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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_____________________________________ 
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission file number 001-34910
 _____________________________________
HUNTINGTON INGALLS INDUSTRIES, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 90-0607005
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
4101 Washington Avenue, Newport News, Virginia 23607
(Address of principal executive offices and zip code)

(757) 380-2000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
___________________________________
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading Symbol(s) Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock HII New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act:
None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes    No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.  
Large Accelerated Filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes     No  

As of June 30, 2021, the aggregate market value (based upon the closing price of the stock on the New York Stock Exchange) of the registrant's common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $8,465 million.

As of February 4, 2022, 39,989,022 shares of the registrant's common stock were outstanding.
_____________________________________ 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's Proxy Statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 14A for the registrant's 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.




TABLE OF CONTENTS 
   
Page
PART I
Item 1.
1
Item 1A.
12
Item 1B.
26
Item 2.
26
Item 3.
27
Item 4.
27
PART II
Item 5.
28
Item 6.
29
Item 7.
29
Item 7A.
56
Item 8.
57
57
60
61
63
64
65
Item 9.
105
Item 9A.
105
Item 9B.
105
Item 9C.
105
PART III
Item 10.
106
Item 11.
109
Item 12.
109
Item 13.
109
Item 14.
110
PART IV
Item 15.
111
Item 16.
116
117

i


PART I


ITEM 1. BUSINESS

History and Organization

Huntington Ingalls Industries, Inc. ("HII", the "Company", "we", "us", or "our") is America’s largest military shipbuilding company and a provider of professional services to partners in government and industry. For more than a century, our Ingalls Shipbuilding segment ("Ingalls") in Mississippi and Newport News Shipbuilding segment ("Newport News") in Virginia have built more ships in more ship classes than any other U.S. naval shipbuilder. Our Technical Solutions segment provides a range of services to government and commercial customers.

We conduct most of our business with the U.S. Government, primarily the Department of Defense ("DoD"). As prime contractor, principal subcontractor, team member, or partner, we participate in many high-priority U.S. defense programs. Ingalls includes our non-nuclear ship design, construction, repair, and maintenance businesses. Newport News includes all of our nuclear ship design, construction, overhaul, refueling, and repair and maintenance businesses. We also provide a wide range of professional services, including defense and federal solutions ("DFS"), nuclear and environmental services, and unmanned systems, through our Technical Solutions segment. Headquartered in Newport News, Virginia, we employ approximately 44,000 people domestically and internationally.

Ingalls
 
Through our Ingalls segment, we design and construct non-nuclear ships for the U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard, including amphibious assault ships, expeditionary warfare ships, surface combatants, and national security cutters ("NSC"). We are the sole builder of amphibious assault ships and one of two builders of surface combatants for the U.S. Navy. We are the sole builder of large multi-mission NSCs for the U.S. Coast Guard. Our Ingalls segment is located in Pascagoula, Mississippi on 800 acres along the Pascagoula River. This shipyard offers a collection of manufacturing capabilities that includes a 660-ton gantry crane and a Land Based Test Facility.

Amphibious Assault Ships
We construct amphibious assault ships and expeditionary warfare ships for the U.S. Navy, which include U.S. Navy large deck amphibious assault ships ("LHA") and amphibious transport dock ships ("LPD"), respectively. The LHA is a key component of the Department of the Navy's requirement for Expeditionary Strike Groups/Amphibious Readiness Groups, and design, construction, and modernization of LHAs are core to our Ingalls operations. In 2007, we were awarded the construction contract for USS America (LHA 6), the first in a class of enhanced amphibious assault ships designed from the keel up to be an aviation optimized Marine assault platform. We delivered USS Tripoli (LHA 7) in 2020 and are currently constructing Bougainville (LHA 8). In 2020, we were awarded a long-lead-time material and construction contract for LHA 9 (unnamed).
The LPD program is a long-running production program of expeditionary warfare ships in which we have generated efficiencies through ship-over-ship learning. We delivered USS Portland (LPD 27) in 2017 and USS John P. Murtha (LPD 26) in 2016, and we are currently constructing Fort Lauderdale (LPD 28), Richard M. McCool Jr. (LPD 29), and Harrisburg (LPD 30). In 2020, we were awarded a contract to construct Pittsburgh (LPD 31).

Surface Combatants
We are a design agent for, and one of only two companies that constructs, Arleigh Burke class (DDG 51) guided missile destroyers, a class of surface combatant. We have delivered 33 Arleigh Burke class (DDG 51) destroyers to the U.S. Navy, including Frank E. Petersen Jr. (DDG 121) in 2021, USS Delbert D. Black (DDG 119) in 2020, and USS Paul Ignatius (DDG 117) in 2019. In 2013, we were awarded a multi-year contract totaling $3.3 billion for construction of five Arleigh Burke class (DDG 51) destroyers, of which three have been delivered. We are currently constructing the remaining two ships: Lenah H. Sutcliffe Higbee (DDG 123) and Jack H. Lucas (DDG 125). In 2018, we were awarded a multi-year contract totaling $5.1 billion for construction of six additional Arleigh Burke class (DDG 51) destroyers. In 2020, we were awarded a contract to construct an additional Arleigh Burke class (DDG 51) destroyer.
1


National Security Cutters
The U.S. Coast Guard's recapitalization program is designed to replace aging and operationally expansive ships and aircraft used to conduct missions in excess of 50 miles from the shoreline. The flagship of this program is the Legend class NSC, a multi-mission platform we designed and continue to build. We delivered USCGC Kimball (NSC 7), USCGC Midgett (NSC 8), and USCGC Stone (NSC 9) to the U.S. Coast Guard in 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively. In 2018, we were awarded long-lead-time material and construction contracts for Calhoun (NSC 10) and Friedman (NSC 11), which are currently under construction.

Newport News

The core business of our Newport News segment is designing and constructing nuclear-powered aircraft carriers and submarines, and the refueling and overhaul and the inactivation of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers. Our Newport News shipyard is located on approximately 550 acres near the mouth of the James River, which adjoins the Chesapeake Bay. The shipyard has two miles of waterfront property and heavy industrial facilities, which include seven graving docks, a floating dry dock, two outfitting berths, five outfitting piers, module outfitting facilities, and various other workshops. Our Newport News shipyard also has a 2,170-foot dry dock serviced by a 1,050-ton gantry crane capable of supporting two aircraft carriers at one time.
 
Design, Construction, Refueling and Complex Overhaul, and Inactivation of Aircraft Carriers

Engineering, design, and construction of U.S. Navy nuclear aircraft carriers ("CVN") are core to Newport News operations. Aircraft carriers are the largest ships in the U.S. Navy's fleet, with a displacement of over 90,000 tons. Newport News has designed and built more than 31 aircraft carriers for the U.S. Navy since 1933, including all ten Nimitz class (CVN 68) aircraft carriers currently in active service, as well as the first ship of the next generation Gerald R. Ford class (CVN 78) aircraft carriers.
 
Beginning in 2009, we received contract awards totaling $7.8 billion for construction preparation, detail design, and construction of the second Gerald R. Ford class (CVN 78) aircraft carrier, John F. Kennedy (CVN 79). In addition, we have received awards valued at $15.3 billion for detail design and construction of the Gerald R. Ford class (CVN 78) aircraft carriers Enterprise (CVN 80) and Doris Miller (CVN 81).
We continue to be the exclusive prime contractor for nuclear aircraft carrier refueling and complex overhaul ("RCOH"). Each RCOH takes nearly four years to complete, with the work accounting for approximately 35% of all maintenance and modernization during an aircraft carrier's 50 year service life. RCOH services include propulsion work (refueling of reactors; propulsion plant modernization; and propulsion plant repairs), restoration of service life (dry docking, tank, and void maintenance; hull, shafting, propellers, and rudders; launch and recovery system; piping repairs; and component refurbishment), and modernization (electrical systems; aviation support systems; warfare; interoperability; and environmental compliance). We provide ongoing maintenance services for the U.S. Navy aircraft carrier fleet through both RCOH and fleet support across the globe.

We are currently performing the RCOH of USS George Washington (CVN 73) and USS John C. Stennis (CVN 74). We believe our position as the exclusive designer and builder of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, our RCOH performance on the first seven Nimitz class (CVN 68) carriers, our highly trained workforce, the capital-intensive nature of RCOH work, and high barriers to entry due to its nuclear component strongly position us for RCOH contract awards on the remaining Nimitz class (CVN 68) carriers, as well as future RCOH work on Gerald R. Ford class (CVN 78) aircraft carriers.

We received a contract in 2013 to inactivate the decommissioned Enterprise (CVN 65), the world's first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, which was built by us and commissioned in 1961. The decommissioned Enterprise (CVN 65) inactivation was completed in the second quarter of 2018. Aircraft carriers have a lifespan of approximately 50 years, and we believe the ten Nimitz class (CVN 68) carriers we delivered that are currently in active service, as well as Gerald R. Ford class (CVN 78) aircraft carriers, present significant opportunities for inactivation contracts as they reach the end of their lifespans. We believe we are well positioned as the U.S. Navy's shipyard of choice for these contract awards.

2


Design and Construction of Nuclear-Powered Submarines
We are one of only two companies in the United States capable of designing and building nuclear-powered submarines for the U.S. Navy. Newport News has delivered 62 submarines to the U.S. Navy since 1960, comprised of 48 fast attack and 14 ballistic missile submarines. Of the 52 nuclear-powered fast attack submarines currently in active service, 25 were delivered by Newport News. Our nuclear submarine program, located at our Newport News shipyard, includes construction, engineering, design, research, and integrated planning.

Virginia Class (SSN 774) Submarines

We have a teaming agreement with Electric Boat Corporation ("Electric Boat"), a division of General Dynamics Corporation ("General Dynamics"), to build Virginia class (SSN 774) fast attack nuclear submarines. Under the teaming arrangement, we build the stern, habitability and machinery spaces, torpedo room, sail, and bow, while Electric Boat builds the engine room, control room, and pressure hull structure. Work on the reactor plant and the final assembly, test, outfit, and delivery of the submarines to the U.S. Navy alternates between Electric Boat and us.

The four submarines of the first block and six submarines of the second block of Virginia class (SSN 774) submarines have been delivered. In December 2008, the U.S. Navy signed a contract for eight Block III Virginia class (SSN 774) submarines. The contract required delivery of one Virginia class (SSN 774) submarine per year for the first two years, and increased production to two submarines per year for the remaining six Block III boats. The first submarine under this contract was delivered in 2014, and the last submarine of Block III was delivered in 2019. In 2014, the team was awarded a construction contract for the fourth block of ten Virginia class (SSN 774) submarines. The first submarine of the Block IV contract was delivered in 2020, and the remaining boats are in the module outfitting, final assembly, and test phases of construction. In 2019, the team was awarded a construction contract for the fifth block of nine Virginia class (SSN 774) submarines, and, in 2021, an option for a 10th submarine was exercised, continuing the two submarines per year production rate that began on the third block. The fiscal year 2021 appropriations act included funding for the 10th submarine in Block V, and the fiscal year 2022 National Defense Authorization Act recommends continued procurement of two Virginia class (SSN 774) submarines per fiscal year. All ten boats of the Block V contract are in the early manufacturing and advance procurement phases.

Columbia Class (SSBN 826) Submarines

Newport News is participating in design and construction of the Columbia class (SSBN 826) submarine as a replacement for the current aging Ohio class nuclear ballistic missile submarines ("SSBN"), which were first introduced into service in 1981. The Ohio class SSBN includes 14 nuclear ballistic missile submarines and four nuclear cruise missile submarines ("SSGN"). The Columbia class (SSBN 826) program currently anticipates 12 new ballistic missile submarines. We perform design work as a subcontractor to Electric Boat, and we have entered into a teaming agreement with Electric Boat to build modules for the entire Columbia class (SSBN 826) submarine program that leverages our Virginia class (SSN 774) experience. We were previously awarded contracts from Electric Boat to begin integrated product and process development and provide long–lead-time material and advance construction for the Columbia class (SSBN 826) program. Contract award for the first two Columbia class submarines (SSBN 826 and SSBN 827) and construction start of the first Columbia class (SSBN 826) submarine occurred in late 2020.

Naval Nuclear Support Services

Newport News provides additional services to and in support of the U.S. Navy, ranging from services supporting the Navy's carrier and submarine fleets to maintenance services at U.S. Navy training facilities. Fleet support services include design, construction, maintenance, and disposal activities for in-service U.S. Navy nuclear ships worldwide through mobile and in-house capabilities. We also provide maintenance services on nuclear reactor prototypes, such as those at the Kenneth A. Kesselring Site, a research and development facility in New York that supports the U.S. Navy.
Technical Solutions

The Technical Solutions segment includes businesses that are focused on life-cycle sustainment services to the U.S. Navy fleet and other maritime customers; high-end information technology (“IT”) and mission-based solutions for DoD, intelligence, and federal civilian customers; and nuclear management and operations and environmental management services for the Department of Energy ("DoE"), DoD, state and local governments, and private sector
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companies. This segment was established to unify multiple strategic acquisitions, including the acquisition of Alion Science and Technology in August 2021. The Technical Solutions segment is comprised of three business units as follows:

Defense and Federal Solutions (“DFS”)

DFS is focused on solving national security challenges for the DoD, the intelligence community, and federal civilian agencies around the globe. The group’s expertise includes maritime fleet sustainment; intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance; cyber operations; secure enterprise information technology engineering and operations; advanced modeling, simulation, and training; and logistics management.

Nuclear and Environmental Services

Our nuclear and environmental services focus on nuclear management and operations. We provide site management, nuclear and industrial facilities operations and maintenance, decontamination and decommissioning, and radiological and hazardous waste management services to DoE, DoD, state and local governments, and private sector companies. As part of our nuclear and environmental services, we participate in joint ventures, including Newport News Nuclear BWXT Los Alamos, LLC ("N3B"), Mission Support and Test Services, LLC ("MSTS"), and Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC ("SRNS"). We have a 51% ownership interest in N3B, which, in 2017, was awarded the Los Alamos Legacy Cleanup Contract at the DoE/National Nuclear Security Administration’s Los Alamos National Laboratory located northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico. We have a 23% ownership interest in MSTS, which, in 2017, was awarded a contract for site management and operations at the Nevada National Security Site located northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. We have a 34% ownership interest in SRNS, which provides site management and operations at the DoE's Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina.

Unmanned Systems

Our unmanned systems products and services create advanced unmanned maritime solutions for defense, marine research, and commercial applications. Serving customers in more than 30 countries, unmanned systems provides design, autonomy, manufacturing, testing, operations, and sustainment of unmanned systems, including unmanned underwater vehicles and unmanned surface vessels.

Customers

Our revenues are primarily derived from the U.S. Government, including the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Coast Guard, the DoD, the DoE, and other federal agencies. In 2021, 2020, and 2019, approximately 90%, 88%, and 87%, respectively, of our revenues were generated from the U.S. Navy.

Intellectual Property

We develop new technologies that are incorporated into the products we produce for our customers. We also develop new manufacturing processes and systems-integration technologies and processes that we use to produce our products and to provide services to our customers. In addition to owning intellectual property, we license intellectual property rights to and from other parties. The U.S. Government generally receives non-exclusive licenses to certain intellectual property we develop in the performance of U.S. Government contracts and unlimited license rights in technical data developed under our U.S. Government contracts when such data is developed entirely at government expense. The U.S. Government may use or authorize other parties to use the intellectual property we license to the government. While our intellectual property rights are important to our operations, we do not believe that any existing patent, license, or other intellectual property right is of such importance that its loss or termination would have a material impact on our business.

Seasonality

No material portion of our business is seasonal. The timing of our revenue recognition is based on several factors, including the timing of contract awards, the incurrence of contract costs, contract cost estimation, and unit deliveries. See Note 2: Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in Item 8.

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Backlog

As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, our total backlog was approximately $48.5 billion and $46.0 billion, respectively. We expect approximately 19% of backlog at December 31, 2021, to be converted into sales in 2022.

Raw Materials
The most significant material we use is steel. Other materials we use in large quantities include paint, aluminum, pipe, electrical cable, and fittings. All of these materials are currently available in adequate supply. In connection with our U.S. Government contracts, we are required to procure certain materials and component parts from supply sources approved by the U.S. Government. For long-term contracts, we generally solicit price quotations for many of our material requirements from multiple suppliers to ensure competitive pricing. While we have not generally been dependent upon any one supply source, we currently have only one supplier for certain component parts as a result of consolidation in the defense industry. We believe these single source suppliers, as well as our overall supplier base, are adequate to meet our foreseeable needs. We have mitigated some supply risk by negotiating long-term agreements with certain raw material suppliers. In addition, we have mitigated price risk related to raw material purchases through certain contractual arrangements with customers.

Regulatory Matters

We operate in heavily regulated markets and must comply with a variety of laws and regulations, including those relating to the award, administration, and performance of U.S. Government contracts, as well as legal and regulatory requirements relating to cyber security, environmental protection, and our nuclear operations. Government contracting requirements increase our contract performance costs and compliance costs and risks. See Risk Factors in Item 1A.

Government Contracting

We are overseen and audited by the U.S. Government and its agencies, including the U.S. Navy's Supervisor of Shipbuilding, the Defense Contract Audit Agency ("DCAA"), and the Defense Contract Management Agency ("DCMA"). These agencies evaluate our contract performance, cost structures, and compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and standards, as well as the adequacy of our business systems and processes relative to U.S. Government requirements. If an audit uncovers improper or illegal activities, we may be subject to administrative, civil, or criminal proceedings, which could result in fines, penalties, repayments, or compensatory, treble, or other damages. Certain U.S. Government findings against a contractor can also lead to suspension or debarment from future U.S. Government contracts or the loss of export privileges.

Our business systems subject to audit or review include our accounting systems, purchasing systems, government property management systems, estimating systems, earned value management systems, and material management accounting systems. The U.S. Government has the ability to decrease or withhold contract payments if it determines significant deficiencies exist in one or more of our business systems. The U.S. Government has, in certain instances, withheld contract payments upon its assessment that deficiencies exist with one or more of our business systems. Although this has not materially impacted the timing of our cash receipts in the past, any such action by the U.S. Government in the future could have a material impact on the timing of our cash receipts.

The U.S. Government generally has the ability to terminate contracts, in whole or in part, with little or no prior notice, for convenience or for default based upon performance. In the event of termination of a contract for convenience, a contractor is normally able to recover costs already incurred on the contract and profit on incurred costs up to the amount authorized under the contract, but not the profit that would have been earned had the contract been completed. Such a termination could also result in the cancellation of future work on the related program. A termination resulting from our default could expose us to various liabilities, including excess re-procurement costs, and could have a material effect on our ability to compete for future contracts.

Our contracts with the U.S. Government sometimes result in Requests for Equitable Adjustments ("REAs"), which represent requests for the U.S. Government to make appropriate adjustments to contract terms, including pricing, delivery schedule, technical requirements, or other affected terms, due to changes in the original contract requirements and resulting delays and disruption in contract performance for which the U.S. Government is responsible. We submit and negotiate REAs in the ordinary course of business, and large REAs are not uncommon
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at the conclusion of both new construction and RCOH activities. REAs can result in claims under the Contract Disputes Act of 1978, in cases in which we cannot reach agreement with the U.S. Government.
U.S. Government regulations determine contractor costs that are allowable and therefore recoverable from the government, and certain costs are not allowable and therefore not recoverable. The U.S. Government also regulates the methods by which allowable costs, including overhead, are allocated to government contracts. Costs we incur that are not allowable under the Federal Acquisition Regulation (the “FAR”) or U.S. Cost Accounting Standards (“CAS”) or that are otherwise determined to be unallowable or improperly allocated to a specific contract will not be recovered or must be refunded if already reimbursed.
Our business, including contracts with U.S. Government agencies and subcontracts with other prime contractors, are subject to a variety of laws and regulations, including the FAR, the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement ("DFARS"), the Truth in Negotiations Act, the Procurement Integrity Act, the False Claims Act, CAS, the International Traffic in Arms Regulations promulgated under the Arms Export Control Act, the Close the Contractor Fraud Loophole Act, and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. A noncompliance determination by a government agency may result in reductions in contract values, contract modifications or terminations, penalties, fines, repayments, compensatory, treble, or other damages, or suspension or debarment. We are also subject to evolving cyber security and data privacy and protection laws and regulations, which increase our costs and compliance risks and may affect our competitiveness, cause reputational harm, and expose us to damage claims, substantial fines, and other penalties.

Nuclear

Our nuclear operations are subject to various safety related requirements imposed by the U.S. Navy, the DoE, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In the event of noncompliance, these agencies may increase regulatory oversight, impose fines, or shut down our operations, depending on their assessment of the severity of the noncompliance. In addition, new or revised security and safety requirements imposed by the U.S. Navy, the DoE, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission could necessitate substantial capital and other expenditures.

Subject to certain requirements and limitations, our contracts with the U.S. Navy and the DoE generally provide for indemnity by the U.S. Government for losses resulting from our nuclear operations. For our commercial nuclear operations, we rely primarily on insurance carried by nuclear facility operators for risk mitigation, and we maintain limited insurance coverage for losses in excess of the coverage of facility operators.

Environmental

Our operations are subject to federal, state, and local laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment. Substantial fines, penalties, and criminal sanctions may be imposed for noncompliance, and certain environmental laws impose joint and several "strict liability" for remediation of spills and releases of oil and hazardous substances. Such laws and regulations impose liability upon a party for environmental cleanup and remediation costs and damage without regard to negligence or fault on the part of such party and could expose us to liability for the conduct of or conditions caused by third parties.

We accrue estimated costs to perform environmental remediation when we determine it is probable we will incur expenses in the future, in amounts we can reasonably estimate, to address environmental conditions at currently or formerly owned or leased operating facilities, or at sites where we are named a Potentially Responsible Party ("PRP") by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") or similarly designated by another environmental agency. Uncertainties regarding the extent of required remediation, determination of legally responsible parties, and the status of laws and regulations and their interpretations make future environmental remediation costs difficult to estimate and can cause our estimated remediation costs to change.

We believe we are in material compliance with environmental laws and regulations, and historical environmental compliance costs have not been material to our business. We could be affected by new environmental laws or regulations, including any laws and regulations enacted in response to concerns over climate change, other aspects of the environment, or natural resources. We have made investments we believe are necessary to comply with environmental legal requirements, but we expect to incur future capital and operating costs to comply with current and future environmental laws and regulations. We do not currently believe such costs will have a material effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

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Competitive Environment

In our business of designing, building, overhauling, and repairing military ships, we primarily compete with General Dynamics and, in the case of certain non-nuclear shipbuilding programs, smaller shipyards. The smaller shipyards sometimes team with large defense contractors. Intense competition related to programs, resources, funding, and long operating cycles are key characteristics of both our shipbuilding business and the shipbuilding defense industry in general. It is common industry practice to share work on major programs among a number of companies. A company competing to be a prime contractor may, upon ultimate award of the contract to another party, become a subcontractor for the prime contracting party. It is not uncommon to compete for a contract award with a peer company and, simultaneously, serve as a supplier to or a customer of such competitor on other contracts. The nature of major defense programs, conducted under binding long-term contracts, allows companies that perform well to benefit from a level of program continuity not common in many industries.

We believe we are well-positioned in our shipbuilding markets. Because we are the only company currently capable of building, refueling, and inactivating the U.S. Navy's nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, we believe we are in a strong competitive position to be awarded each contract to perform such activities. Even so, the government periodically revisits whether refueling of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers should be performed in private or public facilities. If a U.S. Government owned shipyard were to become capable and engaged in the refueling of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, our market position could be significantly and adversely affected.

While we have competed with another large defense contractor to build large deck amphibious ships, we are currently the only builder of large deck amphibious assault ships and expeditionary warfare ships for the U.S. Navy, including LHAs and LPDs. We are also the sole builder of NSCs for the U.S. Coast Guard. We are one of only two companies currently capable of designing and building nuclear-powered submarines for the U.S. Navy, and we are party to long-term teaming agreements with the other company for the production of both Virginia class (SSN 774) fast attack nuclear submarines and Columbia class (SSBN 826) ballistic missile submarines. We are one of only two companies that builds the U.S. Navy's current fleet of Arleigh Burke class (DDG 51) destroyers and are strongly positioned to be awarded future contracts for surface combatant ships as well.

Our Technical Solutions segment delivers technology-based products and solutions to government and commercial services markets, in which we compete with a wide range of companies supporting the U.S. government and its allies worldwide.

Our success depends upon our ability to develop, market, and produce our products and services at costs consistent with our customers' expectations, as well as our ability to provide the workforce, technologies, facilities, equipment, and financial capacity needed to deliver those products and services with maximum efficiency.

Human Capital Resources

We recognize that our employees are our most important assets and serve as the foundation for our ability to achieve financial and strategic objectives. Our employees are critical to driving operational execution, meeting customer expectations, providing strong financial performance, advancing innovation, and maintaining a strong quality and compliance program. Our leaders believe each employee contributes to our success.
We have approximately 44,000 employees. We are the largest industrial employer in Virginia and the largest private employer in Mississippi. We employ individuals specializing in 19 crafts and trades, with approximately 7,300 engineers and designers and approximately 3,600 employees with advanced degrees. Our workforce contains many third-, fourth-, and fifth-generation employees, and approximately 1,500 employees with more than 40 years of continuous service. Employees in our shipbuilding segments with more than 40 years of continuous service achieve the honor of “Master Shipbuilder.” As of December 31, 2021, we had 1,190 Master Shipbuilders at Newport News and 284 at Ingalls. We also employ more than 7,500 veterans across the enterprise.

In addition, over 900 apprentices are enrolled in more than 27 crafts and advanced programs at our two shipbuilding divisions. From nuclear pipe welders to senior executives, we employ approximately 4,500 apprentice school alumni, comprised of 3,061 at Newport News and 1,487 at Ingalls.

Approximately 45% of our employees are covered by a total of nine collective bargaining agreements and one site stabilization agreement. Newport News has two collective bargaining agreements covering represented employees, which expire in December 2022 and April 2024, and one that expired in November 2021, which covers
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approximately 50% of Newport News employees. Newport News craft workers employed at the Kesselring Site near Saratoga Springs, New York are represented under an indefinite DoE site agreement. Ingalls has five collective bargaining agreements covering represented employees, all of which expire in March 2026. Approximately 15 Technical Solutions employees in Klamath Falls, Oregon are covered by a collective bargaining agreement that expires in June 2025.

We reached a tentative agreement with representatives of United Steelworkers (“USW”) Local 8888 (Newport News) members on a new labor agreement in November 2021, but the members of the bargaining unit declined to ratify the contract. The Newport News and USW negotiation teams continued negotiations and reached a tentative agreement on another labor agreement in January 2022. We expect the members of the bargaining unit to vote on the new agreement in the near future. The USW Local 8888 members are continuing to work under the terms and conditions of the expired collective bargaining agreement, but the members may call for a strike, or we may declare a lock-out, upon 48 hours notice. We cannot give any assurances that the tentative labor agreement will be ratified by the local bargaining unit or that a strike or lock-out will not occur.

We have not experienced a work stoppage in more than 22 years at Newport News and more than 14 years at Ingalls. We are committed to working effectively with our existing unions and believe our relationship with our represented employees is satisfactory.

The success and growth of our business depends in large part on our ability to attract, retain, and develop a skilled and diverse workforce of talented and high-performing employees at all levels of our organization. To succeed in the markets in which we compete for labor, we have developed key workforce development, recruitment, and retention strategies and objectives that we focus on as part of the overall management of our business. These strategies and objectives form the pillars of our human capital management framework and are advanced through the following programs, policies, and initiatives:

Competitive Pay and Benefits - Our compensation programs are designed to ensure we have the ability to attract, retain, and motivate employees to achieve our objectives.
We provide employee base wages and salaries that are competitive and consistent with employee positions, skill levels, experience, knowledge, and geographic location.
We utilize nationally recognized surveys and outside compensation and benefits consulting firms to independently evaluate the effectiveness of our employee and executive compensation and benefit programs and to provide benchmarking against our peers within the industry.
The structure of our executive compensation programs balances incentive earnings for both short-term and long-term performance, and we align our executive long-term equity compensation metrics with long-term shareholder interests.
Employees are eligible for health insurance, paid and unpaid leaves, 401(k) plans, and life and disability/accident insurance coverage. We also offer a variety of benefits that allow employees to select the options that meet their needs, including: annual leave/paid time off; paid holidays, flexible work arrangements/schedules; telemedicine; parental leave; transgender medical coverage; and a wellness program that includes physical, mental, and financial wellness components. We also fund the operation of Family Health Centers near our two shipyards, which provide a full range of medical, lab, pharmacy, dental, physical therapy, and vision services.

Recruitment, Training, and Workforce Development - Our three segments hire thousands of employees each year. In 2021, we hired nearly 6,000 new employees. To help us meet this large demand for talent, we have worked to create, develop, and maintain multiple talent pipelines. One of the key components of our approach to workforce development is to “grow our own.” We operate two apprentice schools, one at Ingalls and one at Newport News. The Newport News Apprentice School was founded in 1919, and the Ingalls Apprentice School was founded in 1952.

The two apprentice schools combined have graduated over 14,000 graduates since their inceptions. The schools are nationally renowned and are critical to training both our craft/trades and technical workforces, as well as developing the future leaders of our company. The Ingalls Apprentice School has partnered with the Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College to permit their apprentices to earn credits toward an associate’s degree. The Newport News Apprentice School has partnered with two community colleges, as well as Old Dominion University, to enable apprentices to earn a bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, or Modeling & Simulation.

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In addition to operating our own apprentice schools, we have developed and nurtured multiple partnerships with state and local governments, pre-K education providers, primary/secondary school districts, community colleges, and four-year colleges and universities, as well as post-graduate institutions. We also make significant investments through monetary contributions, leadership time, and employee volunteer hours to support these critical partnerships.

We maintain effective partnerships with colleges and universities, military bases for transitioning veterans, and regional community colleges to enable us to recruit and hire engineering, IT, and other technical talent. Working closely with state and local government leaders, we have successfully facilitated local, regional, and state-wide workforce development and education initiatives that include pre-K programs, high school trades programs/talent development labs, pre-hire trades/technical community college programs, interns/co-ops with colleges and universities, adult trades programs, veterans and military spouses training programs, and unemployed/underemployed training programs.

We view our workforce development process as a “leadership factory” and have developed a robust and effective succession planning process that ensures continuity in our leadership ranks. Since our founding in 2011, we have followed our succession plans 80% of the time when replacing a vacancy in an existing vice president position, and we have filled 77% of newly created vice president positions with internal hires.

Environmental, Health & Safety (“EH&S”) - The health, safety, and well-being of our employees, together with protection of the environment in the communities in which we operate, is one of our core values and rooted in our culture across the enterprise. We prioritize, manage, and carefully track safety performance and integrate sound environmental, safety, and health practices to make a meaningful difference in every facet of our operations, particularly at our shipbuilding segments and at DoE sites on which Technical Solutions segment employees work.
Safety goals are included in operational metrics for purposes of the Newport News and Ingalls compensation programs. We also use a wide variety of training courses, pre-job “Take Five” crew talks, medical surveillance programs, and employee involvement efforts to keep our workforce focused on EH&S. At Newport News and Ingalls, a key component of our EH&S program is the utilization of health and safety teams, which are comprised of production and maintenance employees and front-line managers whose goal is to educate, engage, and empower our workforce toward a culture that strives to reduce injury, illness, and environmental impacts. We employ programs focused on identifying, reporting, and abating near misses and other programs that aim to recognize, evaluate, and control hazards.

We track several metrics related to occupational injuries as one of several methods to monitor our safety performance. One of the key metrics is Total Case Rate (“TCR”), which is the number of Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") recordable injuries per 100 equivalent employees. The TCR for Newport News was 5.64 in 2021, 4.77 in 2020, and 4.67 in 2019, and the TCR at Ingalls was 6.26 in 2021, 6.35 in 2020, and 6.59 in 2019. Newport News also tracks Days Away, Restricted or Transferred (“DART”), which is the number of OSHA recordable cases in which the employee is unable to work, cannot work due to a restriction, or can work with a restriction as a result of an injury per 100 equivalent employees. DART at Newport News was 4.45 in 2021, 3.41 in 2020, and 3.01 in 2019. Ingalls tracks two other safety metrics: Lost Time Case Rate (“LTCR”), which is the number of employees that lost work time per 100 employees, and Lost Work Day Rate (“LWDR”), which is the number of lost workdays per 100 full-time employees. The LTCR and LWDR at Ingalls were 2.75 and 76.32, respectively, in 2021, 2.53 and 56.37, respectively, in 2020, and 2.39 and 56.82, respectively, in 2019.

In connection with the outbreak of COVID-19, the DoD designated Newport News and Ingalls as critical infrastructure industry. Our production and support workforce therefore continued in-person work at our facilities to provide vital products and services to our government customers, while many of our employees in support and administrative functions effectively worked remotely from mid-March 2020 until our employees generally returned to our facilities in May 2021. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, less than 400 of our employees regularly worked remotely, and at our peak, more than 11,300 employees were working remotely.

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have implemented mitigation measures to protect our employees and customers and support appropriate health and safety protocols. For example, we perform on-site COVID-19 testing, provide on-site vaccinations for employees, perform extensive cleaning and sanitation services for our shops, ships, and offices, re-engineered how some work was performed in order to support social distancing requirements, and implemented broad work-from-home initiatives for employees in our support and administrative functions.
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Corporate Values - We operate on a set of values that are shared with all employees: Integrity, Safety, Respect, Engagement, Responsibility, and Performance. "Always doing the right thing" is an essential belief at HII. That tone starts at the top and permeates through the culture of the company. It is a set of core values, standards, and behaviors that guide employee commitment to the highest ethical standards and serves as the underlying framework for all of our human capital strategies.

Advancing and Celebrating Diversity and Inclusion (“D&I”) - We believe we gain a key competitive advantage by building a workforce community that values contributions and perspectives from a variety of backgrounds, skills, and experiences regardless of race, ethnicity, color, religion, sex, disability, nationality, or other differentiation, and our leaders leverage the differences within their teams. We also believe D&I is vital to our ability to grow and innovate in an ever-changing, fast-paced environment. Our diverse and inclusive workplace encourages different perspectives and ideas, which we believe enables better business decisions. The following are highlights of our D&I program:
Employee Resource Groups (“ERGs”) are a key component of our corporate culture and an important part of our diversity and inclusion strategy. We currently sponsor 15 ERGs, which are employee-led and open to all employees, including: African American Shipbuilders Association, Asian & Pacific Islander Shipbuilding Association, Generational Integration Focus Team, Hispanic Outreach & Leadership Alliance, Women in Shipbuilding Enterprise, Ingalls Shipbuilders Equality Alliance, Shipbuilders Together Realizing Inclusion, Diversity and Equality, and the Veterans Employee Resource Group.
We have established D&I Councils at our Corporate Office and at each of our three segments, which provide strategic direction, guidance, and advocacy for our D&I initiatives and advancements. These councils are led by senior executives and include high-performing employees and leaders from across our enterprise.
We have a long history of participation in a number of annual national diversity conferences, including Black Engineer of the Year Awards, Society of Hispanic Engineers and Professionals, Society of Asian Scientists and Engineers, Society of Women Engineers, Great Minds in STEM, Hispanic Engineers National Achievement Award Conference, Women of Color STEM Conference, and the National Society of Black Engineers Convention. These events provide recruitment, recognition, and development opportunities for our diverse workforce.

Employee Engagement - Since 2006, we have conducted an annual anonymous engagement survey of our workforce, both non-represented and represented. Administered and analyzed by an independent third party, the survey results are reviewed by our executive team and other senior leaders at our three segments. The results of this engagement survey are also shared with individual managers and employees, who are then tasked with discussing the results with their teams and working together to set goals and implement actions to improve employee engagement and performance. Approximately 72% of our workforce participated in the 2021 engagement survey. We believe that, at the individual employee level, engagement is about taking ownership of your work and work processes. At the enterprise level, engagement is about creating an inclusive and highly collaborative culture where we all care about and encourage each other’s success, and supporting the opportunity to create more value and transform our business for the future.

Available Information

We maintain a website at the following address: www.huntingtoningalls.com. References to our website in this report are provided as a convenience and do not constitute, and should not be viewed as, incorporation by reference of the information contained on, or available through, the website. Accordingly, such information should not be considered part of this report. We make available on or through our website certain reports and amendments to those reports that we file with or furnish to the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") in accordance with the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"). These include our Annual Reports on Form 10–K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10–Q, and our Current Reports on Form 8-K. We make this information available on our website free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file the information with, or furnish it to, the SEC.

In addition, we routinely post on the "Investors" page of our website news releases, announcements, and other statements about our business and results of operations, some of which may contain information that may be deemed material to investors. Therefore, we encourage investors to monitor the "Investors" page of our website and review the information we post on that page.

The SEC also maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy statements, and other information about SEC registrants, including us.
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Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our other filings with the SEC, as well as other statements we may make from time to time, other than statements of historical fact, constitute "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by words such as "may," "will," "should," "expects," "intends," "plans," "anticipates," "believes," "estimates," "predicts," "potential," "continue," and similar words or phrases or the negative of these words or phrases. These statements relate to future events or our future financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance, or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance, or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Although we believe the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable when made, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance, or achievements. There are a number of important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from the results anticipated by our forward-looking statements, which include, but are not limited to:

Changes in government and customer priorities and requirements (including government budgetary constraints, shifts in defense spending, and changes in customer short-range and long-range plans);
Our ability to estimate our future contract costs and perform our contracts effectively;
Changes in procurement processes and government regulations and our ability to comply with such requirements;
Our ability to deliver our products and services at an affordable life cycle cost and compete within our markets;
Natural and environmental disasters and political instability;
Our ability to execute our strategic plan, including with respect to share repurchases, dividends, capital expenditures, and strategic acquisitions;
Adverse economic conditions in the United States and globally;
Health epidemics, pandemics and similar outbreaks, including the COVID-19 pandemic, and the impacts of vaccination mandates on our workforce;
Our ability to effectively integrate the operations of Alion into our business;
Changes in key estimates and assumptions regarding our pension and retiree health care costs;
Security threats, including cyber security threats, and related disruptions; and
Other risk factors discussed herein and in our other filings with the SEC.

There may be other risks and uncertainties that we are unable to predict at this time or that we currently do not expect to have a material adverse effect on our business, and we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements. You should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements that we may make.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

An investment in our common stock or debt securities involves risks and uncertainties. We seek to identify, manage, and mitigate risks to our business, but risk and uncertainty cannot be eliminated or necessarily predicted. You should consider the following factors carefully, in addition to the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, before deciding to purchase our securities.

Industry and Economic Risk Factors

We depend on the U.S. Government for substantially all of our business, and risks that arise from conducting business with the U.S. Government could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

A substantial majority of our business consists of the design, construction, repair, and maintenance of nuclear-powered ships and non-nuclear ships for the U.S. Navy and coastal defense surface ships for the U.S. Coast Guard, as well as the refueling and overhaul and inactivation of nuclear-powered ships for the U.S. Navy. We also provide fleet sustainment services to the U.S. Navy, IT and mission-based solutions for the DoD and intelligence and federal civilian customers, and nuclear management and operations and environmental management services for the DoE and DoD. Substantially all of our revenues in 2021 were derived from products and services sold to the U.S. Government, and we expect this to continue in the foreseeable future. In addition, substantially all of our backlog as of December 31, 2021, was U.S. Government related. Our U.S. Government contracts are subject to various risks, including customer political and budgetary constraints and processes, changes in customer short-term and long-term strategic plans, the timing of contract awards, significant changes in contract scheduling, intense contract award and funding competition, difficulty forecasting costs and schedules for bids on developmental and sophisticated technical work, and contractor suspension or debarment in the event of certain legal or regulatory violations. Any of these factors could affect our business with the U.S. Government, which would have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

Significant delays or reductions in appropriations for our programs, changes in customer priorities, and potential contract terminations could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

We are directly dependent upon Congressional funding of U.S. Navy, U.S. Coast Guard, and other government agency programs. Under the normal legislative process, Congress completes 12 annual appropriation bills each fiscal year to fund the activities of federal agencies. When Congress is unable to pass these appropriation bills before the beginning of a fiscal year, a continuing resolution can be enacted to provide stopgap funding for a specified period of time at a specified rate, often the prior year’s appropriation level. When the U.S. Government operates under a continuing resolution, limitations can be placed on production increases, multi-year procurements, and new program starts, which may result in delays or cancellation of new contract awards. When the U.S. Government fails to enact annual appropriations or a continuing resolution, a full or partial federal government shutdown may occur. A federal government shutdown could, in turn, result in the delay or cancellation of key programs, or the delay of contract payments, which could have a negative effect on our cash flows and adversely affect our future results of operations.

For certain programs, Congress appropriates funds on an annual fiscal year basis even though the program performance period may extend over several years. Such programs are funded initially on a partial basis, and additional funds are committed only as Congress makes further appropriations. If we incur costs in excess of existing funding on a contract, we may not recover those costs unless and until additional funds are appropriated. We cannot predict the extent to which total funding or funding for individual programs will be included, increased, or reduced as part of the annual budget process or through continuing resolutions or individual supplemental appropriations.

The impact of Congressional actions to reduce the federal debt and resulting pressures on federal spending could adversely affect the total funding of individual contracts or funding for individual programs and delay purchasing or payment decisions by our customers. Long-term uncertainty exists with respect to overall levels of defense spending across the future years' defense plan. It is likely that U.S. Government discretionary spending levels, including defense spending, will continue to be subject to significant pressure. For additional information relating to the U.S. defense budget, see the Business Environment section under Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Item 7.

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Demand for our products and services can also be affected by shifts in customer priorities resulting from changes in military strategy and planning. In response to the need for less expensive alternatives and the increasing proliferation of advanced weapons, future strategy reassessments by the DoD may result in decreased demand for our shipbuilding programs, including our aircraft carrier programs. For the year ended December 31, 2021, our aircraft carrier programs accounted for approximately 32% of our consolidated revenue. We cannot predict the impact of changes to customer priorities on existing, follow-on, replacement, or future programs. A shift of priorities to programs in which we do not participate and related reductions in funding for or the termination of programs in which we do participate could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
 
As of December 31, 2021, our total backlog was $48.5 billion, including $22.7 billion in funded backlog. The U.S. Government generally has the ability to terminate contracts, in whole or in part, with little or no prior notice, for convenience or for default based upon performance. In the event of termination of a contract for the U.S. Government's convenience, a contractor is normally able to recover costs already incurred on the contract and profit on incurred costs up to the amount authorized under the contract, but not the profit that would have been earned had the contract been completed. Our unfunded backlog, in particular, contains management’s estimate of amounts expected to be realized on unfunded contracts that may never be realized as revenues. Any termination could also result in the cancellation of future work on the related program. A termination resulting from our default can expose us to various liabilities, including excess re-procurement costs, and could negatively affect our ability to compete for future contracts. Any contract termination could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.

Changes to Department of Defense business practices could have a material effect on DoD's procurement process and adversely impact our current programs and potential new awards.

Our industry has experienced, and we expect will continue to experience, significant changes to business practices resulting from greater focus on affordability, efficiencies, business systems, recovery of costs, and a reprioritization of defense funds to key areas for future defense spending. These initiatives and changes to procurement practices may change the way U.S. Government contracts are solicited, negotiated, and managed, and may impact whether and how we pursue opportunities to provide our products and services to the U.S. Government, including the terms and conditions under which we do so, which may have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. Changes in procurement practices favoring incentive-based fee arrangements, different award fee criteria, non-traditional contract provisions, and government contract negotiation offers that mandate our costs may affect our profitability and the predictability of our profit rates. The U.S. Government is also pursuing alternatives to shift additional responsibility and performance risks to contractors.

For example, the DoD is increasingly pursuing accelerated development and acquisition of new technologies through rapid acquisition pathways and procedures, including through other transaction authority agreements (“OTAs”). In recent years, the DoD has increased the frequency of use and size of OTAs, and we expect this trend to continue in the future. OTAs are exempt from many traditional procurement laws, including the FAR, and may be used, subject to certain conditions, for research, prototype development, and follow-on production for a successful prototype. The conditions for OTA awards include, in certain instances, that a significant portion of the work under the OTA be performed by a non-traditional defense contractor or that a portion of the cost of the protoype project be funded by non-governmental sources. If we cannot successfully adapt to the DoD’s accelerated acquisition processes or if the DoD significantly increases the use of OTAs with non-traditional defense contractors or increases cost sharing mandates, then we may lose new strategic business opportunities in high-growth areas and our future performance and results of operations could be adversely affected.

In addition to the DoD's business practice initiatives, the DCMA and DCAA have implemented cost recovery/cost savings initiatives to prioritize cost recovery/savings. As a result of certain of these initiatives, we have experienced and may continue to experience a higher number of audits and/or lengthened periods of time required to close open audits. Moreover, the thresholds for certain allowable costs, including compensation costs, have been significantly reduced, and the allowability of other types of costs are being challenged, debated, and, in certain cases, modified. Significant changes to the thresholds for allowable costs or the allowability of certain costs could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

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Competition within our markets or an increase in bid protests may reduce our revenues and market share.
 
U.S. defense spending levels are uncertain and difficult to predict. A longer term reduction in shipbuilding activity by the U.S. Navy, evidenced by the reduction in fleet size from 566 ships in 1989 to 295 ships as of December 31, 2021, has resulted in workforce reductions but limited infrastructure consolidation. The general result has been fewer contracts awarded to the same fixed number of shipyards. Five major private United States shipyards, two of which we own, plus many other smaller private shipyards compete for contracts to construct, overhaul, repair, and convert naval vessels. Additionally, our products, such as aircraft carriers, submarines, amphibious assault ships, surface combatants, and other ships, compete for funding with each other, as well as with other defense products and services. We expect competition for future shipbuilding programs to be intense.

We compete with another large defense contractor for contracts to build surface combatants, submarines, and large deck amphibious ships, and smaller shipyards have entered the market for surface combatants. We may compete in the future with the same contractor and other shipyards to build new and different classes of ships, as well as ships for which we are currently the sole source, including expeditionary warfare and amphibious assault ships. Moreover, reductions in U.S. defense spending that reduce the demand for the types of ships we build and services we provide increase our risk exposure to market competition. If we are unable to continue to compete successfully against our current or future competitors, we may experience lower revenues and market share, which could negatively impact our financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.

Although we are the only company currently capable of refueling nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, two existing U.S. Government-owned shipyards may be able to refuel nuclear-powered aircraft carriers if substantial investments in facilities, personnel, and training were made. U.S. Government-owned shipyards currently engage in the refueling, overhaul, and inactivation of Los Angeles class (SSN 688) submarines and are capable of repairing and overhauling non-nuclear ships. If a U.S. Government-owned shipyard became capable and engaged in the refueling of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows could be adversely affected.
 
We also compete in the shipbuilding engineering, planning, and design market with companies that provide engineering support services. Such competition increases the risk we may not be the successful bidder on future U.S. Navy engineering proposals, including aircraft carrier research and development, submarine design, and surface combatant and amphibious assault ship program contracts.
 
Our competitive environment is also affected by bid protests from unsuccessful bidders on new program awards. As the competitive environment intensifies, the number of bid protests may increase. Bid protests can result in an award decision being overturned, requiring a re-bid of the contract. Even when a bid protest does not result in a re-bid, resolution of the matter typically extends the time until contract performance can begin, which can reduce our earnings in the period in which the contract would otherwise be performed.

Changes in estimates used in contract accounting could affect our profitability and our overall financial position.
 
Contract accounting requires judgments relative to assessing risks, estimating contract revenues and costs, and making assumptions regarding schedule and technical issues. The size and nature of many of our contracts make the estimation of total revenues and costs at completion complicated and subject to many variables. For new shipbuilding programs, we estimate, negotiate, and contract for construction of ships that are not completely designed, which subjects our risk assessments, revenue and cost estimates, and assumptions regarding schedule and technical issues to the variability of the final ship design and evolving scope of work. Our judgment, estimation, and assumption processes are significant to our contract accounting, and materially different amounts can result if different assumptions are used or if actual events differ from our assumptions. Future changes in assumptions, circumstances, or estimates may have a material adverse effect on our future financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. See the Contracts section under Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Item 7.

Our debt exposes us to certain risks.

As of December 31, 2021, we had $2.6 billion of debt under our senior notes, $625 million of term loan debt, $105 million of revenue bonds, $1.5 billion of additional borrowing capacity under our revolving credit facility (the "Revolving Credit Facility"), and $1 billion of borrowing capacity under our commercial paper program. Our
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Revolving Credit Facility also allows us to solicit lenders to provide incremental financing capacity in an aggregate amount not to exceed $1 billion, and the indentures governing our senior notes do not limit our incurrence of debt.

Our ability to make payments on and to refinance our current or future indebtedness will depend on our ability to generate cash from operations, financings, or asset sales, which may be subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory, and other factors that are beyond our control. If we are not able to repay or refinance our debt as it becomes due, we may be forced to sell assets or take other unfavorable actions, including reducing financing for working capital, capital expenditures, and general corporate purposes; reducing our cash dividend rate and/or share repurchases; or dedicating an unsustainable level of our cash flow from operations to the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness. In addition, our ability to withstand competitive pressures and to react to changes in the defense industry could be impaired. In the event of a default on any of our indebtedness, the lenders who hold such debt could accelerate amounts due, which could potentially trigger a default or acceleration of any of our other debt.

The interest rates on variable rate indebtedness under our Revolving Credit Facility and Term Loan are based upon the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”). LIBOR has been the subject of national, international, and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. In March 2021, LIBOR’s regulator, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority, announced that the publication of rates for one-week and two-month U.S. Dollar LIBOR maturities and all non-U.S. LIBOR maturities would cease immediately after December 31, 2021, with all other tenors ceasing immediately after June 30, 2023. In the U.S., the Alternative Reference Rate Committee has identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) as its preferred alternative upon termination of LIBOR, although other alternatives, including Bloomberg’s Short-Term Bank Yield, are available. We cannot predict the consequences of the benchmark transition from LIBOR to SOFR or another benchmark, but the transition may potentially increase the cost of our variable rate indebtedness.

Business and Operational Risk Factors

Cost growth on flexibly priced contracts that does not result in higher contract value due from customers reduces our profit and exposes us to the potential loss of future business.

Our operating income is adversely affected when we incur certain contract costs or certain increases in contract costs that cannot be billed to customers. Cost growth can occur if expenses to complete a contract increase due to technical challenges, manufacturing difficulties, delays, workforce-related issues, or inaccurate initial contract cost estimates. Reasons may include labor unavailability or reduced productivity, the nature and complexity of the work performed, the timeliness and availability of materials, major subcontractor performance or product quality issues, performance delays, availability and timing of funding from the customer, and natural disasters. The process of estimating contract costs requires significant judgment and expertise. A significant increase in contract costs from our original cost estimates on one or more contracts could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

Our ability to recover costs and realize profits on contracts with our U.S. Government customers depends upon the type of contract under which we are performing. Our U.S. Government business is currently performed under firm fixed-price, fixed-price incentive, cost-type, and time and material contracts. Under firm fixed-price contracts, we agree to perform the specified work for a pre-determined price. To the extent our actual costs vary from the estimates upon which the price was negotiated, we will generate more or less profit or could incur a loss. Some firm fixed-price contracts have a performance-based component under which we may earn incentive payments or incur financial penalties based upon our performance. Fixed-price incentive contracts provide for reimbursement of the contractor’s allowable costs incurred in performance of the contract, subject to a cost-share limit that impacts the profit on the contract. Cost-type contracts provide for the payment of allowable costs incurred during performance of the contract plus a fee up to a ceiling based on the amount that has been funded. Under time and material contracts, we are paid for direct labor hours incurred at specified hourly rates plus material costs. See the Contracts section under Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Item 7 for descriptions of the types of contracts that comprise our business.

Approximately 55% of our revenues in 2021 were generated under fixed-price incentive contracts, approximately 39% were generated under cost-type contracts, approximately 3% were generated under time and material contracts, and approximately 3% were generated under firm fixed-price contracts. Our failure to perform to customer expectations and contract requirements may result in reduced fees or losses and affect our financial performance.
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Under each type of contract, if we are unable to control costs, our operating results could be adversely affected, particularly if we are unable to negotiate an increase in contract value to our customers. From time to time, we may begin performance under an undefinitized contract action with a not-to-exceed price prior to completing contract negotiations in order to support U.S. government priorities. Uncertainties in final contract price, specifications and terms, or loss of negotiating leverage associated with particularly long delays in contract definitization may negatively affect our profitability. Cost overruns or the failure to perform on existing programs also may adversely affect our ability to retain existing programs and win future contract awards. To the extent our mix of contract types changes in the future, our ability to recover our costs and realize profits on our contracts could be negatively affected.

Our earnings and profitability depend upon our ability to perform our contracts.
 
When agreeing to contract terms, we make assumptions and projections about future conditions and events, many of which extend over long periods. Our assumptions and projections are based upon our assessments of the productivity and availability of labor, the complexity of the work to be performed, the cost and availability of materials, the impact of delayed performance, the timing of product deliveries, and other matters. We may experience significant variances from our assumptions and projections, contract performance schedule delays, and variances in the timing of our product deliveries. If our actual experience differs significantly from our assumptions or projections or we incur unanticipated contract costs, the profitability of the related contracts may be adversely affected.

Our earnings and profitability depend, in part, upon subcontractor performance and raw material and component availability and pricing.
 
We rely on third parties to provide raw materials, major components and sub-systems, hardware elements, and sub-assemblies for our products and perform certain services we provide to our customers, and to do so in compliance with applicable laws and regulations, including various DoD cybersecurity requirements. Disruptions and performance problems caused by our suppliers and subcontractors, or misalignments between our contractual obligations to our customers and our agreements with our subcontractors and suppliers, could have an adverse effect on our ability to meet our commitments to customers. Our ability to satisfy our obligations on a timely basis could be adversely affected if one or more of our suppliers or subcontractors are unable to provide agreed-upon products or materials or perform agreed-upon services in a timely, compliant, and cost-effective manner or they otherwise fail to satisfy contractual requirements. The inability of our suppliers or subcontractors to meet expectations could also result in the need for us to transition to alternate parties, which could result in significant incremental cost and delay, or the need for us to provide other supplemental support to our existing suppliers and subcontractors.
 
Our costs to manufacture our products can increase over the terms of our contracts, including as a result of increases in material costs. Although we may be protected from increases in material costs through cost escalation provisions, the difference in basis between our actual material costs and industry indices may expose us to cost recovery risk. Significant increases in inflation, particularly those related to wages and increases in the cost of raw materials, may increase our cost recovery risk. In addition, significant delays in deliveries of key raw materials, which may occur as a result of availability or pricing, could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
 
In some cases, only one supplier may exist for certain components and parts required to manufacture our products. The inability of a sole source supplier to provide a necessary component or part on a timely, compliant, and cost-effective basis could increase our contract cost and affect our ability to perform our contract.

Our procurement practices are intended to provide quality materials and services to support our programs and to reduce the likelihood of our procurement of unauthorized, non-compliant, or deficient materials and services. We rely on our subcontractors and suppliers to comply with applicable laws, regulations, and the expectations set forth in the HII Supplier Code of Conduct. In some circumstances, we rely on representations and certifications from our subcontractors and suppliers regarding their compliance. We also conduct technical assessments, inspections, and audits, as necessary, with subcontractors and suppliers. Notwithstanding the actions we take to mitigate the risk of receiving materials and services that fail to meet specifications or requirements, subcontractors and suppliers sometimes provide us with unauthorized, non-compliant, or deficient materials and services.

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Our inability to procure, or a significant delay in acquiring, necessary raw materials, components, or parts, the failure of our subcontractors or suppliers to comply with applicable laws and regulations, or noncompliant materials, components, or parts from our subcontractors and suppliers could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

Our future success depends, in part, on our ability to deliver our products and services at an affordable life cycle cost, requiring us to develop and maintain technologies, facilities, equipment, and a qualified workforce to meet the needs of current and future customers.

Shipbuilding is a long cycle business, and our success depends on quality, cost, and schedule performance on our contracts. In turn, our performance depends upon our ability to develop and maintain the workforce, technologies, facilities, equipment, and financial capacity to deliver our products and services at an affordable life cycle cost. If we fail to maintain our competitive position in these areas, we could lose future contracts to our competitors, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

Our operating results are heavily dependent upon our ability to attract and retain at competitive costs a sufficient number of engineers and other employees with the necessary skills and security clearances. At the same time, future revenues and costs impact our ability to maintain a qualified workforce. Development and maintenance of the necessary nuclear related and other specialized skills and the challenges of hiring and training a qualified workforce can be a limitation on our business. Shortages of qualified personnel can increase our recruiting, training, and overall labor costs, and a failure to attract and retain qualified personnel can impact our contract performance and ability to compete for new contracts.

Many of our contracts include performance obligations that incorporate innovative designs and state-of-the-art manufacturing expertise, include new technologies, or are dependent upon factors not wholly within our control, and failure to meet performance expectations could adversely affect our profitability and future prospects.
 
We design, develop, and manufacture products and provide services that often involve innovative designs, new technologies, and complex manufacturing processes. Problems and delays with product development, technology implementation, manufacturing, or subcontractor components or services as a result of issues with design, technology, licensing and intellectual property rights, labor, learning curve assumptions, or materials and parts could prevent us from satisfying contractual requirements.
 
First-in-class ships, also known as lead ships, usually include new technologies supplied by the U.S. Navy or other contractors or developed by us. Problems developing or implementing these new technologies or design changes in the construction process can lead to delays in the design and construction schedule. The risks associated with new technologies or design changes during construction can both increase the cost of a ship and delay delivery. Delays in receipt of necessary customer information can also cause inefficiencies in the construction process, increase costs, and put the delivery schedule at risk, which can adversely affect our profitability and future prospects.
 
Our products cannot always be tested and proven and are otherwise subject to unforeseen problems, including premature failure of elements that cannot be accessed for repair or replacement, substandard quality or workmanship, and unexpected degradation of product performance. These failures could result in loss of life or property and could negatively affect our results of operations by causing unanticipated expenses not covered by insurance or customer indemnification, diversion of management attention, loss of follow-on work, and, in the case of certain contracts, reimbursement to the customer of contract costs and fee payments previously received.
 
We periodically experience quality issues with respect to products and services that we sell to our U.S. Government customers. These issues can and have required significant resources to determine the source of the deficiencies and implement corrective actions. We may discover quality issues in the future related to our products and services that require analysis and corrective action. Such issues and our responses and corrective actions could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

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Changes in key estimates and assumptions associated with postretirement benefit plans, such as discount rates and assumed long-term returns on assets, actual investment returns on our pension plan assets, and legislative and regulatory actions could significantly affect our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our pension and retiree health care costs are dependent upon various estimates and assumptions, particularly with respect to the discount rate and expected long-term rates of return on plan assets, which to a large extent are reflective of the financial markets and economic conditions. Changes to these estimates and assumptions and differences between expected and actual returns on plan assets could significantly impact our retirement related expense, the funded status of benefit plans, and contributions to our defined benefit pension and other postretirement benefit plans, which could have material adverse effects on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

Additionally, pension cost recoveries under CAS for our U.S. Government contracts occur in different periods from those in which pension expense is recognized under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("GAAP") or the periods in which we make contributions to our benefit plans, and changes to estimates and assumptions and differences between expected and actual returns could adversely affect the timing of those pension cost recoveries.

Our business is subject to disruption caused by natural disasters, environmental disasters, and other events that could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
 
We have significant operations located in regions of the United States that have been and may in the future be exposed to damaging storms, such as hurricanes and floods, the intensity and frequency of which are being exacerbated by climate change, other impacts of climate change, including rising sea waters, and environmental disasters, such as oil spills. Natural disasters can disrupt our workforce, electrical and other power distribution networks, computer and internet operations and accessibility, and critical industrial infrastructure needed for normal business operations, which can adversely affect our contract performance and, as a result, our financial results. Environmental disasters, particularly oil spills in waterways and bodies of water we use for transporting and testing our ships, can cause schedule delays under our contracts with the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Coast Guard.

Damage and disruption resulting from natural and environmental disasters may be significant. Should insurance or other risk transfer mechanisms be unavailable or insufficient to recover material costs associated with natural or environmental disasters or other events, we could experience a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. See Our insurance coverage may be inadequate to cover all of our significant risks or our insurers may deny coverage of material losses we incur, which could adversely affect our profitability and financial position.
 
Our suppliers and subcontractors are also subject to natural and environmental disasters that could affect their ability to deliver products or services or otherwise perform their contracts. Performance failures by our subcontractors due to natural or environmental disasters may adversely affect our ability to perform our contracts, which could reduce our profitability in the event damages or other costs are not recoverable from the subcontractor, the customer, or insurers. Such events could also result in a termination of the prime contract and have an adverse effect on our ability to compete for future contracts.

We face risks related to health epidemics, pandemics, and similar outbreaks, and our business has been and will continue to be adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.

We face various risks related to health epidemics, pandemics and similar outbreaks, including the global outbreak of COVID-19. Such risks include disruptions or restrictions on our employees’ ability to work or work effectively, temporary closures of our facilities or the facilities of our customers or suppliers, and delays in supplier deliveries. We have experienced higher employee absentee rates as a result of COVID-19, which has impacted our operations and financial results. Higher absentee rates attributable to COVID-19, including because of illness, quarantines, government actions, facility closures, or other restrictions resulting from COVID-19, have impacted and may continue to impact performance on our contracts and have increased and may continue to increase our costs. These impacts may continue, and the cost increases may not be fully recoverable under our contracts or adequately covered by insurance, which could impact our profitability.
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COVID-19 has also caused disruption in our supply chain, caused delays in, and limited the ability of, the U.S. Government and other customers to perform, which have included delays in contract award decisions, and caused other unpredictable events. Some or all of these impacts might continue into the future.

In September 2021, President Biden issued an executive order requiring certain employers with U.S. Government contracts to ensure that their U.S.-based employees, contractors, and subcontractors that work on or in support of U.S. Government contracts are fully vaccinated in accordance with the guidelines of the Safer Federal Workforce Task Force. In November 2021, OSHA issued an Emergency Temporary Standard (“ETS”) requiring that all employers with 100 or more employees mandate vaccines for covered employees or, in the alternative, weekly testing and masks. The U.S. federal contractor mandate was preliminarily enjoined by several U.S. federal district courts, the U.S. Supreme Court preliminarily stayed the OSHA ETS in January 2022, and OSHA subsequently withdrew the ETS.

While we are not currently subject to any vaccine mandate, it continues to be our policy to encourage each of our employees to be fully vaccinated against COVID-19. To the extent we become subject to a vaccine mandate in the future, our implementation of the mandate could result in employee attrition, including attrition of critical skilled labor, and difficulty meeting future labor requirements. If attrition is significant, our operations and ability to execute our contracts could be materially impacted. In addition, our subcontractors and suppliers who become subject to a vaccine mandate could be impacted by an inability to comply or loss of personnel, which could disrupt subcontractor or supplier performance or deliveries, and negatively impact our business.

COVID-19 has already impacted our business and results of operations, and the ultimate impact of COVID-19 on our operations and financial performance in future periods, including our ability to execute our programs on the expected schedule, remains uncertain and will depend on future COVID-19 related developments, including the duration of the pandemic, potential subsequent waves of COVID-19 infection or potential new variants, the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines and the impacts of implementation of vaccine mandates, and related government actions to prevent and manage disease spread, all of which continue to be uncertain and cannot be predicted. As a result, we cannot predict the full impact of COVID-19, but it could materially affect our business, financial position, results of operations, and/or cash flows in the future.

Our business could suffer if we are unsuccessful in negotiating new collective bargaining agreements.
 
Approximately 45% of our employees are covered by a total of nine collective bargaining agreements and one site stabilization agreement. Newport News has two collective bargaining agreements covering represented employees, which expire in December 2022 and April 2024, and one that expired in November 2021, which covers approximately 50% of Newport News employees. Newport News craft workers employed at the Kesselring Site near Saratoga Springs, New York are represented under an indefinite DoE site agreement. Ingalls has five collective bargaining agreements covering represented employees, all of which expire in March 2026. Approximately 15 Technical Solutions employees in Klamath Falls, Oregon are covered by a collective bargaining agreement that expires in June 2025.

We reached a tentative agreement with representatives of United Steelworkers (“USW”) Local 8888 (Newport News) members on a new labor agreement in November 2021, but the members of the bargaining unit declined to ratify the contract. The Newport News and USW negotiation teams continued negotiations and reached a tentative agreement on another labor agreement in January 2022. We expect the members of the bargaining unit to vote on the new agreement in the near future. The USW Local 8888 members are continuing to work under the terms and conditions of the expired collective bargaining agreement, but the members may call for a strike, or we may declare a lock-out, upon 48 hours notice. We cannot give any assurances that the tentative labor agreement will be ratified by the local bargaining unit or that a strike or lock-out will not occur.

Collective bargaining agreements generally expire after three to five years and are subject to renegotiation at that time. While we believe we maintain good relationships with our represented workers, it is possible we may experience difficulties renegotiating expiring collective bargaining agreements. We have experienced in the past work stoppages, strikes, and other labor disruptions associated with the collective bargaining of new labor agreements. If we experience such events in the future, we could incur additional expenses or work delays that could adversely affect programs served by employees who are covered by collective bargaining agreements.

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We could be negatively impacted by security threats, including cyber security threats, and related disruptions.
 
As a defense contractor, we rely on our information technology infrastructure to process, transmit, and store electronic information, including classified and other sensitive information of the U.S. Government. While we maintain stringent information security policies and protocols and implement security controls and complementary cyber security technologies in compliance with industry requirements, we face substantial cyber security threats to our information technology infrastructure, including threats to our and the U.S. Government's proprietary and classified information from advanced nation state threat actors, sophisticated cybercrime syndicates, hacktivists, and insiders. While we implement countermeasures to address the risks posed by these threats, external and internal threat actors continuously seek to evade our cyber security countermeasures to gain unauthorized and unlawful access to our information technology infrastructure, assets, and data.

Our information technology infrastructure is critical to the efficient operation of our business and essential to our ability to perform day-to-day operations. Breaches of our information technology or physical facilities could cause us to incur significant recovery and restoration expenses, degrade performance on existing contracts, and expose us to reputational damage, potential liability, or the loss of current or future contracts, including work on sensitive or classified systems for the U.S. Government, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our operations, financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

Our suppliers, subcontractors, and other business partners also face cyber security and other security threats. Although we undertake cooperative efforts with our customers, suppliers, subcontractors, and other business partners to facilitate their understanding of cyber security threats they face and potential cyber security countermeasures to mitigate potential cyber-attacks, other security threats, and business disruptions, we rely substantially on the safeguards implemented by these organizations, which may affect the security of our information. These organizations have varying levels of cyber security expertise and safeguards, and their relationships with U.S. Government contractors may increase the likelihood that they are targeted by the same cyber security threats we face.

In addition to cyber threats, operation of our facilities may be disrupted by civil unrest, acts of sabotage or terrorism, and other local security issues. Such events may require us to incur greater costs for security or to shut down operations for a period of time.

Changes in future business conditions could cause business investments, recorded goodwill, and/or purchased intangible assets to become impaired, resulting in losses and write-downs that would reduce our operating income.
 
As part of our business strategy, we acquire non-controlling and controlling interests in businesses. We make acquisitions and investments following careful analysis and due diligence to achieve a desired return or strategic objective. Business acquisitions involve estimates, assumptions, and judgments to arrive at acquisition prices, which are allocated among acquired assets, including goodwill, based upon fair market values. Notwithstanding our acquisition and business integration efforts, actual operating results of acquired businesses may vary significantly from expectations. In such events, we may be required to write down our carrying value of the related goodwill and/or purchased intangible assets. In addition, declines in the trading price of our common stock or the market as a whole can result in goodwill and/or purchased intangible asset impairment charges associated with our existing businesses.

As of December 31, 2021, goodwill and purchased intangible assets from prior business acquisitions accounted for approximately 25% and 11%, respectively, of our total assets. We evaluate goodwill values for impairment annually, or when evidence of potential impairment exists. We also evaluate the values of purchased intangible assets when evidence of potential impairment exists. The impairment tests are based on several factors requiring judgments. As a general matter, a significant decrease in expected cash flows or unfavorable changes in market conditions may indicate potential impairment of recorded goodwill or purchased intangible assets.
 
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Legal and Regulatory Risk Factors

As a U.S. Government contractor, we are heavily regulated and could be adversely affected by changes in regulations or negative findings from a U.S. Government audit or investigation.
 
As a U.S. Government contractor, we must comply with significant regulatory requirements, including those relating to award, administration, and performance of U.S. Government contracts, as well as legal and regulatory requirements relating to cyber security, environmental protection and our nuclear operations. Government contracting requirements increase our contract performance costs and compliance costs and risks, and change on a routine basis. In addition, our nuclear operations are subject to an enhanced regulatory environment, which results in further performance and compliance requirements and higher costs. New laws, regulations, or procurement requirements, or changes to existing ones (including, for example, regulations related to recovery of compensation costs, cyber security, counterfeit parts, specialty metals, and conflict minerals), can increase our performance costs and compliance costs and risks, and reduce our profitability.
 
We are overseen and audited by the U.S. Government and its various agencies, including the U.S. Navy's Supervisor of Shipbuilding, the DCAA, and the DCMA. These agencies evaluate our contract performance, cost structures, and compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and standards, as well as the adequacy of our business systems and processes relative to U.S. Government requirements. If an audit uncovers improper or illegal activities, we may be subject to administrative, civil, or criminal proceedings, which could result in fines, penalties, repayments, or compensatory, treble, or other damages. Certain U.S. Government findings against a contractor can also lead to suspension or debarment from future U.S. Government contracts or the loss of export privileges. Allegations of impropriety can also cause significant reputational damage.

The U.S. Government also has the ability to decrease or withhold contract payments if it determines significant deficiencies exist in one or more of our business systems. The U.S. Government has, in certain instances, withheld contract payments upon its assessment that deficiencies exist with one or more of our business systems, which can have a material impact on the timing of our cash receipts. For example, in January 2022, the Navy Contracting Officer issued a written determination that the Ingalls Shipbuilding Material Management and Accounting System has three significant deficiencies, resulting in a 5% withhold of payments on certain invoices issued under one contract. Ingalls Shipbuilding will submit a corrective action plan, and the withhold will be reduced to 2% if the Contracting Officer determines the corrective action plan has been implemented and is effective. The withhold will terminate and withheld funds returned to the Company when the Contracting Officer determines that the significant deficiencies have been corrected.

The U.S. Government has, from time to time, recommended that certain of our contract prices be reduced, or that certain costs allocated to our contracts be disallowed, which sometimes involve substantial dollar amounts. In response to U.S. Government audits, investigations, and inquiries, we have also in the past made adjustments to our contract prices and costs allocated to our government contracts. Such audits, investigations, and inquiries may result in future reductions of our contract prices. Costs we incur that are determined to be unallowable or improperly allocated to a specific contract will not be recovered or must be refunded if previously reimbursed.
 
We must comply with a variety of federal laws and regulations, including the FAR, the DFARS, the Truth in Negotiations Act, the False Claims Act, the Procurement Integrity Act, the International Traffic in Arms Regulations promulgated under the Arms Export Control Act, the Close the Contractor Fraud Loophole Act, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and CAS. If a determination is made that we engaged in illegal activities or that we are not presently responsible, as defined under the FAR, we may be subject to reductions in contract values, contract modifications or terminations, penalties, fines, repayments, compensatory, treble, or other damages, or suspension or debarment, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. In addition, cyber security and data privacy and protection laws and regulations are evolving and present increasing compliance challenges, which increase our costs and may affect our competitiveness, cause reputational harm, and expose us to damages claims, substantial fines, or other penalties.

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Environmental costs could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
 
Our operations are subject to and affected by federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations relating to the discharge, storage, treatment, handling, disposal, and remediation of certain materials, substances, and wastes used in our operations. In addition, we could be affected by future environmental laws or regulations. Increased public awareness and concern regarding global climate change may result in more federal, regional, and/or international requirements to reduce or mitigate global warming, and legislation, international protocols or treaties, or regulation could mandate stricter limits on greenhouse gas emissions. Environmental laws and regulations may require the installation of costly pollution control equipment or operational changes to limit emissions or discharges and/or to decrease the likelihood of accidental hazardous material releases. We expect to incur future capital and operating costs to comply with current and future laws and regulations for environmental protection and remediation, and such costs could be substantial, depending on the future proliferation of environmental requirements and the extent to which we discover currently unknown environmental conditions.
 
Shipbuilding operations require the use of hazardous materials. Our shipyards also generate significant quantities of wastewater, which we treat before discharging in accordance with applicable permits. To manage these materials, our shipyards have an extensive network of above ground and underground storage tanks, some of which have leaked and required remediation in the past. In addition, our handling of hazardous materials has sometimes resulted in spills in our shipyards and occasionally in adjacent rivers and waterways in which we operate.
 
Various federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations impose restrictions on the discharge of pollutants into the environment and establish standards for the transportation, storage, and disposal of toxic and hazardous wastes. Substantial fines, penalties, and criminal sanctions may be imposed for noncompliance, and certain environmental laws impose joint and several "strict liability" for remediation of spills and releases of oil and hazardous substances. Such laws and regulations impose liability upon a party for environmental cleanup and remediation costs and damage without regard to the negligence or fault of such party and could expose us to liability for the conduct of or conditions caused by third parties. Moreover, if we violate the Clean Air Act or the Clean Water Act, the facility or facilities involved in the violation could be placed by the EPA on the "Excluded Parties List" maintained by the General Services Administration, which would continue until the EPA concluded the cause of the violation was cured. Facilities on the "Excluded Parties List" are prohibited from working on any U.S. Government contract.
 
The adoption of new environmental or climate change laws and regulations, stricter enforcement of existing laws and regulations, imposition of new cleanup requirements, discovery of previously unknown or more extensive contamination, litigation involving environmental matters, our inability to recover related costs under our government contracts, or the financial insolvency of other responsible parties could cause us to incur costs that could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

Our reputation and our ability to conduct business may be impacted by the improper conduct of employees, agents, or business partners.
 
Our compliance program includes detailed compliance plans and related compliance controls, policies, procedures, and training designed to prevent and detect misconduct by employees, agents, business partners, and others working on our behalf, including suppliers and subcontractors, that would violate the laws of the jurisdictions in which we operate, including laws governing payments to government officials, the protection of export controlled or classified information, cost accounting and billing, competition, and data privacy. We have been impacted in the past by the misconduct of employees and business partners, and we may not prevent all such misconduct in the future by our employees, agents, business partners, and others working on our behalf, including suppliers and subcontractors. Moreover, the risk of improper conduct may be expected to increase as we expand our operations into foreign jurisdictions. Any improper actions by our employees, agents, business partners, and others working on our behalf, including suppliers and subcontractors, could subject us to administrative, civil, or criminal investigations and monetary and non-monetary penalties, including suspension or debarment, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. Any such improper actions could also cause us significant reputational damage.

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Our nuclear operations subject us to environmental, regulatory, financial, and other risks.
 
The design, construction, refueling and overhaul, repair, and inactivation of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers and nuclear-powered submarines, our nuclear facilities used to support such activities, our nuclear operations at DoE sites, and our activities in the commercial nuclear market subject us to various risks, including:

Potential liabilities relating to harmful effects on the environment and human health resulting from nuclear operations and the storage, handling, and disposal of radioactive materials, including nuclear assemblies and their components;
Unplanned expenditures relating to maintenance, operations, security, and repairs, including repairs required by the U.S. Navy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, or the DoE;
Reputational damage;
Potential liabilities arising out of a nuclear incident whether or not it is within our control; and
Regulatory noncompliance and loss of authorizations or indemnifications necessary for our operations.

Failure to properly store, handle, and dispose of nuclear materials could pose a health risk to humans and wildlife and could cause personal injury and property damage, including environmental contamination. If a nuclear accident were to occur, its severity could be significantly affected by the volume of the materials and the speed of remedial actions taken by us and emergency response personnel, as well as other factors beyond our control, such as weather and wind conditions. Actions we might take in response to an accident could result in significant costs.

Our nuclear operations are subject to various safety related requirements imposed by the U.S. Navy, the DoE, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In the event of noncompliance, these agencies may increase regulatory oversight, impose fines, or shut down our operations, depending on their assessment of the severity of the noncompliance. In addition, new or revised security and safety requirements imposed by the U.S. Navy, DoE, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission could require substantial capital and other expenditures.

Subject to certain requirements and limitations, our contracts with the U.S. Navy and DoE generally provide for indemnity by the U.S. Government for costs arising out of or resulting from our nuclear operations. We may not, however, be indemnified for all liabilities we may incur in connection with our nuclear operations. To mitigate risks related to our commercial nuclear operations, we rely primarily on insurance carried by nuclear facility operators and our own limited insurance for losses in excess of the coverage of facility operators. Such insurance, however, may not be sufficient to cover our costs in the event of an accident or business interruption relating to our commercial nuclear operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

Changes in tax laws and regulations or exposure to additional tax liabilities could adversely affect our financial results.

Changes in U.S. (federal or state) or foreign tax laws and regulations, or their interpretation and application, including those with retroactive effect, could result in increases in our tax expense and affect profitability and cash flows. For example, beginning in 2022, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 eliminates the option to deduct research and development expenditures immediately in the year incurred and requires taxpayers to capitalize and amortize such expenditures over five years. If these provisions are not deferred, modified, or repealed by Congress with retroactive effect to January 1, 2022, they will decrease our cash from operations beginning in 2022. We currently estimate an approximately $100 million impact to 2022 cash from operations based on the provisions currently in effect. The actual impact on 2022 cash from operations will depend on whether and when these provisions are deferred, modified, or repealed by Congress, including any retroactive application, and the amount of research and development expenses paid or incurred in 2022, among other factors. In addition, recent proposals to increase the U.S. corporate income tax rate would require us to increase our net deferred tax liabilities upon enactment of new tax legislation, with a corresponding material, one-time, noncash increase in deferred income tax expense. Our current income tax expense and payments would likely materially increase in periods subsequent to the income tax rate change.

In addition to future changes in tax laws, the amount of net deferred tax liabilities will change periodically as a result of a number of factors, including the measurement of our defined benefit pension plans, actual cash contributions to our defined benefit pension plans, changes in the timing of contract taxable income, and changes in the amount and timing of depreciation deductions. We are also regularly under audit or examination by taxing authorities, including
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foreign tax authorities. The final determination of tax liabilities and any related litigation could similarly result in unanticipated increases in our tax expense and affect profitability and cash flows.

We are subject to claims and litigation that could ultimately be resolved against us, requiring future material cash payments and/or future material charges against our operating income, materially impairing our financial position or cash flows.
 
The size, nature, and complexity of our business make it highly susceptible to claims and litigation. We are subject to various administrative, civil, and criminal litigation, environmental claims, income tax proceedings, compliance proceedings, customer claims, and audits and investigations, which can divert financial and management resources and result in fines, penalties, compensatory, treble or other damages, or nonmonetary sanctions. Government regulations also provide that certain allegations against a contractor may lead to suspension or debarment from government contracts or suspension of export privileges. Suspension or debarment could have a material adverse effect on us because of our reliance on government contracts and authorizations. Litigation, claims, or investigations, if ultimately resolved against us, could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. Any litigation, claim, audit, or investigation, even if fully indemnified or insured, could negatively impact our reputation among our customers and the public and make it more difficult for us to compete effectively or acquire adequate insurance in the future. See Note 14: Investigations, Claims, and Litigation in Item 8.
 
We may be unable to adequately protect our intellectual property rights, which could affect our ability to compete.

We own patents, trademarks, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property related to our business, and we license intellectual property rights to and from third parties. The U.S. Government generally receives non-exclusive licenses to certain intellectual property we develop in the performance of U.S. Government contracts, and the U.S. Government may use or authorize others to use such intellectual property. The U.S. Government is taking increasingly aggressive positions both as to the intellectual property to which they believe government use rights apply and to the acquisition of broad license rights. If the U.S. Government is successful in these efforts, our intellectual property on which we depend and our access to and use of certain supplier intellectual property could be negatively affected.
 
We also rely upon proprietary technology, information, processes, and know-how that are not protected by patents. We seek to protect this information through trade secret or confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, subcontractors, and other parties, as well as through other measures. These agreements and other measures may not, however, adequately protect the trade secrets on which we depend.

Our intellectual property is also subject to challenge, invalidation, misappropriation, or circumvention by third parties. In the event of infringement of our intellectual property rights, breach of a confidentiality agreement, or unauthorized disclosure of proprietary information, we may not have adequate legal remedies to protect our intellectual property. Litigation to determine the scope of our rights, even if successful, could be costly and a diversion of management's attention. In addition, trade secrets may otherwise become known or be independently developed by competitors. If we are unable adequately to protect our intellectual property rights, our business could be adversely affected.
 
We also use certain intellectual property licensed to us by third parties. In the case of such licensed intellectual property, we may be unable in the future to secure the necessary licenses to use such intellectual property, or to secure the licenses on commercially reasonable terms.

Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents and Delaware law, as well as regulatory requirements, could delay or prevent a change in control.
 
Certain provisions of our Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Restated Bylaws may delay or prevent a merger or acquisition that stockholders may consider favorable. For example, our Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Restated Bylaws currently require advance notice for stockholder proposals and director nominations, and authorize our board of directors to issue one or more series of preferred stock. These provisions may discourage acquisition proposals or delay or prevent a change in control, which could reduce our stock price. Delaware law also imposes restrictions on mergers and other business combinations between any holder of 15% or more of our outstanding common stock and us.
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Our nuclear shipbuilding operations are considered vitally important to the U.S. Navy. As a result, our Navy contracts include notice and approval rights for the Navy and conditions regarding the Navy's obligations to indemnify us for losses relating to our naval nuclear operations, in the event of a change of control of our nuclear shipbuilding operations. Such provisions require us to provide the U.S. Navy with notice of any potential change of control of our nuclear shipbuilding operations and receive the Navy's consent for transferring certain related licenses to facilitate the Navy's ability to ensure that a potential buyer would continue to conduct our operations in a satisfactory manner.
 
Provisions of our Restated Certificate of Incorporation and our Restated Bylaws and our existing contracts with the U.S. Navy may have the effect of discouraging, delaying, or preventing a change of control of our company that may be beneficial to our stockholders.

General Risk Factors

Our insurance coverage may be inadequate to cover all of our significant risks or our insurers may deny coverage of material losses we incur, which could adversely affect our profitability and financial position.
 
We seek to insure our significant risks and potential liabilities that are insurable, including, among others, property loss from natural disasters, product liability, and business interruption resulting from an insured property loss. In some circumstances, we may be indemnified for losses by the U.S. Government, subject to the availability of appropriated funds. Not every risk or liability can be protected by insurance, and, for insurable risks, the limits of coverage we can reasonably purchase may not be sufficient to cover the full amount of our actual losses or liabilities, including, for example, in the case of a catastrophic hurricane. In addition, the nature of our business can make it difficult to quantify the disruptive impact and loss resulting from such events. Limitations on the availability of insurance coverage may result in substantial uninsured losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. Even in cases for which we have insurance coverage, disputes with insurance carriers over coverage may affect the timing of cash flows, and, in the event of litigation with an insurance carrier, an unfavorable outcome may have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

Market volatility and adverse capital market conditions may affect our ability to access cost-effective sources of funding and may expose us to risks associated with the financial viability of suppliers and subcontractors.

The financial markets can experience high levels of volatility and disruption, reducing the availability of credit for certain issuers. We access these markets from time to time to support certain business activities, including funding acquisitions and capital expansion projects and refinancing existing indebtedness. We may also access these markets to acquire credit support for our workers' compensation self-insurance program and letters of credit. A number of factors could cause us to incur higher borrowing costs and experience greater difficulty accessing public and private markets for debt, including disruptions or declines in the global capital markets and/or a decline in our financial performance, outlook, or credit ratings. The occurrence of any or all of these events may adversely affect our ability to fund our operations, meet contractual commitments, make future investments or desirable acquisitions, or respond to competitive challenges.
 
Tightening capital markets could also adversely affect the ability of our suppliers and subcontractors to obtain financing. Delays in the ability of our suppliers or subcontractors to obtain financing, or the unavailability of financing, could negatively affect their ability to perform their contracts with us and, as a result, our ability to perform our contracts. The inability of our suppliers and subcontractors to obtain financing could also result in the need for us to transition to alternate suppliers and subcontractors, which could result in us incurring significant incremental costs and delays.

If we fail to manage acquisitions, divestitures, equity investments, and other transactions, including our acquisition of Alion, successfully or if acquired entities or equity investments fail to perform as expected, our financial results, business, and future prospects could be harmed.

As part of our business strategy, we identify and evaluate potential acquisitions and investments. When evaluating such transactions, we make significant judgments regarding the values of business opportunities, technologies, and other assets, the risks and costs of potential liabilities, and the future prospects of strategic acquisitions. We often
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compete with other potential buyers for the same opportunities. To be successful, we must conduct due diligence to identify valuation issues and potential loss contingencies; negotiate transaction terms; complete and close complex transactions; integrate acquired companies and employees; and realize anticipated operating synergies efficiently and effectively. Acquisition, divestiture, joint venture, and investment transactions often require substantial management resources and have the potential to divert our attention from our existing business. Unidentified or identified but un-indemnified pre-closing liabilities could affect our future financial results, particularly through successor liability under procurement laws and regulations, such as the False Claims Act or Truth in Negotiations Act, anti-corruption, environmental, tax, import-export, and technology transfer laws, which provide for civil and criminal penalties and the potential for debarment. We also may incur unanticipated costs or expenses, including post-closing asset impairment charges, expenses associated with eliminating duplicate facilities, employee retention, transaction-related or other litigation, and other liabilities. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Joint ventures and other non-controlling investments operate under shared control with other parties. These investments typically face many of the same risks and uncertainties as we do, but may also expose us to additional risks not present if we retained full control. A joint venture partner may have economic or other business interests that are inconsistent with our interests, and we may be unable to prevent strategic decisions that may adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. We also could be adversely affected by, or liable for, actions taken by these joint ventures that we do not control, including violations of anti-corruption, import and export, taxation, and anti-boycott laws.

There can be no assurance we will continue to increase our dividends or to repurchase shares of our common stock at current levels.

The payment of cash dividends and repurchases of our common stock are subject to limitations under applicable law and the discretion of our board of directors, considered in the context of then current conditions, including our earnings, other operating results, and capital requirements. Declines in asset values or increases in liabilities, including liabilities associated with benefit plans and assets and liabilities associated with taxes, can reduce stockholders’ equity. A deficit in stockholders’ equity could limit our ability under Delaware law to pay dividends and repurchase shares in the future. In addition, the timing and amount of share repurchases under board-approved share repurchase programs are within the discretion of management and depend upon many factors, including our share price, results of operations, capital requirements, and general business conditions, as well as applicable law.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

There were no unresolved staff comments.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Our principal properties are located in Huntsville, Alabama; Pascagoula, Mississippi; Fairfax, Hampton, Newport News, Suffolk, and Virginia Beach, Virginia; and Washington, D.C.
Ingalls - The primary properties comprising our Ingalls operating segment are located in Pascagoula, Mississippi.

Our Pascagoula shipyard facilities are located on approximately 800 acres on the banks of the Pascagoula River where it flows into the Mississippi Sound. We lease the west bank of our Pascagoula shipyard from the State of Mississippi pursuant to a 99-year lease, consisting of a 40-year base term plus six optional terms. We anticipate continued use of this facility for the remaining 45 years of the lease and beyond.

Newport News - The primary properties comprising our Newport News operating segment are located in Newport News, Virginia. 

Our Newport News facilities are located on approximately 550 acres we own near the mouth of the James River, which adjoins the Chesapeake Bay, the premier deep-water harbor on the east coast of the United States. Our Newport News shipyard is one of the largest in the United States and includes seven graving docks, a floating dry dock, two outfitting berths, five outfitting piers, and various other shops. It also has a variety of other facilities, including an 18-acre all-weather steel fabrication shop, accessible by both rail and transporter, module outfitting facilities that enable us to assemble a ship's basic structural modules indoors and on land, machine shops totaling
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300,000 square feet, and an apprentice school, which provides a four-year accredited apprenticeship program to train shipbuilders.

Technical Solutions - The properties comprising our Technical Solutions operating segment are located throughout the United States. Our properties located in Alexandria, Fairfax, McLean, Vienna, and Virginia Beach, Virginia; Huntsville, Alabama; Orlando, Florida; San Antonio, Texas; Aberdeen and Annapolis Junction, Maryland; Bremerton, Washington; Honolulu, Hawaii; Columbus, Ohio; and Syracuse, New York primarily provide DFS services. Properties located in Pocasset, Massachusetts; Mayport and Panama City, Florida; and Hampton and Virginia Beach, Virginia primarily provide unmanned systems. Properties located in Newport News, Virginia primarily provide nuclear and environmental services.

We believe our physical facilities and equipment are generally well maintained, in good operating condition, and satisfactory for our current needs. We have undertaken substantial capital expenditure programs at our Ingalls and Newport News segments intended to increase our competitiveness and enable us to meet future obligations under our growing shipbuilding program backlog.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

For information regarding legal proceedings, see Note 14: Investigations, Claims, and Litigation in Item 8.

ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

None.

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PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "HII".

Stockholders

The approximate number of our common stockholders was 13,903 as of February 4, 2022.

Annual Meeting of Stockholders

Our Annual Meeting of Stockholders is currently scheduled to be held on May 3, 2022. The meeting will be held either through a virtual format or in person in Newport News, Virginia.

Stock Performance Graph
The following graph compares the total return on a cumulative basis of $100 invested in our common stock on January 1, 2017, to the Standard & Poor's ("S&P") 500 Index and the S&P Aerospace and Defense Select Index.

HII-20211231_G1.JPG

(◦)The cumulative total return assumes reinvestment of dividends.
(◦)The S&P Aerospace & Defense Select Index is comprised of The Boeing Company, General Dynamics Corporation, Huntington Ingalls Industries, Inc., L3 Harris Technologies, Inc., Lockheed Martin Corporation, Northrop Grumman Corporation, Raytheon Technologies Corporation, Textron, Inc., and TransDigm Group Incorporated, among other companies.

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Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

Repurchases under our stock repurchase program are made from time to time at management's discretion in accordance with applicable federal securities laws. All repurchases of HII common stock have been recorded as treasury stock. The following table summarizes information relating to purchases made by or on behalf of the Company of shares of the Company's common stock during the quarter ended December 31, 2021.

Period Total Number of Shares Purchased Average Price Paid per Share Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Program
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Program (in millions)1,2
October 1, 2021 to October 31, 2021 22,551  $ 205.84  22,551  $ 1,050.8 
November 1, 2021 to November 30, 2021 22,253  190.40  22,253  1,046.5 
December 1, 2021 to December 31, 2021 30,200  183.50  30,200  1,041.0 
Total 75,004  $ 192.26  75,004  $ 1,041.0 
1 From the stock repurchase program's inception through December 31, 2021, we purchased 13,395,300 shares at an average price of $161.18 per share for a total of $2.2 billion.
2 In October 2012, we commenced our stock repurchase program. In November 2019, we announced an increase in the stock repurchase program to $3.2 billion and an extension of the term to October 31, 2024.

Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans

For information regarding securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans, see Note 18: Stock Compensation Plans in Item 8 and Equity Compensation Plan Information in Item 12.

ITEM 6. [RESERVED]

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

OVERVIEW

Our Business

Huntington Ingalls Industries, Inc. is America’s largest military shipbuilding company and a provider of professional services to partners in government and industry. For more than a century, our Ingalls segment in Mississippi and Newport News segment in Virginia have built more ships in more ship classes than any other U.S. naval shipbuilder. Our Technical Solutions segment provides a range of services to government and commercial customers. Headquartered in Newport News, Virginia, HII employs approximately 44,000 people domestically and internationally.

We conduct most of our business with the U.S. Government, primarily the DoD. As prime contractor, principal subcontractor, team member, or partner, we participate in many high-priority U.S. defense programs. Ingalls includes our non-nuclear ship design, construction, repair, and maintenance businesses. Newport News includes all of our nuclear ship design, construction, overhaul, refueling, and repair and maintenance businesses. Our Technical Solutions segment provides a wide range of professional services, including DFS, nuclear and environmental services, and unmanned systems.

The following discussion should be read along with the audited consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Business Environment

COVID-19 Pandemic - The COVID-19 global pandemic has had wide-ranging effects on the global health environment and disrupted the global and U.S. economies and financial markets, including impacts to our employees, customers, suppliers, and communities (collectively, “COVID-19 Events”). COVID-19 Events have also
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impacted our operations, and the extent of future impacts are uncertain. The most significant areas of impact have been the disruption of our employees’ ability to work effectively, disruption in our supply chain, disruption of the U.S. Government's and our other customers' abilities to perform their obligations, and impact on pension assets and other investment performance.

In September 2021, President Biden issued an executive order requiring certain employers with U.S. Government contracts to ensure that their U.S.-based employees, contractors, and subcontractors that work on or in support of U.S. Government contracts are fully vaccinated in accordance with the guidelines of the Safer Federal Workforce Task Force. In November 2021, OSHA issued an Emergency Temporary Standard (“ETS”) requiring that all employers with 100 or more employees mandate vaccines for covered employees or, in the alternative, weekly testing and masks. The U.S. federal contractor mandate was preliminarily enjoined by several U.S. federal district courts, the U.S. Supreme Court preliminarily stayed the OSHA ETS in January 2022, and OSHA subsequently withdrew the ETS.

While we are not currently subject to any vaccine mandate, it continues to be our policy to encourage each of our employees to be fully vaccinated against COVID-19. To the extent we become subject to a vaccine mandate in the future, our implementation of the mandate could result in employee attrition, including attrition of critical skilled labor, and difficulty meeting future labor requirements.

See Risk Factors in Item 1A for a discussion of COVID-19-related risks.

We have aggressively managed our response to the uncertainties regarding COVID-19 Events, and we have incurred costs to respond to COVID-19 Events, including paid leave, quarantining employees, vaccinations, and recurring facility cleaning. Our shipyards and other facilities have remained open and productive, but we continue to experience decreases in workforce attendance and challenges meeting our hiring requirements, which has impacted our operations due to delay and disruption from a shortage of critical skills and out-of-sequence work.

Under Section 3610 of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the "CARES Act"), contractors may submit claims for employee paid time off caused by restrictions from COVID-19 Events in circumstances where the employee could not work remotely. Such instances may include paid time off for employees to allow for plant decontamination, idle time due to social distancing restrictions, paid time off to take care of dependents impacted by government-ordered school or day care closures, paid time for employee vaccinations or responding to side effects from vaccination, and employee quarantines due to travel restrictions or coming into contact, being diagnosed, or taking care of someone diagnosed with COVID-19. We have taken steps to preserve our rights to pursue such claims for HII and our subcontractors, and we submitted an initial Section 3610 Reimbursement Request to the DoD for Ingalls and Newport News Shipbuilding. Section 3610 under the CARES Act was not extended past September 30, 2021. We anticipate submitting supplemental requests for Section 3610 reimbursement for HII and our subcontractors into 2022. Reimbursements of our requests are contingent upon contracting officers making funding available, and most DoD contracting officers are awaiting supplemental appropriations from Congress before approving such reimbursement requests. We have no assurance that Congress will appropriate sufficient funds to cover the reimbursement of costs contemplated by the CARES Act.

While costs related to COVID-19 Events are allowable under U.S. Government contracts, our contract estimates reflect margin impact uncertainty, because such costs may not result in equitable adjustments, particularly on firm fixed-price and fixed-price incentive contracts, or may not be adequately covered by insurance. Our reinsurers have failed to acknowledge coverage for various losses related to COVID-19, and we filed a complaint in state court in Vermont seeking a judgment declaring that our business interruption and other losses associated with COVID-19 are covered by our property insurance program. We also initiated arbitration proceedings against other reinsurers seeking similar relief. The Vermont court dismissed our complaint in response to a motion of the reinsurers for judgment on the pleadings, and we have appealed the decision. Although we continue to believe that our position is well-founded, no assurance can be provided regarding the ultimate resolution of this matter. See Note 14: Investigations, Claims, and Litigation in Item 8.

We have also focused on actively supporting our customers, suppliers, and communities. We have been proactive in engaging with our U.S. Government customers regarding future contract adjustments. While there has been no change in contract terms or substantial degradation in timely payments from customers, we have experienced delays in decisions on certain contract awards. We are unable to predict how our customers will allocate resources in the future as they react to the evolving demands of the COVID-19 response. We also accelerated payments to small business suppliers in an effort to minimize supply chain disruption.
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We temporarily halted stock repurchases in the first quarter of 2020, but we resumed share repurchases during the first quarter of 2021. We also deferred certain payroll taxes in 2020 pursuant to the CARES Act, which increased our cash from operations in 2020, but will reduce cash from operations in 2021 and 2022.

U.S. Government Contracts - Long-term uncertainty exists with respect to overall levels of defense spending across the future years' defense plan, and it is likely that U.S. Government discretionary spending levels will continue to be subject to significant pressure.

The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2022 was enacted in December 2021 and broadly supports our shipbuilding programs, including increased funding authority for Arleigh Burke-class destroyers (DDG-51), LHA and LPD Flight II amphibious ships, and submarine supplier development assistance. However, more than one quarter into the fiscal year, Congressional appropriations for the federal government have yet to be finalized. Consequently, the U.S. Government is currently operating under a Continuing Resolution ("CR") that funds government operations through February 18, 2022. It remains uncertain at this point whether fiscal year 2022 government operations will require additional short-term funding or annual appropriations measures will be finalized prior to the expiration of the CR. Appropriations measures must be passed by Congress and enacted by the President, and we cannot predict the outcome of the fiscal year 2022 budget process.

Long-term funding for certain programs in which we participate may be reduced, delayed, or canceled. In addition, spending cuts and/or reprioritization of defense investment could adversely affect the viability of our suppliers, subcontractors, and employee base. Our contracts or subcontracts under programs in which we participate may be terminated or adjusted by the U.S. Government or the prime contractor as a result of lack of government funding or reductions or delays in government funding. Significant reductions in the number of ships procured by the U.S. Navy or significant delays in funding our ship programs would have a material effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

The federal budget environment remains a significant long-term risk. Considerable uncertainty exists regarding how future budget and program decisions will develop and what challenges budget changes will present for the defense industry. We believe continued budget pressures will have serious implications for defense discretionary spending, the defense industrial base, including HII, and the customers, employees, suppliers, subcontractors, investors, and communities that rely on companies in the defense industrial base. Although it is difficult to determine specific impacts, we expect that over the longer term, the budget environment may result in fewer contract awards and lower revenues, profits, and cash flows from our U.S. Government contracts. It is likely budget and program decisions made in this environment will have long-term impacts on HII and the entire defense industry.

Defense Industry Overview
 
The United States faces a complex, uncertain, and rapidly changing national security environment. Upon assuming office in 2021, the Biden Administration released a broad interim National Security Strategy that lays out the contours of U.S. foreign policy over the next four years. Under this strategy, the Indo-Pacific region remains at the heart of U.S. defense planning. While the United States continues to face security challenges from Russia, North Korea, and non-state extremism, other ‘non-traditional’ threats such as pandemic disease and climate change, are now part of the national security dialogue.

The U.S. also faces a more lethal and disruptive battlefield, combined across domains and conducted at increasing speed and reach. The security environment is affected by rapid technological advancements and the changing character of war. The drive to develop new capabilities and enhance lethality is relentless, expanding to address emerging threats from peer-competitors as well as actors with lower barriers of entry, and moving at accelerating speed. To address these rapidly-evolving threats, the U.S. is investing in new capabilities and lethality enhancements, including unmanned and autonomous systems and platforms; artificial intelligence; hypersonics; directed energy; resilient networks; command, control, communications, computers, cyber, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance; and targeting requirements and microelectronics. Technologies are being prioritized that can penetrate and operate inside highly-contested and highly-defended territory, both physical and cyber.

In late December 2020, the U.S. Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard released a Tri-Service Maritime Strategy titled Advantage at Sea. The document provides strategic guidance on how the sea services will prevail in day-to-day competition, crisis, and conflict over the next decade. The strategy directs the services to pursue an agile and aggressive approach to force modernization and experimentation by combining legacy assets with new capabilities
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to understand faster, decide faster, and act faster. The strategy also emphasizes the need to develop new operational concepts for fielded capabilities, employ resilient and integrated networks across the force, leverage the strengths of regional partners, and expand the use of optionally manned and unmanned platforms.

In January 2021, the Chief of Naval Operations released a Navigation Plan to the Fleet that nests under the Tri-Service Maritime Strategy and outlines how the U.S. Navy will grow its naval power to control the seas and project power across all domains. It lays out what must be done this decade to deliver the naval power America needs to compete and win, characterized as a ready fleet, a more lethal and better-connected fleet, and a larger more hybrid fleet. To this end, the Marine Corps is also reshaping its force under the Commandant’s Force Design 2030 guidance to become optimized for modern operations by 2030. The Marine Corps has already taken action to eliminate legacy capabilities, such as battle tanks, and a future force may feature an expanded assortment of smaller platforms, landing craft, and connectors that are manned, minimally manned, and unmanned, and exploit autonomy and artificial intelligence.

We anticipate the U.S. Navy’s force projection strategy will continue to emphasize sea control and sea denial, enabling power projection against adversaries with long-range weapons and full-spectrum joint domain capabilities. The Navy will likely continue to employ the evolving concept of Distributed Maritime Operations ("DMO"), which features multiple sensors and shooters that are widely dispersed across a broad range of manned and unmanned platforms and linked through resilient networks. Naval forces are participating in a larger DoD-wide objective to modernize command and control architecture, the concept to connect sensors from all of the military services into a single network known as Joint All-Domain Command and Control ("JADC2"). Future conflicts may require leaders to analyze the operating environment and make decisions rapidly. With JADC2, DoD envisions creating an “internet of things” network that would connect numerous sensors with weapons systems, using artificial intelligence algorithms to help improve decision-making. Project Overmatch is the Navy’s effort to develop the networks, infrastructure, data architecture, and analytics to participate in this larger, networked military operating environment. The end-state for the “Future Navy” envisions a fleet designed to ensure the wholeness of combat capability and lethal forces maximizing the benefits of DMO, expeditionary advanced base operations, and littoral operations in a contested environment. Manned and unmanned technology will be used to expand reach, lethality, and warfighter awareness.

The Navy’s force structure goal of 355 ships, identified in the December 2016 Force Structure Assessment and codified in the fiscal year 2018 National Defense Authorization Act, has remained the fleet objective for five years. The Navy and the DoD have been working to develop a successor for the 355-ship force-level goal. In December 2020, the outgoing Administration released its vision for the Navy’s future force structure in a fiscal year 2022 30-year Navy shipbuilding plan. The plan envisioned achievement of the Navy’s force-level goal through a distributed fleet architecture, including 382 to 446 manned ships and 143 to 242 large unmanned vehicles by 2045. The new Administration did not submit a new force structure goal or shipbuilding plan in 2021, but is expected to do so with the delivery of the fiscal year 2023 budget in spring 2022.

The Defense Department and Navy not only face difficult tradeoffs between modernization priorities, but also tradeoffs about where to take risk across time. The shipbuilding defense industry is capital heavy and skilled labor intensive. The Navy, a large single customer with many needs and requirements, dominates the industry's customer base and is served by an increasingly fragile supplier base that has trended toward exclusive providers. Inconsistent shipbuilding plans and annual funding uncertainty severely degrade the ability of shipyards to conduct long-term planning and respond to near-term changes in requirements. This ultimately results in longer construction times and increased costs. For example, the high operational tempo of the Navy in recent years has resulted in a backlog of repair work across the fleet. Coupled with the impacts of COVID-19 and increases in new ship construction, many suppliers are experiencing a shortfall in their capacity to perform work and manufacture products. This increased demand is applying stress to already-aging production equipment. The combination of limited suppliers and an increase in workload could increase cost and potentially create schedule slips, impacting American warfighting capability.

Ultimately, a balance will need to be achieved between the competing priorities of upgrading legacy systems for the near-term, developing and procuring the next generation of systems for the mid-term, and investing in emerging technologies that could drive game-changing capabilities in the long-term. Additionally, the U.S. Navy must compete with other budget priorities, including other defense activities, non-defense discretionary spending, supplemental spending for COVID-19 relief, and entitlement programs for a share of federal budget funding. While the impact to our business resulting from these developments remains uncertain, they could have a material impact on current programs, as well as new business opportunities with the DoD. See Risk Factors in Item 1A.
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Program Descriptions
 
For convenience, a brief description of certain programs discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K is included in the Glossary of Programs.

CONTRACTS

We generate most of our revenues from long-term U.S. Government contracts for design, production, and support activities. Government contracts typically include the following cost elements: direct material, labor and subcontracting costs, and certain indirect costs, including allowable general and administrative expenses. Unless otherwise specified in a contract, costs billed to contracts with the U.S. Government are treated as allowable and allocable costs under the FAR and CAS regulations. Examples of costs incurred by us that are not allowable under the FAR and CAS regulations include certain legal costs, lobbying costs, charitable donations, interest expense, organizational costs, including certain merger and acquisition costs, and advertising costs.

We monitor our policies and procedures with respect to our contracts on a regular basis to ensure consistent application under similar terms and conditions, as well as compliance with all applicable government regulations. In addition, the DCAA routinely audits the costs we incur that are allocated to U.S. Government contracts.

Our contracts typically fall into one of four categories: firm fixed-price, fixed-price incentive, cost-type, and time and materials. See Note 7: Revenue in Item 8.

Firm Fixed-Price Contracts - A firm fixed-price contract is a contract in which the specified scope of work is agreed to for a price that is predetermined by bid or negotiation and not generally subject to adjustment regardless of costs incurred by the contractor.

Fixed-Price Incentive Contracts - Fixed-price incentive contracts provide for reimbursement of the contractor's allowable costs, but are subject to a cost-share limit that affects profitability. Fixed-price incentive contracts effectively become firm fixed-price contracts once the cost-share limit is reached.

Cost-Type Contracts - Cost-type contracts provide for reimbursement of the contractor's allowable costs plus a fee that represents profit. Cost-type contracts generally require that the contractor use its reasonable efforts to accomplish the scope of the work within some specified time and some stated dollar limitation.

Time and Materials - Time and materials contracts specify a fixed hourly billing rate for each direct labor hour expended and reimbursement for allowable material costs and expenses.

Contract Fees - Negotiated contract fee structures include: fixed fee amounts, cost sharing arrangements to reward or penalize contractors for under- or over-cost target performance, respectively, positive award fees, and negative penalty arrangements. Profit margins may vary materially depending on the negotiated contract fee arrangements, percentage-of-completion of the contract, the achievement of performance objectives, and the stage of performance at which the right to receive fees, particularly under incentive and award fee contracts, is finally determined.

Award Fees - Certain contracts contain award fees based on performance criteria such as cost, schedule, quality, and technical performance. Award fees are determined and earned based on an evaluation by the customer of our performance against such negotiated criteria. We consider award fees to be variable consideration and generally include these fees in the transaction price using a most likely amount approach. Award fees are limited to the extent of funding allotted by the customer and available for performance and those amounts for which a significant reversal of revenue is not probable.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES, ESTIMATES, AND JUDGMENTS

Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP, which requires management to make estimates, judgments, and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. Management considers an accounting policy to be critical if it is important to our financial condition and results of operations and requires significant judgment and estimates by management in its application. The development and selection of these critical accounting policies have been determined by our management. We have reviewed our critical accounting policies and estimates with the audit committee of our
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board of directors. Due to the significant judgment involved in selecting certain of the assumptions used in these policies, it is possible that different parties could choose different assumptions and reach different conclusions. While we base estimates and assumptions on our knowledge of current events and actions we may undertake in the future, actual results may ultimately differ from these estimates and assumptions. We consider our policies relating to the following matters to involve our most critical accounting policies and estimates:

Revenue recognition;
Purchase accounting, goodwill, and intangible assets;
Litigation, commitments, and contingencies;
Retirement related benefit plans; and
Workers' compensation.
We have incorporated realized and estimated future effects of COVID-19 Events, based upon current conditions and our judgment of the future impacts of COVID-19 Events, with respect to contract costs and revenue recognition, effective income tax rates, and the fair values of our long-lived assets, financial instruments, intangible assets, and goodwill recorded at our reporting units. See Note 2: Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in Item 8.

Revenue Recognition

Most of our revenues are derived from long-term contracts for the production of goods and services provided to the U.S. Government, which are generally accounted for by recognizing revenues over time using a cost-to-cost measure of progress. In estimating contract costs, we utilize a profit-booking rate based upon performance expectations that takes into consideration a number of assumptions and estimates regarding risks related to technical requirements, feasibility, schedule, and contract costs. Management performs periodic reviews of the contracts to evaluate the underlying risks, which may increase the profit-booking rate as we are able to mitigate and retire such risks. For the impacts of changes in estimates on our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income, see Note 8: Segment Information in Item 8.

Purchase Accounting, Goodwill, and Intangible Assets

Purchase Accounting and Goodwill - We allocate the purchase price of acquired businesses to the underlying tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based upon their respective fair values, with the excess recorded as goodwill. We recognize purchased intangible assets in connection with our business acquisitions at fair value on the acquisition date. The most significant purchased intangible assets recognized from our acquisitions are generally related to customer contracts, including backlog and recompeted contracts. We determine the fair values of those customer related intangible assets based on estimates and judgments, including the amount and timing of expected future cash flows, long-term growth rates, and discount rates.

Goodwill is tested for impairment on an annual basis at each of our reporting units by comparing the fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying value. If the fair value of the reporting unit is determined to be less than the carrying value, we record a charge to operations.

We estimate the fair value of each reporting unit using a combination of discounted cash flow analysis and market-based valuation methodologies. Determining fair value requires the exercise of significant judgment, including judgments about projected revenues, operating expenses, working capital investment, capital expenditures, and cash flows over a multi-year period. The discount rate applied to our forecasts of future cash flows is based on our estimated weighted average cost of capital. In assessing the reasonableness of our determined fair values, we evaluate our results against our market capitalization. Impairment assessment inherently involves management judgments as to assumptions about expected future cash flows and the impact of market conditions on those assumptions. Changes in our estimates and assumptions could materially affect the determination of fair value and/or goodwill impairment for each reporting unit.

Other Intangible Assets - We perform tests for impairment of amortizable intangible assets whenever events or
circumstances suggest that amortizable intangible assets may be impaired.

Due to the many variables inherent in the estimation of the fair values of our business and the relative size of our recorded goodwill and other purchased intangible assets, differences in assumptions may have a material effect on the results of our impairment analysis.
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For further information on purchase accounting, goodwill, and intangible assets, see Risk Factors in Item 1A and Note 2: Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, Note 4: Acquisitions and Divestitures, and Note 11: Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets in Item 8.

Litigation, Commitments, and Contingencies
 
Overview - We are subject to a range of legal proceedings before various courts and administrative agencies and are periodically subject to government audits, inquiries, and investigations that arise in the ordinary course of business. Estimating liabilities and costs associated with these matters requires judgment and assessment based upon professional knowledge and the experience of management and our internal and external legal counsel. In accordance with our practices relating to accounting for contingencies, we record charges to earnings when we determine, after taking into consideration the facts and circumstances of each matter, including any settlement offers, that it is probable a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. The ultimate resolution of any such exposure may vary from earlier estimates as further facts and circumstances become known.
 
Environmental Accruals - We are subject to the environmental laws and regulations of the jurisdictions in which we conduct operations. We record a liability for the costs of expected environmental remediation obligations when we determine that it is probable we will incur such costs and the amount of the liability can be reasonably estimated. When a range of costs is possible and no amount within that range is a better estimate than another, we record the minimum amount of the range.
 
Factors that could result in changes to the assessment of probability, range of estimated costs, and environmental liability accruals include: modification of planned remedial actions, increase or decrease in the estimated time required to remediate, discovery of more extensive contamination than anticipated, results of efforts to involve other legally responsible parties, financial insolvency of other responsible parties, changes in laws and regulations or contractual obligations affecting remediation requirements, and improvements in remediation technology. Although we cannot predict whether new information gained as remediation projects progress will materially affect the accrued liability, we do not believe that future remediation expenditures will have a material effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

Income Tax Matters - The evaluation of tax positions taken in a filed tax return, or planned to be taken in a future tax return or claim, requires judgment. We establish reserves for uncertain tax positions that do not meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, based on the merits of the position. We recognize the amount of a tax benefit that is greater than 50% likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement with the related tax authority. If a tax position does not meet the minimum statutory threshold to avoid payment of penalties, we recognize an expense for the amount of the penalty in the period the tax position is claimed or expected to be claimed in our tax return. Penalties and accrued interest related to unrecognized tax benefits are recognized as a component of income tax expense. See Note 12: Income Taxes in Item 8. Changes in accruals associated with unrecognized tax benefits are recorded in earnings in the period they are determined.

For further information on litigation, commitments, and contingencies, see Risk Factors in Item 1A and Note 2: Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, Note 4: Acquisitions and Divestitures, Note 12: Income Taxes, Note 14: Investigations, Claims, and Litigation, and Note 16: Commitments and Contingencies in Item 8.

Retirement Related Benefit Plans

We recognize, on a plan-by-plan basis, the funded status of our retirement related benefit plans as an asset or liability on our balance sheet, with corresponding adjustments to after-tax accumulated other comprehensive loss and deferred tax assets or liabilities. The funded status represents the difference between the benefit obligation and the fair value of plan assets. See Note 17: Employee Pension and Other Postretirement Benefits in Item 8.

We calculate our retirement related benefit plan costs under both CAS and U.S. GAAP Financial Accounting Standards ("FAS"). The calculations under CAS and FAS require significant judgment. CAS prescribes the determination, allocation, and recovery of retirement related benefit plan costs on U.S. Government contracts through the pricing of products and services. FAS prescribes the methodology used to determine retirement related benefit plan expense or income, as well as the liability, for financial reporting purposes. The CAS requirements for
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these costs and their calculation methodologies differ from FAS. As a result, while both CAS and FAS use assumptions in their calculation methodologies, each method results in different calculated amounts of retirement related benefit plan costs.

We recover our CAS costs through the pricing of products and services on U.S. Government contracts, so that the CAS cost is recognized in segment product sales and service revenues and in the costs of those product sales and service revenues. In order to present our consolidated financial statements in accordance with FAS, we record the difference between our FAS expense and CAS cost (“FAS/CAS Adjustment”) as operating income within segment operating income and non-operating retirement benefit (expense).

The minimum funding requirements for our qualified pension plans are determined under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 ("ERISA"), which is primarily based on the year's expected service cost and amortization of other previously unfunded liabilities. Effective January 1, 2011, we were subject to the funding requirements under the Pension Protection Act of 2006 ("PPA"), which amended ERISA. Under the PPA, we are required to fully fund our pension plans over a rolling seven-year period as determined annually based upon the funded status at the beginning of each year. PPA also introduced a variety of benefit restrictions that apply if a plan falls below certain funded percentages, as defined by the Internal Revenue Code. In funding our plans, we consider various factors, including the minimum funding requirements, maintaining the funded status needed to avoid potential benefit restrictions and other adverse consequences, maintaining minimum CAS funding requirements, and the current and anticipated funding levels of each plan.

Effective January 1, 2021, we adopted the Safe Harbor methodology used in determining CAS pension costs. The interest rates used to calculate pension liabilities under CAS are consistent with those used in the determination of minimum funding requirements under ERISA.

Pension funding requirements under ERISA are subject to pension relief for plan sponsors in the form of higher interest rate assumptions introduced by the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act and subsequently extended by the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021. Using these minimum funding interest rates for the purposes of determining pension costs under CAS reduces volatility in CAS costs year-over-year and provides more predictable costs for our customers, while better aligning reimbursements of pension costs under our contracts with our required pension plan contributions under ERISA.

Due to the differences in requirements and calculation methodologies between FAS and CAS, our FAS pension expense is not necessarily indicative of the funding requirements under PPA or the amounts we recover from the U.S. Government under CAS.

Assumptions - We account for our retirement related benefit plans on the accrual basis under FAS. The measurements of obligations, costs, assets, and liabilities require significant judgment. We annually review our assumptions, which are set at each year end and generally not changed during the following year unless a major plan event occurs, such as an amendment, curtailment, or settlement that would trigger a remeasurement. The key assumptions in these measurements are the interest rate used to discount future benefit payments and the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets.

Discount Rate - The assumed discount rate under FAS is used to determine the retirement related benefit plan obligations and expense, and represents the hypothetical rate at which plan benefit obligations could be effectively settled at the measurement date. Consequently, the discount rate can be volatile from year to year. The discount rate assumption is determined for each plan by constructing a hypothetical portfolio of high-quality bonds with cash flows that match the estimated outflows for future benefit payments to determine a single equivalent discount rate. Benefit payments are not only contingent on the terms of a plan but also on the underlying participant demographics, including current age and assumed mortality. We use only bonds that are denominated in U.S. Dollars, are rated Aa or better by nationally recognized statistical rating agencies, have a minimum outstanding issue of $100 million as of the measurement date, and are not callable, convertible, or index-linked.

Expected Long-Term Rate of Return - The expected long-term rate of return on assets is used to calculate net periodic expense, based on such factors as historical returns, targeted asset allocations, investment policy, duration, expected future long-term performance of individual asset classes, interest rates, inflation, portfolio volatility, investment management and administrative fees, and risk management strategies. Historical plan asset performance alone has inherent limitations in predicting future returns. While studies are helpful in understanding past and current trends and performance, the rate of return assumption is based more on long-term prospective
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views to avoid short-term market influences. Unless plan assets and benefit obligations are subject to re-measurement during the year, the expected return on pension assets is based on the fair value of plan assets at the beginning of the year.

Mortality - Mortality assumptions are used to determine the retirement related benefit obligations and expense, and represent the likelihood and duration of benefit payments to plan participants based on historical experience and projected longevity. We periodically update our mortality assumptions as circumstances warrant.

Differences arising from actual experience or changes in assumptions might materially affect retirement related benefit plan obligations and the funded status. Actuarial gains and losses arising from differences between assumptions and actual experience or changes in assumptions are deferred in accumulated other comprehensive loss. This unrecognized amount is amortized as a component of net expense to the extent it exceeds 10% of the greater of the plan's benefit obligation or plan assets. The amortization period for actuarial gains and losses is the estimated average remaining service life of the plan participants. In 2021, the actual return on assets was approximately 12.7%, which was more than the expected return assumption of 7.25%. For the year ended December 31, 2021, the weighted average discount rates for our pension and other postretirement benefit plans increased by 20 and 19 basis points, respectively. These differences in asset returns and discount rates resulted in actuarial gains of $412 million and $289 million, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2021.

An increase or decrease of 25 basis points in the discount rate and the expected long-term rate of return assumptions would have had the following approximate impacts on pension expense and obligations:
($ in millions) Increase (Decrease) in 2022 Expense Increase (Decrease) in December 31, 2021 Obligations
25 basis point decrease in discount rate $ 29  $ 329 
25 basis point increase in discount rate (15) (310)
25 basis point decrease in expected return on assets 21 
25 basis point increase in expected return on assets (21)

Assuming a 7.25% expected return on assets assumption, a $50 million pension plan contribution is generally expected to favorably impact the current year expected return on assets by approximately $2 million, depending on the timing of the contribution.

Sensitivities to assumptions are not necessarily linear and are specific to the time periods noted.

CAS Cost - In addition to providing the methodology for calculating retirement related benefit plan costs, CAS also prescribes the method for assigning those costs to specific periods. While the ultimate liability for such costs under FAS and CAS is similar, the pattern of cost recognition is different. The key drivers of CAS pension cost include the funded status and the method used to calculate CAS reimbursement for each of our plans. A plan’s CAS pension cost can only be allocated until the plan is fully funded as defined under the CAS requirements.

Other FAS and CAS Pension Considerations - A key driver of the difference between FAS expense and CAS cost (and consequently the FAS/CAS Adjustment) is the pattern of earnings and expense recognition for actuarial gains and losses that arise when our asset and liability experiences differ from our assumptions under each set of requirements. Under FAS, our net actuarial gains and losses exceeding the 10% corridor are amortized over the estimated average remaining service life of the plan participants. Under CAS Harmonization, the amortization period is 10 years for actuarial gains and losses. Both FAS and CAS use a "market-related value" of plan assets approach to calculate the amount of deferred asset gains or losses to be amortized. Under CAS, actual asset gains and losses are systematically smoothed over five years, subject to certain limitations. For FAS, we do not use this smoothing method, and instead use fair value in determining our FAS expense. Accordingly, FAS expense generally reflects recent asset gains and losses sooner than CAS.

Additionally, CAS cost is only recognized for plans that are not fully funded as defined under CAS. If a plan becomes or ceases to be fully funded due to our asset or liability experience, our CAS cost will change accordingly.

Retirement Plan Assets - Retirement plan assets are stated at fair value. Investments in equity securities (common and preferred) are valued at the last reported sales price when an active market exists. Investments in fixed-income
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securities are generally valued based on market transactions for comparable securities and various relationships between securities that are generally recognized by institutional traders. Investments in hedge funds, real estate investment funds, private partnerships, collective trust funds, and commingled funds are generally valued at their Net Asset Values ("NAV") or equivalent, which are based on the current fair values of the fund's underlying assets.

Management reviews independently appraised values, audited financial statements, and additional pricing information to evaluate the NAV or its equivalent.

For the limited group of investments for which market quotations are not readily available or for which the above valuation procedures are deemed not to reflect fair value, additional information is obtained from the investment manager and evaluated internally to determine whether any adjustments are required to reflect fair value. See Note 17: Employee Pension and Other Postretirement Benefits in Item 8.

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss - Changes in assumptions and changes to plan assets and benefit obligations due to differences between actuarial assumptions and actual results are reported as actuarial gains and losses and recorded in accumulated other comprehensive loss, along with unrecognized prior service costs arising from plan amendments. As disclosed in Note 17: Employee Pension and Other Postretirement Benefits in Item 8, net pre-tax unrecognized actuarial losses as of December 31, 2021 and 2020 were $1,194 million and $2,007 million, respectively. The decrease in actuarial losses in 2021 was primarily driven by asset returns exceeding expected returns by $412 million, lower benefit obligations of $289 million resulting from higher discount rates, and $107 million of amortization of previously unrecognized actuarial losses.

Net pre-tax unrecognized prior service costs (credits) as of December 31, 2021 and 2020 were $60 million and $85 million, respectively. These net deferred costs (credits) primarily originated from plan amendments, including those resulting from collective bargaining agreements. The change in unrecognized prior service costs (credits) in 2021 resulted from plan amendments and the amortization of previously accumulated prior service costs (credits).

Workers' Compensation
 
Our operations are subject to federal and state workers' compensation laws. We maintain self-insured workers' compensation plans and participate in federally administered second injury workers' compensation funds. We estimate the liability for such claims and funding requirements on a discounted basis utilizing actuarial methods based on various assumptions, which include our historical loss experience and projected loss development factors. We periodically, and at least annually, update our assumptions based on an actuarial analysis. For further information on workers’ compensation, see Environmental, Health & Safety in Item 1 and Note 16: Commitments and Contingencies in Item 8.

Accounting Standards Updates
 
See Note 3: Accounting Standards Updates in Item 8 for further information.

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CONSOLIDATED OPERATING RESULTS

The following table presents selected financial highlights:
  Year Ended December 31 2021 over 2020 2020 over 2019
($ in millions) 2021 2020 2019 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent
Sales and service revenues $ 9,524  $ 9,361  $ 8,899  $ 163  % $ 462  %
Cost of product sales and service revenues 8,156  7,691  7,368  465  % 323  %
Income from operating investments, net 41  32  22  28  % 10  45  %
Other income and gains, net
2  —  100  % —  %
General and administrative expenses 898  904  788  (6) (1) % 116  15  %
Goodwill impairment   —  29  —  —  % (29) (100) %
Operating income 513  799  736  (286) (36) % 63  %
Interest expense (89) (114) (70) 25  22  % (44) (63) %
Non-operating retirement benefit 181  119  12  62  52  % 107  892  %
Other, net 17  11  183  % 20  %
Federal and foreign income taxes 78  114  134  (36) (32) % (20) (15) %
Net earnings $ 544  $ 696  $ 549  $ (152) (22) % $ 147  27  %

Operating Performance Assessment and Reporting

We manage and assess the performance of our business based on our performance on individual contracts and programs using the financial measures referred to below, with consideration given to the Critical Accounting Policies, Estimates, and Judgments referred to in this section. Our portfolio of long-term contracts is largely flexibly-priced. Therefore, sales tend to fluctuate in concert with costs across our large portfolio of active contracts, with operating income being a critical measure of operating performance. Under FAR rules that govern our business with the U.S. Government, most types of costs are allowable, and we do not focus on individual cost groupings, such as cost of sales or general and administrative expenses, as much as we do on total contract costs, which are a key factor in determining contract operating income. As a result, in evaluating our operating performance, we look primarily at changes in sales and service revenues, as well as operating income, including the effects of significant changes in operating income as a result of changes in contract estimates and the use of the cumulative catch-up method of accounting in accordance with GAAP. This approach is consistent with the long-term life cycle of our contracts, as management assesses the bidding of each contract by focusing on net sales and operating profit and monitors performance in a similar manner through contract completion. Consequently, our discussion of business segment performance focuses on net sales and operating profit, consistent with our approach for managing our business.

Cost of sales for both product sales and service revenues consists of materials, labor, and subcontracting costs, as well as an allocation of indirect costs for overhead. We manage the type and amount of costs at the contract level, which is the basis for estimating our total costs at completion of our contracts. Unusual fluctuations in operating performance driven by changes in a specific cost element across multiple contracts are described in our analysis.

Sales and Service Revenues

Sales and service revenues were comprised as follows:
  Year Ended December 31 2021 over 2020 2020 over 2019
($ in millions) 2021 2020 2019 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent
Product sales $ 7,000  $ 6,850  $ 6,265  $ 150  % $ 585  %
Service revenues 2,524  2,511  2,634  13  % (123) (5) %
Sales and service revenues $ 9,524  $ 9,361  $ 8,899  $ 163  % $ 462  %

2021 - Product sales in 2021 increased $150 million, or 2%, from 2020. Product sales at our Ingalls segment decreased $105 million in 2021, primarily as a result of lower volumes in the Legend class NSC program and amphibious assault ships, partially offset by higher volumes in surface combatants. Newport News product sales
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increased $231 million in 2021, primarily as a result of higher volumes in submarines and aircraft carriers. Technical Solutions product sales increased $24 million in 2021, primarily as a result of higher volumes in DFS, partially offset by lower volumes in unmanned systems.

Service revenues in 2021 increased $13 million, or 1%, from 2020. Service revenues at our Ingalls segment decreased $56 million in 2021, primarily as a result of lower volumes in surface combatant and amphibious assault ship services. Service revenues at our Newport News segment decreased $138 million in 2021, primarily as a result of lower volumes in naval nuclear support services. Service revenues at our Technical Solutions segment increased $207 million in 2021, primarily as a result of higher volumes in DFS services due to the acquisition of Alion, partially offset by the divestiture of our oil and gas business and contribution of our San Diego Shipyard to a joint venture.

2020 - Product sales in 2020 increased $585 million, or 9%, from 2019. Product sales at our Ingalls segment increased $143 million in 2020, primarily as a result of higher volumes in amphibious assault ships and surface combatants, partially offset by lower volume in the Legend class NSC program. Newport News product sales increased $366 million in 2020, primarily as a result of higher volumes in aircraft carriers and submarines, partially offset by lower volume on commercial nuclear products. Technical Solutions product sales increased $76 million in 2020, primarily as a result of the acquisition of Hydroid, Inc. ("Hydroid") in March 2020.

Service revenues in 2020 decreased $123 million, or 5%, from 2019. Service revenues at our Ingalls segment decreased $21 million in 2020, as a result of lower volumes in amphibious assault ship services. Service revenues at our Newport News segment decreased $30 million in 2020, primarily as a result of lower volumes in aircraft carrier services, partially offset by higher volumes in naval nuclear support and submarine services. Service revenues at our Technical Solutions segment decreased $72 million in 2020, primarily as a result of lower volumes at our San Diego Shipyard and on DFS, oil and gas, and nuclear and environmental services, partially offset by the acquisition of Hydroid in March 2020.
Cost of Sales and Service Revenues

Cost of product sales, cost of service revenues, income from operating investments, net, and general and administrative expenses were as follows:
  Year Ended December 31 2021 over 2020 2020 over 2019
($ in millions) 2021 2020 2019 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent
Cost of product sales $ 5,958  $ 5,621  $ 5,158  $ 337  % $ 463  %
% of product sales 85.1   % 82.1  % 82.3  %
Cost of service revenues 2,198  2,070  2,210  128  % (140) (6) %
% of service revenues 87.1  % 82.4  % 83.9  %
Income from operating investments, net 41  32  22  28  % 10  45  %
Other income and gains, net
2  —  100  % —  %
General and administrative expenses 898  904  788  (6) (1) % 116  15  %
% of total sales and service revenues 9.4  % 9.7  % 8.9  %
Goodwill impairment   —  29  —  —  % (29) (100) %
Cost of sales and service revenues $ 9,011  $ 8,562  $ 8,163  $ 449  % $ 399  %

Cost of Product Sales

2021 - Cost of product sales in 2021 increased $337 million, or 6%, compared to 2020. Cost of product sales at our Ingalls segment decreased $82 million in 2021, primarily as a result of volume decreases described above. Cost of product sales at our Newport News segment increased $65 million in 2021, primarily as a result of submarine volume increases described above, partially offset by impacts related to performance on Block IV boats of the Virginia class (SSN 774) submarine program and delay and disruption from discrete COVID-19 Events in 2020. Cost of product sales at our Technical Solutions segment increased $20 million in 2021, primarily due to the higher volumes described above. Cost of product sales related to the Operating FAS/CAS Adjustment increased $334 million from 2020 to 2021.

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Cost of product sales as a percentage of product sales increased from 82.1% in 2020 to 85.1% in 2021, primarily due to an unfavorable change in the Operating FAS/CAS Adjustment, lower risk retirement on Delbert D. Black (DDG 119), and year-to-year variances in contract mix, partially offset by impacts related to performance on Block IV boats of the Virginia class (SSN 774) submarine program and delay and disruption from discrete COVID-19 Events in 2020, higher risk retirement on Bougainville (LHA 8), and a contract incentive on Jack H. Lucas (DDG 125).

2020 - Cost of product sales in 2020 increased $463 million, or 9%, compared to 2019. Cost of product sales at our Ingalls segment increased $22 million in 2020, primarily as a result of the volume changes described above, partially offset by higher risk retirement on Delbert D. Black (DDG 119) in connection with its delivery and a capital expenditure contract incentive. Cost of product sales at our Newport News segment increased $480 million in 2020, primarily as a result of program cost growth and the volume increases described above. Cost of product sales at our Technical Solutions segment increased $65 million in 2020, primarily due to the higher volumes described above. Cost of product sales related to the Operating FAS/CAS Adjustment decreased $104 million from 2019 to 2020.

Cost of product sales as a percentage of product sales decreased from 82.3% in 2019 to 82.1% in 2020, primarily due to a favorable change in the Operating FAS/CAS Adjustment and higher risk retirement on Delbert D. Black (DDG 119), USS Tripoli (LHA 7), and Richard M. McCool Jr. (LPD 29), as well as year-to-year variances in contract mix, partially offset by unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments in the second quarter of 2020 of $111 million on Block IV boats of the Virginia class (SSN 774) submarine program, including $95 million for cost and schedule performance and updates to our assumptions for future program efficiencies and performance as a result of cost and schedule trends, as well as $16 million from delay and disruption directly attributable to COVID-19 Events. The decrease in cost of product sales as a percentage of product sales was also offset by unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments in the second quarter of 2020 aggregating $61 million across all programs, resulting from cost estimates for delay and disruption from discrete COVID-19 Events, including $16 million in relation to the Block IV boats of the Virginia class (SSN 774) submarine program discussed above.

Cost of Service Revenues

2021 - Cost of service revenues in 2021 increased $128 million, or 6%, compared to 2020. Cost of service revenues at our Ingalls segment decreased $46 million in 2021, primarily as a result of lower volumes described above. Cost of service revenues at our Newport News segment decreased $74 million in 2021, primarily as a result of lower volumes described above. Cost of service revenues at our Technical Solutions segment increased $177 million in 2021, primarily as a result of higher volumes described above. Cost of service revenues related to the Operating FAS/CAS Adjustment increased $71 million from 2020 to 2021.

Cost of service revenues as a percentage of service revenues increased from 82.4% in 2020 to 87.1% in 2021, primarily driven by an unfavorable change in the Operating FAS/CAS Adjustment, lower risk retirement on submarine support services, and year-to-year variances in contract mix.

2020 - Cost of service revenues in 2020 decreased $140 million, or 6%, compared to 2019. Cost of service revenues at our Ingalls segment decreased $10 million in 2020, primarily as a result of the volume changes described above, partially offset by recovery of losses on a long-term design contract in 2019. Cost of service revenues at our Newport News segment decreased $12 million in 2020, primarily as a result of the volume changes described above, partially offset by lower risk retirement on naval nuclear support services. Cost of service revenues at our Technical Solutions segment decreased $98 million in 2020, primarily as a result of the volume changes described above, partially offset by a loss on a fleet support services contract in 2019. Cost of service revenues related to the Operating FAS/CAS Adjustment decreased $20 million from 2019 to 2020.

Cost of service revenues as a percentage of service revenues decreased from 83.9% in 2019 to 82.4% in 2020, primarily driven by a favorable change in the Operating FAS/CAS Adjustment, a loss on a fleet support services contract in 2019, and year-to-year variances in contract mix, partially offset by lower risk retirement on naval nuclear support services.

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Income from Operating Investments, Net

The activities of our operating investments are closely aligned with the operations of the segments holding the investments. We therefore record income related to earnings from equity method investments in our operating income.

2021 - Income from operating investments, net increased $9 million, or 28%, to $41 million in 2021 from $32 million in 2020. The increase resulted from higher equity income from our ship repair and specialty fabrication joint venture and nuclear and environmental joint ventures.

2020 - Income from operating investments, net increased $10 million, or 45%, to $32 million in 2020 from $22 million in 2019. The increase resulted from higher equity income from our SRNS and MSTS investments.

Other Income and Gains, Net

2021 - Other income and gains, net in 2021 were flat compared to 2020.

2020 - Other income and gains, net in 2020 were flat compared to 2019.

General and Administrative Expenses

In accordance with industry practice and the regulations that govern the cost accounting requirements for government contracts, most general and administrative expenses are considered allowable and allocable costs on government contracts. These costs are allocated to contracts in progress on a systematic basis, and contract performance factors include this cost component as an element of cost.

2021 - General and administrative expenses in 2021 decreased $6 million, or 1%, compared to 2020. This decrease was primarily driven by favorable changes in current state income tax expense, partially offset by unfavorable changes in non-current state income tax expense and higher overhead costs driven by the acquisition of Alion.

2020 - General and administrative expenses in 2020 increased $116 million, or 15%, compared to 2019. This increase was primarily driven by the acquisition of Hydroid and higher overhead costs and current state income tax expense, partially offset by favorable changes in non-current state income tax expense.

Goodwill Impairment

As discussed above in Critical Accounting Policies, Estimates and Judgments, we perform impairment tests for
goodwill as of November 30 each year, or when evidence of potential impairment exists. We record a charge to operations when we determine that an impairment has occurred.

Operating Income

We consider operating income to be an important measure for evaluating our operating performance, and, consistent with industry practice, we define operating income as revenues less the related costs of producing the revenues and general and administrative expenses.

We internally manage our operations by reference to "segment operating income," which is defined as operating income before the Operating FAS/CAS Adjustment and non-current state income taxes, neither of which affects segment performance. Segment operating income is not a recognized measure under GAAP. When analyzing our operating performance, investors should use segment operating income in addition to, and not as an alternative for, operating income or any other performance measure presented in accordance with GAAP. It is a measure we use to evaluate our core operating performance. We believe segment operating income reflects an additional way of viewing aspects of our operations that, when viewed with our GAAP results, provides a more complete understanding of factors and trends affecting our business. We believe the measure is used by investors and is a useful indicator to measure our performance. Because not all companies use identical calculations, our presentation of segment operating income may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies.

The following table reconciles operating income to segment operating income:
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  Year Ended December 31 2021 over 2020 2020 over 2019
($ in millions) 2021 2020 2019 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent
Operating income $ 513  $ 799  $ 736  $ (286) (36) % $ 63  %
Operating FAS/CAS Adjustment 157  (248) (124) 405  163  % (124) (100) %
Non-current state income taxes 13  19  225  % (15) (79) %
Segment operating income $ 683  $ 555  $ 631  $ 128  23  % $ (76) (12) %
    

Segment Operating Income

2021 - Segment operating income in 2021 was $683 million, compared to $555 million in 2020. The increase was driven by impacts related to performance on Block IV boats of the Virginia class (SSN 774) submarine program and delay and disruption from discrete COVID-19 Events in 2020.

2020 - Segment operating income in 2020 was $555 million, compared to $631 million in 2019. The decrease was driven by unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments in the second quarter of 2020 totaling $167 million from updated cost and schedule assumptions across all programs.

Included in the $167 million of unfavorable adjustments was $111 million related to Block IV boats of the Virginia class (SSN 774) submarine program for unfavorable cost and schedule performance and updates to our assumptions for future program efficiencies and performance as a result of cost and schedule trends. Our risk retirement assumptions on Block IV boats anticipated boat-to-boat cost and schedule improvements working down the learning curve, but performance trends, exacerbated by COVID-19 Events, made those improvements less likely to occur. Also included in the $167 million of unfavorable adjustments was $61 million for the margin impact of delay and disruption cost estimates across all programs from discrete COVID-19 Events, including $16 million relating to Block IV boats of the Virginia class (SSN 774) submarine program, which was included in the $111 million unfavorable adjustments noted above. These unfavorable margin adjustments were partially offset by higher risk retirement on USS Delbert D. Black (DDG 119) in connection with its delivery and a capital expenditure contract incentive, higher risk retirement and improved performance on USS Tripoli (LHA 7) and Richard M. McCool Jr. (LPD 29), and a loss on a fleet support services contract in 2019.

Activity within each segment is discussed under Segment Operating Results below.

FAS/CAS Adjustment and Operating FAS/CAS Adjustment

The FAS/CAS Adjustment reflects the difference between expenses for pension and other postretirement benefits determined in accordance with GAAP and the expenses for these items included in segment operating income in accordance with CAS. The Operating FAS/CAS Adjustment excludes the following components of net periodic benefit costs: interest cost, expected return on plan assets, amortization of prior service cost (credit) and actuarial loss (gain), and settlement and curtailment effects.

Effective January 1, 2021, we adopted the Safe Harbor methodology for determining CAS pension costs. Under the new methodology, the interest rates used to calculate pension liabilities under CAS are consistent with those used in the determination of minimum funding requirements under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 ("ERISA").

The components of the Operating FAS/CAS Adjustment were as follows:
  Year Ended December 31 2021 over 2020 2020 over 2019
($ in millions) 2021 2020 2019 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent
FAS expense $ (28) $ (70) $ (139) $ 42  60  % $ 69  50  %
CAS cost 52  437  275  (385) (88) % 162  59  %
FAS/CAS Adjustment 24  367  136  (343) (93) % 231  170  %
Non-operating retirement benefit (181) (119) (12) (62) (52) % (107) (892) %
Operating FAS/CAS Adjustment (expense) benefit $ (157) $ 248  $ 124  $ (405) (163) % $ 124  100  %

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2021 - The Operating FAS/CAS Adjustment in 2021 was a net expense of $157 million, compared to a net benefit of $248 million in 2020. The unfavorable change was primarily driven by the more immediate recognition of higher interest rates under CAS.

2020 - The Operating FAS/CAS Adjustment in 2020 was a net benefit of $248 million, compared to a net benefit of $124 million in 2019. The favorable change was primarily driven by the more immediate recognition of lower interest rates under CAS.

We expect the FAS/CAS Adjustment in 2022 to be a net benefit of approximately $152 million (($105) million FAS and $47 million CAS), primarily driven by the more immediate recognition of the 2021 asset returns under FAS.

We expect the Operating FAS/CAS Adjustment in 2022 to be a net expense of approximately $142 million ($189 million FAS and $47 million CAS). The expected FAS/CAS Adjustment is subject to change during 2022, when we remeasure our actuarial estimate of the unfunded benefit obligation for CAS with updated census data and other items later in the year.

Non-current State Income Taxes

Non-current state income taxes include deferred state income taxes, which reflect the change in deferred state tax assets and liabilities, and the tax expense or benefit associated with changes in state unrecognized tax benefits in the relevant period. These amounts are recorded within operating income. Current period state income tax expense is charged to contract costs and included in cost of sales and service revenues in segment operating income.

2021 - Non-current state income tax expense in 2021 was $13 million, compared to $4 million in 2020. The unfavorable change in non-current state income taxes was driven by an increase in deferred state income tax expense, primarily attributable to a decrease in expenses not currently deductible for income tax purposes.

2020 - Non-current state income tax expense in 2020 was $4 million, compared to $19 million in 2019. The decrease in non-current state income tax expense was driven by a decrease in deferred state income tax expense. The decrease in deferred state income tax expense was primarily attributable to an increase in expenses that are not currently deductible for income tax purposes and pension related adjustments.

Interest Expense

2021 - Interest expense in 2021 was $89 million, compared to $114 million in 2020. The decrease was primarily a result of costs associated with the early redemption in 2020 of $600 million aggregate principal amount of our 5.000% senior notes due in 2025, partially offset by increased borrowing to fund the acquisition of Alion with the issuance of $400 million aggregate principal amount of 0.670% senior notes due 2023, $600 million aggregate principal amount of 2.043% senior notes due 2028, and a $650 million three-year Term Loan.

2020 - Interest expense in 2020 was $114 million, compared to $70 million in 2019. The increase was primarily a result of costs associated with the early redemption of $600 million aggregate principal amount of our 5.000% senior notes due 2025 and the issuance in 2020 of $500 million aggregate principal amount of 3.844% senior notes due 2025 and $500 million aggregate principal amount of 4.200% senior notes due 2030, partially offset by reduced borrowing on our credit facilities.

Non-Operating Retirement Benefit

The non-operating retirement benefit includes the following components of net periodic benefit costs: interest cost, expected return on plan assets, amortization of prior service cost (credit) and actuarial loss (gain), and settlement and curtailment effects.

2021 - A favorable change in the non-operating retirement benefit of $62 million from 2020 to 2021 was primarily driven by higher 2020 returns on plan assets.

2020 - A favorable change in the non-operating retirement benefit of $107 million from 2019 to 2020 was primarily driven by higher 2019 returns on plan assets.

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Other, Net

2021 - Other, net income in 2021 was $17 million, compared to $6 million in 2020. The increase was primarily driven by an impairment of a loan receivable in 2020.

2020 - Other, net income in 2020 was consistent with 2019.

Federal and Foreign Income Taxes

2021 - Our effective tax rate on earnings from continuing operations was 12.5% in 2021, compared to 14.1% in 2020. The decrease in our effective tax rate for 2021 was primarily attributable to an increase in research and development tax credits for prior periods and a tax loss associated with the sale of our oil and gas business, partially offset by an increase in unrecognized tax benefits.

2020 - Our effective tax rate on earnings from continuing operations was 14.1% in 2020, compared to 19.6% in 2019. The decrease in our effective tax rate for 2020 was primarily attributable to favorable adjustments related to research and development tax credits for prior tax years.

SEGMENT OPERATING RESULTS

Basis of Presentation

We are aligned into three reportable segments: Ingalls, Newport News, and Technical Solutions.

The following table presents segment operating results:
  Year Ended December 31 2021 over 2020 2020 over 2019
($ in millions) 2021 2020 2019 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent
Sales and Service Revenues
Ingalls $ 2,528  $ 2,678  $ 2,555  $ (150) (6) % $ 123  %
Newport News 5,663  5,571  5,231  92  % 340  %
Technical Solutions 1,476  1,268  1,237  208  16  % 31  %
Intersegment eliminations (143) (156) (124) 13  % (32) (26) %
Sales and service revenues $ 9,524  $ 9,361  $ 8,899  $ 163  % $ 462  %
Operating Income
Ingalls $ 281  $ 281  $ 235  $ —  —  % $ 46  20  %
Newport News 352  233  410  119  51  % (177) (43) %
Technical Solutions 50  41  (14) 22  % 55  393  %
Segment operating income 683  555  631  128  23  % (76) (12) %
Non-segment factors affecting operating income
Operating FAS/CAS Adjustment (157) 248  124  (405) (163) % 124  100  %
Non-current state income taxes (13) (4) (19) (9) (225) % 15  79  %
Operating income $ 513  $ 799  $ 736  $ (286) (36) % $ 63  %

KEY SEGMENT FINANCIAL MEASURES

Sales and Service Revenues

Period-to-period revenues reflect performance under new and ongoing contracts. Changes in sales and service revenues are typically expressed in terms of volume. Unless otherwise described, volume generally refers to increases (or decreases) in reported revenues due to varying production activity levels, delivery rates, or service levels on individual contracts. Volume changes will typically carry a corresponding income change based on the margin rate for a particular contract.

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Segment Operating Income

Segment operating income reflects the aggregate performance results of contracts within a segment. Excluded from this measure are certain costs not directly associated with contract performance, such as the Operating FAS/CAS Adjustment and non-current state income taxes. Changes in segment operating income are typically expressed in terms of volume, as discussed above, or performance. Performance refers to changes in contract margin rates. These changes typically relate to profit recognition associated with revisions to estimated costs at completion ("EAC") that reflect improved or deteriorated operating performance on that contract. Operating income changes are accounted for on a cumulative to date basis at the time an EAC change is recorded. Segment operating income may also be affected by, among other things, contract performance, the effects of workforce stoppages, the effects of natural disasters such as hurricanes, resolution of disputed items with the customer, recovery of insurance proceeds, and other discrete events. At the completion of a long-term contract, any originally estimated costs not incurred or reserves not fully utilized, such as warranty reserves, could also impact contract earnings. Where such items have occurred and the effects are material, a separate description is provided.

Cumulative Adjustments

For the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019, favorable and unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments were as follows:
Year Ended December 31
($ in millions) 2021 2020 2019
Gross favorable adjustments $ 244  $ 244  $ 247 
Gross unfavorable adjustments (129) (273) (151)
Net adjustments $ 115  $ (29) $ 96 

For the year ended December 31, 2021, favorable cumulative catch-up adjustments included risk retirement on Bougainville (LHA 8), a contract incentive on Jack H. Lucas (DDG 125) and risk retirement on Fort Lauderdale (LPD 28). During the same period, no unfavorable cumulative catch-up margin adjustments were individually significant.

For the year ended December 31, 2020, favorable cumulative catch-up adjustments included risk retirement on Delbert D. Black (DDG 119) in connection with its delivery and a capital expenditure contract incentive, naval nuclear support services, the San Antonio class (LPD 17) program, and other individually insignificant adjustments.

During the same period, unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments were primarily driven by $111 million in the second quarter of 2020 on the Block IV boats of the Virginia class (SSN 774) submarine program, including $95 million for cost and schedule performance and updates to our assumptions for future program efficiencies and performance as a result of cost and schedule trends. Our risk retirement assumptions on Block IV boats anticipated boat-to-boat cost and schedule improvements working down the learning curve, but performance trends, exacerbated by the COVID-19 Events, made those improvements less likely to occur. Unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments on the Block IV boats of the Virginia class (SSN 774) submarine program also included $16 million from delay and disruption directly attributable to COVID-19 Events due to lower employee attendance, decreased availability of critical skills, and out-of-sequence work. Unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments across all programs resulting from delay and disruption cost estimates for discrete COVID-19 Events were $61 million, including $16 million in relation to the Block IV boats of the Virginia class (SSN 774) submarine program discussed above.

For the year ended December 31, 2019, favorable cumulative catch-up adjustments were related to contract changes on submarine support services, risk retirement on the Legend class NSC program, surface combatants, and the RCOH of USS George Washington (CVN 73), as well as other individually insignificant adjustments. During the same period, unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments included recognition of a forward loss on a fleet support services contract and schedule delays on USS Tripoli (LHA 7), as well as other individually insignificant adjustments.

When estimates of total costs to be incurred exceed estimates of total revenue to be earned on a performance obligation related to a complex, construction-type contract, we recognize the entire loss on the performance obligation in the period the loss is determined.

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Ingalls
  Year Ended December 31 2021 over 2020 2020 over 2019
($ in millions) 2021 2020 2019 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent
Sales and service revenues $ 2,528  $ 2,678  $ 2,555  $ (150) (6) % $ 123  %
Segment operating income 281  281  235  —  —  % 46  20  %
As a percentage of segment sales 11.1  % 10.5  % 9.2  %

Sales and Service Revenues

2021 - Ingalls revenues, including intersegment sales, decreased $150 million, or 6%, in 2021 compared to 2020, primarily driven by lower revenues in the Legend class NSC program and amphibious assault ships, partially offset by higher revenues in surface combatants. Revenues on the Legend class NSC program decreased due to lower volumes on USCGC Stone (NSC 9) following its delivery. Amphibious assault ship revenues decreased due to lower volumes on Fort Lauderdale (LPD 28), Richard M. McCool Jr. (LPD 29), Harrisburg (LPD 30), and USS Tripoli (LHA 7), partially offset by higher volumes on Pittsburgh (LPD 31) and LHA 9 (unnamed). Surface combatant revenues increased due to higher volumes on Jack H. Lucas (DDG 125), George M. Neal (DDG 131), Jeremiah Denton (DDG 129), and Sam Nunn (DDG 133), partially offset by lower volumes on USS Delbert D. Black (DDG 119) following its delivery and USS Fitzgerald (DDG 62) following its redelivery.

2020 - Ingalls revenues, including intersegment sales, increased $123 million, or 5%, in 2020 compared to 2019, primarily driven by higher revenues in surface combatants and amphibious assault ships, partially offset by lower revenues in the Legend class NSC program. Surface combatant revenues increased due to higher volumes on Ted Stevens (DDG 128), Jeremiah Denton (DDG 129), USS Delbert D. Black (DDG 119), Sam Nunn (DDG 133), George M. Neal (DDG 131), and Thad Cochran (DDG 135), partially offset by lower volumes on USS Fitzgerald (DDG 62) restoration and modernization, USS Paul Ignatius (DDG 117), Frank E. Petersen Jr. (DDG 121), and Jack H. Lucas (DDG 125). Amphibious assault ship revenues increased as a result of higher volumes on Harrisburg (LPD 30), Pittsburgh (LPD 31), LHA 9 (unnamed), Fort Lauderdale (LPD 28), and Richard M. McCool Jr. (LPD 29), partially offset by lower volumes on USS Tripoli (LHA 7), LPD life cycle services, and Bougainville (LHA 8). Revenues on the Legend class NSC program decreased due to lower volumes on USCGC Midgett (NSC 8) and Friedman (NSC 11), partially offset by higher volume on Calhoun (NSC 10).

Segment Operating Income

2021 - Ingalls segment operating income in 2021 was flat compared to 2020.

2020 - Ingalls segment operating income in 2020 was $281 million, compared to segment operating income of $235 million in 2019. The increase was primarily driven by higher risk retirement on USS Delbert D. Black (DDG 119) in connection with its delivery and a capital expenditure contract incentive, as well as higher risk retirement and improved performance on USS Tripoli (LHA 7) and Richard M. McCool Jr. (LPD 29), partially offset by unfavorable adjustments across programs, including delay and disruption from COVID-19 Events.

Newport News
  Year Ended December 31 2021 over 2020 2020 over 2019
($ in millions) 2021 2020 2019 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent
Sales and service revenues $ 5,663  $ 5,571  $ 5,231  $ 92  % $ 340  %
Segment operating income 352  233  410  119  51  % (177) (43) %
As a percentage of segment sales 6.2  % 4.2  % 7.8  %

Sales and Service Revenues

2021 - Newport News revenues, including intersegment sales, increased $92 million, or 2%, in 2021 compared to 2020, primarily driven by higher revenues in submarines and aircraft carriers, partially offset by lower revenues in naval nuclear support services. Submarine revenues increased primarily as a result of higher volumes on Block V boats of the Virginia class (SSN 774) submarine program and the Columbia class (SSBN 826) submarine program, partially offset by lower volumes on Block IV boats of the Virginia class (SSN 774) submarine program. Aircraft
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carrier revenues increased primarily as a result of higher volumes on the RCOH of USS John C. Stennis (CVN 74), the construction of Enterprise (CVN 80), and the construction of Doris Miller (CVN 81), partially offset by lower volumes on the construction of John F. Kennedy (CVN 79) and the RCOH of USS George Washington (CVN 73). Naval nuclear support service revenues decreased primarily as a result of lower volumes in submarine fleet support services and facility maintenance services, partially offset by higher volumes in carrier fleet support services.
2020 - Newport News revenues, including intersegment sales, increased $340 million, or 6%, in 2020 compared to 2019, primarily driven by higher revenues in aircraft carriers, submarines, and naval nuclear support services. Aircraft carrier revenues increased primarily as a result of higher volumes on the construction of Enterprise (CVN 80), the RCOH of USS John C. Stennis (CVN 74), and Doris Miller (CVN 81), partially offset by lower volumes on the RCOH of USS George Washington (CVN 73), John F. Kennedy (CVN 79), and USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN 78). Submarine revenues increased primarily as a result of higher volumes on the Columbia class (SSBN 826) submarine program and the Virginia class (SSN 774) submarine program. The higher volumes on the Virginia class (SSN 774) submarine program were due to higher volumes on Block V boats, partially offset by lower volumes on Block III and Block IV boats. Naval nuclear support service revenues increased primarily as a result of higher volumes in carrier fleet support services.

Segment Operating Income

2021 - Newport News segment operating income in 2021 was $352 million, compared to segment operating income of $233 million in 2020. The increase was primarily due to impacts related to performance on Block IV boats of the Virginia class (SSN 774) submarine program and delay and disruption from discrete COVID-19 Events in 2020.

2020 - Newport News segment operating income in 2020 was $233 million, compared to segment operating income of $410 million in 2019. The decrease was primarily due to unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments in the second quarter on Block IV boats of the Virginia class (SSN 774) submarine program for the reasons described above in "Segment Operating Results - Cumulative Adjustments” and 2019 contract changes on submarine support services.

Technical Solutions
  Year Ended December 31 2021 over 2020 2020 over 2019
($ in millions) 2021 2020 2019 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent
Sales and service revenues $ 1,476  $ 1,268  $ 1,237  $ 208  16  % $ 31  %
Segment operating income (loss) 50  41  (14) 22  % 55  393  %
As a percentage of segment sales 3.4  % 3.2  % (1.1) %

Sales and Service Revenues

2021 - Technical Solutions revenues, including intersegment sales, for the year ended December 31, 2021, increased $208 million, or 16%, compared to 2020, primarily due to higher volumes in DFS from the acquisition of Alion, partially offset by the divestiture of our oil and gas business and contribution of our San Diego Shipyard to a joint venture.

2020 - Technical Solutions revenues, including intersegment sales, for the year ended December 31, 2020, increased $31 million, or 3%, compared to 2019, primarily due to the acquisition of Hydroid in 2020, partially offset by lower volume at our San Diego Shipyard following the conclusion of several repair contracts.

Segment Operating Income

2021 - Technical Solutions segment operating income for the year ended December 31, 2021, was $50 million, compared to operating segment operating income of $41 million in 2020. The increase was primarily driven by the acquisition of Alion and equity income from nuclear and environmental joint ventures, partially offset by lower performance in unmanned systems and the amortization of Alion purchased intangible assets.

2020 - Technical Solutions segment operating income for the year ended December 31, 2020, was $41 million, compared to a segment operating loss of $14 million in 2019. The increase was primarily due to a goodwill
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impairment at our oil and gas reporting unit and a loss on a fleet support services contract in 2019, as well as higher equity income from our nuclear and environmental joint ventures and improved performance on DFS services.

BACKLOG

Total backlog as of December 31, 2021, was approximately $48.5 billion. Total backlog includes both funded backlog (firm orders for which funding is contractually obligated by the customer) and unfunded backlog (firm orders for which funding is not currently contractually obligated by the customer). Backlog excludes unexercised contract options and unfunded Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity orders. For contracts having no stated contract values, backlog includes only the amounts committed by the customer.

The following table presents funded and unfunded backlog by segment as of December 31, 2021 and 2020: 
  December 31, 2021 December 31, 2020
      Total     Total
($ in millions) Funded Unfunded Backlog Funded Unfunded Backlog
Ingalls $ 10,216  $ 792  $ 11,008  $ 10,443  $ 1,758  $ 12,201 
Newport News 11,121  21,198  32,319  9,536  23,132  32,668 
Technical Solutions 1,334  3,789  5,123  502  646  1,148 
Total backlog $ 22,671  $ 25,779  $ 48,450  $ 20,481  $ 25,536  $ 46,017 

We expect approximately 19% of the $48.5 billion total backlog as of December 31, 2021, to be converted into sales in 2022. U.S. Government orders comprised substantially all of the backlog as of December 31, 2021 and 2020.

Awards

2021 - The value of new contract awards during the year ended December 31, 2021, was approximately $8.1 billion, comprised primarily of awards for the RCOH of USS John C. Stennis (CVN 74), construction of a 10th boat of the Virginia class (SSN 774) submarine program, and construction of John F. Lehman (DDG 137).

2020 - The value of new contract awards during the year ended December 31, 2020, was approximately $8.9 billion, comprised primarily of construction contracts for Pittsburgh (LPD 31), module sections for each of the first two Columbia class (SSBN 826) submarines, Sam Nunn (DDG 133), and Thad Cochran (DDG 135).

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

We seek to efficiently convert operating results into cash for deployment in operating our businesses, implementing our business strategy, and maximizing stockholder value. We use various financial measures to assist in capital deployment decision making, including net cash provided by operating activities and free cash flow. We believe these measures are useful to investors in assessing our financial performance.
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The following table summarizes key components of cash flow provided by operating activities:
  Year Ended December 31 2021 over 2020 2020 over 2019
($ in millions) 2021 2020 2019 Dollars Percent Dollars Percent
Net earnings $ 544  $ 696  $ 549  $ (152) (22) % $ 147  27  %
Depreciation and amortization 301  254  230  47  19  % 24  10  %
Provision for doubtful accounts 7  (1) (6) 800  % 83  %
Stock-based compensation 33  23  30  10  43  % (7) (23) %
Deferred income taxes 98  23  97  75  326  % (74) (76) %
Loss (gain) on investments in marketable securities (19) (17) (11) (2) (12) % (6) (55) %
Asset impairments   13  (13) (100) % 117  %
Retiree benefit funding in excess of expense (78) (176) 80  98  56  % (256) (320) %
Goodwill impairment   —  29  —  —  % (29) (100) %
Loss on early extinguishment of debt   21  —  (21) (100) % 21  —  %
Trade working capital decrease (increase) (126) 257  (108) (383) (149) % 365  338  %
Net cash provided by operating activities $ 760  $ 1,093  $ 896  $ (333) (30) % $ 197  22  %
 
We have historically maintained a capital structure comprising a mix of equity and debt financing. We vary our leverage both to optimize our equity return and to pursue acquisitions. We expect to meet our current debt obligations as they come due through internally generated funds from current levels of operations and/or through refinancing in the debt markets prior to the maturity dates of our debt.

Cash Flows

We discuss below our significant operating, investing, and financing activities affecting cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2021, as classified in our consolidated statements of cash flows.

Operating Activities

2021 - Cash provided by operating activities was $760 million in 2021, compared to $1,093 million in 2020. The unfavorable change of $333 million in operating cash flow was primarily due to changes in trade working capital, partially offset by lower income tax payments and lower contributions to retiree benefit plans. The change in trade working capital was primarily driven by the timing of payments of accounts payable and receipts of accounts receivable.

We expect cash generated from operations in 2022, in combination with our current cash and cash equivalents, as well as existing borrowing facilities, to be sufficient to service debt and retiree benefit plans, meet contractual obligations, and fund capital expenditures for at least the next 12 calendar months beginning January 1, 2022 and beyond such 12-month period based on our current business plans.

2020 - Cash provided by operating activities was $1,093 million in 2020, compared to $896 million in 2019. The favorable change of $197 million in operating cash flow was primarily due to changes in trade working capital, partially offset by higher contributions to retiree benefit plans, higher income tax payments, and higher interest payments. The change in trade working capital was primarily driven by deferred payroll tax payments under the CARES Act, as well as the timing of receipts of accounts receivable and payments of accounts payable.
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Investing Activities

2021 - Cash used in investing activities was $1,954 million in 2021, an increase of $1,195 million from 2020. The change in investing cash flow was primarily driven by the acquisitions of Alion and a non-controlling interest in a specialty fabrication and ship repair joint venture in 2021, partially offset by the acquisition of Hydroid in 2020 and lower capital expenditures and the disposition of our oil and gas business in 2021.
For 2022, we expect our capital expenditures for maintenance and sustainment to be approximately 1.0% of annual revenues and our discretionary capital expenditures to be approximately 1.5% to 2.0% of annual revenues.

2020 - Cash used in investing activities was $759 million in 2020, an increase of $132 million from 2019. The change in investing cash flow was driven by business acquisitions, including Hydroid, partially offset by lower capital expenditures in 2020 and the acquisition of Fulcrum in 2019.

Financing Activities

2021 - Cash provided by financing activities in 2021 was $1,309 million, compared to $103 million provided by financing activities in 2020. The change in financing cash was primarily due to an increase of $1,225 million in net proceeds from long-term debt, a decrease of $15 million in premiums related to the 2020 early extinguishment of debt, and a decrease of $6 million in employee taxes on share-based payment arrangements, partially offset by an increase of $17 million in common stock repurchases, an increase of $14 million in cash dividend payments, and an increase of $9 million in debt issuance costs.

2020 - Cash provided by financing activities in 2020 was $103 million, compared to $434 million used in financing activities in 2019. The change in financing cash was primarily due to $1 billion of proceeds from the issuance of senior notes, a decrease of $178 million from common stock repurchases, and a decrease of $10 million in employee tax withholdings on share-based payment arrangements, partially offset by a $600 million increase in repayment of long-term debt, a $23 million increase in cash dividend payments, an increase of $15 million in premiums related to early extinguishment of debt, and an increase of $13 million in debt issuance costs.

Free Cash Flow

Free cash flow represents cash provided by (used in) operating activities less capital expenditures net of related grant proceeds. Free cash flow is not a measure recognized under GAAP. Free cash flow has limitations as an analytical tool and should not be considered in isolation from, or as a substitute for, net earnings as a measure of our performance or net cash provided by operating activities as a measure of our liquidity. We believe free cash flow is an important liquidity measure for our investors because it provides them insight into our current and period-to-period performance and our ability to generate cash from continuing operations. We also use free cash flow as a key operating metric in assessing the performance of our business and as a key performance measure in evaluating management performance and determining incentive compensation. Free cash flow may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies.
The following table reconciles net cash provided by operating activities to free cash flow:
Year Ended December 31
($ in millions) 2021 2020 2019
Net cash provided by operating activities $ 760  $ 1,093  $ 896 
Less capital expenditures:
Capital expenditure additions (331) (353) (530)
Grant proceeds for capital expenditures 20  17  94 
Free cash flow $ 449  $ 757  $ 460 

2021 - Free cash flow decreased $308 million from 2020, primarily due to changes in trade working capital, partially offset by lower income tax payments, lower contributions to retiree benefit plans, and lower capital expenditures.

2020 - Free cash flow increased $297 million from 2019, primarily due to a change in trade working capital and lower capital expenditures, partially offset by higher contributions to retiree benefit plans and higher income tax payments.
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Retirement Related Benefit Plan Contributions

ERISA, including amendments under pension relief, defines the minimum amount that must be contributed to our qualified defined benefit pension plans. In determining whether to make discretionary contributions to these plans above the minimum required amounts, we consider various factors, including maintaining the funded status needed to avoid potential benefit restrictions and other adverse consequences, maintaining minimum CAS funding requirements, and the current and anticipated future funding levels of each plan. The contributions to our qualified defined benefit pension plans are affected by a number of factors, including published IRS interest rates, the actual return on plan assets, actuarial assumptions, and demographic experience. These factors and our resulting contributions also impact the funded status of the plans. We made the following minimum and discretionary contributions to our pension and other postretirement benefit plans in the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019:
Year Ended December 31
($ in millions) 2021 2020 2019
Pension plans
Discretionary
Qualified $ 60  $ 205  $ 21 
Non-qualified 9 
Other benefit plans 37  33  31 
Total contributions $ 106  $ 246  $ 59 

We made discretionary contributions to our qualified defined benefit pension plans totaling $60 million, $205 million, and $21 million in the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively.

As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, our qualified pension plans were funded 102% and 91%, respectively, on a FAS basis. As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, these plans were sufficiently funded on an ERISA basis so as not to be subject to benefit payment restrictions. The funded percentages under ERISA and FAS vary due to inherent differences in the assumptions and methodologies used to calculate the respective obligations. We expect our 2022 cash contributions to our qualified defined benefit pension plans to be less than $1 million, all of which we anticipate will be discretionary and which are exclusive of CAS cost recoveries under our contracts. Due to the differences in calculation methodologies, our FAS expense is not necessarily representative of our funding requirements or CAS cost recoveries.

Other postretirement benefit plan contributions were $37 million, $33 million, and $31 million in 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively. We expect 2022 contributions to our other postretirement benefit plans to be approximately $34 million, which are exclusive of CAS cost recoveries under our contracts. Contributions for other postretirement benefit plans are not required to be funded in advance and are paid on an as-incurred basis.

Other Sources and Uses of Capital

Stockholder Distributions - In November 2021, our board of directors authorized an increase in our quarterly cash dividend to $1.18 per share. The board previously increased the quarterly cash dividend to $1.14 per share in November 2020 and $1.03 per share in November 2019. We paid cash dividends totaling $186 million ($4.60 per share), $172 million ($4.23 per share), and $149 million ($3.61 per share) in the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively.

In November 2019, our board of directors authorized an increase to our stock repurchase program from $2.2 billion to $3.2 billion and an extension of the term of the program to October 31, 2024. Repurchases are made from time to time at management's discretion in accordance with applicable federal securities laws. For the year ended December 31, 2021, we repurchased 544,440 shares at an aggregate cost of $101 million. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, we repurchased 390,904 and 1,005,762 shares, respectively, at aggregate costs of $84 million and $214 million, respectively. The cost of repurchased shares is recorded as treasury stock in the consolidated statements of financial position.

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Additional Capital - In 2021, we issued $400 million aggregate principal amount of callable unregistered 0.670% senior notes due 2023 and $600 million aggregate principal amount of unregistered 2.043% senior notes due 2028, both with registration rights. The net proceeds were used to fund a portion of the purchase price for the acquisition of Alion. Interest on these senior notes is payable semiannually.

In 2021, we amended and restated our existing $1.25 billion credit facility, increasing the capacity thereunder to $1.5 billion and extending the maturity date to five years from signing (the "Revolving Credit Facility"). The Revolving Credit Facility includes a letter of credit subfacility of $300 million. The Revolving Credit Facility has a variable interest rate on outstanding borrowings based on the London Interbank Offered Rate ("LIBOR"), plus a spread based upon our credit rating, which may vary between 1.125% and 2.000%. As of December 31, 2021, the interest rate spread on drawn amounts was 1.375% based on our current credit rating. The Revolving Credit Facility also has a commitment fee rate on the unutilized balance based on our credit ratings. The commitment fee rate as of December 31, 2021 was 0.200% and may vary between 0.125% and 0.300%.

As of December 31, 2021, we had $15 million in issued but undrawn letters of credit and $1,485 million unutilized under the Revolving Credit Facility.

In 2021, we entered into a $650 million 3-year delayed draw term loan (the “Term Loan”) to finance a portion of the purchase price for Alion. The Term Loan must be repaid prior to or at maturity, which is 36 months from the date of the initial draw. The Term Loan has a variable interest rate on outstanding borrowings based on LIBOR, plus a spread based upon our credit rating, which may vary between 1.125% and 2.000%. As of December 31, 2021, the annual interest rate spread was 1.375% based on our current credit rating, and the outstanding balance was $625 million.

In 2020, we issued $500 million aggregate principal amount of 3.844% senior notes due 2025 and $500 million aggregate principal amount of 4.200% senior notes due 2030. The net proceeds were intended to be used for general corporate purposes, including debt repayments and working capital. Interest on these senior notes is payable semiannually.

In 2020, we redeemed $600 million aggregate principal amount of our outstanding 5.000% senior notes due 2025 in accordance with the terms of the indenture governing the notes.

In 2019, we established an unsecured commercial paper note program, under which we may issue up to $1 billion of unsecured commercial paper notes. As of December 31, 2021, we had no outstanding debt under the commercial paper program.

We were in compliance with all debt-related covenants as of and during the year ended December 31, 2021. For a description of our outstanding debt amounts and related restrictive covenants, see Note 13: Debt in Item 8.

Contractual obligations - Our future contractual obligations are related to debt, leases, pension liabilities, unrecognized tax benefits, workers compensation, and purchase obligations. See Note 13: Debt, Note 15: Leases, Note 17: Employee Pension and Other Postretirement Benefits, Note 12: Income Taxes, and Note 2: Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in Item 8 for information about those obligations. Our purchase obligations as of December 31, 2021, were approximately $5,384 million, with approximately $2,333 million expected to be paid in 2022 and $3,051 million thereafter. A purchase obligation is defined as an agreement to purchase goods or services that is enforceable and legally binding on us and that specifies all significant terms, including: fixed or minimum quantities to be purchased; fixed, minimum, or variable price provisions; and the approximate timing of the transaction. As of December 31, 2021, future scheduled periodic interest payments on our outstanding long-term debt, including commitment fees that we are obligated to pay on our Revolving Credit Facility, were approximately $527 million, with approximately $97 million expected to be paid in 2022 and $430 million thereafter.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

In the ordinary course of business, we use letters of credit issued by commercial banks to support certain leases, insurance policies, and contractual performance obligations, as well as surety bonds issued by insurance companies principally to support our self-insured workers' compensation plans. As of December 31, 2021, $15 million in letters of credit were issued but undrawn and $276 million of surety bonds were outstanding. As of December 31, 2021, we had no other significant off-balance sheet arrangements.
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GLOSSARY OF PROGRAMS

Included below are brief descriptions of some of the programs discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Program Name    Program Description
America class (LHA 6) amphibious assault ships
  
Design and build large deck amphibious assault ships that provide forward presence and power projection as an integral part of joint, interagency and multinational maritime expeditionary forces. The America class (LHA 6) ships, together with the Wasp class (LHD 1) ships, are the successors to the decommissioned Tarawa class (LHA 1) ships. The America class (LHA 6) ships optimize aviation operations and support capabilities. In 2020, we delivered USS Tripoli (LHA 7), and we were awarded a long-lead-time material and construction contract for LHA 9 (unnamed). We are currently constructing Bougainville (LHA 8).
Arleigh Burke class (DDG 51) destroyers
  
Build guided missile destroyers designed for conducting anti-air, anti-submarine, anti-surface, and strike operations. The Aegis-equipped Arleigh Burke class (DDG 51) destroyers are the U.S. Navy's primary surface combatant, and have been constructed in variants, allowing technological advances during construction. We delivered USS Paul Ignatius (DDG 117), USS Delbert D. Black (DDG 119), and Frank E. Petersen Jr. (DDG 121) in 2019, 2020, and 2021, respectively. We have contracts to construct the following Arleigh Burke class (DDG 51) destroyers: Lenah H. Sutcliffe Higbee (DDG 123), Jack H. Lucas (DDG 125), Ted Stevens (DDG 128), Jeremiah Denton (DDG 129), George M. Neal (DDG 131), Sam Nunn (DDG 133), Thad Cochran (DDG 135), and John F. Lehman (DDG 137).
Carrier RCOH

  
Perform refueling and complex overhaul ("RCOH") of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, which is required at the mid-point of their 50-year life cycle. USS George Washington (CVN 73) arrived at Newport News for the start of its RCOH in August 2017, and USS John C. Stennis (CVN 74) arrived at Newport News for the start of its RCOH in May 2021.
Columbia class (SSBN 826) submarines

Newport News is participating in designing the Columbia class submarine as a replacement for the current aging Ohio class nuclear ballistic missile submarines, which were first introduced into service in 1981. The Ohio class SSBN includes 14 nuclear ballistic missile submarines and four nuclear cruise missile submarines. The Columbia class program plan of record is to construct 12 new ballistic missile submarines. The U.S. Navy has initiated the design process for the new class of submarines, and, in early 2017, the DoD signed the acquisition decision memorandum approving the Columbia class program’s Milestone B, which formally authorizes the program’s entry into the engineering and manufacturing development phase. We perform design work as a subcontractor to Electric Boat, and we have entered into a teaming agreement with Electric Boat to build modules for the entire Columbia class (SSBN 826) submarine program that leverages our Virginia class (SSN 774) experience. We have been awarded contracts from Electric Boat for integrated product and process development, providing long–lead–time material and advance construction, and construction of the first two boats of the Columbia class (SSBN 826) program. Construction of the first Columbia class (SSBN 826) submarine began in 2020.
Defense and federal solutions
DFS is focused on solving tough national security challenges for the DoD, the intelligence community, and federal civilian agencies around the globe. The group provides a wide range of professional services and products, including fleet sustainment, cyber and electronic warfare, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance, and live, virtual, and constructive solutions.
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USS Gerald R. Ford class (CVN 78) aircraft carriers
  
Design and construction for the Ford class program, which is the aircraft carrier replacement program for the decommissioned Enterprise (CVN 65) and Nimitz class (CVN 68) aircraft carriers. USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN 78), the first ship of the Ford class, was delivered to the U.S. Navy in the second quarter of 2017. In June 2015, we were awarded a contract for the detail design and construction of John F. Kennedy (CVN 79), following several years of engineering, advance construction, and purchase of long-lead-time components and material. In addition, we have received awards for detail design and construction of Enterprise (CVN 80) and Doris Miller (CVN 81). This category also includes the class' non-recurring engineering. The class is expected to bring improved warfighting capability, quality of life improvements for sailors, and reduced life cycle costs.
Legend class National Security Cutter
  
Design and build the U.S. Coast Guard's National Security Cutters ("NSCs"), the largest and most technically advanced class of cutter in the U.S. Coast Guard. The NSC is equipped to carry out maritime homeland security, maritime safety, protection of natural resources, maritime mobility, and national defense missions. The plan is for a total of 11 ships, of which the first nine ships have been delivered. Calhoun (NSC 10) and Friedman (NSC 11) are currently under construction.
Naval nuclear support services Provide services to and in support of the U.S. Navy, ranging from services supporting the Navy's carrier and submarine fleets to maintenance services at U.S. Navy training facilities. Naval nuclear support services include design, construction, maintenance, and disposal activities for in-service U.S. Navy nuclear ships worldwide through mobile and in-house capabilities. Services include maintenance services on nuclear reactor prototypes.
Nuclear and environmental services
Provide services in nuclear management and operations, including site management, nuclear and industrial facilities operations and maintenance, decontamination and decommissioning, radiological and hazardous waste management services, and technical engineering services. We participate in several joint ventures, including Newport News Nuclear BWXT Los Alamos, LLC (" N3B"), Mission Support and Test Services, LLC ("MSTS"), and Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC ("SRNS"), and we are an integrated subcontractor to Triad National Security. N3B was awarded the Los Alamos Legacy Cleanup Contract at the DoE/National Nuclear Security Administration’s Los Alamos National Laboratory. MSTS was awarded a contract for site management and operations at the Nevada National Security Site. SRNS provides site management and operations at the DoE’s Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. Triad provides site management and operations at the DoE’s Los Alamos National Laboratory.
San Antonio class (LPD 17) amphibious transport dock ships
  
Design and build amphibious transport dock ships, which are warships that embark, transport, and land elements of a landing force for a variety of expeditionary warfare missions, and also serve as the secondary aviation platform for Amphibious Readiness Groups. The San Antonio class (LPD 17) is the newest addition to the U.S. Navy's 21st century amphibious assault force, and these ships are a key element of the U.S. Navy's seabase transformation. We are currently constructing Fort Lauderdale (LPD 28), Richard M. McCool Jr. (LPD 29), and Harrisburg (LPD 30). In 2020 we were awarded a contract to construct Pittsburgh (LPD 31).
Unmanned systems
Our unmanned systems products and services create advanced unmanned maritime solutions for defense, marine research, and commercial applications. Serving customers in more than 30 countries, unmanned systems provides design, autonomy, manufacturing, testing, operations, and sustainment of unmanned systems, including unmanned underwater vehicles and unmanned surface vessels.
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Virginia class (SSN 774) fast attack submarines
  
Construct attack submarines as the principal subcontractor to Electric Boat. The Virginia class (SSN 774) is a post-Cold War design tailored to excel in a wide range of warfighting missions, including anti-submarine and surface ship warfare; special operation forces; strike; intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance; carrier and expeditionary strike group support; and mine warfare.

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

We are exposed to certain market risks, primarily related to interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates.

Interest Rates - Our floating rate financial instruments subject to interest rate risk include a $650 million Term Loan, a $1.5 billion Revolving Credit Facility, and a $1 billion commercial paper program. As of December 31, 2021, we had $625 million outstanding on the Term Loan and no indebtedness outstanding under our Revolving Credit Facility or our commercial paper program. Based on the amounts outstanding under our Term Loan as of December 31, 2021, an increase of 1% in interest rates would increase the interest expense on our debt by approximately $6 million on an annual basis.

Foreign Currency - We currently have, and in the future may enter into, foreign currency forward contracts to manage foreign currency exchange rate risk related to payments to suppliers denominated in foreign currencies. As of December 31, 2021, the fair values of our outstanding foreign currency forward contracts were not significant.

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ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Shareholders and the Board of Directors of
Huntington Ingalls Industries, Inc.
Newport News, Virginia

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated statements of financial position of Huntington Ingalls Industries, Inc. and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income, changes in equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2021, the related notes and the financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15 (collectively referred to as the "financial statements"). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2021, in conformity with the accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 10, 2022, expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Revenue – Long Term Contracts — Refer to Note 2 to the financial statements

Critical Audit Matter Description
The Company recognizes revenue on long-term contracts with U.S. Government customers over time as the work progresses, either as products are produced or as services are rendered, because transfer of control to the customer is continuous. Ordinarily the Company’s contracts represent a single distinct performance obligation due to the highly interdependent and interrelated nature of the underlying goods, services, or both. The use of the cost-to-cost method to measure performance progress over time is supported by clauses in the related contracts that
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allow the customer to unilaterally terminate the contract for convenience, pay the Company for costs incurred plus a reasonable profit, and take control of any work in process. The accounting for these contracts involves judgment, particularly as it relates to the process of estimating total material costs, labor costs, and profit for the performance obligation. Cost of sales is recognized as incurred, and revenues are determined by adding a proportionate amount of the estimated profit to the amount reported as cost of sales. For the year ended December 31, 2021, revenue was $9.5 billion, most of which was derived from long-term contracts.

Given the judgments necessary to estimate total material costs, labor costs, and profit in order to recognize revenue for certain long-term contracts, auditing such estimates required extensive audit effort due to the complexity of long-term contracts and a high degree of auditor judgment, especially given the limited historical data for certain contracts, when performing audit procedures and evaluating the results of those procedures.

How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit
Our audit procedures related to management’s estimates of total material costs, labor costs, and profit in order to recognize revenue for certain long-term contracts included the following, among others:
We tested the effectiveness of controls over long-term contract revenue, including management’s controls over the estimates of total material costs, labor costs, and profit for performance obligations.
We developed independent estimates of revenue based on historical profit margins and current year recorded costs. We compared those estimates to revenue recognized by the Company.
We obtained the population of active contracts during 2021 and assessed the financial and performance risk of the contracts based on our knowledge gained through prior year audits of the Company, industry experience, and ongoing conversations with members of program management regarding the contract performance to identify contracts that we believe were riskier. For those contracts selected, we performed further audit procedures that were tailored to address the specific characteristics of audit interest identified. Procedures performed, among others, included:
Read the relevant portions of contracts to understand contract terms, including incentives, fee arrangement, scope of work, and other unusual contract terms.
Compared the transaction prices to the consideration expected to be received based on current rights and obligations under the contracts and any modifications that were agreed upon with the customers.
Tested management’s identification of distinct performance obligations by evaluating whether the underlying goods, services, or both were highly interdependent and interrelated.
Tested the accuracy and completeness of the costs incurred to date for the performance obligation.
Evaluated the estimates of total materials costs, labor costs, and profit for the performance obligation by:
Evaluating management’s ability to achieve the estimates of total material costs, labor costs and profit by 1) performing inquiries with the business managers and corroborating the information gained from these inquiries with other parties who have detailed knowledge of the contract’s progress, issues being encountered, and overall production status, 2) considering management’s historical performance against estimates, 3) detail testing the appropriateness of the timing of changes in estimates, and 4) considering any contradictory information.
Comparing materials cost estimates to purchase orders, supplier contracts, or other source documents.
Comparing management’s estimates for the selected contracts to costs and profits of similar performance obligations, when applicable.


/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP

Richmond, Virginia
February 10, 2022

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2011.
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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING

To the Shareholders and the Board of Directors of
Huntington Ingalls Industries, Inc.
Newport News, Virginia

Opinion on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

We have audited the internal control over financial reporting of Huntington Ingalls Industries, Inc. and subsidiaries (the "Company") as of December 31, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by COSO.

We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2021, of the Company and our report dated February 10, 2022, expressed an unqualified opinion on those financial statements.

As described in Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting, management excluded from its assessment the internal control over financial reporting at Alion, which was acquired on August 19, 2021, and whose financial statements constitute 5% of total assets, 5% of revenues, and 2% of net income of the consolidated financial statement amounts as of and for the year ended December 31, 2021. Accordingly, our audit did not include the internal control over financial reporting at Alion.

Basis for Opinion

The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.


/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP

Richmond, Virginia
February 10, 2022
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HUNTINGTON INGALLS INDUSTRIES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
Year Ended December 31
(in millions, except per share amounts) 2021 2020 2019
Sales and service revenues
Product sales $ 7,000  $ 6,850  $ 6,265 
Service revenues 2,524  2,511  2,634 
Sales and service revenues 9,524  9,361  8,899 
Cost of sales and service revenues
Cost of product sales 5,958  5,621  5,158 
Cost of service revenues 2,198  2,070  2,210 
Income from operating investments, net 41  32  22 
Other income and gains, net 2  — 
General and administrative expenses 898  904  788 
Goodwill impairment   —  29 
Operating income 513  799  736 
Other income (expense)
Interest expense (89) (114) (70)
Non-operating retirement benefit 181  119  12 
Other, net 17 
Earnings before income taxes 622  810  683 
Federal and foreign income taxes 78  114  134 
Net earnings $ 544  $ 696  $ 549 
Basic earnings per share $ 13.50  $ 17.14  $ 13.26 
Weighted-average common shares outstanding 40.3  40.6  41.4 
Diluted earnings per share $ 13.50  $ 17.14  $ 13.26 
Weighted-average diluted shares outstanding 40.3  40.6  41.4 
Net earnings from above $ 544  $ 696  $ 549 
Other comprehensive income (loss)
Change in unamortized benefit plan costs 838  (187) (167)
Other  
Tax benefit (expense) for items of other comprehensive income (214) 47  43 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax 624  (138) (121)
Comprehensive income $ 1,168  $ 558  $ 428 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

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HUNTINGTON INGALLS INDUSTRIES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF FINANCIAL POSITION
December 31
($ in millions) 2021 2020
Assets
Current Assets
Cash and cash equivalents $ 627  $ 512 
Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $9 million as of 2021 and $2 million as of 2020
433  397 
Contract assets 1,310  1,049 
Inventoried costs, net 161  137 
Income taxes receivable 209  171 
Assets held for sale   133 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets 50  45 
Total current assets 2,790  2,444 
Property, Plant, and Equipment
Land and land improvements 329  309 
Buildings and leasehold improvements 2,643  2,442 
Machinery and other equipment 2,058  2,017