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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             .
Commission file number: 001-35346
APTIV PLC
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Jersey   98-1029562
(State or other jurisdiction of   (I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)   Identification No.)
5 Hanover Quay
Grand Canal Dock
Dublin, D02 VY79, Ireland
(Address of principal executive offices)
353-1-259-7013
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class   Trading symbol(s) Name of each exchange on which registered
Ordinary Shares. $0.01 par value per share APTV New York Stock Exchange
5.50% Mandatory Convertible Preferred Shares, Series A, $0.01 par value per share APTV PRA New York Stock Exchange
1.500% Senior Notes due 2025 APTV New York Stock Exchange
4.250% Senior Notes due 2026 APTV New York Stock Exchange
1.600% Senior Notes due 2028 APTV New York Stock Exchange
4.350% Senior Notes due 2029 APTV New York Stock Exchange
4.400% Senior Notes due 2046 APTV New York Stock Exchange
5.400% Senior Notes due 2049 APTV New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes . No .
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes . No .
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes . No .
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes . No .
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer   Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer   Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by the check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. .
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes . No .
The aggregate market value of the ordinary shares held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2020, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was $20,958,040,169 (based on the closing sale price of the registrant’s ordinary shares on that date as reported on the New York Stock Exchange).
The number of the registrant’s ordinary shares outstanding, $0.01 par value per share as of January 29, 2021, was 270,025,374.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement related to the 2021 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders to be filed subsequently are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.


Table of Contents

APTIV PLC
INDEX
 
    Page
Part I
Item 1.
4
Supplementary Item.
12
Item 1A.
14
Item 1B.
26
Item 2.
26
Item 3.
26
Item 4.
27
Part II
Item 5.
28
Item 6.
29
Item 7.
32
Item 7A.
60
Item 8.
62
Item 9.
129
Item 9A.
129
Item 9B.
130
Part III
Item 10.
131
Item 11.
131
Item 12.
131
Item 13.
131
Item 14.
131
Part IV
Item 15.
132
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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION
This Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the exhibits being filed as part of this report, as well as other statements made by Aptiv PLC (“Aptiv,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our”), contain forward-looking statements that reflect, when made, the Company’s current views with respect to current events and financial performance. Such forward-looking statements are subject to many risks, uncertainties and factors relating to the Company’s operations and business environment, which may cause the actual results of the Company to be materially different from any future results, express or implied, by such forward-looking statements. All statements that address future operating, financial or business performance or the Company’s strategies or expectations are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify these statements by forward-looking words such as “may,” “might,” “will,” “should,” “expects,” “plans,” “intends,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “projects,” “potential,” “outlook” or “continue,” and other comparable terminology. Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from these forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, the following: global and regional economic conditions, including conditions affecting the credit market and resulting from the United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union, commonly referred to as “Brexit”; uncertainties posed by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and the difficulty in predicting its future course and its impact on the global economy and the Company’s future operations; fluctuations in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates; the cyclical nature of global automotive sales and production; the potential disruptions in the supply of and changes in the competitive environment for raw material integral to the Company’s products; the Company’s ability to maintain contracts that are critical to its operations; potential changes to beneficial free trade laws and regulations, such as the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement; the ability of the Company to integrate and realize the expected benefits of recent transactions; the ability of the Company to attract, motivate and/or retain key executives; the ability of the Company to avoid or continue to operate during a strike, or partial work stoppage or slow down by any of its unionized employees or those of its principal customers; and the ability of the Company to attract and retain customers. Additional factors are discussed under the captions “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in the Company’s filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. New risks and uncertainties arise from time to time, and it is impossible for us to predict these events or how they may affect the Company. It should be remembered that the price of the ordinary shares and any income from them can go down as well as up. Aptiv disclaims any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events and/or otherwise, except as may be required by law.
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PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
“Aptiv,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Aptiv PLC, a public limited company formed under the laws of Jersey on May 19, 2011 as Delphi Automotive PLC, which completed an initial public offering on November 22, 2011. On December 4, 2017, the Company completed the separation (the “Separation”) of its former Powertrain Systems segment by distributing to Aptiv shareholders on a pro rata basis all of the issued and outstanding ordinary shares of Delphi Technologies PLC (“Delphi Technologies”), a public limited company formed to hold the spun-off business. Following the Separation, the remaining company changed its name to Aptiv PLC and New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) symbol to “APTV.” Aptiv did not retain any equity interest in Delphi Technologies. The completion of the Separation positioned Aptiv as a new mobility provider focused on solving the complex challenges associated with safer, greener and more connected transportation. At the core of our capabilities is the software and vehicle architecture expertise that enables the advanced safety, automated driving, user experience, and connected services that are enabling the future of mobility.
Aptiv is a leading global technology and mobility company primarily serving the automotive sector. We design and manufacture vehicle components and provide electrical, electronic and active safety technology solutions to the global automotive and commercial vehicle markets, creating the software and hardware foundation for vehicle features and functionality. We enable and deliver end-to-end smart mobility solutions, active safety and autonomous driving technologies and provide enhanced user experience and connected services. Our Advanced Safety and User Experience segment is focused on providing the necessary software and advanced computing platforms, and our Signal and Power Solutions segment is focused on providing the requisite networking architecture required to support the integrated systems in today’s complex vehicles. Together, our businesses develop the ‘brain’ and the ‘nervous system’ of increasingly complex vehicles, providing integration of the vehicle into its operating environment.
We are one of the largest vehicle component manufacturers, and our customers include 23 of the 25 largest automotive original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”) in the world. We operate 124 major manufacturing facilities and 12 major technical centers utilizing a regional service model that enables us to efficiently and effectively serve our global customers from best cost countries. We have a presence in 44 countries and have approximately 18,200 scientists, engineers and technicians focused on developing market relevant product solutions for our customers.
We are focused on growing and improving the profitability of our businesses, and have implemented a strategy designed to position the Company to deliver industry-leading long-term shareholder returns. This strategy includes disciplined investing in our business to grow and enhance our product offerings, strategically focusing our portfolio in high-technology, high-growth spaces in order to meet consumer preferences and leveraging an industry-leading cost structure to expand our operating margins. In line with the long-term growth in emerging markets, we have been increasing our focus on these markets, particularly in China, where we have a major manufacturing base and strong customer relationships.
Website Access to Company’s Reports
Aptiv’s website address is aptiv.com. Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”) are available free of charge through our website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).
Our Company
We believe the automotive industry is being shaped by rapidly increasing consumer demand for new mobility solutions, advanced technologies and vehicle connectivity, as well as increasing government regulation related to vehicle safety, fuel efficiency and emissions control. These industry mega-trends, which we refer to as “Safe,” “Green” and “Connected,” are driving higher growth in products that address these trends than growth in the automotive industry overall. We have organized our business into two diversified segments, which enable us to develop technology solutions and manufacture highly-engineered products that enable our customers to respond to these mega-trends:
Signal and Power Solutions—This segment provides complete design, manufacture and assembly of the vehicle’s electrical architecture, including engineered component products, connectors, wiring assemblies and harnesses, cable management, electrical centers and hybrid high voltage and safety distribution systems. Our products provide the critical signal distribution and computing power backbone that supports increased vehicle content and electrification, reduced emissions and higher fuel economy.
Advanced Safety and User Experience—This segment provides critical components, systems integration and advanced software development for vehicle safety, security, comfort and convenience, including sensing and perception systems, electronic control units, multi-domain controllers, vehicle connectivity systems, application
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software and autonomous driving technologies. Our products increase vehicle connectivity, reduce driver distraction and enhance vehicle safety.
Refer to Results of Operations by Segment in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Note 22. Segment Reporting to the audited consolidated financial statements, included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Annual Report for financial information about our business segments.
Our business is diversified across end-markets, regions, customers, vehicle platforms and products. Our customer base includes 23 of the 25 largest automotive OEMs in the world, and in 2020, 30% of our net sales came from the Asia Pacific region, which we have identified as a key market likely to experience substantial long-term growth. Our ten largest platforms in 2020 were with eight different OEMs. In addition, in 2020 our products were found in 19 of the 20 top-selling vehicle models in the United States (“U.S.”), in 19 of the 20 top-selling vehicle models in Europe and in 14 of the 20 top-selling vehicle models in China.
We have established a worldwide design and manufacturing footprint with a regional service model that enables us to efficiently and effectively serve our global customers from best cost countries. This regional model is structured primarily to service the North American market from Mexico, the South American market from Brazil, the European market from Eastern Europe and North Africa, and the Asia Pacific market from China. Our global scale and regional service model enables us to engineer globally and execute regionally to serve the largest OEMs, which are seeking suppliers that can serve them on a worldwide basis. Our footprint also enables us to adapt to the regional design variations the global OEMs require and serve the emerging market OEMs.
Our Industry
The automotive technology and components industry provides components, systems, subsystems and modules to OEMs for the manufacture of new vehicles, as well as to the aftermarket for use as replacement parts for current production and older vehicles. Overall, we expect long-term growth of global vehicle sales and production in the OEM market. In 2020, the industry experienced decreased global customer sales and production schedules, primarily due to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. The adverse impacts to Aptiv of the pandemic, which primarily affected us in the first half of 2020, included extended work stoppages and travel restrictions at our facilities and those of our customers and suppliers, decreases in consumer demand and vehicle production schedules, disruptions to our supply chain and other adverse global economic impacts, particularly those resulting from temporary governmental “lock-down” orders for all non-essential activities, initially in the first quarter in China and subsequently in Europe, North America and South America in the second quarter. Adverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic from the first half of 2020 were partially offset by increased consumer demand and vehicle production schedules in the second half of 2020, particularly in the fourth quarter. Compared to 2019, vehicle production in 2020 decreased by 22% in Europe, 21% in North America, 3% in China and 31% in South America, our smallest region. Demand for automotive components in the OEM market is generally a function of the number of new vehicles produced in response to consumer demand, which is primarily driven by macro-economic factors such as credit availability, interest rates, fuel prices, consumer confidence, employment and other trends. Although OEM demand is tied to actual vehicle production, participants in the automotive technology and components industry also have the opportunity to grow through increasing product content per vehicle by further penetrating business with existing customers and in existing markets, gaining new customers and increasing their presence in global markets. We believe that evolving entrants into the global transportation industry such as mobility providers, electric vehicle developers and smart cities will provide additional markets for our advanced technologies. We believe that as a company with a global presence and advanced technology, engineering, manufacturing and customer support capabilities, we are well-positioned to benefit from these opportunities.
We believe that continuously increasing societal demands have created the three “mega-trends” that serve as the basis for the next wave of market-driven automotive technology advancement. We aim to continue developing leading edge technology focused on addressing these mega-trends, and apply that technology toward products with sustainable margins that enable our customers, both OEMs and others, to produce distinctive market-leading products. We have identified a core portfolio of products that draw on our technical strengths and align with these mega-trends where we believe we can provide differentiation to our customers.
Safe. The first mega-trend, “Safe,” represents technologies aimed not just at protecting vehicle occupants when a crash occurs, but those that actually proactively reduce the risk of a crash occurring. OEMs continue to focus on improving occupant and pedestrian safety in order to meet increasingly stringent regulatory requirements in various markets. As a result, suppliers are focused on developing technologies aimed at protecting vehicle occupants when a crash occurs, as well as advanced driver assistance systems that reduce driver distractions and automated safety features that proactively mitigate the risk of a crash occurring. Examples of new and alternative technologies that incorporate sophisticated detection and advanced software for collision avoidance include lane departure warning systems, adaptive cruise control, gesture control and automatic braking.
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Green. The second mega-trend, “Green,” represents technologies designed to help reduce emissions, increase fuel economy and minimize the environmental impact of vehicles. Green is a key mega-trend today because of the convergence of several issues: climate change, volatility in oil prices, an increasing number of vehicles in use worldwide and recent and pending regulation outside the U.S. regarding fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions. OEMs continue to focus on improving fuel efficiency and reducing emissions in order to meet increasingly stringent regulatory requirements in various markets. On a worldwide basis, the relevant authorities in the European Union, the United Kingdom, China, India, Japan, Brazil, South Korea and Argentina have already instituted regulations requiring reductions in emissions and/or increased fuel economy, with the U.S. expected to introduce new regulations in the near future. In many cases, other authorities have initiated legislation or regulation that would further tighten the standards through 2021 and beyond. Based on the current regulatory environment, we believe that OEMs, including those in the U.S. and China, will be subject to requirements for even greater reductions in carbon dioxide (“CO2”) emissions over the next ten years. These standards will require meaningful innovation as OEMs and suppliers are challenged to find ways to improve engine management, electrical power consumption, vehicle weight and integration of alternative technologies (e.g., electric/hybrid propulsion). As a result, suppliers are developing innovations that result in significant improvements in fuel economy, emissions and performance from gasoline and diesel internal combustion engines. At the same time, suppliers are also developing and marketing new and alternative technologies that support hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles and fuel cell products to improve fuel economy and emissions. We are developing key enabling technologies in the areas of vehicle charging and vehicle power distribution and control that are essential to the introduction of our customers’ electrified vehicle platforms. We are also enabling the trend towards vehicle electrification with high voltage electrification solutions that reduce CO2 emissions and increase fuel economy, making the world greener.
Connected. The third mega-trend, “Connected,” represents technologies designed to seamlessly integrate today’s highly complex vehicles into the electronic operating environment, and provide drivers with connectivity to the global information network. The technology content of vehicles continues to increase as consumers demand greater safety, personalization, infotainment, productivity and convenience while driving, which in turn leads to increasing demand for electrical architecture as a foundation for this content. Also with increased smart device usage in vehicles, driver distractions can be dramatically increased, which in turn results in greater risk of accidents. We are pioneering vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication technologies which enable vehicles to detect and signal danger, reducing vehicle collisions and improving driver safety, while also maintaining connectivity to an increasing number of devices inside and outside of vehicles. We also utilize advanced connectivity solutions such as over-the-air (OTA) technology that enable vehicles to receive software updates remotely and collect market-relevant data from connected vehicles.
We expect these mega-trends to continue to create growth and opportunity for us. We believe we are well-positioned to provide solutions and products to OEMs to expand the electronic and technological content of their vehicles. We also believe electronics integration, which generally refers to products and systems that combine integrated circuits, software algorithms, sensor technologies and mechanical components within the vehicle will allow OEMs to achieve substantial reductions in weight and mechanical complexity, resulting in easier assembly, enhanced fuel economy, improved emissions control and better vehicle performance.
Convergence of Safe, Green and Connected Solutions in New Mobility and Autonomous Driving
The combination of advanced technologies being developed within these mega-trends is also contributing to increasing industry development of autonomous driving technologies, leading to a fully automated driving experience. We expect automated driving technologies will provide strong societal benefit as well as the opportunity for long-term growth for our product offerings in this space, including new potential customers such as mobility providers and smart cities that require solutions to increasing urban mobility challenges. Societal benefits of increased vehicle automation include enhanced safety (resulting from collision avoidance and improved vehicle control), environmental improvements (a reduction in CO2 emissions resulting from optimized driving behavior), labor cost savings and improved productivity (as a result of alternate uses for drive time). Growth opportunities in this space result from increased content, additional computing power and software requirements, enhanced connectivity systems and increased electrification and interconnects. We believe the complexity of these systems will also require ongoing software support services, as these vehicle systems will be continuously upgraded with new features and performance enhancements.
We are continuing to invest in the automated driving space, and have continued to develop market-leading automated driving platform solutions such as automated driving software, key active safety sensing technologies and our multi-domain controller, which fuses information from sensing systems as well as mapping and navigation data to make driving decisions. We believe we are well-aligned with industry technology trends that will result in sustainable future growth in this space, and have partnered with leaders in their respective fields to advance the pace of development and commercialization of these emerging technologies.
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In an effort to further our leadership position in the automated driving space, in March 2020 we completed the transaction with Hyundai Motor Group (“Hyundai”) to form a new joint venture focused on the design, development and commercialization of autonomous driving technologies. The joint venture operates globally under the Motional brand name, and brings together one of the industry’s most innovative vehicle technology providers with one of the world’s largest OEMs. We expect this partnership to accelerate the path towards the development of production-ready autonomous driving systems for commercialization in the new mobility space.
We believe that substantial strategic value will be created from our partnership with Hyundai through our commitment to a shared mission of making driverless vehicles a safe, reliable, and accessible reality. Furthermore, we anticipate Motional’s presence in both North America and Asia, along with the global presence of both Aptiv and Hyundai, to generate economies of scale to support the development of a complete autonomous driving platform, as well as to facilitate mobility infrastructure advancements.
The Motional joint venture began testing fully driverless systems in 2020 and anticipates it will have a production-ready autonomous driving platform available for robotaxi providers, fleet operators and automotive manufacturers to test at prototype scale in 2022, with higher volumes available for deployment in 2023. In addition, Motional is involved in collaborative arrangements with mobility providers and with smart cities such as Boston and Singapore as solutions are developed for the evolving nature of the mobility industry. As a result of our substantial investments and strategic partnerships, we believe we are well-aligned with industry technology trends that will result in sustainable future growth in these evolving areas.
To guide our product strategies and investments in technology with a focus on developing advanced technologies to drive growth within the Safe, Green and Connected mega-trends, we utilize and benefit from our Technology Advisory Council, a panel of prominent global technology thought leaders.
Standardization of Sourcing by OEMs
Many OEMs have adopted global vehicle platforms to increase standardization, reduce per unit cost and increase capital efficiency and profitability. As a result, OEMs select suppliers that have the capability to manufacture products on a worldwide basis as well as the flexibility to adapt to regional variations. Suppliers with global scale and strong design, engineering and manufacturing capabilities, are best positioned to benefit from this trend. OEMs are also increasingly looking to their suppliers to simplify vehicle design and assembly processes to reduce costs. As a result, suppliers that sell vehicle components directly to manufacturers (Tier I suppliers) have assumed many of the design, engineering, research and development and assembly functions traditionally performed by vehicle manufacturers. Suppliers that can provide fully-engineered solutions, systems and pre-assembled combinations of component parts are positioned to leverage the trend toward system sourcing.
Shorter Product Development Cycles
As a result of government regulations and customer preferences, OEMs are requiring suppliers to respond faster with new designs and product innovations. While these trends are more prevalent in mature markets, the emerging markets are advancing rapidly towards the regulatory standards and consumer preferences of the more mature markets. Suppliers with strong technologies, robust global engineering and development capabilities will be best positioned to meet OEM demands for rapid innovation.
Products
Our organizational structure and management reporting support the management of these core product lines:
Signal and Power Solutions. This segment provides complete design, manufacture and assembly of the vehicle’s electrical architecture, including connectors, wiring assemblies and harnesses, cable management, electrical centers and hybrid high voltage and safety distribution systems. Our products provide the critical signal distribution and computing power backbone that supports increased vehicle content and electrification, reduced emissions and higher fuel economy.
High quality connectors are engineered primarily for use in the automotive and related markets, but also have applications in the aerospace, military and telematics sectors.
Electrical centers provide centralized electrical power and signal distribution and all of the associated circuit protection and switching devices, thereby optimizing the overall vehicle electrical system.
Distribution systems, including hybrid high voltage systems, are integrated into one optimized vehicle electrical system that can utilize smaller cable and gauge sizes and ultra-thin wall insulation (which product line makes up approximately 42%, 42% and 44% of our total revenue for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively).
Advanced Safety and User Experience. This segment provides critical components, systems integration and advanced software development for vehicle safety, security, comfort and convenience, including sensing and perception systems,
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electronic control units, multi-domain controllers, vehicle connectivity systems, application software and autonomous driving technologies. Our products increase vehicle connectivity, reduce driver distraction and enhance vehicle safety.
Advanced safety primarily consists of solutions that enable active and passive safety features and vehicle automation, as well as vision, radar, LiDAR and other sensing technologies.
The user experience portfolio primarily enables in-cabin solutions around infotainment, driver interface and interior sensing solutions.
Connectivity and security products primarily consists of solutions that provide body control, security and unlock vehicle data.
Competition
Although the overall number of our top competitors has decreased due to ongoing industry consolidation, the automotive technology and components industry remains extremely competitive. Furthermore, the rapidly evolving nature of the markets in which we compete has attracted, and may continue to attract, new entrants, particularly in best cost countries such as China and in areas of evolving vehicle technologies such as automated driving and mobility solutions, which has attracted competitors from outside the traditional automotive industry. OEMs rigorously evaluate suppliers on the basis of product quality, price, reliability and timeliness of delivery, product design capability, technical expertise and development capability, new product innovation, financial viability, application of lean principles, operational flexibility, customer service and overall management. In addition, our customers generally require that we demonstrate improved efficiencies, through cost reductions and/or price improvement, on a year-over-year basis.
Our competitors in each of our operating segments are as follows:
Segment Competitors
Signal and Power Solutions •  Amphenol Corporation
•  Draexlmaier Automotive
•  Lear Corporation
•  Leoni AG
•  Molex Inc. (a subsidiary of Koch Industries, Inc.)
•  Sumitomo Corporation
•  TE Connectivity, Ltd.
•  Yazaki Corporation
Advanced Safety and User Experience •  Bosch Group
•  Continental AG
•  Denso Corporation
•  Harman International (a subsidiary of Samsung Electronics)
•  Hyundai Mobis
•  Magna International
•  Panasonic Corporation
•  Valeo
•  Veoneer, Inc.
•  Visteon Corporation
•  ZF Friedrichshafen AG
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Customers
We sell our products and services to the major global OEMs in every region of the world. The following table provides the percentage of net sales to our largest customers for the year ended December 31, 2020:
Customer Percentage of Net Sales
Volkswagen Group (“VW”) 10%
General Motors Company (“GM”) 9%
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. (“FCA”) (1) 8%
Ford Motor Company 7%
SAIC General Motors Corporation Limited 5%
Geely Automobile Holdings Limited 5%
PSA Peugeot Citroën (“PSA”) (1) 4%
Daimler AG 4%
Toyota Motor Corporation 2%
Tata Motors Limited 2%
Tesla Inc. 2%
Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (“BMW”) 2%
(1)On January 16, 2021, FCA and PSA executed a merger agreement to form a new, combined company (“Stellantis”). On a combined basis, the formerly separate companies accounted for 12% of Aptiv’s net sales for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Supply Relationships with Our Customers
We typically supply products to our OEM customers through purchase orders, which are generally governed by general terms and conditions established by each OEM. Although the terms and conditions vary from customer to customer, they typically contemplate a relationship under which our customers place orders for their requirements of specific components supplied for particular vehicles but are not required to purchase any minimum amount of products from us. These relationships typically extend over the life of the related vehicle. Prices are negotiated with respect to each business award, which may be subject to adjustments under certain circumstances, such as commodity or foreign exchange escalation/de-escalation clauses or for cost reductions achieved by us. The terms and conditions typically provide that we are subject to a warranty on the products supplied; in most cases, the duration of such warranty is coterminous with the warranty offered by the OEM to the end-user of the vehicle. We may also be obligated to share in all or a part of recall costs if the OEM recalls its vehicles for defects attributable to our products.
Individual purchase orders are terminable for cause or non-performance and, in most cases, upon our insolvency and certain change of control events. In addition, many of our OEM customers have the option to terminate for convenience on certain programs, which permits our customers to impose pressure on pricing during the life of the vehicle program, and issue purchase contracts for less than the duration of the vehicle program, which potentially reduces our profit margins and increases the risk of our losing future sales under those purchase contracts. Additionally, one of our largest customers, GM, expressly reserves a right to terminate for competitiveness on certain of our long-term supply contracts. We manufacture and ship based on customer release schedules, normally provided on a weekly basis, which can vary due to cyclical automobile production or dealer inventory levels.
Although customer programs typically extend to future periods, and although there is an expectation that we will supply certain levels of OEM production during such future periods, customer agreements including applicable terms and conditions do not necessarily constitute firm orders. Firm orders are generally limited to specific and authorized customer purchase order releases placed with our manufacturing and distribution centers for actual production and order fulfillment. Firm orders are typically fulfilled as promptly as possible from the conversion of available raw materials, sub-components and work-in-process inventory for OEM orders and from current on-hand finished goods inventory for aftermarket orders. The dollar amount of such purchase order releases on hand and not processed at any point in time is not believed to be significant based upon the time frame involved.
Materials
We procure our raw materials from a variety of suppliers around the world. Generally, we seek to obtain materials in the region in which our products are manufactured in order to minimize transportation and other costs. The most significant raw materials we use to manufacture our products include copper and resins. As of December 31, 2020, we have not experienced any significant shortages of raw materials and normally do not carry inventories of such raw materials in excess of those reasonably required to meet our production and shipping schedules.
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Commodity cost volatility, most notably related to copper, petroleum-based resin products and fuel, is a challenge for us and our industry. We are continually seeking to manage these and other material-related cost pressures using a combination of strategies, including working with our suppliers to mitigate costs, seeking alternative product designs and material specifications, combining our purchase requirements with our customers and/or suppliers, changing suppliers, hedging of certain commodities and other means. In the case of copper, which primarily affects our Signal and Power Solutions segment, contract clauses have enabled us to pass on some of the price increases to our customers and thereby partially offset the impact of increased commodity costs on operating income for the related products. However, other than in the case of copper, our overall success in passing commodity cost increases on to our customers has been limited. We will continue our efforts to pass market-driven commodity cost increases to our customers in an effort to mitigate all or some of the adverse earnings impacts, including by seeking to renegotiate terms as contracts with our customers expire.
Seasonality
Our business is moderately seasonal, as our primary North American customers historically reduce production during the month of July and halt operations for approximately one week in December. Our European customers generally reduce production during the months of July and August and for one week in December. Shut-down periods in the rest of the world generally vary by country. In addition, automotive production is traditionally reduced in the months of July, August and September due to the launch of component production for new vehicle models. Accordingly, our results reflect this seasonality.
Human Capital Resources
As of December 31, 2020, we employed approximately 151,000 people; 24,000 salaried employees and 127,000 hourly employees. In addition, we maintain an alternative workforce of 33,000 contract and temporary workers. Certain of our employees are represented worldwide by numerous unions and works councils, including the International Union of Electronic, Electrical, Salaried, Machine and Furniture Workers - Communications Workers of America and the Confederacion De Trabajadores Mexicanos.
Retention and Talent Development
Our employees are united across the globe in pursuit of our mission of developing safer, greener and more connected solutions enabling the future of mobility. The retention of highly qualified and diverse talent is critical to this mission, Aptiv’s continued growth and effective succession planning. As part of our focus on the retention of employees, we believe in being strategic and intentional in our efforts to provide talented and diverse individuals an opportunity to leverage their demonstrated performance and to gain sustainable leadership qualities aligned to our mission, culture and values. We have developed robust succession plans for our top leadership. These plans align with our development initiatives, such as advancing diversity candidates in leadership and in engineering and manufacturing functions. Furthermore, we recognize the importance of mentorship and the part it plays in personal and professional growth.
Aptiv is committed to talent development and growing the next generation of leaders. We have established a process of recurring talent reviews, focused on development and execution of specific development action plans. In addition, we offer several development programs targeting various career development needs. Our Leadership Development Program provides a holistic approach that develops business acumen and personal competencies, as well as the opportunity to learn and interact with peers from around the world. Our Leadership Foundations program is designed to help newly hired or promoted managers understand the Aptiv way of leading people. We also leverage Aptiv Academy, our online learning management system, across the enterprise using in-person, online and virtual reality learning opportunities.
Culture
Aptiv continually evaluates the culture, values and behaviors we believe are core to enabling a thriving environment for our employees. To establish expectations and clarity regarding the culture we are shaping, as well as the behaviors we measure in our talent evaluation system, several thousand of our top leaders have participated in global culture workshops led by our chief executive officer (“CEO”) and chief human resources officer (“CHRO”).
Diversity and Inclusion
At Aptiv, we value each individual’s perspective and foster a strong culture of respect and inclusive collaboration. Leveraging our employees’ diverse backgrounds and experiences allows us to make better decisions and supports stronger operating performance. Our CEO and CHRO review succession and talent development plans, as well as diversity and inclusion, with our Board of Directors annually. Aptiv also participates in, and sponsors, numerous outreach programs around the world, which seek to promote and recruit women and diversity candidates into science, technology, engineering and math fields. Aptiv is committed to continuing to increase its level of diversity in middle management, senior leadership and technology roles over the coming years.
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Health and Safety
Furthermore, we prioritize the health and safety of all our employees. We routinely assess occupational health and safety risks, including internal audits for all manufacturing sites, assessing, among other things, lost workday case rates, safety incident rates, safety habits training and number of training hours per employee. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we also implemented additional safety protocols designed to make all of Aptiv’s sites safer, which included extensive cleaning of our facilities, enhanced communications about safety protocols, building capacity limits, daily health screenings for on-site employees and mandatory mask use when indoors.
Environmental Compliance
We are subject to the requirements of U.S. federal, state and local, and non-U.S., environmental and safety and health laws and regulations. These include laws regulating air emissions, water discharge, hazardous materials and waste management. We have an environmental management structure designed to facilitate and support our compliance with these requirements globally. Although it is our intent to comply with all such requirements and regulations, we cannot provide assurance that we are at all times in compliance. Environmental requirements are complex, change frequently and have tended to become more stringent over time. Accordingly, we cannot ensure that environmental requirements will not change or become more stringent over time or that our eventual environmental costs and liabilities will not be material.
Certain environmental laws assess liability on current or previous owners or operators of real property for the cost of removal or remediation of hazardous substances. In addition to clean-up actions brought by U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. agencies, plaintiffs could raise personal injury or other private claims due to the presence of hazardous substances on or from a property. At this time, we are involved in various stages of investigation and cleanup related to environmental remediation matters at certain of our present and former facilities. In addition, there may be soil or groundwater contamination at several of our properties resulting from historical, ongoing or nearby activities.
At December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, the undiscounted reserve for environmental investigation and remediation was approximately $4 million, $4 million and $4 million, respectively. We cannot ensure that our eventual environmental remediation costs and liabilities will not exceed the amount of our current reserves. In the event that such liabilities were to significantly exceed the amounts recorded, our results of operations could be materially affected.
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SUPPLEMENTARY ITEM. EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT
The name, age (as of February 1, 2021), current positions and description of business experience of each of our executive officers are listed below. Our executive officers are elected annually by the Board of Directors and hold office until their successors are elected and qualified or until the officer’s resignation or removal. Positions noted below reflect current service to Aptiv PLC and prior service to Delphi Automotive PLC and Delphi Automotive LLP.
Kevin P. Clark, 58, is president and chief executive officer (CEO) of Aptiv and is a member of the company’s board of directors. Mr. Clark was named president and CEO and became a member of the board in March 2015. Previously, Mr. Clark was chief operating officer (COO) from October 2014 to March 2015. Prior to the COO position, Mr. Clark was chief financial officer and executive vice president from February 2013. He was appointed vice president and chief financial officer in July 2010. Previously, Mr. Clark was a founding partner of Liberty Lane Partners, LLC, a private-equity investment firm focused on building and improving middle-market companies. Prior to Liberty Lane Partners, Mr. Clark served as the chief financial officer of Fisher-Scientific International Inc., a manufacturer, distributor and service provider to the global healthcare market. Mr. Clark served as Fisher-Scientific’s chief financial officer from the company’s initial public offering in 2001 through the completion of its merger with Thermo Electron Corporation in 2006. Prior to becoming chief financial officer, Mr. Clark served as Fisher-Scientific’s corporate controller and treasurer.
Joseph R. Massaro, 51, is Aptiv’s chief financial officer and senior vice president, business operations. Mr. Massaro joined the Company in October 2013 as vice president, Internal Audit, and in September 2014 was appointed to the position of vice president, corporate controller. In March 2016, he was named senior vice president and chief financial officer and in September 2020, also assumed the role of senior vice president, business operations. Previously, Mr. Massaro was a managing director at Liberty Lane Partners from 2008 to 2010. He also served as chief financial officer of inVentiv Health Inc. from 2010 to 2013, a Liberty Lane portfolio company. Prior to Liberty Lane, he served in a variety of finance and operational roles at Thermo Fisher Scientific from 2002 to 2007, including senior vice president of Global Business Services where his responsibilities included the global sourcing and information technology functions. Prior to the merger with Thermo Electron, he also served as vice president and corporate controller of Fisher Scientific and held several other senior finance positions.
Allan J. Brazier, 54, is vice president and chief accounting officer of Aptiv, a position he has held since February 2011. Mr. Brazier joined the Company in June 2005 as senior manager of technical accounting and reporting, and prior to his current role served as assistant controller of technical accounting and reporting. Prior to joining Aptiv, Mr. Brazier was employed for seventeen years in financial roles of increasing responsibility at various companies. Mr. Brazier is a Certified Public Accountant and began his career with the international public accounting firm of KPMG.
Glen De Vos, 60, is senior vice president and chief technology officer of Aptiv, effective March 2017, and has responsibility for Aptiv’s innovation and global technologies. From November 2017 to October 2019, he was also president of Aptiv’s Mobility and Services Group. Mr. De Vos was most recently vice president of Software and Services for Aptiv’s Advanced Safety and User Experience segment, located at the Company’s Silicon Valley Lab in Mountain View, California from 2016 to 2017. He began his Aptiv career with Advanced Safety and User Experience in 1992, and following several progressive engineering and managerial roles in infotainment and user experience, was named vice president, Global Engineering for Advanced Safety and User Experience in 2012.
David Paja, 51, is senior vice president of Aptiv and president of Advanced Safety and User Experience, effective February 2017. He was most recently president of Honeywell Security & Fire, a global leader in electronic detection and prevention technologies for residential, commercial, and industrial applications from 2015 to 2017. From 2012 to 2014, he served Honeywell’s Transportation Systems segment as vice president and general manager for China and India. Mr. Paja was instrumental in enhancing Honeywell’s Internet of Things capabilities with advanced software and connectivity technologies, serving millions of connected homes and buildings worldwide. He began his Honeywell career in 2003 and held several leadership positions of increasing responsibility. Before joining Honeywell, Mr. Paja held several positions at Valeo Automotive.
William Presley, 51, is senior vice president of Aptiv and president of Signal and Power Solutions, effective September 2020. Mr. Presley joined Aptiv in January 2019 as president of the Electrical Distribution Systems business unit. Prior to joining Aptiv, he was at Lear Corporation. Mr. Presley most recently served as Lear’s vice president of the Wire Harness and Component business unit from 2018 to 2019, vice president of the Component business unit in 2017 and vice president, Global Electrical Engineering from 2013 to 2017. He began his Lear career in 2008 and held several leadership positions of increasing responsibility. Before joining Lear, Mr. Presley held several positions at Chrysler Corporation. Mr. Presley also served in both the U.S. Army and the Michigan Army National Guard for a combined total of 13 years as a Field Artillery Officer.
David M. Sherbin, 61, is senior vice president, general counsel, chief compliance officer and secretary of Aptiv. He was named to his current position in October 2009 and previously was vice president, general counsel from October 2005 to October 2009. He was appointed chief compliance officer in January 2006. Prior to joining Aptiv, Mr. Sherbin was vice president, general counsel and secretary for PulteGroup, Inc., a national homebuilder, from January 2005 through September
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2005. Mr. Sherbin joined Federal-Mogul Corporation in 1997 and was named senior vice president, general counsel, secretary and chief compliance officer in 2003.
Mariya Trickett, 38, is senior vice president and chief human resources officer of Aptiv, effective September 2018. She joined Aptiv from Dana Incorporated, where she was most recently senior vice president of human resources from 2016 to 2018. In addition, she was a managing director of Dana Europe AG from 2013 to 2018. Prior to assuming the senior vice president of human resources position, she served as senior director of human resources for Dana’s global Off-Highway Driveline Technologies business, while also supporting the Aftermarket Group and all of Dana’s European operations from 2015 to 2016. From 2013 to 2015, Ms. Trickett worked as director of H.R. for Off-Highway Driveline Technologies, and senior H.R. manager for Europe from 2011 to 2013. She began her Dana career in 2007, and held roles supporting Dana’s sales and purchasing organizations, and worked in global compensation and international mobility.

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Set forth below are certain risks and uncertainties that could adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition and cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed in forward-looking statements made by the Company. Also refer to the Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Information in this Annual Report.
Risks Related to Business Environment and Economic Conditions
The extent to which the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and measures taken in response thereto impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and difficult to predict.
The global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, which originated in late 2019 and was later declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020, has negatively impacted the global economy, disrupted supply chains and created significant volatility in global financial markets. During 2020 we took decisive actions to enhance our financial flexibility and minimize the impact on our business, such as the ramping down of certain production facilities in response to customer plant closures and changes in vehicle production schedules, imposing certain travel restrictions, suspending the Company’s ordinary share cash dividend, issuing $2.3 billion combined of preferred and ordinary shares, extending substantially all of our existing Credit Agreement’s maturity to August 2022 and actively managing costs, capital spending and working capital to further strengthen our liquidity. Despite these proactive measures, the ultimate impact to our business continues to remain highly uncertain. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will impact our business will depend on a number of evolving factors, including the duration and spread of the pandemic, as well as the possibility of the pandemic reoccurring, actions taken by governmental authorities to restrict certain business operations, social activity and travel or other actions. Our business may also be affected by the ultimate impacts of the pandemic on economic activity and whether recessionary conditions will persist or reoccur, consumer demand and vehicle production schedules, the ability of our supply chain to deliver in a timely and cost-effective manner, the ability of our employees, manufacturing and distribution facilities to operate efficiently and effectively, the continued viability and financial stability of our customers and suppliers and future access to capital, all of which remain uncertain.
The adverse impacts to Aptiv of the pandemic, which primarily affected us in the first half of 2020, included extended work stoppages and travel restrictions at our facilities and those of our customers and suppliers, decreases in consumer demand and vehicle production schedules, disruptions to our supply chain and other adverse global economic impacts, particularly those resulting from temporary governmental “lock-down” orders for all non-essential activities, initially in the first quarter of 2020 in China and subsequently in Europe, North America and South America. During the second half of 2020, many of these impacts abated, resulting in increased sales and profitability from the levels observed earlier in the year. However, during the fourth quarter of 2020, certain European and North American countries began to initiate new governmental restrictions in response to renewed pandemic impacts and concerns, and many of these restrictions have continued into the first quarter of 2021. As a result, due to the continuing uncertainties surrounding the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and resulting potential future governmental actions and economic impacts, it is possible that these adverse impacts could continue to reoccur, resulting in further adverse impacts on our future operating earnings and cash flows. In addition, to the extent the factors indicated above adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, they may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risk factors in this section.
Disruptions in the supply of raw materials and other supplies that we and our customers use in our products may adversely affect our profitability.
We and our customers use a broad range of materials and supplies, including copper and other metals, petroleum-based resins, chemicals, electronic components and semiconductors. A significant disruption in the supply of these materials for any reason could decrease our production and shipping levels, which could materially increase our operating costs and materially decrease our profit margins.
We, as with other component manufacturers in the automotive industry, ship products to our customers’ vehicle assembly plants throughout the world so they are delivered on a “just-in-time” basis in order to maintain low inventory levels. Our suppliers also use a similar method. However, this “just-in-time” method makes the logistics supply chain in our industry very complex and very vulnerable to disruptions.
Such disruptions could be caused by any one of a myriad of potential problems, such as closures of one of our or our suppliers’ plants or critical manufacturing lines due to strikes, mechanical breakdowns, electrical outages, fires, explosions or political upheaval, as well as logistical complications due to weather, global climate change, volcanic eruptions, or other natural or nuclear disasters, mechanical failures, delayed customs processing, the spread of an infectious disease, virus or other widespread illness and more. Additionally, as we grow in best cost countries, the risk for such disruptions is heightened. The lack of even a small single subcomponent necessary to manufacture one of our products, for whatever reason, could force us to cease production, even for a prolonged period. Similarly, a potential quality issue could force us to halt deliveries while we
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validate the products. Even where products are ready to be shipped, or have been shipped, delays may arise before they reach our customer. Our customers may halt or delay their production for the same reason if one of their other suppliers fails to deliver necessary components. This may cause our customers, in turn to suspend their orders, or instruct us to suspend delivery, of our products, which may adversely affect our financial performance.
When we fail to make timely deliveries in accordance with our contractual obligations, we generally have to absorb our own costs for identifying and solving the “root cause” problem as well as expeditiously producing replacement components or products. Generally, we must also carry the costs associated with “catching up,” such as overtime and premium freight.
Additionally, if we are the cause for a customer being forced to halt production, the customer may seek to recoup all of its losses and expenses from us. These losses and expenses could be significant, and may include consequential losses such as lost profits. Any supply-chain disruption, however small, could potentially cause the complete shutdown of an assembly line of one of our customers, and any such shutdown that is due to causes that are within our control could expose us to material claims of compensation. Where a customer halts production because of another supplier failing to deliver on time, it is unlikely we will be fully compensated, if at all.
The adverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant vehicle production slowdown in the first half of 2020, which was followed by increased consumer demand and vehicle production schedules in the second half of 2020, particularly in the fourth quarter. This surge in demand led to a worldwide semiconductor supply shortage in early 2021, as semiconductor suppliers have been unable to rapidly reallocate production lines to serve the automotive industry. We are currently assessing the potential supply chain impacts of this worldwide shortage, which may directly or indirectly impact various automotive suppliers, and correspondingly, OEM production. We are working closely with our suppliers and customers to minimize any potential adverse impacts, and we continue to closely monitor the availability of semiconductor microchips and other component parts and raw materials, customer vehicle production schedules and any other supply chain inefficiencies that may arise, due to this or any other issue. However, any direct or indirect supply chain disruptions may have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
The cyclical nature of automotive sales and production can adversely affect our business.
Our business is directly related to automotive sales and automotive vehicle production by our customers. Automotive sales and production are highly cyclical and, in addition to general economic conditions, also depend on other factors, such as consumer confidence and consumer preferences. Lower global automotive sales would be expected to result in substantially all of our automotive OEM customers lowering vehicle production schedules, which has a direct impact on our earnings and cash flows. In addition, automotive sales and production can be affected by labor relations issues, regulatory requirements, trade agreements, the availability of consumer financing and other factors, including global health crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Economic declines that result in a significant reduction in automotive sales and production by our customers have in the past had, and may in the future have, an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our sales are also affected by inventory levels and OEMs’ production levels. We cannot predict when OEMs will decide to increase or decrease inventory levels or whether new inventory levels will approximate historical inventory levels. Uncertainty and other unexpected fluctuations could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
A prolonged economic downturn or economic uncertainty could adversely affect our business and cause us to require additional sources of financing, which may not be available.
Our sensitivity to economic cycles and any related fluctuation in the businesses of our customers or potential customers may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. The automotive industry experienced decreased global customer sales and production schedules in 2020, primarily due to the adverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared to 2019, vehicle production in 2020 decreased by 22% in Europe, 21% in North America, 3% in China and 31% in South America, our smallest region. As a result, we have experienced and may continue to experience reductions in orders from OEM customers in certain regions. Uncertainty relating to global or regional economic conditions may have an adverse impact on our business. A prolonged downturn in the global or regional automotive industry, or a significant change in product mix due to consumer demand, could require us to shut down plants or result in impairment charges, restructuring actions or changes in our valuation allowances against deferred tax assets, which could be material to our financial condition and results of operations. If global economic conditions deteriorate or economic uncertainty increases, our customers and potential customers may experience deterioration of their businesses, which may result in the delay or cancellation of plans to purchase our products. If vehicle production were to remain at low levels for an extended period of time or if cash losses for customer defaults rise, our cash flow could be adversely impacted, which could result in our needing to seek additional financing to continue our operations. There can be no assurance that we would be able to secure such financing on terms acceptable to us, or at all.
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A drop in the market share and changes in product mix offered by our customers can impact our revenues.
We are dependent on the continued growth, viability and financial stability of our customers. Our customers generally are OEMs in the automotive industry. This industry is subject to rapid technological change, vigorous competition, short product life cycles and cyclical, reduced consumer demand patterns and industry consolidation. When our customers are adversely affected by these factors, we may be similarly affected to the extent that our customers reduce the volume of orders for our products. As a result of changes impacting our customers, sales mix can shift which may have either favorable or unfavorable impacts on our revenues and would include shifts in regional growth, shifts in OEM sales demand, as well as shifts in consumer demand related to vehicle segment purchases and content penetration. For instance, a shift in sales demand favoring a particular OEMs’ vehicle model for which we do not have a supply contract may negatively impact our revenue. A shift in regional sales demand toward certain markets could favorably impact the sales of those of our customers that have a large market share in those regions, which in turn would be expected to have a favorable impact on our revenue.
The mix of vehicle offerings by our OEM customers, which can be affected by industry consolidation, also impacts our sales. For example, in January 2021, FCA and PSA executed a merger agreement to form a new, combined company (“Stellantis”), which will represent the world’s fourth largest OEM. The merger may result in the discontinuation of certain major vehicle brands previously marketed under the separate companies, which may have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. In addition, a decrease in consumer demand for specific types of vehicles where we have traditionally provided significant content could have a significant effect on our business and financial condition. Our sales of products in the regions in which our customers operate also depend on the success of these customers in those regions.
We operate in the highly competitive automotive technology and component supply industry, and are dependent on the acceptance of new product introductions for continued growth.
The global automotive technology and component supply industry is highly competitive. Competition is based primarily on price, technology, quality, delivery and overall customer service. There can be no assurance that our products will be able to compete successfully with the products of our competitors. Furthermore, the rapidly evolving nature of the markets in which we compete has attracted, and may continue to attract, new entrants, particularly in countries such as China or in areas of evolving vehicle technologies such as automated driving technologies, which have attracted new entrants from outside the traditional automotive supply industry. Additionally, consolidation in the automotive industry may lead to decreased product purchases from us. As a result, our sales levels and margins could be adversely affected by pricing pressures from OEMs and pricing actions of competitors. These factors led to selective resourcing of business to competitors in the past and may also do so in the future.
In addition, any of our competitors may foresee the course of market development more accurately than us, develop products that are superior to our products, have the ability to produce similar products at a lower cost than us, adapt more quickly than us to new technologies or evolving customer requirements or develop or introduce new products or solutions before we do, particularly related to potential transformative technologies such as autonomous driving solutions. As a result, our products may not be able to compete successfully with their products. These trends may adversely affect our sales as well as the profit margins on our products. If we do not continue to innovate to develop or acquire new and compelling products that capitalize upon new technologies, this could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.
If we do not respond appropriately, the evolution of the automotive industry towards autonomous vehicles and mobility on demand services could adversely affect our business.
The automotive industry is increasingly focused on the development of advanced driver assistance technologies, with the goal of developing and introducing a commercially-viable, fully automated driving experience. The high development cost of active safety and autonomous driving technologies may result in a higher risk of exposure to the success of new or disruptive technologies different than those being developed by us. There has also been an increase in consumer preferences for mobility on demand services, such as car- and ride-sharing, as opposed to automobile ownership, which may result in a long-term reduction in the number of vehicles per capita. These evolving areas have also attracted increased competition from entrants outside the traditional automotive industry. If we do not continue to innovate to develop or acquire new and compelling products that capitalize upon new technologies in response to OEM and consumer preferences, this could have an adverse impact on our results of operations.
We have invested substantial resources in markets and technologies where we expect growth and we may be unable to timely alter our strategies should such expectations not be realized.
Our future growth is dependent on our making the right investments at the right time to support product development and manufacturing capacity in geographic areas where we can support our customer base and in product areas of evolving vehicle technologies. We have identified the Asia Pacific region, and more specifically China, as a key geographic market, and have identified advanced driver assistance systems, autonomous driving technologies, mobility solutions and high voltage
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electrification systems as key product markets. We believe these markets are likely to experience substantial long-term growth, and accordingly have made and expect to continue to make substantial investments, both directly and through participation in various partnerships and joint ventures, in numerous manufacturing operations, technical centers, research and development activities and other infrastructure to support anticipated growth in these areas. If we are unable to deepen existing and develop additional customer relationships in the Asia Pacific region, or if we are unable to develop and introduce market-relevant advanced driver assistance or autonomous driving technologies, we may not only fail to realize expected rates of return on our existing investments, but we may incur losses on such investments and be unable to timely redeploy the invested capital to take advantage of other markets or product categories, potentially resulting in lost market share to our competitors. Our results will also suffer if these areas do not grow as quickly as we anticipate.
We may not be able to respond quickly enough to changes in regulations, technology and technological risks, and to develop our intellectual property into commercially viable products.
Changes in legislative, regulatory or industry requirements or in competitive technologies may render certain of our products obsolete or less attractive. Our ability to anticipate changes in technology and regulatory standards and to successfully develop and introduce new and enhanced products on a timely basis are significant factors in our ability to remain competitive and to maintain or increase our revenues. For example, the evolving sector of automated driver assistance and autonomous driving technologies has led to evolving guidance issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation (“DOT”) regarding best practices for the testing and deployment of automated driving systems, and outlining federal and state roles in the regulation of these systems, including providing state legislatures with best practices on how to safely foster the development and introduction of automated driving technologies onto public roads. There remains potential for the continued introduction of new and expanded regulations in this space, including potential requirements for autonomous vehicle systems to receive approval from the DOT or other regulatory agencies prior to commercial introduction. It is also possible that regulations in this space may diverge among jurisdictions, leading to increased compliance costs.
We cannot provide assurance that certain of our products will not become obsolete or that we will be able to achieve the technological advances that may be necessary for us to remain competitive and maintain or increase our revenues in the future. We are also subject to the risks generally associated with new product introductions and applications, including lack of market acceptance, delays in product development or production and failure of products to operate properly. The pace of our development and introduction of new and improved products depends on our ability to implement successfully improved technological innovations in design, engineering and manufacturing, which requires extensive capital investment. Any capital expenditure cuts in these areas that we may determine to implement in the future to reduce costs and conserve cash could reduce our ability to develop and implement improved technological innovations, which may materially reduce demand for our products.
To compete effectively in the automotive technology and components industry, we must be able to launch new products to meet changing consumer preferences and our customers’ demand in a timely and cost-effective manner. Our ability to respond to competitive pressures and react quickly to other major changes in the marketplace, including the potential introduction of disruptive technologies such as autonomous driving solutions or consumer desire for and availability of vehicles with advanced driver assistance technologies or which use alternative fuels is also a risk to our future financial performance.
We cannot provide assurance that we will be able to install and certify the equipment needed to produce products for new product programs in time for the start of production, or that the transitioning of our manufacturing facilities and resources to full production under new product programs will not impact production rates or other operational efficiency measures at our facilities. Development and manufacturing schedules are difficult to predict, and we cannot provide assurance that our customers will execute on schedule the launch of their new product programs, for which we might supply products. Our failure to successfully launch new products, or a failure by our customers to successfully launch new programs, could adversely affect our results.
Certain of our businesses rely on relationships with collaborative partners and other third-parties for development of certain products and potential products, and such collaborative partners or other third-parties could fail to perform sufficiently.
We believe that for certain of our businesses, success in developing market-relevant products depends in part on their ability to develop and maintain collaborative relationships with other companies. In particular, the recent formation of the Motional autonomous driving joint venture with Hyundai is dependent on the success of our relationship with our joint venture partner. There are certain risks involved in such relationships, as our collaborative partners may not devote sufficient resources to the success of our collaborations; may be acquired by other companies and subsequently terminate our collaborative arrangement; may compete with us; may not agree with us on key details of the collaborative relationship; or may not agree to renew existing collaborations on acceptable terms. Because these and other factors may be beyond our control, the development or commercialization of our products involved in collaborative partnerships may be delayed or otherwise adversely affected. If we or any of our collaborative partners terminate a collaborative arrangement, we may be required to devote additional
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resources to product development and commercialization or may need to cancel certain development programs, which could adversely affect our business and operational results.
Declines in the market share or business of our five largest customers may adversely impact our revenues and profitability.
Our five largest customers accounted for approximately 39% of our total net sales for the year ended December 31, 2020. Accordingly, our revenues may be adversely affected by decreases in any of their businesses or market share. For instance, certain United Automobile Workers (“UAW”) represented employees at GM initiated a labor strike in September 2019, lasting approximately six weeks in duration. As GM is one of our largest customers, this labor strike adversely impacted our financial condition, operating results and cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2019. In addition, because our customers typically have no obligation to purchase a specific quantity of parts, a decline in the production levels of any of our major customers, particularly with respect to models for which we are a significant supplier, could reduce our sales and thereby adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
Our business in China is subject to aggressive competition and is sensitive to economic and market conditions.
Maintaining a strong position in the Chinese market is a key component of our global growth strategy. The automotive technology and components market in China is highly competitive, with competition from many of the largest global manufacturers and numerous smaller domestic manufacturers. As the size of the Chinese market continues to increase over the long-term, we anticipate that additional competitors, both international and domestic, will seek to enter the Chinese market and that existing market participants will act aggressively to increase their market share. Increased competition may result in price reductions, reduced margins and our inability to gain or hold market share. Additionally, there have been periods of increased market volatility and moderations in the level of economic growth in China, which resulted in periods of lower automotive production growth rates in China than those previously experienced. For example, automotive production in China decreased by 3% in 2020, primarily due to the adverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and foreign trade uncertainties, which follows a decrease of 9% in the region in 2019. Our business in China is sensitive to economic and market conditions that drive automotive sales volumes in China and may be impacted if there are reductions in vehicle demand in China. If we are unable to maintain our position in the Chinese market or if vehicle sales in China continue to decrease, our business and financial results could be materially adversely affected.
We may not realize sales represented by awarded business.
We estimate awarded business using certain assumptions, including projected future sales volumes. Our customers generally do not guarantee volumes. In addition, awarded business may include business under arrangements that our customers have the right to terminate without penalty. Therefore, our actual sales volumes, and thus the ultimate amount of revenue that we derive from such sales, are not committed. If actual production orders from our customers are not consistent with the projections we use in calculating the amount of our awarded business, we could realize substantially less revenue over the life of these projects than the currently projected estimate.
Continued pricing pressures, OEM cost reduction initiatives and the ability of OEMs to re-source or cancel vehicle programs may result in lower than anticipated margins, or losses, which may have a significant negative impact on our business.
Cost-cutting initiatives adopted by our customers result in increased downward pressure on pricing. Our customer supply agreements generally require step-downs in component pricing over the period of production, typically one to three percent per year. In addition, our customers often reserve the right to terminate their supply contracts for convenience, which enhances their ability to obtain price reductions. OEMs have also possessed significant leverage over their suppliers, including us, because the automotive component supply industry is highly competitive, serves a limited number of customers, has a high fixed cost base and historically has had excess capacity. Based on these factors, and the fact that our customers’ product programs typically last a number of years and are anticipated to encompass large volumes, our customers are able to negotiate favorable pricing. Accordingly, as a Tier I supplier, we are subject to substantial continuing pressure from OEMs to reduce the price of our products. For example, our customer supply agreements generally provide for annual reductions in pricing of our products over the period of production. It is possible that pricing pressures beyond our expectations could intensify as OEMs pursue restructuring and cost-cutting initiatives. If we are unable to generate sufficient production cost savings in the future to offset price reductions, our gross margin and profitability would be adversely affected. See Item 1. Supply Relationships with Our Customers for a detailed discussion of our supply agreements with our customers.
Our supply agreements with our OEM customers are generally requirements contracts, and a decline in the production requirements of any of our customers, and in particular our largest customers, could adversely impact our revenues and profitability.
We receive OEM purchase orders for specific components supplied for particular vehicles. In most instances our OEM customers agree to purchase their requirements for specific products but are not required to purchase any minimum amount of
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products from us. The contracts we have entered into with most of our customers have terms ranging from one year to the life of the model (usually three to seven years, although customers often reserve the right to terminate for convenience). Therefore, a significant decrease in demand for certain key models or group of related models sold by any of our major customers or the ability of a manufacturer to re-source and discontinue purchasing from us, for a particular model or group of models, could have a material adverse effect on us. To the extent that we do not maintain our existing level of business with our largest customers because of a decline in their production requirements or because the contracts expire or are terminated for convenience, we will need to attract new customers or win new business with existing customers, or our results of operations and financial condition will be adversely affected. See Item 1. Supply Relationships with Our Customers for a detailed discussion of our supply agreements with our customers.
Adverse developments affecting one or more of our suppliers could harm our profitability.
Any significant disruption in our supplier relationships, particularly relationships with sole-source suppliers, could harm our profitability. Furthermore, some of our suppliers may not be able to handle commodity cost volatility and/or sharply changing volumes while still performing as we expect. To the extent our suppliers experience supply disruptions, there is a risk for delivery delays, production delays, production issues or delivery of non-conforming products by our suppliers. Even where these risks do not materialize, we may incur costs as we try to make contingency plans for such risks.
The loss of business with respect to, or the lack of commercial success of, a vehicle model for which we are a significant supplier could adversely affect our financial performance.
Although we receive purchase orders from our customers, these purchase orders generally provide for the supply of a customer’s requirements for a particular vehicle model and assembly plant, rather than for the purchase of a specific quantity of products. The loss of business with respect to, or the lack of commercial success of, a vehicle model for which we are a significant supplier could reduce our sales and thereby adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
Increases in costs of the materials and other supplies that we use in our products may have a negative impact on our business.
Significant changes in the markets where we purchase materials, components and supplies for the production of our products may adversely affect our profitability, particularly in the event of significant increases in demand where there is not a corresponding increase in supply, inflation or other pricing increases. In recent periods there have been significant fluctuations in the global prices of copper and petroleum-based resin products, and fuel charges, which have had and may continue to have an unfavorable impact on our business, results of operations or financial condition. Continuing volatility may have adverse effects on our business, results of operations or financial condition. We will continue efforts to pass some supply and material cost increases onto our customers, although competitive and market pressures have limited our ability to do that, particularly with domestic OEMs, and may prevent us from doing so in the future, because our customers are generally not obligated to accept price increases that we may desire to pass along to them. Even where we are able to pass price increases through to the customer, in some cases there is a lapse of time before we are able to do so. The inability to pass on price increases to our customers when raw material prices increase rapidly or to significantly higher than historic levels could adversely affect our operating margins and cash flow, possibly resulting in lower operating income and profitability. We expect to be continually challenged as demand for our principal raw materials and other supplies, including electronic components, is significantly impacted by demand in emerging markets, particularly in China. We cannot provide assurance that fluctuations in commodity prices will not otherwise have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations, or cause significant fluctuations in quarterly and annual results of operations.
Our hedging activities to address commodity price fluctuations may not be successful in offsetting future increases in those costs or may reduce or eliminate the benefits of any decreases in those costs.
In order to mitigate short-term volatility in operating results due to the aforementioned commodity price fluctuations, we hedge a portion of near-term exposure to certain raw materials used in production. The results of our hedging practice could be positive, neutral or negative in any period depending on price changes in the hedged exposures. Our hedging activities are not designed to mitigate long-term commodity price fluctuations and, therefore, will not protect from long-term commodity price increases. Our future hedging positions may not correlate to actual raw material costs, which could cause acceleration in the recognition of unrealized gains and losses on hedging positions in operating results.
We may encounter manufacturing challenges.
The volume and timing of sales to our customers may vary due to: variation in demand for our customers’ products; our customers’ attempts to manage their inventory; design changes; changes in our customers’ manufacturing strategy; and acquisitions of or consolidations among customers. Due in part to these factors, many of our customers do not commit to long-term production schedules. Our inability to forecast the level of customer orders with certainty makes it difficult to schedule production and maximize utilization of manufacturing capacity.
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We rely on third-party suppliers for the components used in our products, and we rely on third-party manufacturers to manufacture certain of our assemblies and finished products. Our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows could be adversely affected if our third-party suppliers lack sufficient quality control or if there are significant changes in their financial or business condition. If our third-party manufacturers fail to deliver products, parts and components of sufficient quality on time and at reasonable prices, we could have difficulties fulfilling our orders, sales and profits could decline, and our commercial reputation could be damaged.
From time to time, we have underutilized our manufacturing lines. This excess capacity means we incur increased fixed costs in our products relative to the net revenue we generate, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations, particularly during economic downturns. If we are unable to improve utilization levels for these manufacturing lines and correctly manage capacity, the increased expense levels will have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, some of our manufacturing lines are located in China or other foreign countries that are subject to a number of additional risks and uncertainties, including increasing labor costs, which may result from market demand or other factors, and political, social and economic instability.
Changes in factors that impact the determination of our non-U.S. pension liabilities may adversely affect us.
Certain of our non-U.S. subsidiaries sponsor defined benefit pension plans, which generally provide benefits based on negotiated amounts for each year of service. Our primary funded non-U.S. plans are located in Mexico and the United Kingdom and were underfunded by $73 million as of December 31, 2020. The funding requirements of these benefit plans, and the related expense reflected in our financial statements, are affected by several factors that are subject to an inherent degree of uncertainty and volatility, including governmental regulation. In addition to the defined benefit pension plans, we have retirement obligations driven by requirements in many of the countries in which we operate. These legally required plans require payments at the time benefits are due. Obligations, net of plan assets, related to these non-U.S. defined benefit pension plans and statutorily required retirement obligations totaled $539 million at December 31, 2020, of which $21 million is included in accrued liabilities, $519 million is included in long-term liabilities and $1 million is included in long-term assets in our consolidated balance sheets. Key assumptions used to value these benefit obligations and the cost of providing such benefits, funding requirements and expense recognition include the discount rate and the expected long-term rate of return on pension assets. If the actual trends in these factors are less favorable than our assumptions, this could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
We may suffer future asset impairment and other restructuring charges, including write downs of long-lived assets, goodwill, or intangible assets.
We have taken, are taking, and may take future restructuring actions to realign and resize our production capacity and cost structure to meet current and projected operational and market requirements. Charges related to these actions or any further restructuring actions may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. We cannot ensure that any current or future restructuring actions will be completed as planned or achieve the desired results.
Additionally, from time to time, we have recorded asset impairment losses relating to specific plants and operations. Generally, we record asset impairment losses when we determine that our estimates of the future undiscounted cash flows from an operation will not be sufficient to recover the carrying value of that facility’s building, fixed assets and production tooling. For goodwill, we perform a qualitative assessment of whether it is more likely than not that a reporting unit’s value is less than its carrying amount. If the qualitative assessment is not met, the Company then performs a quantitative assessment by comparing the estimated fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value, including goodwill. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, the Company recognizes an impairment loss in an amount equal to the excess, not to exceed the amount of goodwill allocated to the reporting unit. It is possible that we could incur such charges in the future as changes in economic or operating conditions impacting the estimates and assumptions could result in additional impairment.
Employee strikes and labor-related disruptions involving us or one or more of our customers or suppliers may adversely affect our operations.
Our business is labor-intensive and utilizes a number of work councils and other represented employees. A strike or other form of significant work disruption by our employees would likely have an adverse effect on our ability to operate our business. A labor dispute involving us or one or more of our customers or suppliers or that could otherwise affect our operations could reduce our sales and harm our profitability. A labor dispute involving another supplier to our customers that results in a slowdown or a closure of our customers’ assembly plants where our products are included in the assembled parts or vehicles could also adversely affect our business and harm our profitability. For instance, certain UAW represented employees at GM initiated a labor strike in September 2019, lasting approximately six weeks in duration. As GM is one of our largest customers, this labor strike adversely impacted our financial condition, operating results and cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2019. In addition, our inability or the inability of any of our customers, our suppliers or our customers’ suppliers to negotiate an extension of a collective bargaining agreement upon its expiration could reduce our sales and harm our profitability. Significant
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increases in labor costs as a result of the renegotiation of collective bargaining agreements could also adversely affect our business and harm our profitability.
We are exposed to foreign currency fluctuations as a result of our substantial global operations, which may affect our financial results.
We have currency exposures related to buying, selling and financing in currencies other than the local currencies of the countries in which we operate. Approximately 66% of our net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020 came from sales outside the U.S., which were primarily invoiced in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, and we expect net revenue from non-U.S. markets to continue to represent a significant portion of our net revenue. Accordingly, significant changes in currency exchange rates, particularly the Euro and Chinese Yuan (Renminbi), could cause fluctuations in the reported results of our businesses’ operations that could negatively affect our results of operations. Price increases caused by currency exchange rate fluctuations may make our products less competitive or have an adverse effect on our margins. Currency exchange rate fluctuations may also disrupt the business of our suppliers by making their purchases of raw materials more expensive and more difficult to finance.
Historically, we have reduced our exposure by aligning our costs in the same currency as our revenues or, if that is impracticable, through financial instruments that provide offsets or limits to our exposures, which are opposite to the underlying transactions. However, any measures that we may implement to reduce the effect of volatile currencies and other risks of our global operations may not be effective.
In addition, we have significant business in Europe and transact much of this business in the Euro currency, including sales and purchase contracts. Although not as prevalent currently, concerns over the stability of the Euro currency and the economic outlook for many European countries, including those that do not use the Euro as their currency, persist. Given the broad range of possible outcomes, it is difficult to fully assess the implications on our business. Some of the potential outcomes could significantly impact our operations. In the event of a country redenominating its currency away from the Euro, the potential impact could be material to operations. We cannot provide assurance that fluctuations in currency exposures will not have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations, or cause significant fluctuations in quarterly and annual results of operations.
We face risks associated with doing business in various national and local jurisdictions.
The majority of our manufacturing and distribution facilities are in countries outside of the U.S., including Mexico, China and other countries in Asia Pacific, Eastern and Western Europe, South America and Northern Africa. We also purchase raw materials and other supplies from many different countries around the world. For the year ended December 31, 2020, approximately 66% of our net revenue came from sales outside the U.S. International operations are subject to certain risks inherent in doing business abroad, including:
exposure to local economic, political and labor conditions;
unexpected changes in laws, regulations, trade or monetary or fiscal policy, including interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates and changes in the rate of inflation in the U.S. and other foreign countries;
tariffs, quotas, customs and other import or export restrictions and other trade barriers;
expropriation and nationalization;
difficulty of enforcing agreements, collecting receivables and protecting assets through non-U.S. legal systems;
reduced technology, data or intellectual property protections;
limitations on repatriation of earnings;
withholding and other taxes on remittances and other payments by subsidiaries;
investment restrictions or requirements;
violence and civil unrest in local countries; and
compliance with the requirements of an increasing body of applicable anti-bribery laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and similar laws of various other countries.
Additionally, our global operations may also be adversely affected by political events, domestic or international terrorist events and hostilities, complications due to natural, nuclear or other disasters or the spread of an infectious disease, virus or other widespread illness. For instance, the global spread of COVID-19, which originated in late 2019 and was later declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020, caused certain governmental authorities worldwide to initiate “lock-down” orders for all non-essential activities, which at times, has included extended shutdowns of businesses in the impacted regions. In addition, government changes in Mexico have yielded requirements for increases in minimum wages throughout the country. These or any further political or governmental developments or health concerns in Mexico, China or
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other countries in which we operate could result in social, economic and labor instability. These uncertainties could have a material adverse effect on the continuity of our business and our results of operations and financial condition.
Existing free trade laws and regulations, such as the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement, provide certain beneficial duties and tariffs for qualifying imports and exports, subject to compliance with the applicable classification and other requirements. Changes in laws or policies governing the terms of foreign trade, and in particular increased trade restrictions, tariffs or taxes on imports from countries where we manufacture products, such as China and Mexico, could have a material adverse affect on our business and financial results. For instance, beginning in 2018, the U.S. and Chinese governments have imposed a series of significant incremental retaliatory tariffs to certain imported products. Most notably with respect to the automotive industry, the U.S. imposed tariffs on imports of certain steel, aluminum and automotive components, and China imposed retaliatory tariffs on imports of U.S. vehicles and certain automotive components. Despite recent trade negotiations between the U.S. and Chinese governments, given the uncertainty regarding the scope and duration of the imposed tariffs, as well as the potential for additional tariffs or trade barriers by the U.S., China or other countries, we can provide no assurance that any strategies we implement to mitigate the impact of such tariffs or other trade actions will be successful.
Increasing our manufacturing footprint in Asian markets, including China, and our business relationships with Asian automotive manufacturers are important elements of our long-term strategy. In addition, our strategy includes increasing revenue and expanding our manufacturing footprint in lower-cost regions. As a result, our exposure to the risks described above may be greater in the future. The likelihood of such occurrences and their potential impact on us vary from country to country and are unpredictable.
The United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union may adversely affect our business and profitability.
The United Kingdom (“U.K.”) and Europe agreed to terms for the U.K.’s exit from the European Union (“E.U.”), commonly referred to as “Brexit,” on December 24, 2020 and became effective on December 31, 2020. Under these terms, the U.K. and E.U. will continue to be able to trade on a tariff-free basis, though companies will be required to file customs and duty declarations for the cross border movement of goods, similar in nature to other border crossings. These compliance requirements will be effective beginning in early 2021 and may take several months to complete. During the implementation phase, our cross border shipments between the U.K. and E.U., and those of our customers and suppliers, may be subject to delays and restrictions which may adversely affect European and worldwide economic and market conditions. Potential adverse impacts of this phase may include reduced vehicle production, reduced global market liquidity and restrictions on the ability of key market participants to operate in certain financial markets which could contribute to instability in global financial and foreign exchange markets, including increased volatility in interest rates and foreign exchange rates. Although we do not have a material physical presence in the U.K., with less than 1% of our workforce located in the U.K. and approximately 2% of our annual net sales generated in the U.K., the potential impacts of Brexit could adversely impact other global economies, and in particular, the European economy, a region which accounted for approximately 34% of our total net sales for the year ended December 31, 2020. We continue to actively monitor the ongoing potential impacts of Brexit and will seek to minimize the impacts on our business through review of our existing contractual arrangements and obligations, particularly in the European region. Any of these effects of Brexit, among others, could adversely affect our business, business opportunities, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
If we fail to manage our growth effectively or to integrate successfully any new or future business ventures, acquisitions or strategic alliance into our business, our business could be materially adversely harmed.
We have completed a number of acquisitions in recent years, most recently the acquisition of Dynawave Inc., and we expect to continue to pursue business ventures, acquisitions, and strategic alliances that leverage our technology capabilities, enhance our customer base, geographic penetration and scale to complement our current businesses and we regularly evaluate potential opportunities, some of which could be material. While we believe that such transactions are an integral part of our long-term strategy, there are risks and uncertainties related to these activities. Assessing a potential growth opportunity involves extensive due diligence. However, the amount of information we can obtain about a potential growth opportunity may be limited, and we can give no assurance that new business ventures, acquisitions, and strategic alliances will positively affect our financial performance or will perform as planned. We may not be able to successfully assimilate or integrate companies that we acquire, including their personnel, financial systems, distribution, operations and general operating procedures. We may also encounter challenges in achieving appropriate internal control over financial reporting in connection with the integration of an acquired company. If we fail to assimilate or integrate acquired companies successfully, our business, reputation and operating results could be materially impacted. Likewise, our failure to integrate and manage acquired companies successfully may lead to future impairment of any associated goodwill and intangible asset balances.
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We depend on information technology to conduct our business. Any significant disruptions to our information technology systems or facilities, or those of third parties with which we do business, such as disruptions caused by cyber-attacks, could adversely impact our business.
Our ability to keep our business operating effectively depends on the functional and efficient operation of information technology systems and facilities, both internally and externally. We rely on these systems to, among other things, make a variety of day-to-day business decisions as well as to record and process transactions, billings, payments, inventory and other data, in many currencies, on a daily basis, and across numerous and diverse markets and jurisdictions. Our systems, as well as those of our customers, suppliers, partners and service providers, also contain sensitive confidential information or intellectual property and are susceptible to interruptions (including those caused by systems failures, cyber-attacks and other natural or man-made incidents or disasters), which may be prolonged or go undetected. Cyber-attacks, both domestically and abroad, are increasing in their frequency, sophistication and intensity, and have become increasingly difficult to detect. Although we have and continue to take precautions to prevent, detect and mitigate such events, including geographically diverse data centers, redundant infrastructure and the implementation of security measures, a significant or large-scale interruption of our information technology systems or facilities could adversely affect our ability to manage and keep our operations running efficiently and effectively, and could result in significant costs, fines or litigation. An incident that results in a wider or sustained disruption to our business or products could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Additionally, certain of our products contain complex information technology systems designed to support today’s increasingly connected vehicles, and could be susceptible to similar interruptions, including the possibility of unauthorized access. Further, as we transition to offering more cloud-based solutions which are dependent on the Internet or other networks to operate, we may increasingly be the target of cyber threats, including computer viruses or breaches due to misconduct of employees, contractors or others who have access to our networks and systems, or those of third parties with which we do business. Although we have designed and implemented security measures to prevent and detect such unauthorized access or cyber threats from occurring, there can be no assurance that vulnerabilities will not be identified in the future, or that our security efforts will be successful. Any unauthorized access to our components could negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. Further, maintaining and updating these systems may require significant costs and often involves implementation, integration and security risks, including risks that we may not adequately anticipate the market or technological trends or that we may experience unexpected challenges that could cause financial, reputational and operational harm. However, failing to properly respond to and invest in information technology advancements may limit our ability to attract and retain customers, prevent us from offering similar products and services as those offered by our competitors or inhibit our ability to meet regulatory or other requirements.
To date, we have not experienced a system failure, cyber-attack or security breach that has resulted in a material interruption in our operations or material adverse effect on our financial condition. Our Board of Directors regularly reviews relevant information technology and cyber security matters and receives periodic updates from information technology and cyber security subject matter experts as part of its risk assessment procedures, including analysis of existing and emerging risks, as well as plans and strategies to address those risks. While we continuously seek to expand and improve our information technology systems and maintain adequate disclosure controls and procedures, there can be no assurance that such measures will prevent interruptions or security breaches that could adversely affect our business.
Risks Related to Legal, Regulatory, Tax and Accounting Matters
We may incur material losses and costs as a result of warranty claims, product recalls, product liability and intellectual property infringement actions that may be brought against us.
We face an inherent business risk of exposure to warranty claims and product liability in the event that our products fail to perform as expected and, in the case of product liability, such failure of our products results in bodily injury and/or property damage. The fabrication of the products we manufacture is a complex and precise process. Our customers specify quality, performance and reliability standards. If flaws in either the design or manufacture of our products were to occur, we could experience a rate of failure in our products that could result in significant delays in shipment and product re-work or replacement costs. Although we engage in extensive product quality programs and processes, these may not be sufficient to avoid product failures, which could cause us to:
lose net revenue;
incur increased costs such as warranty expense and costs associated with customer support;
experience delays, cancellations or rescheduling of orders for our products;
experience increased product returns or discounts; or
damage our reputation,
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all of which could negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.
If any of our products are or are alleged to be defective, we may be required to participate in a recall involving such products. Each vehicle manufacturer has its own practices regarding product recalls and other product liability actions relating to its suppliers. However, as suppliers become more integrally involved in the vehicle design process and assume more of the vehicle assembly functions, OEMs continue to look to their suppliers for contribution when faced with recalls and product liability claims. A recall claim brought against us, or a product liability claim brought against us in excess of our available insurance, may have a material adverse effect on our business. OEMs also require their suppliers to guarantee or warrant their products and bear the costs of repair and replacement of such products under new vehicle warranties. Depending on the terms under which we supply products to a vehicle manufacturer, a vehicle manufacturer may attempt to hold us responsible for some or all of the repair or replacement costs of defective products under new vehicle warranties when the OEM asserts that the product supplied did not perform as warranted. Although we cannot ensure that the future costs of warranty claims by our customers will not be material, we believe our established reserves are adequate to cover potential warranty settlements. Our warranty reserves are based on our best estimates of amounts necessary to settle future and existing claims. We regularly evaluate the level of these reserves and adjust them when appropriate. However, the final amounts determined to be due related to these matters could differ materially from our recorded estimates.
In addition, as we adopt new technology, we face an inherent risk of exposure to the claims of others that we have allegedly violated their intellectual property rights. We cannot ensure that we will not experience any material warranty, product liability or intellectual property claim losses in the future or that we will not incur significant costs to defend such claims.
We may be adversely affected by laws or regulations, including environmental regulation, litigation or other liabilities.
We are subject to various U.S. federal, state and local, and non-U.S., laws and regulations, including those related to environmental, health and safety, financial and other matters.
We cannot predict the substance or impact of pending or future legislation or regulations, or the application thereof. The introduction of new laws or regulations or changes in existing laws or regulations, or the interpretations thereof, could increase the costs of doing business for us or our customers or suppliers or restrict our actions and adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
We are subject to regulation governing, among other things:
the generation, storage, handling, use, transportation, presence of, or exposure to hazardous materials;
the emission and discharge of hazardous materials into the ground, air or water;
the incorporation of certain chemical substances into our products, including electronic equipment; and
the health and safety of our employees.
We are also required to obtain permits from governmental authorities for certain operations. We cannot assure you that we have been or will be at all times in complete compliance with such laws, regulations and permits. If we violate or fail to comply with these laws, regulations or permits, we could be fined or otherwise sanctioned by regulators. We could also be held liable for any and all consequences arising out of human exposure to hazardous substances or other environmental damage.
Certain environmental laws impose liability, sometimes regardless of fault, for investigating or cleaning up contamination on or emanating from our currently or formerly owned, leased or operated property, as well as for damages to property or natural resources and for personal injury arising out of such contamination. Some of these environmental laws may also assess liability on persons who arrange for hazardous substances to be sent to third-party disposal or treatment facilities when such facilities are found to be contaminated. At this time, we are involved in various stages of investigation and cleanup related to environmental remediation matters at a number of present and former facilities. The ultimate cost to us of site cleanups is difficult to predict given the uncertainties regarding the extent of the required cleanup, the potential for ongoing environmental monitoring and maintenance that could be required for many years, the interpretation of applicable laws and regulations, alternative cleanup methods, and potential agreements that could be reached with governmental and third parties. While we have environmental reserves of approximately $4 million at December 31, 2020 for the cleanup of presently-known environmental contamination conditions, it cannot be guaranteed that actual costs will not significantly exceed these reserves. We also could be named as a potentially responsible party at additional sites in the future and the costs associated with such future sites may be material.
In addition, environmental laws are complex, change frequently and have tended to become more stringent over time. While we have budgeted for future capital and operating expenditures to maintain compliance with environmental laws, we cannot ensure that environmental laws will not change or become more stringent in the future. Therefore, we cannot ensure that our costs of complying with current and future environmental and health and safety laws, and our liabilities arising from past or future releases of, or exposure to, hazardous substances will not adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial
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condition. For example, adoption of greenhouse gas rules in jurisdictions in which we operate facilities could require installation of emission controls, acquisition of emission credits, emission reductions, or other measures that could be costly, and could also impact utility rates and increase the amount we spend annually for energy.
We may identify the need for additional environmental remediation or demolition obligations relating to facility divestiture, closure and decommissioning activities.
As we sell, close and/or demolish facilities around the world, environmental investigations and assessments will continue to be performed. We may identify previously unknown environmental conditions or further delineate known conditions that may require remediation or additional costs related to demolition or decommissioning, such as abatement of asbestos containing materials or removal of storage tanks. Such costs could exceed our reserves.
We are involved from time to time in legal proceedings and commercial or contractual disputes, which could have an adverse impact on our profitability and consolidated financial position.
We are involved in legal proceedings and commercial or contractual disputes that, from time to time, are significant. These are typically claims that arise in the normal course of business including, without limitation, commercial or contractual disputes, including warranty claims and other disputes with customers and suppliers; intellectual property matters; personal injury claims; environmental issues; tax matters; and employment matters.
In addition, we conduct significant business operations in Brazil that are subject to the Brazilian federal labor, social security, environmental, tax and customs laws as well as a variety of state and local laws. While we believe we comply with such laws, they are complex, subject to varying interpretations, and we are often engaged in litigation with government agencies regarding the application of these laws to particular circumstances. As of December 31, 2020, the majority of claims asserted against Aptiv in Brazil relate to such litigation. The remaining claims relate to commercial and labor litigation with private parties in Brazil. As of December 31, 2020, claims totaling approximately $105 million (using December 31, 2020 foreign currency rates) have been asserted against Aptiv in Brazil. As of December 31, 2020, we maintained reserves for these asserted claims of approximately $20 million (using December 31, 2020 foreign currency rates).
While we believe our reserves are adequate, the final amounts required to resolve these matters could differ materially from our recorded estimates and our results of operations could be materially affected.
For further information regarding our legal matters, see Item 3. Legal Proceedings. No assurance can be given that such proceedings and claims will not have a material adverse effect on our profitability and consolidated financial position.
Developments or assertions by us or against us relating to intellectual property rights could materially impact our business.
We own significant intellectual property, including a large number of patents and trade names, and are involved in numerous licensing arrangements. Our intellectual property plays an important role in maintaining our competitive position in a number of the markets we serve. Developments or assertions by or against us relating to intellectual property rights could negatively impact our business. Significant technological developments by others also could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations and financial condition.
Taxing authorities could challenge our historical and future tax positions.
Our future effective tax rates could be affected by changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory rates and changes in tax laws or their interpretation including changes related to tax holidays or tax incentives. Our taxes could increase if certain tax holidays or incentives are not renewed upon expiration, or if tax rates or regimes applicable to us in such jurisdictions are otherwise increased. Existing income tax laws, regulations and related international agreements provide guidance and direction on the allocations of income and applicable taxing rights among the countries in which we operate. Changes in these guidelines are being contemplated at the local, national, regional (particularly in the E.U.), and global levels (through organizations like the G20 and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Any changes, especially if made inconsistently, could have a materially adverse impact on our financial results.
The amount of tax we pay is subject to our interpretation of applicable tax laws in the jurisdictions in which we file. We have taken and will continue to take tax positions based on our interpretation of such tax laws. Additionally, in determining the adequacy of our provision for income taxes, we regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from tax examinations. While it is often difficult to predict the final outcome or the timing of the resolution of a tax examination, our reserves for uncertain tax benefits reflect the outcome of tax positions that are more likely than not to occur. While we believe that we have complied with all applicable tax laws, there can be no assurance that a taxing authority will not have a different interpretation of the law and assess us with additional taxes. Should additional taxes be assessed, this may result in a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
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General Risk Factors
Any changes in consumer credit availability or cost of borrowing could adversely affect our business.
Declines in the availability of consumer credit and increases in consumer borrowing costs have negatively impacted global automotive sales and resulted in lower production volumes in the past. Substantial declines in automotive sales and production by our customers could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We may lose or fail to attract and retain key salaried employees and management personnel.
An important aspect of our competitiveness is our ability to attract and retain key salaried employees and management personnel. Our ability to do so is influenced by a variety of factors, including the compensation we award and the competitive market position of our overall compensation package. We may not be as successful as competitors at recruiting, assimilating and retaining highly skilled personnel. The loss of the services of any member of senior management or a key salaried employee could have an adverse effect on our business.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
We have no unresolved SEC staff comments to report.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
As of December 31, 2020, we owned or leased 124 major manufacturing sites and 12 major technical centers. A manufacturing site may include multiple plants and may be wholly or partially owned or leased. We also have many smaller manufacturing sites, sales offices, warehouses, engineering centers, joint ventures and other investments strategically located throughout the world. We have a presence in 44 countries. The following table shows the regional distribution of our major manufacturing sites by the operating segment that uses such facilities:
North America Europe,
Middle East
& Africa
Asia Pacific South America Total
Signal and Power Solutions 43  34  31  113 
Advanced Safety and User Experience —  11 
Total 45  39  35  124 
In addition to these manufacturing sites, we had 12 major technical centers: five in North America; two in Europe, Middle East and Africa; and five in Asia Pacific.
Of our 124 major manufacturing sites and 12 major technical centers, which include facilities owned or leased by our consolidated subsidiaries, 63 are primarily owned and 73 are primarily leased.
We frequently review our real estate portfolio and develop footprint strategies to support our customers’ global plans, while at the same time supporting our technical needs and controlling operating expenses. We believe our evolving portfolio will meet current and anticipated future needs.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are from time to time subject to various actions, claims, suits, government investigations, and other proceedings incidental to our business, including those arising out of alleged defects, breach of contracts, competition and antitrust matters, product warranties, intellectual property matters, personal injury claims and employment-related matters. It is our opinion that the outcome of such matters will not have a material adverse impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. With respect to warranty matters, although we cannot ensure that the future costs of warranty claims by customers will not be material, we believe our established reserves are adequate to cover potential warranty settlements. However, the final amounts required to resolve these matters could differ materially from our recorded estimates.
Brazil Matters
Aptiv conducts business operations in Brazil that are subject to the Brazilian federal labor, social security, environmental, tax and customs laws, as well as a variety of state and local laws. While Aptiv believes it complies with such laws, they are complex, subject to varying interpretations, and the Company is often engaged in litigation with government agencies regarding the application of these laws to particular circumstances. As of December 31, 2020, the majority of claims asserted against
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Aptiv in Brazil relate to such litigation. The remaining claims in Brazil relate to commercial and labor litigation with private parties. As of December 31, 2020, claims totaling approximately $105 million (using December 31, 2020 foreign currency rates) have been asserted against Aptiv in Brazil. As of December 31, 2020, the Company maintains accruals for these asserted claims of $20 million (using December 31, 2020 foreign currency rates). The amounts accrued represent claims that are deemed probable of loss and are reasonably estimable based on the Company’s analyses and assessment of the asserted claims and prior experience with similar matters. While the Company believes its accruals are adequate, the final amounts required to resolve these matters could differ materially from the Company’s recorded estimates and Aptiv’s results of operations could be materially affected. The Company estimates the reasonably possible loss in excess of the amounts accrued related to these claims to be zero to $85 million.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.

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PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our ordinary shares have been publicly traded since November 17, 2011 when our ordinary shares were listed and began trading on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “DLPH.” On December 4, 2017, following the spin-off of Delphi Technologies, the Company changed its name to Aptiv PLC and its NYSE symbol to “APTV.”
As of January 29, 2021, there were 2 shareholders of record of our ordinary shares.
The following graph reflects the comparative changes in the value from December 31, 2015 through December 31, 2020, assuming an initial investment of $100 and the reinvestment of dividends, if any in (1) our ordinary shares, (2) the S&P 500 index and (3) the Automotive Peer Group. Historical share prices of our ordinary shares have been adjusted to reflect the Separation. Historical performance may not be indicative of future shareholder returns.
Stock Performance Graph
APTV-20201231_G1.JPG
*    $100 invested on December 31, 2015 in our stock or in the relevant index, including reinvestment of dividends. Fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.
(1)Aptiv PLC, adjusted for the distribution of Delphi Technologies on December 4, 2017
(2)S&P 500 – Standard & Poor’s 500 Total Return Index
(3)Automotive Peer Group – Adient Plc, American Axle & Manufacturing Holdings Inc, Aptiv PLC, Borgwarner Inc, Cooper Tire & Rubber Co, Cooper-standard Holdings Inc, Dana Inc, Dorman Products Inc, Ford Motor Co, General Motors Co, Gentex Corp, Gentherm Inc, Genuine Parts Co, Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co, Lear Corp, Lkq Corp, Meritor Inc, Motorcar Parts Of America Inc, Standard Motor Products Inc, Stoneridge Inc, Tenneco Inc, Tesla Inc, Visteon Corp
Company Index December 31, 2015 December 31, 2016 December 31, 2017 December 31, 2018 December 31, 2019 December 31, 2020
Aptiv PLC (1) $ 100.00  $ 79.94  $ 121.83  $ 89.29  $ 139.19  $ 191.42 
S&P 500 (2) 100.00  111.96  136.40  130.42  171.49  203.04 
Automotive Peer Group (3) 100.00  99.50  123.77  98.95  122.30  393.86 
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Equity Compensation Plan Information
The table below contains information about securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans. The features of these plans are discussed further in Note 21. Share-Based Compensation to our audited consolidated financial statements.
Plan Category Number of Securities to be Issued Upon Exercise of Outstanding Options, Warrants and Rights (a) Weighted-Average Exercise Price of Outstanding Options, Warrants and Rights (b) Number of Securities Remaining Available for Future Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans (excluding securities reflected in column (a)) (c)
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders
2,087,438  (1) $ —  (2) 13,745,696  (3)
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders
—  —  — 
Total 2,087,438  —  13,745,696 
(1)Includes (a) 51,674 outstanding restricted stock units granted to our Board of Directors and (b) 2,035,764 outstanding time- and performance-based restricted stock units granted to our employees. All grants were made under the Aptiv PLC Long Term Incentive Plan, as amended and restated effective April 23, 2015 (the “PLC LTIP”). Includes accrued dividend equivalents.
(2)The restricted stock units have no exercise price.
(3)Remaining shares available under the PLC LTIP.
Repurchase of Equity Securities
There were no repurchases of equity securities during the quarter ended December 31, 2020. In January 2019, the Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program of up to $2.0 billion. This program will commence following the completion of the previously announced share repurchase program of $1.5 billion, which was approved by the Board of Directors in April 2016. As of December 31, 2020, approximately $2,013 million remained available for repurchases pursuant to these programs.

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following selected consolidated financial data were derived from our audited consolidated financial statements and should be read in conjunction with, and are qualified by reference to, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report. The financial information presented may not be indicative of our future performance.
The assets and liabilities and operating results for the previously reported Powertrain Systems and Thermal Systems segments have been reclassified as discontinued operations separate from the Company’s continuing operations for all periods presented.
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  Year Ended December 31,
2020 2019 2018 2017 2016
  (dollars and shares in millions, except per share data)
Statements of operations data:
Net sales $ 13,066  $ 14,357  $ 14,435  $ 12,884  $ 12,274 
Depreciation and amortization (1) 764  717  676  546  489 
Operating income (2) 2,118  1,276  1,473  1,416  1,539 
Interest expense (164) (164) (141) (140) (155)
Income from continuing operations 1,822  1,009  1,107  1,063  868 
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax —  —  —  365  458 
Net income 1,822  1,009  1,107  1,428  1,326 
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest
18  19  40  73  69 
Net income attributable to Aptiv
1,804  990  1,067  1,355  1,257 
Mandatory Convertible Preferred Share dividends (35) —  —  —  — 
Net income attributable to ordinary shareholders 1,769  990  1,067  1,355  1,257 
Net income per share data:
Basic net income per share:
Continuing operations
$ 6.72  $ 3.85  $ 4.04  $ 3.82  $ 3.05 
Discontinued operations
—  —  —  1.25  1.55 
Basic net income per share attributable to ordinary shareholders $ 6.72  $ 3.85  $ 4.04  $ 5.07  $ 4.60 
Diluted net income per share:
Continuing operations
$ 6.66  $ 3.85  $ 4.02  $ 3.81  $ 3.05 
Discontinued operations
—  —  —  1.25  1.54 
Diluted net income per share attributable to ordinary shareholders $ 6.66  $ 3.85  $ 4.02  $ 5.06  $ 4.59 
Weighted average shares outstanding 263  257  264  267  273 
Cash dividends declared and paid per ordinary share $ 0.22  $ 0.88  $ 0.88  $ 1.16  $ 1.16 
Other financial data:
Capital expenditures $ 584  $ 781  $ 846  $ 698  $ 657 
Adjusted operating income (3) 867  1,548  1,751  1,594  1,623 
Adjusted operating income margin (4) 6.6  % 10.8  % 12.1  % 12.4  % 13.2  %
Net cash provided by operating activities (5)
$ 1,413  $ 1,624  $ 1,628  $ 1,468  $ 1,941 
Net cash used in investing activities (5)
(626) (1,111) (2,048) (1,252) (578)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities (5) 1,613  (649) (555) 456  (1,081)
As of December 31,
2020 2019 2018 2017 2016
(in millions, except employee data)
Balance sheet and employment data:
Cash and cash equivalents $ 2,821  $ 412  $ 567  $ 1,596  $ 737 
Total assets (6) $ 17,522  $ 13,459  $ 12,480  $ 12,169  $ 12,292 
Total debt $ 4,101  $ 4,364  $ 4,344  $ 4,149  $ 3,963 
Working capital, as defined (7) $ 1,538  $ 1,392  $ 1,430  $ 1,296  $ 1,169 
Shareholders’ equity $ 8,100  $ 4,011  $ 3,670  $ 3,517  $ 2,763 
Global employees (8) 151,000  141,000  143,000  129,000  145,000 
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(1) Includes long-lived and intangible asset impairments.
(2)
The year ended December 31, 2020 includes a pre-tax gain of $1.4 billion for the completion of the Motional autonomous driving joint venture, as further discussed in Note 24. Held for Sale to the audited consolidated financial statements contained herein.
(3) Adjusted Operating Income represents net income before interest expense, other income (expense), net, income tax expense, equity income (loss), net of tax, income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax, restructuring, other acquisition and portfolio project costs (which includes costs incurred to integrate acquired businesses and to plan and execute product portfolio transformation actions, including business and product acquisitions and divestitures), asset impairments, gains (losses) on business divestitures and other transactions and deferred compensation related to acquisitions. Adjusted Operating Income is presented as a supplemental measure of the Company’s financial performance which management believes is useful to investors in assessing the Company’s ongoing financial performance that, when reconciled to the corresponding U.S. GAAP measure, provides improved comparability between periods through the exclusion of certain items that management believes are not indicative of the Company’s core operating performance and which may obscure underlying business results and trends. Our management utilizes Adjusted Operating Income in its financial decision making process, to evaluate performance of the Company and for internal reporting, planning and forecasting purposes. Management also utilizes Adjusted Operating Income as the key performance measure of segment income or loss and for planning and forecasting purposes to allocate resources to our segments, as management also believes this measure is most reflective of the operational profitability or loss of our operating segments. Adjusted Operating Income should not be considered a substitute for results prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and should not be considered an alternative to net income attributable to Aptiv, which is the most directly comparable financial measure to Adjusted Operating Income that is in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Adjusted Operating Income, as determined and measured by Aptiv, should also not be compared to similarly titled measures reported by other companies.
The reconciliation of Adjusted Operating Income to operating income includes restructuring, other acquisition and portfolio project costs (which includes costs incurred to integrate acquired businesses and to plan and execute product portfolio transformation actions, including business and product acquisitions and divestitures), asset impairments, gains (losses) on business divestitures and other transactions and deferred compensation related to acquisitions. The reconciliation of Adjusted Operating Income to net income attributable to the Company is as follows:
  Year Ended December 31,
  2020 2019 2018 2017 2016
(in millions)
Net income attributable to Aptiv $ 1,804  $ 990  $ 1,067  $ 1,355  $ 1,257 
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest 18  19  40  73  69 
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax —  —  —  (365) (458)
Income from continuing operations 1,822  1,009  1,107  1,063  868 
Equity loss (income), net of tax 83  (15) (23) (31) (35)
Income tax expense 49  132  250  223  167 
Other (income) expense, net (a) —  (14) (2) 21  384 
Interest expense 164  164  141  140  155 
Operating income (b) 2,118  1,276  1,473  1,416  1,539 
Restructuring 136  148  109  129  167 
Other acquisition and portfolio project costs 23  71  78  28  57 
Asset impairments 10  11  34 
Gain on business divestitures and other transactions (1,434) —  —  —  (141)
Deferred compensation related to acquisitions 14  42  57  12  — 
Adjusted operating income (b) $ 867  $ 1,548  $ 1,751  $ 1,594  $ 1,623 
(a)    During the year ended December 31, 2016, the Company recorded a reserve of $300 million for litigation related to general unsecured claims against the former Delphi Corporation.
(b)    On December 30, 2016, we completed the sale of our Mechatronics business. Given the timing of the divestiture, the operating results of this business are reflected in our 2016 results and impacts comparability to 2017 results.
(4) Adjusted operating income margin is defined as adjusted operating income as a percentage of net sales.
(5) Includes amounts attributable to discontinued operations.
(6)
The adoption of Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-02, Leases, resulted in the recognition of operating lease right-of-use assets in the consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2019, which impacts comparability to 2018 and prior periods.
(7) Working capital is calculated herein as accounts receivable plus inventories less accounts payable.
(8)
Excludes temporary and contract workers. As of December 31, 2020, we employed approximately 33,000 temporary and contract workers. Periods prior to December 31, 2017 include employees of discontinued operations.

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations (“MD&A”) is intended to help you understand the business operations and financial condition of the Company for the period ended December 31, 2020. This discussion should be read in conjunction with Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data. Our MD&A is presented in seven sections:
Executive Overview
Consolidated Results of Operations
Results of Operations by Segment
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements and Other Matters
Significant Accounting Policies and Critical Accounting Estimates
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
Executive Overview
Our Business
We are a leading global technology and mobility company primarily serving the automotive sector. We design and manufacture vehicle components and provide electrical, electronic and active safety technology solutions to the global automotive market, creating the software and hardware foundation for vehicle features and functionality. We enable and deliver end-to-end smart mobility solutions, active safety and autonomous driving technologies and provide enhanced user experience and connected services. Our Advanced Safety and User Experience segment is focused on providing the necessary software and advanced computing platforms, and our Signal and Power Solutions segment is focused on providing the requisite networking architecture required to support the integrated systems in today’s complex vehicles. Together, our businesses develop the ‘brain’ and the ‘nervous system’ of increasingly complex vehicles, providing integration of the vehicle into its operating environment.
We are one of the largest vehicle component manufacturers, and our customers include 23 of the 25 largest automotive OEMs in the world.
Business Strategy
We believe the Company is well-positioned for growth from increasing global vehicle production volumes, increased demand for our Safe, Green and Connected products which are being added to vehicle content, and new business wins with existing and new customers. We are focused on accelerating the commercialization of active safety, autonomous driving, enhanced user experiences and connected services, providing the software, advanced computing platforms and networking architecture required to do so. We have successfully created a competitive cost structure while investing in research and development to grow our product offerings, which are aligned with the high-growth industry mega-trends, and re-aligned our manufacturing footprint into an efficient, low-cost regional service model, focused on increasing our profit margins.
COVID-19 affected nearly every facet of our operations. In spite of these impacts, our 2020 performance reflects our team’s dedication and efforts to ensure the health and safety of our employees first, while positioning the Company for flawless execution for our customers as operations resumed. Management’s actions preserved and enhanced Aptiv’s financial strength during the pandemic and generated strong returns following the restart of our global operations. Our financial and business achievements in 2020 include the following:
Strengthening our balance sheet and liquidity position in order to continue to invest in value-enhancing opportunities, despite COVID-19
Leveraging opportunistic market pricing dynamics and strong market demand by issuing $1.15 billion of ordinary shares and $1.15 billion of 5.50% preferred shares; and
Extending the maturity of substantially all of our existing Credit Agreement to August 2022.
Acting decisively in response to the global pandemic
Taking early and decisive actions to preserve our financial strength, including temporarily reducing executive pay, reducing capital expenditures, and suspending share repurchases and ordinary share dividends; and
Designing and successfully implementing our safe operations protocols, which enabled our facilities to restart safely and operate with zero production disruptions following the restart.
Generating strong results despite the pandemic
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Delivering sustained outperformance, with above-market sales growth of 10%, attributable to our portfolio of leading technologies aligned with secular growth drivers; and
Generating $2,118 million of operating income or $867 million of adjusted operating income and cash flow from operations of $1.4 billion, despite the pandemic’s negative impact on automotive production; and
Achieving 49.64% total shareholder return over the period 2018 through 2020, illustrating our investors’ belief in our long-term strategy and current financial performance.
Continuing our relentless focus on cost structure and operational optimization
Maximizing our operational flexibility and profitability at all points in the normal automotive business cycle, by having approximately 97% of our hourly workforce based in best cost countries, and approximately 20% of our hourly workforce composed of temporary employees; and
Recruiting and retaining top talent from various industries, including technology.
Continuing to execute on our long-term Safe, Green and Connected strategy to enable a more sustainable future
Furthering our leadership position in automated driving through the formation of the Motional autonomous driving joint venture with Hyundai, which is focused on the design, development and commercialization of autonomous driving technologies; and
Expanding our market relevant portfolio to address the industry’s top challenges, including high voltage electrification and active safety technologies; and
Significantly enhancing our commitment to corporate sustainability.
Our strategy is to build on these accomplishments and continue to develop and manufacture innovative market-relevant products for a diverse base of customers around the globe and leverage our lean and flexible cost structure to achieve strong and disciplined earnings growth and returns on invested capital. Through our culture of innovation and world class engineering capabilities we intend to employ our rigorous, forward-looking product development process to deliver new technologies that provide solutions to our customers. We are committed to creating value for our shareholders. Our key strategic priorities include:
Commercializing the high-tech evolution of the automotive industry. The automotive industry is increasingly evolving towards the implementation of software-dependent components and solutions. In particular, the industry is focused on the development of advanced driver assistance technologies, with the goal of developing and introducing a commercially-viable, fully automated driving experience. We expect automated driving technologies will provide strong societal benefit as well as the opportunity for long-term growth for our product offerings in this space. We are focused on enabling and delivering end-to-end smart mobility solutions, accelerating the commercialization of active safety and autonomous driving technologies and providing enhanced user experience and connected services. Our Advanced Safety and User Experience segment is focused on providing the necessary software and advanced computing platforms, and our Signal and Power Solutions segment is focused on providing the requisite networking architecture required to support the integrated systems in today’s complex vehicles. Together, our businesses develop the ‘brain’ and the ‘nervous system’ of increasingly complex vehicles, providing integration of the vehicle into its operating environment.
We are continuing to invest in the automated driving space, and have continued to develop market-leading automated driving platform solutions such as automated driving software, key active safety sensing technologies and our multi-domain controller, which fuses information from sensing systems as well as mapping and navigation data to make driving decisions. We believe we are well-aligned with industry technology trends that will result in sustainable future growth in this space, and have partnered with leaders in their respective fields to advance the pace of development and commercialization of these emerging technologies.
In an effort to further our leadership position in the automated driving space, in March 2020 we completed the transaction with Hyundai to form a new joint venture focused on the design, development and commercialization of autonomous driving technologies. The joint venture operates globally under the Motional brand name, and brings together one of the industry’s most innovative vehicle technology providers with one of the world’s largest OEMs. We expect this partnership to accelerate the path towards the development of production-ready autonomous driving systems for commercialization in the new mobility space.
We believe that substantial strategic value will be created from our partnership with Hyundai through our commitment to a shared mission of making driverless vehicles a safe, reliable, and accessible reality. Furthermore, we anticipate Motional’s presence in both North America and Asia, along with the global presence of both Aptiv and Hyundai, to generate economies of scale to support the development of a complete autonomous driving platform, as well as to facilitate mobility infrastructure advancements.
The Motional joint venture began testing fully driverless systems in 2020 and anticipates it will have a production-ready autonomous driving platform available for robotaxi providers, fleet operators and automotive manufacturers to test at prototype scale in 2022, with higher volumes available for deployment in 2023. In addition, Motional is involved in collaborative
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arrangements with mobility providers and with smart cities such as Boston and Singapore as solutions are developed for the evolving nature of the mobility industry. As a result of our substantial investments and strategic partnerships, we believe we are well-aligned with industry technology trends that will result in sustainable future growth in these evolving areas.
However, there are many risks associated with these evolving areas, including the high development costs of active safety and autonomous driving technologies, the uncertain timing of customer and consumer adoption of these technologies, increased competition from entrants outside the traditional automotive industry and new and emerging regulations, such as the recently released federal guidance for automated driving systems published by the U.S. Department of Transportation. While we believe we are well-positioned in these markets, the high development cost of active safety and autonomous driving technologies may result in a higher risk of exposure to the success of new or disruptive technologies different than those being developed by us or our partners.
Leveraging our engineering and technological capabilities. We seek to leverage our strong product portfolio tied to the industry’s key mega-trends with our global footprint to increase our revenues, as well as committing to substantial annual investment in research and development to maintain and enhance our leadership in new mobility solutions across each of our product lines.
Targeting the right business with the right customers. We intend to be strategic in our pursuit of new business and customers in order to achieve disciplined, above-market growth. We conduct in-depth analysis of market share and product trends by region in order to prioritize research, development and engineering spend for the customers that we believe will be successful. Collaboration with customers in our 12 major technical centers around the world helps us develop innovative product solutions designed to meet their needs. As more OEMs design vehicles for global platforms, where the same vehicle architecture is shared among different regions, we are well suited to provide global design and engineering support while manufacturing these products for a specific regional market.
Capitalizing on our scale, global footprint and established position in emerging markets. We intend to generate sustained growth by capitalizing on the breadth and scale of our operating capabilities. Our global footprint provides us important proximity to our customers’ manufacturing facilities and allows us to serve them in every region in which they operate. We anticipate that we will continue to build upon our extensive geographic reach to capitalize on growing automotive markets, particularly in China. In addition, our presence in best cost countries positions us to realize incremental margin improvements as the global balance of automotive production shifts towards emerging markets.
Leveraging our lean and flexible cost structure to deliver profitability and cash flow. We recognize the importance of maintaining a lean and flexible cost structure in order to deliver stable earnings and cash flow in a cyclical industry. Our focus is on maximizing and optimizing manufacturing output to meet increasing production requirements with minimal additions to our fixed-cost base. Additionally, we are continuing to use a meaningful amount of temporary workers to ensure we have the appropriate operational flexibility to scale our operations so that we can maintain our profitability as industry production levels increase or contract.
Advancing and maintaining an efficient capital structure. We actively manage our capital structure in order to maintain an investment grade credit rating and healthy capital ratios to support our business and maximize shareholder value. We will continue to make adjustments to our capital structure in light of changes in economic conditions or as opportunities arise to provide us with additional financial flexibility to invest in our business and execute our strategic objectives going forward.
Pursuing selected acquisitions and strategic investments. In order to maintain our strong liquidity position in the midst of the uncertainty caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, we completed only one acquisition in 2020. We intend to continue to pursue selected transactions that leverage our technology capabilities and enhance and expand our commercialization of new mobility solutions, product offerings, customer base, geographic penetration and scale to complement our current businesses, while continuing to enhance our product offerings and competitive position in growing market segments.
Trends, Uncertainties and Opportunities
COVID-19 pandemic. The global spread of COVID-19, which originated in late 2019 and was later declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020, has negatively impacted the global economy, disrupted supply chains and created significant volatility in global financial markets. Most notably with respect to the automotive industry, we experienced extended work stoppages in China during the first quarter of 2020, where we have a major manufacturing base, and the subsequent suspension of vehicle production by our OEM customers in North America and Europe, which combined accounted for 69% of our net sales for the year ended December 31, 2020, as the pandemic spread to those regions and governmental authorities initiated “lock-down” orders for all non-essential activities. The work stoppages began to abate in China in March, and North America and Europe OEM production restarted sporadically in the second quarter, however the risk of renewed government “lock-down” orders resulting in further work stoppages remains. Although we have taken decisive actions to enhance our financial flexibility and minimize the impact on our business, such as the ramping down of certain production facilities in response to customer plant closures and changes in vehicle production schedules, imposing certain travel restrictions, suspending our ordinary share cash dividend, issuing $2.3 billion combined of preferred and ordinary shares,
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extending substantially all of our existing Credit Agreement’s maturity to August 2022 and actively managing costs, capital spending and working capital to further strengthen our liquidity, the ultimate impact to our business continues to remain uncertain. During the year ended December 31, 2020, our net sales were adversely impacted by volume decreases of approximately 7%, primarily due to the impacts resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, which included extended work stoppages and travel restrictions at our facilities and those of our customers and suppliers, decreases in consumer demand and vehicle production schedules, disruptions to our supply chain and other resultant adverse global economic impacts.
For example, the adverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant vehicle production slowdown in the first half of 2020, which was followed by increased consumer demand and vehicle production schedules in the second half of 2020, particularly in the fourth quarter. This surge in demand led to a worldwide semiconductor supply shortage in early 2021, as semiconductor suppliers have been unable to rapidly reallocate production lines to serve the automotive industry. We are working closely with our suppliers and customers to minimize any potential adverse impacts, and we continue to closely monitor the availability of semiconductor microchips and other component parts and raw materials, customer vehicle production schedules and any other supply chain inefficiencies that may arise, due to this or any other issue. However, any direct or indirect supply chain disruptions may have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. We continue to actively monitor the potential supply chain impacts of this worldwide shortage and other ongoing potential impacts of COVID-19 and will seek to aggressively mitigate and minimize its impact on our business.
Economic conditions. Our business is directly related to automotive sales and automotive vehicle production by our customers. Automotive sales depend on a number of factors, including global and regional economic conditions. Global automotive vehicle production decreased 16% (19% on an Aptiv weighted market basis, which represents global vehicle production weighted to the geographic regions in which the Company generates its revenue, “AWM”) from 2019 to 2020, representing automotive vehicle production declines across all major regions during the year, primarily due to the adverse global economic impacts and uncertainty caused by the worldwide spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared to 2019, vehicle production in 2020 decreased by 22% in Europe, 21% in North America, 3% in China and 31% in South America, our smallest region. Refer to Note 22. Segment Reporting of the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements, included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Annual Report for financial information concerning principal geographic areas.
Economic volatility or weakness in North America, Europe, China or South America, could result in a significant reduction in automotive sales and production by our customers, which would have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. There is also potential that geopolitical factors could adversely impact the U.S. and other economies, and specifically the automotive sector. In particular, changes to international trade agreements, such as the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement or other political pressures could affect the operations of our OEM customers, resulting in reduced automotive production in certain regions or shifts in the mix of production to higher cost regions. Increases in interest rates could also negatively impact automotive production as a result of increased consumer borrowing costs or reduced credit availability. Additionally, economic weakness may result in shifts in the mix of future automotive sales (from vehicles with more content such as luxury vehicles, trucks and sport utility vehicles toward smaller passenger cars). While our diversified customer and geographic revenue base, along with our flexible cost structure, have well positioned us to withstand the impact of industry downturns and benefit from industry upturns, shifts in the mix of global automotive production to higher cost regions or to vehicles with less content could adversely impact our profitability.
There have also been periods of increased market volatility and currency exchange rate fluctuations, both globally and most specifically within the U.K. and Europe, as a result of the U.K.’s exit from the E.U., commonly referred to as “Brexit,” the terms of which were determined on December 24, 2020 and became effective on December 31, 2020. Under these terms, the U.K. and E.U. will continue to be able to trade on a tariff-free basis, though companies will be required to file customs and duty declarations for the cross border movement of goods, similar in nature to other border crossings. These compliance requirements will be effective beginning in early 2021 and may take several months to complete. During the implementation phase, our cross border shipments between the U.K. and E.U., and those of our customers and suppliers, may be subject to delays and restrictions which may adversely affect European and worldwide economic and market conditions. Potential adverse impacts of this phase may include reduced vehicle production, reduced global market liquidity and restrictions on the ability of key market participants to operate in certain financial markets which could contribute to instability in global financial and foreign exchange markets, including increased volatility in interest rates and foreign exchange rates. Although we do not have a material physical presence in the U.K., with less than 1% of our workforce located in the U.K. and approximately 2% of our annual net sales generated in the U.K., the potential impacts of Brexit could adversely impact other global economies, and in particular, the European economy, a region which accounted for approximately 34% of our total net sales for the year ended December 31, 2020. We continue to actively monitor the ongoing potential impacts of Brexit and will seek to minimize the impacts on our business through review of our existing contractual arrangements and obligations, particularly in the European region.
Key growth markets. There have been periods of increased market volatility and moderation in the level of economic growth in China, which resulted in periods of lower automotive production growth rates in China than those previously
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experienced, as evidenced by the reduction in volumes in the region during the year ended December 31, 2020. Production decreased 3% in China during 2020, primarily as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite these vehicle production declines and the recent moderation in the level of economic growth in China, rising income levels in China and other key growth markets are expected to result in stronger growth rates in these markets over the long-term. Our strong global presence, and presence in these markets, has positioned us to experience above-market growth rates over the long-term. We continue to expand our established presence in key growth markets, positioning us to benefit from the expected long-term growth opportunities in these regions. We are capitalizing on our long-standing relationships with the global OEMs and further enhancing our positions with the key growth market OEMs to continue expanding our worldwide leadership. We continue to build upon our extensive geographic reach to capitalize on fast-growing automotive markets. We believe that our presence in best cost countries positions us to realize incremental margin improvements as the global balance of automotive production shifts towards the key growth markets.
We have a strong local presence in China, including a major manufacturing base and well-established customer relationships. Each of our business segments have operations and sales in China. Our business in China remains sensitive to economic and market conditions that impact automotive sales volumes in China, and may be affected if the pace of growth slows as the Chinese market matures or if there are reductions in vehicle demand in China, as have recently been experienced as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, we continue to believe this market will benefit from long-term demand for new vehicles and stringent governmental regulation driving increased vehicle content, including accelerated demand for electrified vehicles.
Market driven products. Our product offerings satisfy the OEMs’ needs to meet increasingly stringent government regulations and meet consumer preferences for products that address the mega-trends of Safe, Green and Connected, leading to increased content per vehicle, greater profitability and higher margins. With these offerings, we believe we are well-positioned to benefit from the growing demand for vehicle content and technology related to safety, electrification, high speed data, connectivity to the global information network and automated driving technologies. We are benefiting from the substantial increase in vehicle content, software and electrification that requires a complex and reliable electrical architecture and systems to operate, such as automated advanced driver assistance technologies, electrical vehicle monitoring, active safety systems, lane departure warning systems, integrated vehicle cockpit displays, navigation systems and technologies that enable connected infotainment in vehicles. Our ability to design a reliable electrical architecture that optimizes power distribution and/or consumption is key to satisfying the OEMs’ needs to reduce emissions while continuing to meet consumer demand for increased vehicle content and technology.
Global capabilities. Many OEMs are continuing to adopt global vehicle platforms to increase standardization, reduce per unit cost and increase capital efficiency and profitability. As a result, OEMs are selecting suppliers that have the capability to manufacture products on a worldwide basis, as well as the flexibility to adapt to regional variations. Suppliers with global scale and strong design, engineering and manufacturing capabilities, are best positioned to benefit from this trend. Our global footprint enables us to serve the global OEMs on a worldwide basis as we gain market share with the emerging market OEMs. This regional model is structured primarily to service the North American market from Mexico, the South American market from Brazil, the European market from Eastern Europe and North Africa, and the Asia Pacific market from China, and we have continued to rotate our manufacturing footprint to best cost locations within these regions.
Our global operations are subject to certain risks inherent in doing business abroad, including unexpected changes in laws or regulations governing trade, or other monetary or tax fiscal policy changes, including tariffs, quotas, customs and other import or export restrictions or trade barriers. We are also subject to risks associated with actions taken by governmental authorities to impose changes in laws or regulations that restrict certain business operations, trade or travel in response to a pandemic or widespread outbreak of an illness. For instance, the worldwide spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has had adverse impacts on our global operations, the automotive industry and economies around the world. Most notably, the pandemic has resulted in extended work stoppages and travel restrictions at our facilities and those of our customers and suppliers, decreases in consumer demand and vehicle production schedules, disruptions to our supply chain and other adverse global economic impacts, particularly those resulting from temporary governmental “lock-down” orders for all non-essential activities, initially in the first quarter in China and subsequently in Europe, North America and South America. Although many of the adverse impacts of the pandemic abated during the second half of 2020, we are unable to predict the ultimate impact to our business due to a number of evolving factors, including the duration and spread of the pandemic, the impact of the pandemic on economic activity, consumer demand and vehicle production schedules, and the actions of governmental authorities across the globe. Furthermore, in the fourth quarter of 2020, certain European and North American countries began to initiate new governmental restrictions in response to renewed pandemic impacts and concerns. Many of these restrictions have continued into the first quarter of 2021, which, in combination with other actions and events, may adversely impact future operating earnings and cash flows. These or any further political or governmental developments in response to the COVID-19 pandemic could result in social, economic and labor instability.
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In addition, existing free trade laws and regulations, such as the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement, provide certain beneficial duties and tariffs for qualifying imports and exports, subject to compliance with the applicable classification and other requirements. Changes in laws or policies governing the terms of foreign trade, and in particular increased trade restrictions, tariffs or taxes on imports from countries where we manufacture products, such as China and Mexico, could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results. For instance, beginning in 2018, the U.S. and Chinese governments have imposed a series of significant incremental retaliatory tariffs to certain imported products. Most notably with respect to the automotive industry, the U.S. imposed tariffs on imports of certain steel, aluminum and automotive components, and China imposed retaliatory tariffs on imports of U.S. vehicles and certain automotive components. While these tariffs could have potentially adverse economic impacts, particularly with respect to the automotive industry and vehicle production levels, we do not anticipate a significant impact to our operations, as we have developed and implemented strategies to mitigate adverse tariff impacts, such as production localization and relocation, contract review and renegotiation and working with the appropriate governmental agencies. Further, our global footprint and regional model serves to minimize our exposure to cross-border transactions. However, despite recent trade negotiations between the U.S. and Chinese governments, the scope and duration of the imposed tariffs remain uncertain.
Product development. The automotive technology and components industry is highly competitive, both domestically and internationally, and is characterized by rapidly changing technology, evolving industry standards and changes in customer needs. Our ability to anticipate changes in technology and regulatory standards and to successfully develop and introduce new and enhanced products on a timely and cost competitive basis will be a significant factor in our ability to remain competitive. To compete effectively in the automotive technology and components industry, we must be able to develop and launch new products to meet our customers’ demands in a timely manner. Our innovative technologies and robust global engineering and development capabilities have us well positioned to meet the increasingly stringent vehicle manufacturer demands and consumer preferences for high-technology content in automobiles.
OEMs are increasingly looking to their suppliers to simplify vehicle design and assembly processes to reduce costs and weight. As a result, suppliers that sell vehicle components directly to manufacturers (Tier I suppliers) have assumed many of the design, engineering, research and development and assembly functions traditionally performed by vehicle manufacturers. Suppliers that can provide fully-engineered solutions, systems and pre-assembled combinations of component parts are positioned to leverage the trend toward system sourcing.
Engineering, design and development. Our history and culture of innovation have enabled us to develop significant intellectual property and design and development expertise to provide advanced technology solutions that meet the demands of our customers. We have a team of approximately 18,200 scientists, engineers and technicians focused on developing leading product solutions for our key markets, located at 12 major technical centers in China, Germany, India, Mexico, Poland, Singapore and the United States. Our total investment in research and development, including engineering, was approximately $1.3 billion, $1.5 billion and $1.4 billion for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively, which includes approximately $303 million, $381 million and $288 million of co-investment by customers and government agencies. Each year we share some engineering expenses with OEMs and government agencies. While this amount varies from year-to-year, it is generally in the range of 15% to 20% of engineering expenses. We also encourage “open innovation” and collaborate extensively with peers in the industry, government agencies and academic institutions. Our technology competencies are recognized by both customers and government agencies, who co-invested approximately $303 million in 2020 to support new product development, accelerating the pace of innovation and reducing the risk associated with successful commercialization of technological breakthroughs.
In the past, suppliers often incurred the initial cost of engineering, designing and developing automotive component parts, and recovered their investments over time by including a cost recovery component in the price of each part based on expected volumes. Recently, we and many other suppliers have negotiated for cost recovery payments independent of volumes. This trend reduces our economic risk.
We utilize a Technology Advisory Council, a panel of prominent global technology thought leaders, which guides our product strategies and investments in technology with a focus on developing advanced technologies to drive growth. We believe that our engineering and technical expertise, together with our emphasis on continuing research and development, allow us to use the latest technologies, materials and processes to solve problems for our customers and to bring new, innovative products to market. We believe that continued engineering activities are critical to maintaining our pipeline of technologically advanced products. Given our strong financial discipline, we seek to effectively manage fixed costs and efficiently rationalize capital spending by critically evaluating the profit potential of new and existing customer programs, including investment in innovation and technology. We maintain our engineering activities around our focused product portfolio and allocate our capital and resources to those products with distinctive technologies. We expect expenditures for research and development activities, including engineering, net of co-investment, to be approximately $1.0 billion for the year ended December 31, 2021, which is consistent with expenditures incurred in 2020.
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We maintain a large portfolio of approximately 7,700 patents and protective rights in the operation of our business as of December 31, 2020. While no individual patent or group of patents, taken alone, is considered material to our business, taken in the aggregate, these patents provide meaningful protection for our products and technical innovations. Similarly, while our trademarks are important to identify our position in the industry, we do not believe that any of these are individually material to our business. We are actively pursuing marketing opportunities to commercialize and license our technology to both automotive and non-automotive industries and we have selectively taken licenses from others to support our business interests. These activities foster optimization of intellectual property rights.
Pricing. Cost-cutting initiatives adopted by our customers result in increased downward pressure on pricing. Our customer supply agreements generally require step-downs in component pricing over the periods of production and OEMs have historically possessed significant leverage over their outside suppliers because the automotive component supply industry is fragmented and serves a limited number of automotive OEMs. Our profitability depends in part on our ability to generate sufficient production cost savings in the future to offset price reductions.
We are focused on maintaining a low fixed cost structure that provides us flexibility to remain profitable at all points of the traditional vehicle industry production cycle. As a result, approximately 97% of our hourly workforce is located in best cost countries. Furthermore, we have substantial operational flexibility by leveraging a large workforce of temporary workers, which represented approximately 20% of the hourly workforce as of December 31, 2020. However, we will continue to adjust our cost structure and optimize our manufacturing footprint in response to changes in the global and regional automotive markets and in order to increase investment in advanced technologies and engineering, as evidenced by our ongoing restructuring programs focused on the continued rotation of our manufacturing footprint to best cost locations in Europe and on reducing our global overhead costs. As we continue to operate in a cyclical industry that is impacted by movements in the global and regional economies, we continually evaluate opportunities to further refine our cost structure. Assuming constant product mix and pricing, based on our 2020 results, we estimate that our EBITDA breakeven level would be reached if we experienced a 45% downturn to current product volumes.
We have a strong balance sheet with gross debt of approximately $4.1 billion and substantial available liquidity of approximately $5.2 billion of cash and cash equivalents and available financing under our Revolving Credit Facility and committed European accounts receivable factoring facility (as defined below in Liquidity and Capital Resources) as of December 31, 2020, and no significant U.S. defined benefit or workforce postretirement health care benefits and employer-paid postretirement basic life insurance benefits (“OPEB”) liabilities. As further described in Note 11. Debt to the audited consolidated financial statements included herein, we extended substantially all of our existing Credit Agreement’s maturity to August 2022, primarily to provide additional available liquidity and financial flexibility to mitigate the impacts on our business resulting from the uncertainty caused by the global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, as further described in Note 15. Shareholders’ and Net Income Per Share to the audited consolidated financial statements included herein, we also issued $2.3 billion combined of preferred and ordinary shares during the year ended December 31, 2020. We intend to maintain strong financial discipline by targeting industry-leading earnings growth, cash flow generation and return on invested capital and to maintain sufficient liquidity to sustain our financial flexibility throughout the industry cycle.
OEM product recalls. The number of vehicles recalled globally by OEMs has increased above historical levels. These recalls can either be initiated by the OEMs or influenced by regulatory agencies. Although there are differing rules and regulations across countries governing recalls for safety issues, the overall transition towards global vehicle platforms may also contribute to increased recalls outside of the U.S., as automotive components are increasingly standardized across regions. Given the sensitivity to safety issues in the automotive industry, including increased focus from regulators and consumers, we anticipate the number of automotive recalls may remain above historical levels in the near future. Although we engage in extensive product quality programs and processes, it is possible that we may be adversely affected in the future if the pace of these recalls continues.
Efficient use of capital. The global vehicle components industry is generally capital intensive and a portion of a supplier’s capital equipment is frequently utilized for specific customer programs. Lead times for procurement of capital equipment are long and typically exceed start of production by one to two years. Substantial advantages exist for suppliers that can leverage their prior investments in capital equipment or amortize the investment over higher volume global customer programs.
Industry consolidation. Consolidation among worldwide OEMs and suppliers is expected to continue as these companies seek to achieve operating synergies and value stream efficiencies, acquire complementary technologies and build stronger customer relationships. For example, in January 2021, FCA and PSA executed a merger agreement to form a new, combined company (“Stellantis”), which will represent the world’s fourth largest OEM. The merger may lead to the discontinuation of certain major vehicle brands previously marketed under the separate companies, which may have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. Additionally, new entrants from outside the traditional automotive industry may seek to gain access to certain vehicle component markets. We believe companies with strong balance sheets and financial discipline are in the best position to take advantage of the industry consolidation trend.
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Consolidated Results of Operations
Our total net sales during the year ended December 31, 2020 were $13.1 billion, a decrease of approximately 9% compared to 2019. This compares to total global OEM production decreases of 16% in 2020. We experienced volume declines of 7% for the period, primarily as a result of the adverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on global vehicle production. Volume was also impacted by increased net sales of approximately $86 million as a result of the acquisition of gabocom in late 2019. Despite the volatility caused by the COVID-19 pandemic throughout 2020, our overall lean cost structure, along with continued above-market sales growth in all major regions, has enabled us to achieve strong levels of operating income, while continuing to strategically invest in the future.
Aptiv typically experiences fluctuations in revenue due to changes in OEM production schedules, vehicle sales mix and the net of new and lost business (which we refer to collectively as volume), increased prices attributable to escalation clauses in our supply contracts for recovery of increased commodity costs (which we refer to as commodity pass-through), fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates (which we refer to as “FX”), contractual reductions of the sales price to the OEM (which we refer to as contractual price reductions) and engineering changes. Changes in sales mix can have either favorable or unfavorable impacts on revenue. Such changes can be the result of shifts in regional growth, shifts in OEM sales demand, as well as shifts in consumer demand related to vehicle segment purchases and content penetration. For instance, a shift in sales demand favoring a particular OEM’s vehicle model for which we do not have a supply contract may negatively impact our revenue. A shift in regional sales demand toward certain markets could favorably impact the sales of those of our customers that have a large market share in those regions, which in turn would be expected to have a favorable impact on our revenue.
We typically experience (as described below) fluctuations in operating income due to:
Volume, net of contractual price reductions—changes in volume offset by contractual price reductions (which typically range from 1% to 3% of net sales) and changes in mix;
Operational performance—changes to costs for materials and commodities or manufacturing and engineering variances; and
Other—including restructuring costs and any remaining variances not included in Volume, net of contractual price reductions or Operational performance.
The automotive technology and component supply industry is traditionally subject to inflationary pressures with respect to raw materials and labor which may place operational and profitability burdens on the entire supply chain. We will continue to work with our customers and suppliers to mitigate the impact of these inflationary pressures in the future. In addition, we expect commodity cost volatility, particularly related to copper and petroleum-based resin products, to have a continual impact on future earnings and/or operating cash flows. As such, we continually seek to mitigate both inflationary pressures and our material-related cost exposures using a number of approaches, including combining purchase requirements with customers and/or other suppliers, using alternate suppliers or product designs, negotiating cost reductions and/or commodity cost contract escalation clauses into our vehicle manufacturer supply contracts and hedging.
This section discusses our consolidated results of operations and results of operations by segment for the years ended December 31, 2020 versus 2019. A detailed discussion of our consolidated results of operations and results of operations by segment for the years ended December 31, 2019 versus 2018 can be found under “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, which was filed with the SEC on February 3, 2020.
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2020 versus 2019
The results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 were as follows:
  Year Ended December 31,
  2020   2019   Favorable/
(unfavorable)
  (dollars in millions)
Net sales $ 13,066  $ 14,357  $ (1,291)
Cost of sales 11,126  11,711  585 
Gross margin 1,940  14.8% 2,646  18.4% (706)
Selling, general and administrative 976  1,076  100 
Amortization 144  146 
Restructuring 136  148  12 
Gain on autonomous driving joint venture (1,434) —  1,434 
Operating income 2,118  1,276  842 
Interest expense (164) (164) — 
Other income, net —  14  (14)
Income before income taxes and equity (loss) income 1,954  1,126  828 
Income tax expense (49) (132) 83 
Income before equity (loss) income 1,905  994  911 
Equity (loss) income, net of tax (83) 15  (98)
Net income 1,822  1,009  813 
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest 18  19  (1)
Net income attributable to Aptiv 1,804  990  814 
Mandatory Convertible Preferred Share dividends (35) —  (35)
Net income attributable to ordinary shareholders $ 1,769  $ 990  $ 779 

Total Net Sales
Below is a summary of our total net sales for the years ended December 31, 2020 versus 2019.
  Year Ended December 31, Variance Due To:
  2020 2019 Favorable/
(unfavorable)
Volume, net of
contractual
price
reductions
FX Commodity
pass-
through
Other Total
  (in millions) (in millions)
Total net sales $ 13,066  $ 14,357  $ (1,291) $ (1,290) $ 15  $ (16) $ —  $ (1,291)
Total net sales for the year ended December 31, 2020 decreased 9% compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. Our overall volumes decreased 7% for the period, primarily due to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, which also resulted in global vehicle production declines of 16% (19% on an AWM basis) over the same period. The adverse impacts to Aptiv of the pandemic, which primarily affected us in the first half of 2020, included extended work stoppages and travel restrictions at our facilities and those of our customers and suppliers, decreases in consumer demand and vehicle production schedules, disruptions to our supply chain and other adverse global economic impacts, particularly those resulting from temporary governmental “lock-down” orders for all non-essential activities, initially in the first quarter in China and subsequently in Europe, North America and South America. Adverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic from the first half of 2020 were partially offset by increased consumer demand and vehicle production schedules in the second half of 2020, particularly in the fourth quarter. Our total net sales also reflect contractual price reductions. Volume declines were partially offset by increased net sales of $86 million as a result of the acquisition of gabocom in late 2019 and favorable foreign currency impacts, primarily related to the Euro and Chinese Yuan Renminbi. Refer to Note 20. Acquisitions and Divestitures to the audited consolidated financial statements included herein for further detail of our business acquisitions.

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Cost of Sales
Cost of sales is primarily comprised of material, labor, manufacturing overhead, freight, fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, product engineering, design and development expenses, depreciation and amortization, warranty costs and other operating expenses. Gross margin is revenue less cost of sales and gross margin percentage is gross margin as a percentage of net sales.
Cost of sales decreased $585 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019, as summarized below. The Company’s material cost of sales was approximately 50% of net sales in both the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.
  Year Ended December 31, Variance Due To:
  2020 2019 Favorable/
(unfavorable)
Volume (a) FX Operational
performance
Other Total
  (dollars in millions) (in millions)
Cost of sales $ 11,126  $ 11,711  $ 585  $ 579  $ $ (9) $ $ 585 
Gross margin $ 1,940  $ 2,646  $ (706) $ (711) $ 21  $ (9) $ (7) $ (706)
Percentage of net sales 14.8  % 18.4  %
(a)Presented net of contractual price reductions for gross margin variance.
The decrease in cost of sales reflects decreased volumes, largely resulting from the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, and impacts from currency exchange and operational performance. However, as certain of our costs remain fixed in nature over the near term, our gross margin as a percentage of sales was adversely impacted compared to the prior year period, primarily due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Cost of sales was also impacted by the following items in Other above:
Decreased expense of approximately $135 million, primarily due to decreased engineering expenses as a result of the formation of the Motional autonomous driving joint venture with Hyundai in March 2020, which is now accounted for under the equity method of accounting; and
$16 million of decreased commodity pass-through costs; partially offset by
Approximately $40 million of costs related to supply chain inefficiencies, primarily due to the worldwide semiconductor microchip shortage and the increase in vehicle production schedules in the fourth quarter of 2020; and
$47 million of increased depreciation and amortization, primarily as a result of a higher fixed asset base; and
$33 million of increased warranty costs.

Selling, General and Administrative Expense
  Year Ended December 31,
  2020 2019 Favorable/
(unfavorable)
  (dollars in millions)
Selling, general and administrative expense $ 976  $ 1,076  $ 100 
Percentage of net sales 7.5  % 7.5  %
Selling, general and administrative expense (“SG&A”) includes administrative expenses, information technology costs and incentive compensation related costs. SG&A as a percentage of net sales was flat for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to 2019, and was primarily impacted by decreased SG&A expenses as a result of the formation of the Motional autonomous driving joint venture with Hyundai, which is now accounted for under the equity method of accounting, partially offset by increased SG&A expenses due to our business acquisitions.

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Amortization
  Year Ended December 31,
  2020 2019 Favorable/
(unfavorable)
  (in millions)
Amortization $ 144  $ 146  $
Amortization expense reflects the non-cash charge related to definite-lived intangible assets. The decrease in amortization during the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to 2019 primarily reflects $8 million of intangible asset impairment charges recorded during the year ended December 31, 2019, partially offset by the continued amortization of our definite-lived intangible assets, which resulted primarily from our acquisitions, over their estimated useful lives. Refer to Note 20. Acquisitions and Divestitures to the audited consolidated financial statements included herein for further detail of our business acquisitions, including details of the intangible assets recorded in each transaction.
In 2021, we expect to incur non-cash amortization charges of approximately $151 million.

Restructuring
  Year Ended December 31,
  2020 2019 Favorable/
(unfavorable)
  (dollars in millions)
Restructuring $ 136  $ 148  $ 12 
Percentage of net sales 1.0  % 1.0  %
The Company recorded employee-related and other restructuring charges totaling approximately $136 million during the year ended December 31, 2020, of which $62 million was recognized for programs implemented in the North American region and $57 million was recognized for programs implemented in the European region. The charges recorded during 2020 included the recognition of approximately $90 million of employee-related and other costs related to actions taken as a result of the global impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. We expect to make cash payments of approximately $80 million in 2021 pursuant to currently implemented restructuring programs.
Restructuring charges recorded during 2019 were primarily related to programs focused on the continued rotation of our manufacturing footprint to best cost locations in Europe and on reducing global overhead costs. The Company recorded employee-related and other restructuring charges related to these programs totaling approximately $148 million during the year ended December 31, 2019, of which $74 million was recognized for programs implemented in the European region, pursuant to the Company’s ongoing overhead cost reduction strategy.
We expect to continue to incur additional restructuring expense in 2021 and beyond, primarily related to programs focused on the continued rotation of our manufacturing footprint to best cost locations in Europe and on reducing global overhead costs, which includes approximately $45 million (of which approximately $20 million relates to the Signal and Power Solutions segment and approximately $25 million relates to the Advanced Safety and User Experience segment) for programs approved as of December 31, 2020. Additionally, as we continue to operate in a cyclical industry that is impacted by movements in the global and regional economies, we continually evaluate opportunities to further adjust our cost structure and optimize our manufacturing footprint. The Company plans to implement additional restructuring activities in the future, if necessary, in order to align manufacturing capacity and other costs with prevailing regional automotive production levels and locations, to improve the efficiency and utilization of other locations and in order to increase investment in advanced technologies and engineering. Such future restructuring actions are dependent on market conditions, customer actions and other factors.
Refer to Note 10. Restructuring to the audited consolidated financial statements included herein for additional information.

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Interest Expense
  Year Ended December 31,
  2020 2019 Favorable/
(unfavorable)
  (in millions)
Interest expense $ 164  $ 164  $ — 
Refer to Note 11. Debt to the audited consolidated financial statements included herein for additional information.

Other Income, Net
  Year Ended December 31,
  2020 2019 Favorable/
(unfavorable)
  (in millions)
Other income, net $ —  $ 14  $ (14)
During the year ended December 31, 2020, Aptiv recorded $8 million of interest income and a loss on debt modification of $4 million, in conjunction with the May 2020 Amendment to the Credit Agreement, as further discussed in Note 11. Debt to the audited consolidated financial statements included herein. As further discussed in Note 5. Investments in Affiliates to the audited consolidated financial statements included herein, during the year ended December 31, 2020, Aptiv recorded a pre-tax unrealized gain of $10 million related to increases in fair value of its equity investments without readily determinable fair values. The Company also recorded $20 million during the year ended December 31, 2020 related to the components of net periodic pension and postretirement benefit cost other than service costs, as further described in Note 12. Pension Benefits to the audited consolidated financial statements included herein.
During the year ended December 31, 2019, Aptiv recorded $13 million of interest income and a pre-tax unrealized gain of $19 million related to increases in fair value of its equity investments without readily determinable fair values, as further discussed in Note 5. Investments in Affiliates to the audited consolidated financial statements included herein. Aptiv also redeemed for cash the entire $650 million aggregate principal amount outstanding of the 3.15% Senior Notes during the year ended December 31, 2019, resulting in a loss on debt extinguishment of approximately $6 million, as further discussed in Note 11. Debt to the audited consolidated financial statements included herein, and incurred approximately $5 million in transaction costs related to the acquisition of gabocom. The Company also recorded $27 million during the year ended December 31, 2019 related to the components of net periodic pension and postretirement benefit cost other than service costs, as further described in Note 12. Pension Benefits to the audited consolidated financial statements included herein.
Refer to Note 19. Other Income, Net to the audited consolidated financial statements included herein for additional information.

Income Taxes
  Year Ended December 31,
  2020 2019 Favorable/
(unfavorable)
  (in millions)
Income tax expense $ 49  $ 132  $ 83 
The Company’s tax rate is affected by the fact that its parent entity is an Irish resident taxpayer, the tax rates in Ireland and other jurisdictions in which the Company operates, the relative amount of income earned by jurisdiction and the relative amount of losses or income for which no tax benefit or expense was recognized due to a valuation allowance. The Company’s effective tax rate is also impacted by the receipt of certain tax incentives and holidays that reduce the effective tax rate for certain subsidiaries below the statutory rate.
The Company’s effective tax rate was 3% and 12% for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The effective tax rate in the year ended December 31, 2020 was impacted by changes in reserves, provision to return adjustments, changes in valuation allowances and the tax impact of certain intragroup reorganizations meant to streamline and simplify the Company’s operating and legal structure, which resulted in the recognition of losses for tax purposes. The effective tax rate was also impacted by the beneficial impact from the gain on the formation of the Motional autonomous driving joint venture. The
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tax expense associated with the gain was insignificant as Aptiv’s aggregate autonomous driving assets were exempt from capital gains tax in the jurisdiction from which they were sold. The aggregate autonomous driving assets had been acquired, purchased or developed in taxable transactions in prior periods and reflect changes made to the corporate entity operating structure for intellectual property following the Separation of its former Powertrain Systems segment.
The effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2019 was impacted by releases of valuation allowances as a result of the Company’s determination that it was more likely than not that certain deferred tax assets would be realized, as well as favorable provision to return adjustments. The Company also accrued $20 million of reserve adjustments for uncertain tax positions, which included reserves for ongoing audits in foreign jurisdictions, as well as for changes in estimates based on relevant new or additional evidence obtained related to certain of the Company’s tax positions, including tax authority administrative pronouncements and court decisions.
Refer to Note 14. Income Taxes to the audited consolidated financial statements included herein for additional information.

Equity Income
  Year Ended December 31,
  2020 2019 Favorable/
(unfavorable)
  (in millions)
Equity (loss) income, net of tax $ (83) $ 15  $ (98)
Equity (loss) income, net of tax reflects the Company’s interest in the results of ongoing operations of entities accounted for as equity method investments. The equity loss, net of tax, recognized by Aptiv during the year ended December 31, 2020 includes $98 million attributable to the Motional autonomous driving joint venture formed in March 2020 with Hyundai, as further described in Note 5. Investments in Affiliates and Note 24. Held for Sale to the audited consolidated financial statements included herein.

Results of Operations by Segment
We operate our core business along the following operating segments, which are grouped on the basis of similar product, market and operating factors:
Signal and Power Solutions, which includes complete electrical architecture and component products.
Advanced Safety and User Experience, which includes component and systems integration expertise in advanced safety, user experience and connectivity and security solutions, as well as advanced software development and autonomous driving technologies.
Eliminations and Other, which includes i) the elimination of inter-segment transactions, and ii) certain other expenses and income of a non-operating or strategic nature.
Our management utilizes segment Adjusted Operating Income as the key performance measure of segment income or loss to evaluate segment performance, and for planning and forecasting purposes to allocate resources to the segments, as management believes this measure is most reflective of the operational profitability or loss of our operating segments. Segment Adjusted Operating Income should not be considered a substitute for results prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and should not be considered an alternative to net income attributable to Aptiv, which is the most directly comparable financial measure to Adjusted Operating Income that is prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Segment Adjusted Operating Income, as determined and measured by Aptiv, should also not be compared to similarly titled measures reported by other companies.
The reconciliation of Adjusted Operating Income to operating income includes, as applicable, restructuring, other acquisition and portfolio project costs (which includes costs incurred to integrate acquired businesses and to plan and execute product portfolio transformation actions, including business and product acquisitions and divestitures), asset impairments, gains (losses) on business divestitures and other transactions and deferred compensation related to acquisitions. The reconciliations of Adjusted Operating Income to net income attributable to Aptiv for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 are as follows:
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Signal and Power Solutions Advanced Safety and User Experience Eliminations and Other Total
  (in millions)
For the Year Ended December 31, 2020:
Adjusted operating income $ 762  $ 105  $ —  $ 867 
Restructuring (90) (46) —  (136)
Other acquisition and portfolio project costs (12) (11) —  (23)
Asset impairments (4) (6) —  (10)
Deferred compensation related to acquisitions —  (14) —  (14)
Gain on business divestitures and other transactions —  1,434  —  1,434 
Operating income $ 656  $ 1,462  $ —  2,118 
Interest expense (164)
Other income, net — 
Income before income taxes and equity loss 1,954 
Income tax expense (49)
Equity loss, net of tax (83)
Net income 1,822 
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest 18 
Net income attributable to Aptiv $ 1,804 
Signal and Power Solutions Advanced Safety and User Experience Eliminations and Other Total
  (in millions)
For the Year Ended December 31, 2019:
Adjusted operating income $ 1,274  $ 274  $ —  $ 1,548 
Restructuring (104) (44) —  (148)
Other acquisition and portfolio project costs (44) (27) —  (71)
Asset impairments (2) (9) —  (11)
Deferred compensation related to acquisitions —  (42) —  (42)
Operating income $ 1,124  $ 152  $ —  1,276 
Interest expense (164)
Other income, net 14 
Income before income taxes and equity income 1,126 
Income tax expense (132)
Equity income, net of tax
15 
Net income 1,009 
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest 19 
Net income attributable to Aptiv $ 990 

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Net sales, gross margin as a percentage of net sales and Adjusted Operating Income by segment for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 are as follows:

Net Sales by Segment
  Year Ended December 31, Variance Due To:
  2020 2019 Favorable/
(unfavorable)
Volume, net of contractual price reductions FX Commodity Pass-through Other Total
  (in millions) (in millions)
Signal and Power Solutions
$ 9,522  $ 10,302  $ (780) $ (768) $ $ (16) $ —  $ (780)
Advanced Safety and User Experience
3,573  4,092  (519) (530) 11  —  —  (519)
Eliminations and Other (29) (37) —  —  — 
Total $ 13,066  $ 14,357  $ (1,291) $ (1,290) $ 15  $ (16) $ —  $ (1,291)

Gross Margin Percentage by Segment
  Year Ended December 31,
  2020 2019
Signal and Power Solutions 17.1  % 20.9  %
Advanced Safety and User Experience 8.8  % 12.0  %
Eliminations and Other —  % —  %
Total 14.8  % 18.4  %
Gross margin as a percentage of sales for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to year ended December 31, 2019 decreased primarily due to the adverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Adjusted Operating Income by Segment
  Year Ended December 31, Variance Due To:
  2020 2019 Favorable/
(unfavorable)
Volume, net of contractual price reductions Operational performance Other Total
  (in millions) (in millions)
Signal and Power Solutions $ 762  $ 1,274  $ (512) $ (451) $ $ (63) $ (512)
Advanced Safety and User Experience
105  274  (169) (260) (39) 130  (169)
Eliminations and Other —  —  —  —  —  —  — 
Total $ 867  $ 1,548  $ (681) $ (711) $ (37) $ 67  $ (681)
As noted in the table above, Adjusted Operating Income for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019 was impacted by volume and contractual price reductions, including product mix and the adverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. The adverse impacts to Aptiv of the pandemic, which primarily affected us in the first half of 2020, included extended work stoppages and travel restrictions at our facilities and those of our customers and suppliers, decreases in consumer demand and vehicle production schedules, disruptions to our supply chain and other adverse global economic impacts, particularly those resulting from temporary governmental “lock-down” orders for all non-essential activities, initially in the first quarter in China and subsequently in Europe, North America and South America. Adverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic from the first half of 2020 were partially offset by increased consumer demand and vehicle production schedules in the second half of 2020, particularly in the fourth quarter. Adjusted Operating Income was also impacted by operational performance and the following items included within Other in the table above:
Decreased expense of approximately $135 million, primarily due to decreased engineering expenses as a result of the formation of the Motional autonomous driving joint venture with Hyundai in March 2020, which is now accounted for under the equity method of accounting; and
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$65 million of decreased SG&A expense, not including the impact of other acquisition and portfolio project costs, primarily as a result of decreased incentive compensation costs; partially offset by
Approximately $40 million of costs related to supply chain inefficiencies, primarily due to the worldwide semiconductor microchip shortage and the increase in vehicle production schedules in the fourth quarter of 2020; and
$48 million of increased depreciation and amortization, not including the impact of asset impairments, primarily as a result of a higher fixed asset base; and
$33 million of increased warranty costs.

Liquidity and Capital Resources
COVID-19 Pandemic
Due to the unprecedented uncertainty related to the impact the COVID-19 pandemic is having on the global automotive industry and economies around the world, the Company initiated a series of precautionary actions during 2020 to further enhance its liquidity and financial flexibility. Among these, the Company has taken decisive actions to manage costs, capital spending and working capital to further strengthen its liquidity, including the ramping down of certain production facilities in response to customer plant closures and changes in vehicle production schedules. Additionally, as further described below, the Company issued $2.3 billion combined of preferred and ordinary shares, extended substantially all of our existing Credit Agreement’s maturity to August 2022, and suspended the payment of its ordinary share cash dividend to further increase capital preservation during the pandemic. The adverse impacts of COVID-19, which primarily affected the Company in the first half of 2020, included reduced consumer demand and supply chain interruptions, which have adversely impacted global vehicle production and the viability and financial stability of the Company’s customers and suppliers. While the Company believes it has taken prudent actions to mitigate the impacts on its business resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic and to provide sufficient liquidity to fund our global operations and capital investments, the ultimate impact of the pandemic to the Company’s business remains highly uncertain. The Company will continue to actively monitor the ongoing potential impacts of COVID-19 and will continue to seek to aggressively mitigate and minimize its impact on our business.
Overview of Capital Structure
Our liquidity requirements are primarily to fund our business operations, including capital expenditures and working capital requirements, as well as to fund debt service requirements, operational restructuring activities and dividends on share capital. Our primary sources of liquidity are cash flows from operations, our existing cash balance, and as necessary and available, borrowings under credit facilities and the issuance of long-term debt and equity. To the extent we generate discretionary cash flow we may consider using this additional cash flow for optional prepayments of existing indebtedness, strategic acquisitions or investments, and/or general corporate purposes. We will also continually explore ways to enhance our capital structure.
As of December 31, 2020, we had cash and cash equivalents of $2.8 billion and net debt (defined as outstanding debt less cash and cash equivalents) of $1.3 billion. We also have access to additional liquidity pursuant to the terms of the $2.0 billion Revolving Credit Facility and the committed European accounts receivable factoring facility, as described below.
The following table summarizes our available liquidity, which includes cash, cash equivalents and funds available under our significant committed credit facilities, as of December 31, 2020. The amounts disclosed as available under the Company’s significant committed credit facilities are available without violating our existing debt covenants, which are described below.
December 31, 2020
  (in millions)
Cash and cash equivalents $ 2,821 
Revolving Credit Facility, unutilized portion (1) 2,000 
Committed European accounts receivable factoring facility, unutilized portion (2) 369 
Total available liquidity $ 5,190 
(1)Availability reduced by less than $1 million in letters of credit issued under the Credit Agreement as of December 31, 2020.
(2)Based on December 31, 2020 foreign currency rates, subject to the availability of eligible accounts receivable. As further described below, during the year ended December 31, 2020, Aptiv entered into a new accounts receivable factoring facility under which €450 million is available on a committed basis and will allow for factoring of receivables denominated in both Euros and U.S. dollars. This facility became effective on January 1, 2021; accordingly it is not included in the table above.
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Despite the current global economic impacts and uncertainty resulting from the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on global vehicle production, as further described above, we currently expect existing cash, available liquidity and cash flows from operations to continue to be sufficient to fund our global operating activities, including restructuring payments, any mandatory payments required under the Credit Agreement as described below, dividends on preferred shares and capital expenditures.
We also continue to expect to be able to move funds between different countries to manage our global liquidity needs without material adverse tax implications, subject to current monetary policies and the terms of the Credit Agreement. We utilize a combination of strategies, including dividends, cash pooling arrangements, intercompany loan repayments and other distributions and advances to provide the funds necessary to meet our global liquidity needs. There are no significant restrictions on the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends or make other distributions to Aptiv. As of December 31, 2020, the Company’s cash and cash equivalents held by our non-U.S. subsidiaries totaled approximately $2.8 billion. If additional non-U.S. cash was needed for our U.S. operations, we may be required to accrue and pay withholding if we were to distribute such funds from non-U.S. subsidiaries to the U.S.; however, based on our current liquidity needs and strategies, we do not anticipate a need to accrue and pay such additional amounts.
Based on these factors, we believe we possess sufficient liquidity to fund our global operations and capital investments in 2021 and beyond.
Public Equity Offering
In June 2020, the Company completed the underwritten public offering of approximately 15.1 million ordinary shares at a price of $75.91 per share (the “Ordinary Share Offering”), resulting in net proceeds of approximately $1,115 million, after deducting expenses and the underwriters’ discount of $35 million. Simultaneously, the Company completed the underwritten public offering of 11.5 million 5.50% Mandatory Convertible Preferred Shares, Series A, $0.01 par value per share (the “MCPS”) with a liquidation preference of $100 per share (the “MCPS Offering”), resulting in net proceeds of approximately $1,115 million, after deducting expenses and the underwriters’ discount of $35 million. The Company intends to use the net proceeds from the Ordinary Share Offering and MCPS Offering for general corporate purposes, which may include funding potential future investments (including acquisitions), capital expenditures, working capital, repayment of outstanding indebtedness, and the satisfaction of other obligations. Each share of MCPS will mandatorily convert on the mandatory conversion date of June 15, 2023, into between 1.0754 and 1.3173 shares of the Company’s ordinary shares, subject to customary anti-dilution adjustments.
Holders of the MCPS will be entitled to receive, when and if declared by the Company’s Board of Directors, cumulative dividends at the annual rate of 5.50% of the liquidation preference of $100 per share (equivalent to $5.50 annually per share), payable in cash or, subject to certain limitations, by delivery of the Company’s ordinary shares or any combination of cash and the Company’s ordinary shares, at the Company’s election. If declared, dividends on the MCPS will be payable quarterly on March 15, June 15, September 15 and December 15 of each year (commencing on September 15, 2020 to, and including June 15, 2023), to the holders of record of the MCPS as they appear on the Company’s share register at the close of business on the immediately preceding March 1, June 1, September 1 or December 1, respectively. Refer to Note 15. Shareholders’ Equity and Net Income Per Share to the audited consolidated financial statements included herein for further detail on the June 2020 public equity offering.
Share Repurchases
In April 2016, the Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program of up to $1.5 billion of ordinary shares, which commenced in September 2016. This share repurchase program provides for share purchases in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions, depending on share price, market conditions and other factors, as determined by the Company.
A summary of the ordinary shares repurchased during the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 is as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
2020 2019 2018
Total number of shares repurchased 1,059,075  5,387,533  6,530,369 
Average price paid per share $ 53.73  $ 77.93  $ 76.44 
Total (in millions) $ 57  $ 420  $ 499 
As of December 31, 2020, approximately $13 million of share repurchases remained available under the April 2016 share repurchase program, which is in addition to the previously announced additional share repurchase program of up to $2.0 billion. This program, which will commence following the completion of the April 2016 share repurchase program, provides for share purchases in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions, depending on share price, market conditions and other
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factors, as determined by the Company. All repurchased shares were retired, and are reflected as a reduction of ordinary share capital for the par value of the shares, with the excess applied as reductions to additional paid-in-capital and retained earnings. Although both the April 2016 and this new share repurchase program remain authorized, the Company is restricted from executing further share repurchases under the terms of the May 2020 Amendment to the Credit Agreement for as long as the Covenant Relief Period remains in effect (as further described and defined below). Furthermore, in order to preserve liquidity during the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, the Company does not anticipate executing further share repurchases until such time as the global economic uncertainties and business impacts resulting from the pandemic have abated.
Dividends from Equity Investments
During the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, Aptiv received dividends of $9 million, $9 million and $12 million, respectively, from its equity method investments. The dividends were recognized as a reduction to the investment and represented a return on investment included in cash flows from operating activities.
Acquisitions
Dynawave—On August 4, 2020, Aptiv acquired 100% of the equity interests of Dynawave Inc. (“Dynawave”), a specialized manufacturer of custom-engineered interconnect solutions for a wide range of industries, for total consideration of $22 million. The acquisition was accounted for as a business combination, with the operating results of Dynawave included within the Company’s Signal and Power Solutions segment. The Company acquired Dynawave utilizing cash on hand.
gabocom—On November 19, 2019, Aptiv acquired 100% of the equity interests of gabo Systemtechnik GmbH (“gabocom”), a leading provider of highly-engineered cable management and protection solutions for the telecommunications industry, for total consideration of $311 million, net of cash acquired. The acquisition was accounted for as a business combination, with the operating results of gabocom included within the Company’s Signal and Power Solutions segment from the date of acquisition. The Company acquired gabocom utilizing cash on hand.
Falmat—On May 14, 2019, Aptiv acquired 100% of the equity interests of Falmat Inc. (“Falmat”), a leading manufacturer of high performance custom cable and cable assemblies for industrial applications, for total consideration of $25 million, net of cash acquired. The acquisition was accounted for as a business combination, with the operating results of Falmat included within the Company’s Signal and Power Solutions segment from the date of acquisition. The Company acquired Falmat utilizing cash on hand.
Winchester—On October 24, 2018, Aptiv acquired 100% of the equity interests of Winchester Interconnect (“Winchester”), a leading provider of custom engineered interconnect solutions for harsh environment applications, for total consideration of $680 million, net of cash acquired. The acquisition was accounted for as a business combination, with the operating results of Winchester included within the Company’s Signal and Power Solutions segment from the date of acquisition. The Company acquired Winchester utilizing cash on hand and short-term borrowings.
KUM—On June 14, 2018, Aptiv acquired 100% of the equity interests of KUM, a specialized manufacturer of connectors for the automotive industry, for total consideration of $526 million, net of cash acquired. The acquisition was accounted for as a business combination, with the operating results of KUM included within the Company’s Signal and Power Solutions segment from the date of acquisition. The Company acquired KUM utilizing cash on hand.
Refer to Note 20. Acquisitions and Divestitures to the audited consolidated financial statements included herein for further detail of the Company’s business acquisitions.
Technology Investments—During the fourth quarter of 2019, the Company’s Advanced Safety and User Experience segment made a $6 million investment in Krono-Safe, SAS, a leading software developer of safety-critical real-time embedded systems. During the first quarter of 2019, the Company’s Advanced Safety and User Experience segment made an additional $3 million investment in Otonomo Technologies Ltd., a connected car data marketplace developer. This investment was in addition to the Company’s $15 million investment made in the first quarter of 2017.
During the fourth quarter of 2018, the Company’s Advanced Safety and User Experience segment made a $15 million investment in Affectiva, Inc., a leader in human perception artificial intelligence technology.
These investments do not have readily determinable fair values and are measured at cost, less impairments, adjusted for observable price changes in orderly transactions for identical or similar investments of the same issuer. Refer to Note 5. Investments in Affiliates to the audited consolidated financial statements included herein for further detail of the Company’s technology investments.
Autonomous Driving Joint Venture
On March 26, 2020, Aptiv completed the transaction with Hyundai Motor Group (“Hyundai”) to form a joint venture focused on the design, development and commercialization of autonomous driving technologies. The joint venture operates globally under the Motional brand name. Under the terms of the agreement, Aptiv contributed to the joint venture autonomous
49


driving technology, intellectual property and approximately 700 employees for a 50% ownership interest in the entity. Hyundai contributed to the joint venture approximately $1.6 billion in cash, along with vehicle engineering services, research and development resources and access to intellectual property for a 50% ownership interest in the entity. As a result, subsequent to the closing of the transaction, the joint venture is expected to fund all of its future operating expenses and investments in autonomous driving technologies for the foreseeable future. Consequently, Aptiv is no longer required to fund these investments and expenses, which approximated $180 million for the year ended December 31, 2019 prior to the joint venture formation. Upon closing of the transaction, Aptiv deconsolidated the carrying value of the associated assets and liabilities contributed to the joint venture, previously classified as held for sale, and recognized an asset of approximately $2 billion within investments in affiliates in the consolidated balance sheet, based on the preliminary fair value of its investment in the newly formed joint venture. The Company recognized a pre-tax gain of approximately $1.4 billion in the consolidated statement of operations (approximately $5.32 per diluted share for the year ended December 31, 2020), net of transaction costs of $22 million, based on the difference between the carrying value of its contribution to the joint venture and the preliminary fair value of its investment in the entity. The estimated fair value of Aptiv’s ownership interest in the joint venture was determined primarily based on third-party valuations and management estimates, generally utilizing income and market approaches. Determining the fair value of the joint venture and the underlying assets requires the use of management’s judgment and involves significant estimates and assumptions with respect to the timing and amount of future cash flows, market rate assumptions, projected growth rates and margins, and appropriate discount rates, among other items. The estimated fair value is preliminary and could be revised as a result of additional information obtained or adjustments made due to the completion of independent appraisals and valuations. The effects of this transaction would not materially impact the Company’s reported results for any period presented, and the transaction did not meet the criteria to be reflected as a discontinued operation.
In connection with the closing of the transaction, Aptiv and the entity entered into various agreements to facilitate an orderly transition and to provide a framework for their relationship going forward, which included a transition services agreement. The transition services primarily involve Aptiv providing certain administrative services to the joint venture for a period of up to 24 months after the closing date. These agreements are not material to Aptiv. The Company’s investment in the joint venture is accounted for using the equity method of accounting and Aptiv recognized an equity loss of $98 million, net of tax, during the year ended December 31, 2020.
The Company determined that the assets and liabilities associated with Aptiv’s contribution to the joint venture, which were reported within the Advanced Safety and User Experience segment, met the held for sale criteria as of December 31, 2019. Accordingly, the held for sale assets and liabilities were reclassified in the consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2019 to current assets held for sale and current liabilities held for sale, respectively, as the contribution of such assets and liabilities to the joint venture was expected to occur within one year. Upon designation as held for sale, the Company ceased recording depreciation of the held for sale assets.
Credit Agreement
Aptiv PLC and its wholly-owned subsidiary Aptiv Corporation entered into a credit agreement (the “Credit Agreement”) with JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as administrative agent (the “Administrative Agent”), under which it maintains senior unsecured credit facilities currently consisting of a term loan (the “Tranche A Term Loan”) and a revolving credit facility of $2 billion (the “Revolving Credit Facility”). The Credit Agreement was entered into in March 2011 and has been subsequently amended and restated on several occasions, most recently on May 1, 2020 (the “May 2020 Amendment”) and June 8, 2020 (the “June 2020 Amendment”). The May 2020 amendment extended the maturity of $1,779 million in principal amount of the Revolving Credit Facility and $298 million in principal amount of the Tranche A Term Loan from August 17, 2021 to August 17, 2022 and increased the leverage ratio maintenance covenant until July 1, 2021 (the “Covenant Relief Period”), unless Aptiv elects to terminate the Covenant Relief Period at an earlier date. Under the terms of the May 2020 Amendment, Aptiv’s consolidated leverage ratio (the ratio of Consolidated Total Indebtedness to Consolidated EBITDA, each as defined in the May 2020 Amendment) is increased from not more than 3.5 to 1.0 to not more than 4.5 to 1.0 during the Covenant Relief Period, and Aptiv is subject to certain additional covenant restrictions during the Covenant Relief Period, including restrictions on Aptiv’s ability to execute repurchases of or pay dividends on its outstanding ordinary shares. The maturity date of the remaining portions of the Revolving Credit Facility and Tranche A Term Loan were not extended and will mature on August 17, 2021. The May 2020 Amendment also required that Aptiv pay amendment fees of $18 million during the year ended December 31, 2020, which is reflected as a financing activity in the consolidated statement of cash flows. The June 2020 Amendment amended the dividends and distributions covenant set forth in the Credit Agreement to permit the payment of dividends on convertible preferred shares in connection with the preferred equity offering as further discussed in Note 15. Shareholders’ Equity and Net Income Per Share. During the year ended December 31, 2020, Aptiv Global Financing Limited (“AGFL”), a wholly-owned Irish subsidiary of Aptiv PLC, executed a joinder agreement to the Credit Agreement, which allows it to act as a borrower under the Credit Agreement, and a guaranty supplement, under which AGFL guarantees the obligations under the Credit Agreement, subject to certain exceptions set forth in the Credit Agreement.
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Aptiv is obligated to make quarterly principal payments throughout the term of the Tranche A Term Loan according to the amortization schedule in the Credit Agreement. The Credit Agreement also contains an accordion feature that permits Aptiv to increase, from time to time, the aggregate borrowing capacity under the Credit Agreement by up to an additional $1 billion upon Aptiv’s request, the agreement of the lenders participating in the increase, and the approval of the Administrative Agent and existing lenders.
As of December 31, 2020, Aptiv had no amounts outstanding under the Revolving Credit Facility and less than $1 million in letters of credit were issued under the Credit Agreement. Letters of credit issued under the Credit Agreement reduce availability under the Revolving Credit Facility. The maximum amount drawn under the Revolving Credit Facility during the year ended December 31, 2020 was $2 billion, primarily to provide additional liquidity and financial flexibility to mitigate the impacts on its business resulting from the uncertainty caused by the global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Loans under the Credit Agreement bear interest, at Aptiv’s option, at either (a) the Administrative Agent’s Alternate Base Rate (“ABR” as defined in the Credit Agreement) or (b) the London Interbank Offered Rate (the “Adjusted LIBO Rate” as defined in the Credit Agreement) (“LIBOR”) plus in either case a percentage per annum as set forth in the table below (the “Applicable Rate”). The Applicable Rates under the Credit Agreement on the specified dates are set forth below:
December 31, 2020 December 31, 2019
LIBOR plus ABR plus LIBOR plus ABR plus
Revolving Credit Facility (1) 1.10  % 0.10  % 1.10  % 0.10  %
Revolving Credit Facility (2) 1.40  % 0.40  % N/A N/A
Tranche A Term Loan (1) 1.25  % 0.25  % 1.25  % 0.25  %
Tranche A Term Loan (2) 1.75  % 0.75  % N/A N/A
(1)Applicable to principal balances under the Credit Agreement which were not extended as part of the May 2020 Amendment as described above.
(2)Applicable to principal balances under the Credit Agreement which were extended as part of the May 2020 Amendment as described above.
The Applicable Rate under the Credit Agreement may increase or decrease from time to time based on changes in the Company’s credit ratings. Accordingly, the interest rate will fluctuate during the term of the Credit Agreement based on changes in the ABR, LIBOR or future changes in the Company’s corporate credit ratings. The Credit Agreement also requires that Aptiv pay certain facility fees on the Revolving Credit Facility and certain letter of credit issuance and fronting fees.
The interest rate period with respect to LIBOR interest rate options can be set at one-, two-, three-, or six-months as selected by Aptiv in accordance with the terms of the Credit Agreement (or other period as may be agreed by the applicable lenders). Aptiv may elect to change the selected interest rate option in accordance with the provisions of the Credit Agreement. As of December 31, 2020, Aptiv selected the one-month LIBOR interest rate option on the Tranche A Term Loan, and the rate effective as of December 31, 2020, as detailed in the table below, was based on the Company’s current credit rating and the Applicable Rate for the Credit Agreement:
Borrowings as of
December 31, 2020 Rates effective as of
Applicable Rate (in millions) December 31, 2020
Tranche A Term Loan (1) LIBOR plus 1.25% $ 49  1.44  %
Tranche A Term Loan (2) LIBOR plus 1.75% $ 272  1.94  %
(1)Applicable to principal balances under the Credit Agreement which were not extended as part of the May 2020 Amendment as described above.
(2)Applicable to principal balances under the Credit Agreement which were extended as part of the May 2020 Amendment as described above.
Borrowings under the Credit Agreement are prepayable at Aptiv’s option without premium or penalty.
The Credit Agreement contains certain covenants that limit, among other things, the Company’s (and the Company’s subsidiaries’) ability to incur certain additional indebtedness or liens or to dispose of substantially all of its assets. In addition, the Credit Agreement requires that the Company maintain a consolidated leverage ratio (the ratio of Consolidated Total Indebtedness to Consolidated EBITDA, each as defined in the Credit Agreement) of not more than 3.5 to 1.0, which was increased to not more than 4.5 to 1.0 until July 1, 2021 under the May 2020 Amendment. The Credit Agreement also contains events of default customary for financings of this type. The Company was in compliance with the Credit Agreement covenants as of December 31, 2020.
As of December 31, 2020, all obligations under the Credit Agreement were borrowed by Aptiv Corporation and jointly and severally guaranteed by its direct and indirect parent companies, subject to certain exceptions set forth in the Credit Agreement.
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Senior Unsecured Notes
As of December 31, 2020, the Company had the following senior unsecured notes issued and outstanding:
Aggregate Principal Amount
(in millions)
Stated Coupon Rate Issuance Date Maturity Date Interest Payment Date
$ 700  4.15% March 2014 March 2024 March 15 and September 15
861  1.50% March 2015 March 2025 March 10
650  4.25% November 2015 January 2026 January 15 and July 15
615  1.60% September 2016 September 2028 September 15
300  4.35% March 2019 March 2029 March 15 and September 15
300  4.40% September 2016 October 2046 April 1 and October 1
350  5.40% March 2019 March 2049 March 15 and September 15
Although the specific terms of each indenture governing each series of senior notes vary, the indentures contain certain restrictive covenants, including with respect to Aptiv’s (and Aptiv’s subsidiaries) ability to incur liens, enter into sale and leaseback transactions and merge with or into other entities. As of December 31, 2020, the Company was in compliance with the provisions of all series of the outstanding senior notes. Refer to Note 11. Debt to the audited consolidated financial statements included herein for additional information.
Guarantor Summarized Financial Information
In March 2020, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) adopted amendments to simplify the financial disclosure requirements for guarantors and issuers of guaranteed securities registered under Rule 3-10 of Regulation S-X. As permitted, the Company elected to early adopt these amendments during the first quarter of 2020. Accordingly, the below summarized financial information has been provided in lieu of the condensed consolidating financial statements provided in the Company’s 2019 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
As further described in Note 11. Debt to the audited consolidated financial statements included herein, Aptiv Corporation issued the 2014 Senior Notes and is the borrower of obligations under the Credit Agreement, which are fully and unconditionally guaranteed by Aptiv PLC and certain of Aptiv PLC’s direct and indirect subsidiaries (the “Obligor Group”). Aptiv PLC issued the 2015 Euro-denominated Senior Notes, 4.25% Senior Notes, 2016 Euro-denominated Senior Notes, 2016 Senior Notes and 2019 Senior Notes, which are fully and unconditionally guaranteed by the Obligor Group. All other consolidated direct and indirect subsidiaries of Aptiv PLC are not subject to the guarantees (the “Non-Guarantors”). The guarantees rank equally in right of payment with all of the guarantors’ existing and future senior indebtedness, are effectively subordinated to any of their existing and future secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the collateral securing such indebtedness and are structurally subordinated to the indebtedness of each of their existing and future subsidiaries that is not a guarantor.
The below summarized financial information is presented on a combined basis after the elimination of intercompany balances and transactions among the Obligor Group and equity in earnings from and investments in the Non-Guarantors. The below summarized financial information should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements included herein, as the financial information may not necessarily be indicative of results of operations or financial position had the subsidiaries operated as independent entities.
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Obligor Group
Year Ended December 31, 2020 (in millions)
Net sales $ — 
Gross margin $ — 
Operating loss $ (22)
Net loss $ (265)
Net loss attributable to Aptiv $ (265)
As of December 31, 2020
Current assets (1) $ 377 
Long-term assets $
Current liabilities (3) $ 913 
Long-term liabilities (3) $ 4,223 
Noncontrolling interest $ — 
As of December 31, 2019
Current assets (2) $ 522 
Long-term assets (2) $ 772 
Current liabilities (3) $ 6,579 
Long-term liabilities (3) $ 4,172 
Noncontrolling interest $ — 
(1)Includes current assets of $370 million as of December 31, 2020 due from Non-Guarantors, which includes amounts due from affiliates of $6 million.
(2)Includes current assets of $522 million and long-term assets of $768 million as of December 31, 2019, respectively, due from Non-Guarantors.
(3)Includes current liabilities of $785 million and $6,409 million, and long-term liabilities of $226 million and $226 million, due to Non-Guarantors as of December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively.
Other Financing
Receivable factoring—During the year ended December 31, 2020, Aptiv entered into a new accounts receivable factoring agreement under which a facility of €450 million is available on a committed basis and will allow for factoring of receivables denominated in both Euros and U.S. dollars (“USD”). This facility replaced Aptiv’s previous €300 million European accounts receivable factoring facility on January 1, 2021. This facility is accounted for as short-term debt and borrowings are subject to the availability of eligible accounts receivable. Collateral is not required related to these trade accounts receivable. The new program is for a term of three years, after which either party can terminate with three months’ notice. Borrowings denominated in Euros under the new facility will bear interest at the three-month Euro Interbank Offered Rate (“EURIBOR”) plus 0.50% and USD borrowings will bear interest at two-month LIBOR plus 0.50%, with borrowings under either denomination carrying a minimum interest rate of 0.20%. Borrowings under the previous facility bore interest at EURIBOR plus 0.42% for borrowings denominated in Euros with a minimum interest rate of 0.42%. As of December 31, 2020, Aptiv had no amounts outstanding on the European accounts receivable factoring facility. As of December 31, 2019, Aptiv had $266 million outstanding on the European accounts receivable factoring facility. The maximum amount drawn under the European facility during the year ended December 31, 2020 was $253 million, primarily to provide additional liquidity and financial flexibility to mitigate the impacts on its business resulting from the uncertainty caused by the global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Finance leases and other—As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, approximately $28 million and $33 million, respectively, of other debt primarily issued by certain non-U.S. subsidiaries and finance lease obligations were outstanding.
Letter of credit facilities—In addition to the letters of credit issued under the Credit Agreement, Aptiv had approximately $2 million and $2 million outstanding through other letter of credit facilities as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, primarily to support arrangements and other obligations at certain of its subsidiaries.

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Contractual Commitments
The following table summarizes our expected cash outflows resulting from financial contracts and commitments as of December 31, 2020, with amounts denominated in foreign currencies translated using foreign currency rates as of December 31, 2020. We have not included information on our recurring purchases of materials for use in our manufacturing operations. These amounts are generally consistent from year to year, closely reflect our levels of production, and are not long-term in nature. The amounts below exclude the gross liability for uncertain tax positions of $231 million as of December 31, 2020. We do not expect a significant payment related to these obligations to be made within the next twelve months. We are not able to provide a reasonably reliable estimate of the timing of future payments relating to the non-current portion of obligations associated with uncertain tax positions. For more information, refer to Note 14. Income Taxes to the audited consolidated financial statements included herein.
  Payments due by Period
  Total 2021 2022 & 2023 2024 & 2025 Thereafter
  (in millions)
Debt and finance lease obligations (excluding interest) $ 4,125  $ 90  $ 253  $ 1,564  $ 2,218 
Estimated interest costs related to debt and finance lease obligations 1,405  131  256  207  811 
Operating lease obligations 439  111  160  81  87 
Contractual commitments for capital expenditures 147  147  —  —  — 
Other contractual purchase commitments, including information technology 304  178  103  18 
Total $ 6,420  $ 657  $ 772  $ 1,870  $ 3,121 
In addition to the obligations discussed above, certain of our non-U.S. subsidiaries sponsor defined benefit pension plans, some of which are funded. We have minimum funding requirements with respect to certain of our pension obligations and may periodically elect to make discretionary contributions to the plans in support of risk management initiatives. We will also have payments due with respect to our other postretirement benefit obligations. We do not fund our other postretirement benefit obligations and payments are made as costs are incurred by covered retirees. Refer to Note 12. Pension Benefits to the audited consolidated financial statements included herein for additional detail regarding our expected contributions to our pension plans and expected distributions to participants in future periods.
Capital Expenditures
Supplier selection in the automotive industry is generally finalized several years prior to the start of production of the vehicle. Therefore, current capital expenditures are based on customer commitments entered into previously, generally several years ago when the customer contract was awarded. As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately $147 million in outstanding cancellable and non-cancellable capital commitments. Capital expenditures by operating segment and geographic region for the periods presented were: