other securities that may be sold by us pursuant to this prospectus or any combination of the foregoing and may be attached to, or separate from, such securities. To the extent warrants that we issue are to be publicly-traded, each series of such warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a warrant agent. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe in particular the terms of any series of warrants that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus. The terms of any warrants offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. 

 

We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from another report that we file with the SEC, the form of the warrant and/or warrant agreement, if any, which may include a form of warrant certificate, as applicable that describes the terms of the particular series of warrants we may offer before the issuance of the related series of warrants. We may issue the warrants under a warrant agreement that we will enter into with a warrant agent to be selected by us. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any registered holders of warrants or beneficial owners of warrants. The following summary of material provisions of the warrants and warrant agreements is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the form of warrant and/or warrant agreement and warrant certificate applicable to a particular series of warrants. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as the complete form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the warrants. 

  

The particular terms of any issue of warrants will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to the issue. Those terms may include:

 

  the title of the warrants;

 

  the price or prices at which the warrants will be issued;

 

  the designation, amount and terms of the securities or other rights for which the warrants are exercisable;

 

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  the designation and terms of the other securities, if any, with which the warrants are to be issued and the number of warrants issued with each other security;

 

  the aggregate number of warrants;

 

  any provisions for adjustment of the number or amount of securities receivable upon exercise of the warrants or the exercise price of the warrants;

 

  the price or prices at which the securities or other rights purchasable upon exercise of the warrants may be purchased;

 

  if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the securities or other rights purchasable upon exercise of the warrants will be separately transferable;

 

  a discussion of any material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the exercise of the warrants;

 

  the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence, and the date on which the right will expire;
     
  the maximum or minimum number of warrants that may be exercised at any time;

 

  information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any; and

 

  any other terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants.

 

Exercise of Warrants

 

Each warrant will entitle the holder of warrants to purchase the number of ADSs or preferred shares of the relevant class or series at the exercise price stated or determinable in the prospectus supplement for the warrants. Warrants may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date shown in the applicable prospectus supplement, unless otherwise specified in such prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, if applicable, unexercised warrants will become void. Warrants may be exercised in the manner described in the applicable prospectus supplement. When the warrant holder makes the payment and properly completes and signs the warrant certificate at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent, if any, or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as possible, forward the securities or other rights that the warrant holder has purchased. If the warrant holder exercises less than all of the warrants represented by the warrant certificate, we will issue a new warrant certificate for the remaining warrants. If we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may surrender securities as all or part of the exercise price for warrants. 

  

Prior to the exercise of any warrants to purchase ADSs or preferred shares of the relevant class or series, holders of the warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of ADSs or preferred shares purchasable upon exercise, including the right to vote or to receive any payments of dividends or payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up on the ADSs or preferred shares purchasable upon exercise, if any. 

 

Outstanding Warrants

 

As of the date of this prospectus, there are 238,800,000 outstanding warrants to purchase Class A Ordinary Shares represented by 23,880,000 ADSs.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

 

We may issue rights to purchase our securities. The rights may or may not be transferable by the persons purchasing or receiving the rights. In connection with any rights offering, we may enter into a standby underwriting or other arrangement with one or more underwriters or other persons pursuant to which such underwriters or other persons would purchase any offered securities remaining unsubscribed for after such rights offering. Each series of rights will be issued under a separate rights agent agreement to be entered into between us and one or more banks, trust companies or other financial institutions, as rights agent, that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement. The rights agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the rights and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders of rights certificates or beneficial owners of rights.

 

The prospectus supplement relating to any rights that we offer will include specific terms relating to the offering, including, among other matters:

 

  the date of determining the security holders entitled to the rights distribution;

 

  the aggregate number of rights issued and the aggregate amount of securities purchasable upon exercise of the rights;

 

  the exercise price;

 

  the conditions to completion of the rights offering;

  

  the date on which the right to exercise the rights will commence and the date on which the rights will expire; and

 

  any applicable federal income tax considerations.

 

Each right would entitle the holder of the rights to purchase for cash the principal amount of securities at the exercise price set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Rights may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date for the rights provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, all unexercised rights will become void.

 

If less than all of the rights issued in any rights offering are exercised, we may offer any unsubscribed securities directly to persons other than our security holders, to or through agents, underwriters or dealers or through a combination of such methods, including pursuant to standby arrangements, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

 

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any units that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus. The terms of any units offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. However, no prospectus supplement will fundamentally change the terms that are set forth in this prospectus or offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness. 

  

We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from another report we file with the SEC, the form of unit agreement that describes the terms of the series of units we may offer under this prospectus, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of the related series of units. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the units are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the unit agreement and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of units. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as the complete unit agreement and any supplemental agreements that contain the terms of the units. 

 

We may issue units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus in one or more series. We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we may issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into unit agreements with a unit agent. Each unit agent, if any, may be a bank or trust company that we select. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent, if any, in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of units. Specific unit agreements, if any, will contain additional important terms and provisions. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from a current report that we file with the SEC, the form of unit and the form of each unit agreement, if any, relating to units offered under this prospectus.

 

If we offer any units, certain terms of that series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following, as applicable

 

  the title of the series of units;

 

  identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;

 

  the price or prices at which the units will be issued;

 

  the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;

 

  a discussion of certain United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the units; and

 

  any other material terms of the units and their constituent securities.

 

The provisions described in this section, as well as those described under “Description of Share Capital - Ordinary Shares and Preferred Shares” and “Description of Warrants” will apply to each unit and to any Ordinary Shares, preferred shares or warrant included in each unit, respectively. 

 

Issuance in Series 

 

We may issue units in such amounts and in numerous distinct series as we determine.

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our Class A Ordinary Shares is Suntera (Cayman) Limited. Their mailing address is 18/F On Building, 162 Queen’s Road Central, Central, Hong Kong.

  

New York Stock Exchange Listing

 

Our ADSs are listed on the NYSE under the symbol “SOS.”

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION OF THE PRIMARY OFFERING

 

We may sell the securities offered through this prospectus (i) to or through underwriters or dealers, (ii) directly to purchasers, including our affiliates, (iii) through agents, or (iv) through a combination of any these methods. The securities may be distributed at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, market prices prevailing at the time of sale, prices related to the prevailing market prices, or negotiated prices. The prospectus supplement will include the following information:

 

  the terms of the offering;

 

  the names of any underwriters or agents;

 

  the name or names of any managing underwriter or underwriters;

 

  the purchase price of the securities;

 

  any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

  the net proceeds from the sale of the securities;

 

  any delayed delivery arrangements;

 

  any underwriting discounts, commissions and other items constituting underwriters’ compensation;

 

  any initial public offering price;

 

  any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers;

 

  any commissions paid to agents; and

 

  any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

 

Sale Through Underwriters or Dealers

 

Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement are underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement. If underwriters are used in the sale, the underwriters will acquire the securities for their own account, including through underwriting, purchase, security lending or repurchase agreements with us. The underwriters may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions. Underwriters may sell the securities in order to facilitate transactions in any of our other securities (described in this prospectus or otherwise), including other public or private transactions and short sales. Underwriters may offer securities to the public either through underwriting syndicates represented by one or more managing underwriters or directly by one or more firms acting as underwriters. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to certain conditions, and the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all the offered securities if they purchase any of them. The underwriters may change from time to time any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers.

 

If dealers are used in the sale of securities offered through this prospectus, we will sell the securities to them as principals. They may then resell those securities to the public at varying prices determined by the dealers at the time of resale. The prospectus supplement will include the names of the dealers and the terms of the transaction.

 

We will provide in the applicable prospectus supplement any compensation we will pay to underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers.

 

Direct Sales and Sales Through Agents

 

We may sell the securities offered through this prospectus directly. In this case, no underwriters or agents would be involved. Such securities may also be sold through agents designated from time to time. The prospectus supplement will name any agent involved in the offer or sale of the offered securities and will describe any commissions payable to the agent. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, any agent will agree to use its reasonable best efforts to solicit purchases for the period of its appointment.

 

We may sell the securities directly to institutional investors or others who may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act with respect to any sale of those securities. The terms of any such sales will be described in the prospectus supplement.

 

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Delayed Delivery Contracts

 

If the prospectus supplement indicates, we may authorize agents, underwriters or dealers to solicit offers from certain types of institutions to purchase securities at the public offering price under delayed delivery contracts. These contracts would provide for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. The contracts would be subject only to those conditions described in the prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the commission payable for solicitation of those contracts.

 

Market Making, Stabilization and Other Transactions

 

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement states otherwise, other than our ADSs, all securities we offer under this prospectus will be a new issue and will have no established trading market. We may elect to list offered securities on an exchange or in the over-the-counter market. Any underwriters that we use in the sale of offered securities may make a market in such securities, but may discontinue such market making at any time without notice. Therefore, we cannot assure you that the securities will have a liquid trading market.

 

Any underwriter may also engage in stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Rule 104 under the Securities Exchange Act. Stabilizing transactions involve bids to purchase the underlying security in the open market for the purpose of pegging, fixing or maintaining the price of the securities. Syndicate covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution has been completed in order to cover syndicate short positions.

 

Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a syndicate member when the securities originally sold by the syndicate member are purchased in a syndicate covering transaction to cover syndicate short positions. Stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions and penalty bids may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would be in the absence of the transactions. The underwriters may, if they commence these transactions, discontinue them at any time.

 

General Information

 

Agents, underwriters, and dealers may be entitled, under agreements entered into with us, to indemnification by us against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. Our agents, underwriters, and dealers, or their affiliates, may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business.

 

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SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS

 

This prospectus also relates to the offer and resale of up to an aggregate of 23,880,000 ADSs representing 238,800,000 Class A ordinary shares. The Resale ADSs include 23,880,000 ADSs issuable upon exercise of the Company’s ADSs purchase warrants issued on January 20, 2021, to Selling Securityholders. 

 

Selling Securityholders Table

 

The following table and accompanying footnotes, which were prepared based on information furnished to us by or on behalf of the Selling Securityholders and information filed with the SEC, set forth information regarding the beneficial ownership of ADSs owned by the Selling Securityholders as of the date of this prospectus. Beneficial ownership is determined in accordance with rules of the SEC, and the information is not necessarily indicative of beneficial ownership for any other purpose. Under the rules of the SEC, a person is deemed to be a “beneficial owner” of a security if that person has or shares “voting power,” which includes the power to vote or to direct the voting of such security, or “investment power,” which includes the power to dispose of or to direct the disposition of such security. A person is also deemed to be a beneficial owner of a security if that person has the right to acquire beneficial ownership of such security within 60 days.

 

The second column indicates the number of ADSs beneficially owned by the Selling Stockholders, based on their respective ownership as of the date of this prospectus. The second column also assumes the exercise of all of the warrants held by the Selling Securityholders, without regard to any limitations on exercise described in this prospectus or in the warrants. The third column lists the ADSs being offered by this prospectus by the Selling Securityholders.

 

This prospectus covers the resale of all of the ADSs issuable upon exercise of the warrants that are held by the Selling Securityholders. The Selling Securityholders can offer all, some or none of their ADSs, thus we have no way of determining the number of the ADSs underlying warrants that will be held after this offering. Therefore, the fourth and fifth columns assume that the Selling Securityholders will sell all of the ADSs issuable upon exercise of the warrants which are covered by this prospectus. See “Plan of Distribution of Selling Securityholders.”

 

Information concerning the Selling Securityholders may change over time. Any changed information will be set forth in amendments to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part or in supplements to this prospectus, if and when necessary or as otherwise required by law.

 

    Number of
ADSs
Owned
Prior to
Offering
    Maximum
Number of
ADSs to
be Sold
Pursuant
to this
Prospectus
    Number of
ADSs
Owned After
Offering
    Percentage
Beneficially
Owned After
Offering
 
Hudson Bay Master Fund Ltd. (1)(2)     1,608,000       7,440,000       0       * %
Anson Investments Master Fund LP (1)(3)     1,138,127       4,800,000       0       *  
Anson East Master Fund LP (1)(3)     379,375       1,600,000       0       *  
Intracoastal Capital LLC (1)(4)     6,776,748       5,920,000       0       *  
L1 Capital Global Opportunities Master Fund (1)(5)     2,575,000       4,120,000       0       *  
TOTAL     12,477,250       23,880,000       0             * %

 

* Less than 1%

 

(1) Includes ADSs owned by the Selling Securityholders upon full exercise of all warrants to purchase ADSs that are held by the Selling Securityholders. The warrants are each exercisable for one ADS at an exercise price of $2.00 per ADS.

 

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(2) Hudson Bay Capital Management LP, the investment manager of Hudson Bay Master Fund Ltd., has voting and investment power over these securities. Sander Gerber is the managing member of Hudson Bay Capital GP LLC, which is the general partner of Hudson Bay Capital Management LP. Each of Hudson Bay Master Fund Ltd. and Sander Gerber disclaims beneficial ownership over these securities.

 

(3) Anson Advisors Inc. and Anson Funds Management LP, the Co-Investment Advisers of each of the Anson Funds, hold voting and dispositive power over the securities held by Anson. Bruce Winson is the managing member of Anson Management GP LLC, which is the general partner of Anson Funds Management LP. Moez Kassam and Amin Nathoo are directors of Anson Advisors Inc. Mr. Winson, Mr. Kassam and Mr. Nathoo each disclaim beneficial ownership of these securities except to the extent of their pecuniary interest therein. The principal business address of Anson is Walkers Corporate Limited, Cayman Corporate Centre, 27 Hospital Road, George Town, Grand Cayman KY1-9008, Cayman Islands.”

 

(4) Mitchell  P. Kopin (“Mr. Kopin”) and Daniel B. Asher (“Mr. Asher”), each of whom are managers of Intracoastal Capital LLC (“Intracoastal”), have shared voting control and investment discretion over the securities reported herein that are held by Intracoastal. As a result, each of Mr. Kopin and Mr. Asher may be deemed to have beneficial ownership (as determined under Section 13(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, of the securities reported herein that are held by Intracoastal.

 

(5) David  Feldman has voting and dispositive power over the securities owned by L1 Capital Global Opportunities Master Fund. The address of L1 Capital Global Opportunities Master Fund is 161A Shedden Road, 1 Artillery Court, PO Box 10085, Grand Cayman KY1-1001, Cayman Islands.

 

Certain Transactions and Relationships Between SOS and the Selling Securityholders

 

Registered Direct Offerings

 

On December 22, 2020, the Company and certain institutional investors entered into certain securities purchase agreement, pursuant to which the Company agreed to sell to such investors an aggregate of 2,600,000 of its ADSs and warrants to purchase up to 2,600,000 ADSs in a registered direct offering, for gross proceeds of approximately $4 million. The purchase price for each ADS and the corresponding warrant (“December Warrant”) is $1.55. December Warrants were exercisable immediately following the date of issuance and had been exercised by the investors as of January 15, 2021, with exercising price at $1.55 per December Warrant. The Company agreed in the purchase agreement that it would not issue any ADSs, ordinary shares, or ordinary share equivalents for ninety (90) calendar days following the closing of the offering subject to certain exceptions. The registered offering closed on December 24, 2020.

 

On January 7, 2021, the Company and certain institutional investors entered into certain securities purchase agreement, pursuant to which the Company agreed to sell to such investors 13,525,000 of its ADSs and warrants to purchase up to 13,525,000 ADSs in a registered direct offering, for gross proceeds of approximately $25 million. The purchase price for each ADS and the corresponding warrant (“January Warrant” and together with December Warrant, the “Existing Warrant”) is $1.85. January Warrants were exercisable immediately following the date of issuance and had been exercised by the investors as of January 15, 2021, with exercising price at $1.85 per January Warrant. The Company agreed in the purchase agreement that it would not issue any ADSs, ordinary shares, or ordinary share equivalents for ninety (90) calendar days following the closing of the offering subject to certain exceptions. The registered offering closed on January 12, 2021.

 

Warrant Exchange

 

On January 15, 2021, the Company and certain holders of Existing Warrants entered into certain warrant inducement agreements, pursuant to which the holders of Existing Warrants exercised all of the remaining unexcised Existing Warrants to purchase up to an aggregate of 16,125,000 ADSs, and the Company issued the holders new ADS purchase warrants pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, to purchase up to 23,800,000 ADSs, at an exercise price of $2.00 per ADS, which have a term of exercise approximately equal to five years. The transaction contemplated by the warrant inducement agreements closed on January 20, 2021.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION OF SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS

 

The Selling Securityholders and any of its pledgees, donees, transferees, assignees and successors-in-interest may, from time to time, sell any or all of their Resale ADSs on the NYSE or any other securities exchange, market or trading facility on which shares of our ADSs are traded or in private transactions. These sales may be at fixed or negotiated prices. The Selling Securityholders may use any one or more of the following methods when selling Resale ADSs:

 

  ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which the broker-dealer solicits purchasers;
     
  sales by a broker-dealer of a specified number of such shares at a stipulated price per share, pursuant to agreements between the Selling Shareholder and broker-dealer;
     
  block trades in which the broker-dealer will attempt to sell the Resale ADSs as agent but may position and resell a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction;
     
  purchases by a broker-dealer as principal and resale by the broker-dealer for its account;
     
  an exchange distribution in accordance with the rules of the applicable exchange;
     
  privately negotiated transactions;
     
  settlement of short sales, loans or pledges entered into after the effective date of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part;
     
  writing or settlement of options, derivative securities or other hedging transactions, whether through an options exchange or otherwise;
     
  a combination of any such methods of sale; or
     
  any other method permitted pursuant to applicable law.

 

The Selling Securityholders may also sell the Resale ADSs under Rule 144 under the Securities Act, if available, rather than pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

 

Broker-dealers engaged by the Selling Securityholders may arrange for other brokers-dealers to participate in sales. Broker-dealers may receive commissions or discounts from the Selling Securityholders (or, if any broker-dealer acts as agent for the purchaser of shares, from the purchaser) in amounts to be negotiated, but, except as set forth in a supplement to this prospectus, in the case of an agency transaction not in excess of a customary brokerage commission, and in the case of a principal transaction a markup or markdown, in each case in compliance with Rule 2121 of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority.

 

In connection with any permitted short sale, loan, pledge, option, derivative or hedging transaction, the Selling Securityholders may enter into agreements with broker-dealers or other financial institution that in turn engage in short sales of our ADSs in the course of hedging the positions they assume. If any Resale ADSs are delivered to a broker-dealer or other financial institution in connection with any such transaction, the broker-dealer or other financial institution may resell the Resale ADSs pursuant to this prospectus (as supplemented or amended to reflect such transaction, including, if necessary, updates to the list of Selling Securityholders to include such broker-dealer or financial institution).

  

The Selling Securityholders may also transfer and donate the Resale ADSs in other circumstances in which case the transferees, donees, pledgees or other successors-in-interest will be the selling beneficial owners for purposes of this prospectus.

 

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The Selling Securityholders and any brokers, dealers or agents that are involved in selling the Resale ADSs may be deemed to be “underwriters” within the meaning of the Securities Act in connection with such sales. In such event, any commissions received by such brokers, dealers or agents and any profit on the resale of any Resale ADSs purchased by them may be deemed to be underwriting compensation under the Securities Act. The Selling Securityholders have advised us that they do not have any written or oral agreement, understanding or arrangement, directly or indirectly, with any broker, dealer, agent or other person regarding the sale of the Resale ADSs. There are no underwriters or coordinating brokers acting in connection with the proposed sale of the Resale ADSs by the Selling Securityholders.

 

Because the Selling Securityholders may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, it may be subject to the requirements of the Securities Act to deliver this prospectus to each purchaser at or prior to the time of the sale. We have informed the Selling Securityholders of this requirement, and we will make copies of this prospectus available to them.

 

Under applicable rules and regulations under the Exchange Act, any person engaged in the distribution of the Resale ADSs may not simultaneously engage in market making activities with respect to our ADSs for the applicable restricted period, as defined in Regulation M, prior to the commencement of the distribution. In addition, the Selling Securityholders will be subject to applicable provisions of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, including Regulation M, which may limit the timing of purchases and sales of shares of our ADSs by the Selling Securityholders or any other person.

 

We will pay certain fees and expenses incurred by us incident to the registration of the Resale ADSs, including SEC filing fees, fees and expenses of compliance with securities laws, and various related expenses. The Selling Securityholders are responsible for all discounts, selling commissions and other costs related to their offer and sale of the Resale ADSs.

 

Under the warrant inducement agreements between the Company and the Selling Securityholders, we have agreed to indemnify each other from certain liabilities, including those arising under the Securities Act, in connection with the registration of the Resale ADSs for sale, and the offer and sale of Resale ADSs, through this prospectus.

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

Except as otherwise set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, certain legal matters in connection with the securities offered pursuant to this prospectus will be passed upon for us by Hunter Taubman Fischer & Li LLC to the extent governed by the laws of the State of New York, and by Maples and Calder (Hong Kong) LLP to the extent governed by the laws of the Cayman Islands. If legal matters in connection with offerings made pursuant to this prospectus are passed upon by counsel to underwriters, dealers or agents, such counsel will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to any such offering.  

 

EXPERTS

 

The financial statements incorporated by reference in this prospectus for the year ended December 31, 2019 have been audited by Shandong Haoxin Certified Public Accountants Co., Ltd. as set forth in their report thereon included therein, and incorporated herein by reference, and are included in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

The financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 are included in our Annual Report on Form 20-F, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

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INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE 

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” into this prospectus the information we file with the SEC. This means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. Any statement contained in a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus shall be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained herein, or in any subsequently filed document, which also is incorporated by reference herein, modifies or supersedes such earlier statement. Any such statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus. 

 

We hereby incorporate by reference into this prospectus the following documents that we have filed with the SEC under the Exchange Act: 

 

  (1) the Company’s Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on June 15, 2020;
     
  (2) the Company’s Current Reports on Form 6-K, filed with the SEC on June 23, 2020, June 29, 2020, July 2, 2020, July 21, 2020, August 4, 2020, August 7, 2020, August 27, 2020, September 15, 2020, September 28, 2020, October 21, 2020, October 26, 2020, October 30, 2020, November 5, 2020, December 28, 2020, and January 13, 2021; and

 

(3) the description of Ordinary Shares and ADSs incorporated by reference in our registration statement on Form 8-A, as amended (File No. 001-38051) filed with the Commission on April 4, 2017, including any amendment and report subsequently filed for the purpose of updating that description; and

 

All documents that we file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and in the case of a Current Report on Form 6-K, so long as they state that they are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and other than Current Reports on Form 6-K, or portions thereof, furnished under Form 6-K) (i) after the initial filing date of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to the effectiveness of such registration statement and (ii) after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus from the date of filing of the documents, unless we specifically provide otherwise. Information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and may replace information previously filed with the SEC. To the extent that any information contained in any Current Report on Form 6-K or any exhibit thereto, was or is furnished to, rather than filed with the SEC, such information or exhibit is specifically not incorporated by reference.

 

Upon request, we will provide, without charge, to each person who receives this prospectus, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated by reference (other than exhibits to the documents that are not specifically incorporated by reference in the documents). Please direct written or oral requests for copies to us at Room 8888, Jiudingfeng Building, 888 Changbaishan Road, Qingdao Area, China (Shandong) Pilot Free Trade Zone, People’s Republic of China, Attention: Yandai Wang, +86 0311-80910921.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

As permitted by SEC rules, this prospectus omits certain information and exhibits that are included in the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. Since this prospectus may not contain all of the information that you may find important, you should review the full text of these documents. If we have filed a contract, agreement or other document as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, you should read the exhibit for a more complete understanding of the document or matter involved. Each statement in this prospectus, including statements incorporated by reference as discussed above, regarding a contract, agreement or other document is qualified in its entirety by reference to the actual document.

 

We are subject to the information reporting requirements of the Exchange Act that are applicable to foreign private issuers, and, in accordance with these requirements, we file annual and current reports and other information with the SEC. You may inspect, read (without charge) and copy the reports and other information we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room located at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains an internet website at www.sec.gov that contains our filed reports and other information that we file electronically with the SEC.

 

We maintain a corporate website at http://www.sosyun.com/. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

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ENFORCEABILITY OF CIVIL LIABILITIES

 

We are incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands as an exempted company with limited liability. We incorporated in the Cayman Islands because of certain benefits associated with being a Cayman Islands exempted company, such as political and economic stability, an effective judicial system, a favorable tax system, the absence of foreign exchange control or currency restrictions and the availability of professional and support services. However, the Cayman Islands have a less developed body of securities laws that provide significantly less protection to investors as compared to the securities laws of the United States. In addition, Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to sue before the federal courts of the United States.

 

All of our assets are located in China. In addition, some of our directors and officers are residents of jurisdictions other than the United States and all or a substantial portion of their assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to effect service of process within the United States upon us or our directors and officers, or to enforce against us or them judgments obtained in United States courts, including judgments predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States.

 

According to our local Cayman Islands’ counsel, there is uncertainty with regard to Cayman Islands law relating to whether a judgment obtained from the United States courts under civil liability provisions of the securities laws will be determined by the courts of the Cayman Islands as penal or punitive in nature. If such a determination is made, the courts of the Cayman Islands will not recognize or enforce the judgment against a Cayman Islands’ company. The courts of the Cayman Islands in the past determined that disgorgement proceedings brought at the instance of the Securities and Exchange Commission are penal or punitive in nature and such judgments would not be enforceable in the Cayman Islands. Other civil liability provisions of the securities laws may be characterized as remedial, and therefore enforceable but the Cayman Islands’ Courts have not yet ruled in this regard. Our Cayman Islands’ counsel has further advised us that a final and conclusive judgment in the federal or state courts of the United States under which a sum of money is payable other than a sum payable in respect of taxes, fines, penalties or similar charges, may be subject to enforcement proceedings as a debt in the courts of the Cayman Islands.

  

As of the date hereof, no treaty or other form of reciprocity exists between the Cayman Islands governing the recognition and enforcement of judgments.

 

Cayman Islands’ counsel further advised that although there is no statutory enforcement in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the United States, a judgment obtained in such jurisdictions will be recognized and enforced in the courts of the Cayman Islands at common law, without any re-examination of the merits of the underlying dispute, by an action commenced on the foreign judgment debt in the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands, provided such judgment (1) is given by a foreign court of competent jurisdiction, (2) imposes on the judgment debtor a liability to pay a liquidated sum for which the judgment has been given, (3) is final, (4) is not in respect of taxes, a fine or a penalty, and (5) was not obtained in a manner and is of a kind the enforcement of which is contrary to natural justice or the public policy of the Cayman Islands.

 

INDEMNIFICATION FOR SECURITIES ACT LIABILITIES

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers and controlling persons pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.

 

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SOS LIMITED

 

$300,000,000 

Class A Ordinary Shares,

Class A Ordinary Shares in the Form of American Depositary Shares,

Preferred Shares,

Preferred Shares in the Form of American Depositary Shares,

Debt Securities,

Warrants,

Units, and

Rights

 

23,880,000 American Depositary Shares

Representing 238,800,000 Class A Ordinary Shares Underlying Warrants

Offered by the Selling Securityholders

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 

 

January [    ], 2021

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 8. Indemnification of Directors and Officers

 

Cayman Islands law does not limit the extent to which a company’s memorandum and articles of association may provide for indemnification of officers and directors, except to the extent any such provision may be held by the Cayman Islands courts to be contrary to public policy, such as to provide indemnification against civil fraud or the consequences of committing a crime. Our M&A requires us to indemnify our officers and directors against all actions, proceedings, costs, charges, expenses, losses, damages or liabilities incurred or sustained by such indemnified persons, other than by reason of such their own dishonesty, willful default or fraud, in or about the conduct of the Company’s business or affairs (including as a result of any mistake or judgement) or in the execution or discharge of their duties, powers, authorities or discretions, including without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, any costs, expenses, losses or liabilities incurred by such indemnified persons in defending (whether successfully or otherwise) any civil proceedings concerning our company or its affairs in any court whether in the Cayman Islands or elsewhere. This standard of conduct is generally the same as permitted under the Delaware General Corporation Law for a Delaware corporation.

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers or persons controlling us under the foregoing provisions, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

  

Item 9. Exhibits

 

Exhibit No.   Description
1.1   Form of Underwriting Agreement**
4.1   Form of Preferred Shares Certificate**
4.2   Form of Warrant**
4.3   Form of Warrant Agreement**
4.4   Form of Unit Agreement**
4.5   Form of indenture with respect to senior debt securities, to be entered into between registrant and a trustee acceptable to the registrant, if any.*
4.6   Form of indenture with respect to subordinated debt securities, to be entered into between registrant and a trustee acceptable to the registrant, if any.*
4.7   Form of debt securities, if any**
5.1   Opinion of Maples and Calder (Hong Kong) LLP
23.1   Consent of Shandong Haoxin Certified Public Accountants Co., Ltd.
23.2   Consent of Maples and Calder (Hong Kong) LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)
24.1   Power of Attorney (included on signature page of this registration statement)

 

** To be filed by amendment or as an exhibit to a filing with the SEC under Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and incorporated by reference in connection with the offering of securities to the extent required for any such offering.

 

Item 10 Undertakings

 

  (a) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

  (1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

  (i) To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

  (ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement.

 

  (iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement.

 

provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b). 

 

II-1

 

  

  (2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

  (4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

  (i) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

  (ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

  (5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities: The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

  (i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

  (ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

  (iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

  (iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

  (b) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (c) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

II-2

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form F-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Qingdao, China, on January 20, 2021.

 

  SOS LIMITED
   
  By: /s/ Yandai Wang 
    Name:  Yandai Wang 
    Title: Chief Executive Officer

 

POWER OF ATTORNEY

 

Each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints Yandai Wang and Li Sing Leung, and each of them, individually, his or her true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities (including his capacity as a director and/or officer of the registrant), to sign any and all amendments and post-effective amendments and supplements to this registration statement, and including any registration statement for the same offering that is to be effective upon filing pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the SEC, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents or any of them, or his substitute, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Form F-3 registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the date indicated.

 

Name   Position   Date
         
/s/ Yandai Wang    Chief Executive Officer and Executive Chairman   January 20, 2021 
Yandai Wang         
         
/s/ Li Sing Leung   Chief Financial Officer and Director   January 20, 2021 
Li Sing Leung        
         
/s/ Russell Krauss   Director   January 20, 2021 
Russell Krauss        
         
/s/ Douglas L. Brown   Director   January 20, 2021 
Douglas L. Brown        
         
/s/ Ronggang (Jonathan) Zhang   Director   January 20, 2021 
Ronggang (Jonathan) Zhang        
         
/s/ Wenbin Wu   Director   January 20, 2021 
Wenbin Wu        

 

II-3

 

 

SIGNATURE OF AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE IN THE UNITED STATES

 

Pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933 as amended, the undersigned, the duly authorized representative in the United States of America, has signed this registration statement thereto in Newark, DE on January 20, 2021.

 

  By: /s/ Donald J. Puglisi
  Name:  Donald J. Puglisi
  Title: Managing Director
Puglisi & Associates

 

 

II-4

 

 

 Exhibit 4.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SOS LIMITED

 

(the “Issuer”)

 

AND

 

[TRUSTEE]

 

(the “Trustee”)

 

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of [●], 20[●]

 

 

Senior Debt Securities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

    Page
     
ARTICLE 1 DEFINITIONS 1
     
Section 1.01 Definitions of Terms 1
     
ARTICLE 2 ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES 5
     
Section 2.01 Designation and Terms of Securities 5
     
Section 2.02 Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate 7
     
Section 2.03 Denominations: Provisions for Payment 7
     
Section 2.04 Execution and Authentication 9
     
Section 2.05 Registration of Transfer and Exchange 10
     
Section 2.06 Temporary Securities 11
     
Section 2.07 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities 11
     
Section 2.08 Cancellation 12
     
Section 2.09 Benefits of Indenture 12
     
Section 2.10 Authenticating Agent 12
     
Section 2.11 Global Securities 13
     
ARTICLE 3 REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS 14
     
Section 3.01 Redemption 14
     
Section 3.02 Notice of Redemption 14
     
Section 3.03 Payment Upon Redemption 15
     
Section 3.04 Sinking Fund 16
     
Section 3.05 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities 16
     
Section 3.06 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund 16
     
ARTICLE 4 COVENANTS 17
     
Section 4.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest 17

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

    Page
     
Section 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency 17
     
Section 4.03 Paying Agents 17
     
Section 4.04 Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee 19
     
Section 4.05 Compliance with Consolidation Provisions 19
     
ARTICLE 5 SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE 19
     
Section 5.01 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders 19
     
Section 5.02 Preservation Of Information; Communications With Securityholders 19
     
Section 5.03 Reports by the Company 20
     
Section 5.04 Reports by the Trustee 20
     
ARTICLE 6 REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT 20
     
Section 6.01 Events of Default 20
     
Section 6.02 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee 22
     
Section 6.03 Application of Moneys or Property Collected 24
     
Section 6.04 Limitation on Suits 24
     
Section 6.05 Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver 25
     
Section 6.06 Control by Securityholders 25
     
Section 6.07 Undertaking to Pay Costs 26
     
ARTICLE 7 CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE 26
     
Section 7.01 Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee 26
     
Section 7.02 Certain Rights of Trustee 27
     
Section 7.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities 29

 

ii

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

    Page
     
Section 7.04 May Hold Securities 29
     
Section 7.05 Moneys Held in Trust 29
     
Section 7.06 Compensation and Reimbursement 29
     
Section 7.07 Reliance on Officers’ Certificate 30
     
Section 7.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests 30
     
Section 7.09 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility 30
     
Section 7.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor 31
     
Section 7.11 Acceptance of Appointment By Successor 32
     
Section 7.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business 33
     
Section 7.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company 34
     
Section 7.14 Notice of Default 34
     
ARTICLE 8 CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS 34
     
Section 8.01 Evidence of Action by Securityholders 34
     
Section 8.02 Proof of Execution by Securityholders 35
     
Section 8.03 Who May be Deemed Owners 35
     
Section 8.04 Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded 35
     
Section 8.05 Actions Binding on Future Securityholders 36
     
ARTICLE 9 SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES 36
     
Section 9.01 Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders 36
     
Section 9.02 Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders 38
     
Section 9.03 Effect of Supplemental Indentures 38
     
Section 9.04 Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures 38
     
Section 9.05 Execution of Supplemental Indentures 39

 

iii

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

    Page
     
ARTICLE 10 SUCCESSOR ENTITY 39
     
Section 10.01 Company May Consolidate, Etc. 39
     
Section 10.02 Successor Entity Substituted 40
     
Section 10.03 Evidence of Consolidation, Etc. to Trustee 40
     
ARTICLE 11 SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE 40
     
Section 11.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture 40
     
Section 11.02 Discharge of Obligations 41
     
Section 11.03 Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust 41
     
Section 11.04 Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents 41
     
Section 11.05 Repayment to Company 42
     
ARTICLE 12 IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS 42
     
Section 12.01 No Recourse 42
     
ARTICLE 13 MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 43
     
Section 13.01 Effect on Successors and Assigns 43
     
Section 13.02 Actions by Successor 43
     
Section 13.03 Surrender of Company Powers 43
     
Section 13.04 Notices 43
     
Section 13.05 Governing Law 43
     
Section 13.06 Treatment of Securities as Debt 44
     
Section 13.07 Certificates and Opinions as to Conditions Precedent 44
     
Section 13.08 Payments on Business Days 44
     
Section 13.09 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act 44
     
Section 13.10 Indenture and Securities Solely Corporate Obligations 45
     
Section 13.11 Counterparts 45
     
Section 13.12 Separability 45
     
Section 13.13 Compliance Certificates 45

 

(1) This Table of Contents does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

iv

 

 

INDENTURE

 

INDENTURE, dated as of [●], 20[●], among SOS Limited, a Cayman Islands exempt company (the “Company”), and [TRUSTEE], as trustee (the “Trustee”).

 

WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

 

WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

 

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

 

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

 

ARTICLE 1

 

DEFINITIONS

 

Section 1.01 Definitions of Terms.

 

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

 

Authenticating Agent” means an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

 

Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

 

Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

 

1

 

 

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

 

Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which federal or state banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City of New York, or in the city of the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

 

Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer. The Certificate need not comply with the provisions of Section 13.07.

 

Company” means SOS Limited, a Cayman Islands exempt company, and, subject to the provisions of Article Ten, shall also include its successors and assigns.

 

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at .

 

Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

Default” means any event, act or condition that with notice or lapse of time, or both, would constitute an Event of Default.

 

Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or 2.11.

 

Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

 

Global Security” means, with respect to any series of Securities, a Security executed by the Company and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with the Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

 

Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (a) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (b) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof at any time prior to the stated maturity of the Securities, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

2

 

 

herein”, “hereof and “hereunder”, and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

 

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof.

 

Interest Payment Date”, when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

 

Officer” means, with respect to the Company, the chairman of the Board of Directors, a chief executive officer, a president, a chief financial officer, chief operating officer, any executive vice president, any senior vice president, any vice president, the treasurer or any assistant treasurer, the controller or any assistant controller or the secretary or any assistant secretary.

 

Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by any two Officers. Each such certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing subject to customary exceptions of legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company, that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such opinion shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as in Article Three provided, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.

 

3

 

 

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, joint-stock company, limited liability company, association, trust, unincorporated organization, any other entity or organization, including a government or political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality thereof.

 

Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a lost, destroyed or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the lost, destroyed or stolen Security.

 

Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee means the chairman of its board of directors, the chief executive officer, the president, any vice president, the secretary, the treasurer, any trust officer, any corporate trust officer or any other officer or assistant officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by the Persons who at the time shall be such officers, respectively, or to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

 

Securities” means the debt Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

Securityholder”, “holder of Securities”, “registered holder”, or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security shall be registered on the books of the Company kept for that purpose in accordance with the terms of this Indenture.

 

Security Register” and “Security Registrar” shall have the meanings as set forth in Section 2.05.

 

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, (i) any corporation at least a majority of whose outstanding Voting Stock shall at the time be owned, directly or indirectly, by such Person or by one or more of its Subsidiaries or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries, (ii) any general partnership, joint venture or similar entity, at least a majority of whose outstanding partnership or similar interests shall at the time be owned by such Person, or by one or more of its Subsidiaries, or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries and (iii) any limited partnership of which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries is a general partner.

 

Trustee” means , and, subject to the provisions of Article Seven, shall also include its successors and assigns, and, if at any time there is more than one Person acting in such capacity hereunder, “Trustee” shall mean each such Person. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

 

Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

 

Voting Stock”, as applied to stock of any Person, means shares, interests, participations or other equivalents in the equity interest (however designated) in such Person having ordinary voting power for the election of a majority of the directors (or the equivalent) of such Person, other than shares, interests, participations or other equivalents having such power only by reason of the occurrence of a contingency.

 

4

 

 

ARTICLE 2

 

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

 

Section 2.01 Designation and Terms of Securities.

 

(a) The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

 

(1) the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that series from all other Securities);

 

(2) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

 

(3) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable, any original issue discount that may apply to the Securities of that series upon their issuance, the principal amount due at maturity, and the place(s) of payment;

 

(4) the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest or the manner of calculation of such rate or rates, if any;

 

(5) the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, the Interest Payment Dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such Interest Payment Dates, the place(s) of payment, and the record date for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable on any such Interest Payment Dates or the manner of determination of such record dates;

 

(6) the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of such extension;

 

(7) the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

(8) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase Securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund, mandatory redemption, or analogous provisions (including payments made in cash in satisfaction of future sinking fund obligations) or at the option of a holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which, and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

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(9) the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the Certificate of Authentication for such series;

 

(10) if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable;

 

(11) any and all other terms (including terms, to the extent applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the Securities of that series and any security for the obligations of the Company with respect to such Securities) with respect to such series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the terms of this Indenture, as amended by any supplemental indenture) including any terms which may be required by or advisable under United States laws or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;

 

(12) whether the Securities are issuable as a Global Security and, in such case, the terms and the identity of the Depositary for such series;

 

(13) whether the Securities will be convertible into or exchangeable for ordinary shares or other securities of the Company or any other Person and, if so, the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at the Company’s option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, and the applicable conversion or exchange period;

 

(14) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01;

 

(15) any additional or different Events of Default or restrictive covenants (which may include, among other restrictions, restrictions on the Company’s ability or the ability of the Company’s Subsidiaries to: incur additional indebtedness; issue additional securities; create liens; pay dividends or make distributions in respect of their capital stock; redeem capital stock; place restrictions on such Subsidiaries placing restrictions on their ability to pay dividends, make distributions or transfer assets; make investments or other restricted payments; sell or otherwise dispose of assets; enter into sale-leaseback transactions; engage in transactions with stockholders and affiliates; issue or sell stock of their Subsidiaries; or effect a consolidation or merger) or financial covenants (which may include, among other financial covenants, financial covenants that require the Company and its Subsidiaries to maintain specified interest coverage, fixed charge, cash flow-based or asset-based ratios) provided for with respect to the Securities of the series;

 

(16) if other than dollars, the coin or currency in which the Securities of the series are denominated (including, but not limited to, foreign currency);

 

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(17) the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Company shall pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the Securities of the series to any Securityholder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes; and

 

(18) any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the Securities of the series.

 

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.

 

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officers’ Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.

 

Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.

 

Section 2.02 Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate.

 

The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate, and they may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any securities exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.

 

Section 2.03 Denominations: Provisions for Payment.

 

The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(a)(10). The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series. Subject to Section 2.01(a)(16), the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption thereof prior to maturity, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. Interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.

 

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The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment. In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.

 

Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

 

(1) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be mailed, first class postage prepaid, to each Securityholder at his or her address as it appears in the Security Register (as hereinafter defined), not less than 10 days prior to such special record date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been mailed as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered on such special record date.

 

(2) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

 

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Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities and any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the first day of the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.

 

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.

 

Section 2.04 Execution and Authentication.

 

The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by one of its Officers. Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature.

 

The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been an Officer, notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be such an officer of the Company. The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication by the Trustee.

 

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated manually by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent. Such signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture. At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by an Officer, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.

 

In authenticating such Securities and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 7.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel stating that the form and terms thereof have been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.

 

The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

 

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Section 2.05 Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

 

(a) Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section. In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

(b) The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, or such other location designated by the Company, a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee. The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution (the “Security Registrar”).

 

Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.

 

All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.

 

(c) Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, no service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, Section 3.03(b) and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.

 

(d) The Company shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the mailing of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption, other than the unredeemed portion of any such Securities being redeemed in part. The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11 hereof.

 

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Section 2.06 Temporary Securities.

 

Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination. Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company. Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series. Without unnecessary delay the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the holders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.

 

Section 2.07 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.

 

In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof. The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company. Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

 

In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

 

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Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

 

Section 2.08 Cancellation.

 

All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, exchange or registration of transfer shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent, be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company. If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

Section 2.09 Benefits of Indenture.

 

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities.

 

Section 2.10 Authenticating Agent.

 

So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint. Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authorities. If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.

 

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Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company. Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.

 

Section 2.11 Global Securities.

 

(a) If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, a Global Security that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, all of the Outstanding Securities of such series, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

 

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.

 

(c) If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, or if an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing and the Company has received a request from the Depositary, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company will execute, and subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series. In such event the Company will execute and, subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officers’ Certificate evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(c) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

 

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ARTICLE 3

 

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

 

Section 3.01 Redemption.

 

The Company may redeem the Securities of any series issued hereunder on and after the dates and in accordance with the terms established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

 

Section 3.02 Notice of Redemption.

 

(a) In case the Company shall desire to exercise such right to redeem all or, as the case may be, a portion of the Securities of any series in accordance with any right the Company reserved for itself to do so pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the Company shall, or shall cause the Trustee to, give notice of such redemption to holders of the Securities of such series to be redeemed by mailing, first class postage prepaid, a notice of such redemption not less than 30 days and not more than 90 days before the date fixed for redemption of that series to such holders at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security Register, unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed. Any notice that is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the registered holder receives the notice. In any case, failure duly to give such notice to the holder of any Security of any series designated for redemption in whole or in part, or any defect in the notice, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities of such series or any other series. In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officers’ Certificate evidencing compliance with any such restriction.

 

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Each such notice of redemption shall specify the date fixed for redemption and the redemption price at which Securities of that series are to be redeemed, and shall state that payment of the redemption price of such Securities to be redeemed will be made at the office or agency of the Company in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in said notice, that from and after said date interest will cease to accrue and that the redemption is for a sinking fund, if such is the case. If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the notice to the holders of Securities of that series to be redeemed in part shall specify the particular Securities to be so redeemed.

 

In case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice that relates to such Security shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed, and shall state that on and after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

 

(b) If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company shall give the Trustee at least 45 days’ notice (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) in advance of the date fixed for redemption as to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series to be redeemed, and thereupon the Trustee shall select, by lot or in such other manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair in its discretion and that may provide for the selection of a portion or portions (equal to one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof) of the principal amount of such Securities of a denomination larger than $1,000, the Securities to be redeemed and shall thereafter promptly notify the Company in writing of the numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, in whole or in part. The Company may, if and whenever it shall so elect, by delivery of instructions signed on its behalf by an Officer, instruct the Trustee or any paying agent to call all or any part of the Securities of a particular series for redemption and to give notice of redemption in the manner set forth in this Section, such notice to be in the name of the Company or its own name as the Trustee or such paying agent may deem advisable. In any case in which notice of redemption is to be given by the Trustee or any such paying agent, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to, or permit to remain with, the Trustee or such paying agent, as the case may be, such Security Register, transfer books or other records, or suitable copies or extracts therefrom, sufficient to enable the Trustee or such paying agent to give any notice by mail that may be required under the provisions of this Section.

 

Section 3.03 Payment Upon Redemption.

 

(a) If the giving of notice of redemption shall have been completed as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities of the series to be redeemed specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption and interest on such Securities or portions of Securities shall cease to accrue on and after the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such redemption price and accrued interest with respect to any such Security or portion thereof. On presentation and surrender of such Securities on or after the date fixed for redemption at the place of payment specified in the notice, said Securities shall be paid and redeemed at the applicable redemption price for such series, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption (but if the date fixed for redemption is an interest payment date, the interest installment payable on such date shall be payable to the registered holder at the close of business on the applicable record date pursuant to Section 2.03).

 

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(b) Upon presentation of any Security of such series that is to be redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and the office or agency where the Security is presented shall deliver to the holder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security of the same series of authorized denominations in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

 

Section 3.04 Sinking Fund.

 

The provisions of Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06 shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series.

 

The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”. If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 3.05. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.

 

Section 3.05 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

 

The Company (i) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series and (ii) may apply as a credit Securities of a series that have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the redemption price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.

 

Section 3.06 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

 

Not less than 45 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities (unless a shorter period shall be satisfactory to the Trustee), the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of the series, the portion thereof, if any, that is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 3.05 and the basis for such credit and will, together with such Officers’ Certificate, deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered. Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.02. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Section 3.03.

 

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ARTICLE 4

 

COVENANTS

 

Section 4.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.

 

The Company will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series at the time and place and in the manner provided herein and established with respect to such Securities.

 

Section 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency.

 

So long as any series of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Company agrees to maintain an office or agency in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, with respect to each such series and at such other location or locations as may be designated as provided in this Section 4.02, where (i) Securities of that series may be presented for payment, (ii) Securities of that series may be presented as herein above authorized for registration of transfer and exchange, and (iii) notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be given or served, such designation to continue with respect to such office or agency until the Company shall, by written notice signed by any officer authorized to sign an Officers’ Certificate and delivered to the Trustee, designate some other office or agency for such purposes or any of them. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, notices and demands. The Company initially appoints the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee located in the Borough of Manhattan, the City of New York as its paying agent with respect to the Securities.

 

Section 4.03 Paying Agents.

 

(a) If the Company shall appoint one or more paying agents for all or any series of the Securities, other than the Trustee, the Company will cause each such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:

 

(1) that it will hold all sums held by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any other obligor of such Securities) in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto;

 

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(2) that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Company (or by any other obligor of such Securities) to make any payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series when the same shall be due and payable;

 

(3) that it will, at any time during the continuance of any failure referred to in the preceding paragraph (a)(2) above, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent; and

 

(4) that it will perform all other duties of paying agent as set forth in this Indenture.

 

(b) If the Company shall act as its own paying agent with respect to any series of the Securities, it will on or before each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on Securities of that series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient to pay such principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due on Securities of that series until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of such action, or any failure (by it or any other obligor on such Securities) to take such action. Whenever the Company shall have one or more paying agents for any series of Securities, it will, prior to each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal, premium or interest, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of this action or failure so to act.

 

(c) Notwithstanding anything in this Section to the contrary, (i) the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, and (ii) the Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or direct any paying agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such paying agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same terms and conditions as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such paying agent; and, upon such payment by the Company or any paying agent to the Trustee, the Company or such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.

 

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Section 4.04 Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee.

 

The Company, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 7.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder.

 

Section 4.05 Compliance with Consolidation Provisions.

 

The Company will not, while any of the Securities remain Outstanding, consolidate with or merge into any other Person, in either case where the Company is not the survivor of such transaction, or sell or convey all or substantially all of its property to any other Person unless the provisions of Article Ten hereof are complied with.

 

ARTICLE 5

 

SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 5.01 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders.

 

The Company will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee (a) within 15 days after each regular record date (as defined in Section 2.03) a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the holders of each series of Securities as of such regular record date, provided that the Company shall not be obligated to furnish or cause to furnish such list at any time that the list shall not differ in any respect from the most recent list furnished to the Trustee by the Company and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished; provided, however, that, in either case, no such list need be furnished for any series for which the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar.

 

Section 5.02 Preservation Of Information; Communications With Securityholders.

 

(a) The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity).

 

(b) The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

 

(c) Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities, and, in connection with any such communications, the Trustee shall satisfy its obligations under Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the provisions of Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

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Section 5.03 Reports by the Company.

 

The Company covenants and agrees to provide a copy to the Trustee, after the Company files the same with the Securities and Exchange Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Securities and Exchange Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) that the Company files with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; provided, however, the Company shall not be required to deliver to the Trustee any materials for which the Company has sought and received confidential treatment by the SEC. The Company shall also comply with the requirements of Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act, but only to the extent then applicable to the Company.

 

Section 5.04 Reports by the Trustee.

 

(a) On or before July 1 in each year in which any of the Securities are Outstanding, the Trustee shall transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register, a brief report dated as of the preceding May 1, if and to the extent required under Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(b) The Trustee shall comply with Section 313(b) and 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(c) A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Securityholders, be filed by the Trustee with the Company, with each securities exchange upon which any Securities are listed (if so listed) and also with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The Company agrees to notify the Trustee when any Securities become listed on any securities exchange.

 

ARTICLE 6

 

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

 

Section 6.01 Events of Default.

 

(a) Whenever used herein with respect to Securities of a particular series, “Event of Default” means any one or more of the following events that has occurred and is continuing:

 

(1) the Company defaults in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of that series, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by the Company in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

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(2) the Company defaults in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such Securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

(3) the Company fails to observe or perform any other of its covenants or agreements with respect to that series contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to that series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof (other than a covenant or agreement that has been expressly included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of one or more series of Securities other than such series) for a period of 90 days after the date on which written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder, shall have been given to the Company by the Trustee, by registered or certified mail, or to the Company and the Trustee by the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Securities of that series at the time Outstanding;

 

(4) the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law (i) commences a voluntary case, (ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case, (iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property or (iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or

 

(5) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order under any Bankruptcy Law that (i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case, (ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company for all or substantially all of its property or (iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 days.

 

(b) In each and every such case (other than an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above), unless the principal of all the Securities of that series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by such Securityholders), may declare the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above occurs, the principal of and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series shall automatically be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or the holders of the Securities.

 

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(c) At any time after the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on the Securities of that series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if: (i) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of that series and the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any and all Securities of that series that shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and premium, if any, and, to the extent that such payment is enforceable under applicable law, upon overdue installments of interest, at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series to the date of such payment or deposit) and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06, and (ii) any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the nonpayment of principal on (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on Securities of that series that shall not have become due by their terms, shall have been remedied or waived as provided in Section 6.06.

 

No such rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

(d) In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right with respect to Securities of that series under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned because of such rescission or annulment or for any other reason or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceedings, the Company and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Company and the Trustee shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

 

Section 6.02 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

 

(a) The Company covenants that (i) in case it shall default in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of a series, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series as and when the same shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 90 Business Days, or (ii) in case it shall default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of a series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of a series or upon redemption or upon declaration or otherwise then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Company will pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the holders of the Securities of that series, the whole amount that then shall have been become due and payable on all such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) or interest, or both, as the case may be, with interest upon the overdue principal (and premium, if any) and (to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law) upon overdue installments of interest at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series; and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06.

 

(b) If the Company shall fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law or equity out of the property of the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series, wherever situated.

 

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(c) In case of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, readjustment, arrangement, composition or judicial proceedings affecting the Company, or its creditors or property, the Trustee shall have power to intervene in such proceedings and take any action therein that may be permitted by the court and shall (except as may be otherwise provided by law) be entitled to file such proofs of claim and other papers and documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee and of the holders of Securities of such series allowed for the entire amount due and payable by the Company under the Indenture at the date of institution of such proceedings and for any additional amount that may become due and payable by the Company after such date, and to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claim, and to distribute the same after the deduction of the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and any receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization is hereby authorized by each of the holders of Securities of such series to make such payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to such Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it under Section 7.06.

 

(d) All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the terms established with respect to Securities of that series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of such Securities, or the production thereof at any trial or other proceeding relative thereto, and any such suit or proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for payment to the Trustee of any amounts due under Section 7.06, be for the ratable benefit of the holders of the Securities of such series.

 

In case of an Event of Default hereunder, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any of such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in the Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture, or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

 

Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of that series or the rights of any holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.

 

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Section 6.03 Application of Moneys or Property Collected.

 

Any moneys or property collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article with respect to a particular series of Securities shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys or property on account of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, upon presentation of the Securities of that series, and notation thereon of the payment, if only partially paid, and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

FIRST: To the payment of reasonable costs and expenses of collection and of all amounts payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06;

 

SECOND: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon Securities of such series for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, respectively; and

 

THIRD: To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Company or any other Person lawfully entitled thereto as requested by the Company.

 

Section 6.04 Limitation on Suits.

 

No holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any suit, action or proceeding in equity or at law upon or under or with respect to this Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless (i) such holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof with respect to the Securities of such series specifying such Event of Default, as hereinbefore provided; (ii) the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action, suit or proceeding in its own name as Trustee hereunder; (iii) such holder or holders shall have offered to the Trustee such reasonable indemnity as it may require against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred therein or thereby; (iv) the Trustee for 90 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity, shall have failed to institute any such action, suit or proceeding and (v) during such 90 day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series do not give the Trustee a direction inconsistent with the request.

 

Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary or any other provisions of this Indenture, the right of any holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Security, as therein provided, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security (or in the case of redemption, on the redemption date), or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates or redemption date, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such holder and by accepting a Security hereunder it is expressly understood, intended and covenanted by the taker and holder of every Security of such series with every other such taker and holder and the Trustee, that no one or more holders of Securities of such series shall have any right in any manner whatsoever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of the holders of any other of such Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such holder, or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all holders of Securities of such series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

 

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Section 6.05 Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

 

(a) Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.07, all powers and remedies given by this Article to the Trustee or to the Securityholders shall, to the extent permitted by law, be deemed cumulative and not exclusive of any other powers and remedies available to the Trustee or the holders of the Securities, by judicial proceedings or otherwise, to enforce the performance or observance of the covenants and agreements contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to such Securities.

 

(b) No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any holder of any of the Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power, or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such default or an acquiescence therein; and, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, every power and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders.

 

Section 6.06 Control by Securityholders.

 

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to such series; provided, however, that such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture. Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer or officers of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed, subject to the Trustee’s duties under the Trust Indenture Act, would involve the Trustee in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the Securityholders not involved in the proceeding. The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding affected thereby, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, may on behalf of the holders of all of the Securities of such series waive any past default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.01 with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities otherwise than by acceleration (unless such default has been cured and a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest and principal and any premium has been deposited with the Trustee (in accordance with Section 6.01(c)). Upon any such waiver, the default covered thereby shall be deemed to be cured for all purposes of this Indenture and the Company, the Trustee and the holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

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Section 6.07 Undertaking to Pay Costs.

 

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each holder of any Securities by such holder’s acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder, or group of Securityholders, holding more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

 

ARTICLE 7

 

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 7.01 Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee.

 

(a) The Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing of all Events of Default with respect to the Securities of that series that may have occurred, shall undertake to perform with respect to the Securities of such series such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (that has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs.

 

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(b) No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:

 

(i) prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing or waiving of all such Events of Default with respect to that series that may have occurred:

 

(A) the duties and obligations of the Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of such series be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to the Securities of such series except for the performance of such duties and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and

 

(B) in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may with respect to the Securities of such series conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions that by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirement of this Indenture;

 

(ii) the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

 

(iii) the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of that series; and

 

(iv) None of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers if there is reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or liability is not reasonably assured to it under the terms of this Indenture or adequate indemnity against such risk is not reasonably assured to it.

 

Section 7.02 Certain Rights of Trustee.

 

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01:

 

(a) The Trustee may rely conclusively and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

 

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(b) Any request, direction, order or demand of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution or an instrument signed in the name of the Company by any authorized officer of the Company (unless other evidence in respect thereof is specifically prescribed herein);

 

(c) The Trustee may consult with counsel and the written advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken or suffered or omitted hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;

 

(d) The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that may be incurred therein or thereby; nothing contained herein shall, however, relieve the Trustee of the obligation, upon the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to a series of the Securities (that has not been cured or waived), to exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and to use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs;

 

(e) The Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

 

(f) The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security, or other papers or documents, unless requested in writing so to do by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of the particular series affected thereby (determined as provided in Section 8.04); provided, however, that if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require reasonable indemnity against such costs, expenses or liabilities as a condition to so proceeding. The reasonable expense of every such examination shall be paid by the Company or, if paid by the Trustee, shall be repaid by the Company upon demand; and

 

(g) The Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder.

 

In addition, the Trustee shall not be deemed to have knowledge of any Default or Event of Default except (1) any Event of Default occurring pursuant to Sections 6.01(a)(1), 6.01(a)(2) and 4.01 hereof or (2) any Default or Event of Default of which the Trustee shall have received written notification in the manner set forth in this Indenture or a Responsible Officer of the Trustee shall have obtained actual knowledge. Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under Section 5.03 is for informational purposes only and the information and the Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein, or determinable from information contained therein including the Company’s compliance with any of their covenants thereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely conclusively on an Officers’ Certificate).

 

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Section 7.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities.

 

(a) The recitals contained herein and in the Securities shall be taken as the statements of the Company, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same.

 

(b) The Trustee makes no representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities.

 

(c) The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Company of any of the Securities or of the proceeds of such Securities, or for the use or application of any moneys paid over by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture or established pursuant to Section 2.01, or for the use or application of any moneys received by any paying agent other than the Trustee.

 

Section 7.04 May Hold Securities.

 

The Trustee or any paying agent or Security Registrar, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, paying agent or Security Registrar.

 

Section 7.05 Moneys Held in Trust.

 

Subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder except such as it may agree with the Company to pay thereon.

 

Section 7.06 Compensation and Reimbursement.

 

(a) The Company covenants and agrees to pay to the Trustee, and the Trustee shall be entitled to, such reasonable compensation (which shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust) as the Company and the Trustee may from time to time agree in writing, for all services rendered by it in the execution of the trusts hereby created and in the exercise and performance of any of the powers and duties hereunder of the Trustee, and, except as otherwise expressly provided herein, the Company will pay or reimburse the Trustee upon its request for all reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by the Trustee in accordance with any of the provisions of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its counsel and of all Persons not regularly in its employ), except any such expense, disbursement or advance as may arise from its negligence or bad faith and except as the Company and Trustee may from time to time agree in writing. The Company also covenants to indemnify the Trustee (and its officers, agents, directors and employees) for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, liability or expense incurred without negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee and arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of this trust, including the reasonable costs and expenses of defending itself against any claim of liability in the premises.

 

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(b) The obligations of the Company under this Section to compensate and indemnify the Trustee and to pay or reimburse the Trustee for reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances shall constitute additional indebtedness hereunder. Such additional indebtedness shall be secured by a lien prior to that of the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the benefit of the holders of particular Securities.

 

Section 7.07 Reliance on Officers’ Certificate.

 

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01, whenever in the administration of the provisions of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it reasonably necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting to take any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officers’ Certificate delivered to the Trustee and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.

 

Section 7.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests.

 

If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Company shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Section 7.09 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility.

 

There shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to the Securities issued hereunder which shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America or any state or territory thereof or of the District of Columbia, or a corporation or other Person permitted to act as trustee by the Securities and Exchange Commission, authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers, having a combined capital and surplus of at least fifty million U.S. dollars ($50,000,000), and subject to supervision or examination by federal, state, territorial, or District of Columbia authority.

 

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If such corporation or other Person publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of the aforesaid supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation or other Person shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. The Company may not, nor may any Person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the Company, serve as Trustee. In case at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in Section 7.10.

 

Section 7.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor.

 

(a) The Trustee or any successor hereafter appointed may at any time resign with respect to the Securities of one or more series by giving written notice thereof to the Company and by transmitting notice of resignation by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders of such series, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register.

 

Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee. If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the mailing of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series, or any Securityholder of that series who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.

 

(b) In case at any time any one of the following shall occur:

 

(i) the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 7.08 after written request therefor by the Company or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months; or

 

(ii) the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 7.09 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or by any such Securityholder; or

 

(iii) the Trustee shall become incapable of acting, or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent, or commence a voluntary bankruptcy proceeding, or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or consented to, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation; then, in any such case, the Company may remove the Trustee with respect to all Securities and appoint a successor trustee by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may, on behalf of that holder and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

 

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(c) The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to such series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company and may appoint a successor Trustee for such series with the consent of the Company.

 

(d) Any resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of a series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 7.11.

 

(e) Any successor trustee appointed pursuant to this Section may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more series or all of such series, and at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any particular series.

 

Section 7.11 Acceptance of Appointment By Successor.

 

(a) In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, sha