As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 27, 2014
Registration No. 333-193791
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549
_____________________
Amendment No. 3
to
Form S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
  Tecogen Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 ______________________
Delaware
 
3,585
 
04-3536131
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
Tecogen Inc.
 
John N. Hatsopoulos
45 First Avenue
 
Chief Executive Officer
Waltham, MA 02451
 
Tecogen Inc.
(781) 622-1120
 
45 First Avenue
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number,
 
Waltham, MA 02451
including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
 
(781) 622-1120/Fax: (781) 622-1027
 
 
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone
 
 
number, including area code, of agent for service)
 __________________________
Copy to:
Edwin L. Miller Jr.
Kristen A. Young
Sullivan & Worcester LLP
One Post Office Square
Boston, MA 02109
(617) 338-2800/Fax: (617) 338-2880

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after the effective date hereof.
If any of the securities being registered on this form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ý
If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨
If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨
If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. Large accelerated filer ¨ Accelerated filer ¨ Non-accelerated filer ¨ Smaller reporting company: ý
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine .
The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state or other jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.



SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED June _, 2014

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS

1,134,429 Shares of Common Stock

This prospectus relates to the resale of up to 1,134,429 shares of Tecogen Inc. Common Stock. These shares will be resold from time to time by the investors listed in the section titled “Selling Security Holders,” and we refer to the investors as the selling stockholders. The selling stockholders do not include any of our directors, officers or 10% holders, and this prospectus may not be used by any such person or entity. We are not selling any securities under this prospectus and therefore will not receive any proceeds from the sale of securities by the selling stockholders.
Our Common Stock is listed on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “TGEN.” The last sale price of our Common Stock on June 25, 2014 was $7.60. Selling stockholders will sell at prevailing market prices or privately negotiated prices.
The selling stockholders will be responsible for any commissions or discounts due to brokers or dealers. We will pay all of the other offering expenses.
Each selling stockholder or dealer selling the Common Stock is required to deliver a current prospectus upon the sale. In addition, for the purposes of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, selling stockholders may be deemed underwriters. See “ Plan of Distribution ” beginning on page 62 of this prospectus for more information regarding these arrangements.
Investing in our Common Stock involves a high degree of risk. See “ Risk Factors ” beginning on page 6 of this prospectus for a discussion of information that should be considered in connection with an investment in our Common Stock.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission, nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete.  Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as that term is used in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, the JOBS Act, and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements for this prospectus and future filings. See “Prospectus Summary - Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company.”


The date of this prospectus is June __, 2014.


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You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus and any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We have not authorized anyone, including the selling stockholders, to provide you with information that is different. The selling stockholders are offering to sell our Common Stock, and seeking offers to buy our Common Stock, only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted.
We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.
For investors outside of the United States: Neither we nor any of the selling stockholders have done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. You are required to inform yourselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus.
In this prospectus, unless the context otherwise requires, “Tecogen,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” or “our,” refer to Tecogen Inc. and its subsidiary.
This prospectus includes statistical, market and industry data and forecasts that we obtained from publicly available information and independent industry publications and reports that we believe to be reliable sources. These publicly available industry publications and reports generally state that they obtain their information from sources that they believe to be reliable, but they do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of the information. Although we believe that these sources are reliable, we have not independently verified the information contained in such publications.


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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
The following summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. It is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in our Common Stock. You should read the entire prospectus carefully, especially the risks of investing in our Common Stock discussed under “Risk Factors” and our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. In this prospectus, unless the context otherwise requires, “Tecogen,” “Company,” “we,” “us,” or “our,” refer to Tecogen Inc. and its subsidiaries.
Company Overview
Tecogen designs, manufactures, sells, and services systems that produce electricity, hot water, and air conditioning for commercial installations and buildings and industrial processes. Our systems, powered by natural gas engines, drive electricity generators or compressors, which reduce the amount of electricity purchased from local utilities. Because our systems are designed to capture waste engine heat, they tend to be more energy efficient since otherwise-wasted energy can be used for water heating, space heating and/or air conditioning. The relative costs of natural gas and electricity at a proposed system site determine whether a system is economically efficient as well as energy efficient. This type of cogeneration technology is referred to as combined heat and power, or CHP.
Tecogen manufactures three types of CHP products:
Cogeneration units that supply electricity and hot water;
Chillers that provide air-conditioning and hot water; and
High-efficiency water heaters.
All of our products are standardized, modular, small-scale CHP products that reduce energy costs, carbon emissions, and dependence on the electric grid. Market drivers include the price of natural gas, local electricity costs, and governmental energy policies, as well as customers’ desire to become more socially responsible. Traditional customers for our cogeneration and chiller systems include hospitals and nursing homes, colleges and universities, health clubs and spas, hotels and motels, office and retail buildings, food and beverage processors, multi-unit residential buildings, laundries, ice rinks, swimming pools, factories, municipal buildings, and military installations; however, the economic feasibility of using our systems is not limited to these customer types. We have shipped approximately 2,000 units, some of which have been operating for almost 25 years. As of June 13, 2014, we have 75 full-time employees and 3 part-time employees, including 6 sales and marketing personnel and 41 service personnel.
Our Technology
Our CHP technology uses low-cost, mass-produced engines manufactured by General Motors Company, or GM, or Ford Motor Company, or Ford, which we modify to run on natural gas. Because our systems are fueled by natural gas, they typically produce lower levels of “criteria” air pollutants (those that are regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, or EPA, because they can harm human health and the environment) compared with systems fueled by propane, gasoline, distillates, or residual fuel oil. We offer our new advanced emission system, Ultra, as an option in our CHP systems. With Ultra, our CHP products have achieved emission levels that qualify under strict existing and proposed California emission standards. Other emerging technologies, such as fuel cells, may also meet those standards, but we are not aware that any appear economically viable at this time.
Our products are designed as compact modular units that are intended to be applied in multiples when utilized for larger CHP plants. Approximately 68% of our CHP modules are installed in multi-unit sites ranging up to 12 units. This approach has significant advantages over utilizing single, larger units, such as building placement in constrained urban settings and redundancy during service outages. Redundancy is particularly relevant in regions where the electric utility has formulated tariff structures that have high “peak demand” charges. Such tariffs are common in many areas of the United States, and are applied by such utilities as Southern California Edison, Pacific Gas and Electric, Consolidated Edison of New York, and National Grid of Massachusetts. Because these tariffs assess customers’ peak monthly demand charge over a very short interval (typically only 15 minutes), a brief service outage for a system comprised of a single unit is highly detrimental to the monthly savings of the system. For multiple unit sites, a full system outage is less likely and consequently these customers have a greater probability of capturing peak demand savings.
Our in-licensed microgrid technology enables our InVerde CHP product to provide backup power in the event of power outages that may be experienced by local, regional, or national grids.
Our 65.0%-owned subsidiary Ilios, Inc., which does business under the name Ilios Dynamics in Massachusetts, or Ilios, has developed and distributes a line of high-efficiency water heaters. Ilios technology is designed to capture available energy in the environment due to ambient temperature differences. The physical laws of thermodynamics determine the portion of this available energy that can be theoretically captured. If the cost of capturing a portion of that available energy is less than the value of that energy, additional system efficiencies may be obtained. Thus, Ilios systems in certain cases may be more efficient than conventional boilers in commercial installations and industrial processes.

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Markets, Customers, and Suppliers
Our CHP products are sold directly to customers by our in-house marketing team and by established sales agents and representatives, including American DG Energy Inc., or American DG Energy, and EuroSite Power Inc., or EuroSite Power, which are affiliated companies. Our principal engine supplier is GM, and the other principal components of our CHP systems are also mass-produced. Other than service revenue, our products generally do not produce recurring revenue as they typically constitute a one-time capital expenditure by a customer. We do not consider ourselves dependent on one or a few customers, including our affiliated customers, American DG Energy and EuroSite Power. We strive to obtain long-term service contracts for the products we manufacture through our factory-owned service centers in California, the Midwest, and the Northeast United States. Between 2007 and 2012, approximately 68% of our installations also included service contracts.
Strategy
While we believe that our products and services provide efficient solutions to customers throughout the United States and around the world, our strategy for increased revenue and profitability is to expand our operations in our existing territories where we perceive the demand for our products and services is strongest, and where our products have particular advantages over our competition. Specifically, our CHP systems provide energy-efficient power with technically superior emissions control, while also serving as backup power that may allow customers in some areas to provide surplus power to an electrical grid. Our sales and technical staff operate from our existing service centers in California and the Northeast. These regions have strict emissions regulations, which favor our products equipped with our Ultra low-emission technology. Also, these regions have high peak demand rates, which favor utilization of our modular units in groups so as to assure redundancy and peak demand savings, as discussed above. Some of these regions also have generous rebates that improve the economic viability of our systems. We will also focus on customers that value our microgrid technology that enables the CHP plant to serve the facility to provide backup power during outages. Our sales staff will support our existing sales channels, but will also focus on selling complete design and installation services for customers in these regions. We believe that these design and build services, or turnkey services, will expand our sales significantly because they increase revenue per unit sale substantially, as they include the portion of the sale related to installation. We believe that turnkey installation services will improve our service contract retention from its current rate of 68% between 2007 and 2012, to a near universal proportion. Moreover, we see the turnkey model as a vehicle to expand our service offering to customers to include portions of the system outside of our factory produced module that may improve the long-term operation of the CHP plant. Such items might include ancillary pumps, controls, and heat exchangers, among other components.
Our business model of establishing satellite service, sales, and installation centers will be our strategy in emerging domestic markets such as the mid-Atlantic region and areas in the Midwest. For our overseas markets we will continue to develop regional allies for sales and service, such as EuroSite Power in the United Kingdom, and our analogous allies in other international markets such as Mexico and Australia.
In markets we have identified to focus our attention, we will continue our strategy of engaging the consulting engineering community through direct contact and also through engineering societies and trade shows. Our sales staff will engage building owners and their management companies to explain the energy-efficient products and solutions we offer with the goal of providing comprehensive turnkey installations.
Risks Associated with Our Business
Our business is subject to a number of risks of which you should be aware before making an investment decision. These risks are discussed more fully in the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus immediately following this prospectus summary. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:
History of Operating Losses. For each of our last five fiscal years and prior thereto, we have incurred annual operating losses. We expect this trend to continue until such time that we can sell a sufficient number of systems and achieve a cost structure to become profitable, which may be several years. We may not have adequate cash resources to reach the point of profitability, and we may never become profitable. Even if we do achieve profitability, we may be unable to increase our sales and sustain or increase our profitability in the future.
Dependence on Key Suppliers. We rely on a small number of key suppliers, and the loss one of them could materially and adversely affect our business. Further, from time to time, shipments to us of key system components can be delayed because of industry-wide or other shortages, and the components we receive may not meet our quality or cost requirements.
Dependence on Technology Development. Our products incorporate proprietary technology, and our future success will depend upon our ability to continue to develop and provide innovative products and product enhancements. The introduction of products embodying new technologies, and the shifting of customer demands or changing industry standards, could render our existing products obsolete and unmarketable.

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Changes in governmental regulation could adversely affect us. We operate in a highly regulated business environment, and changes in regulation could impose significant costs on us or could make our products less economical.
The economic viability of our projects depends on the price spread between fuel and electricity. Variability of the price spread between fuel and electricity creates a risk that our projects will not be economically viable and that potential customers will avoid such energy price risks.
There has been a material weakness in our disclosure controls and procedures and in our internal control over financial reporting. Although we consider the size of our accounting staff sufficient to meet our business needs, a need for improved controls and procedures surrounding technical accounting practices, information technology, and financial reporting currently exists.
Our chief executive officer and chief financial officer have responsibilities to affiliated companies. Our key executives spend a significant portion of their time performing management functions for one or more of our affiliated companies. John N. Hatsopoulos is the Company’s Chief Executive Officer and is also the Chief Executive Officer of American DG Energy. In the past Mr. Hatsopoulos has spent approximately 50% of his business time on the affairs of the Company. Although such amount varies widely depending on the needs of the business, he has actively fulfilled all his duties as the Company’s CEO and feels confident that he will be able to continue fulfilling such duties in the future. Bonnie Brown is the Company’s Chief Financial Officer and is also Chief Financial Officer of Ilios, the Company’s majority-owned subsidiary.
Recent Developments
The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, or the U.S. PTO, has issued our patent relating to the assembly and method for reducing nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons in exhausts of internal combustion engines, which is the underlying process used in our Ultra low-emissions technology. The claims describe a method of operating an engine exhaust treatment system that reduces certain “criteria” pollutants, the common air pollutants determined to be hazardous to human health and regulated under the Environmental Protection Agency’s National Ambient Air Quality Standards, to extremely low values by converting most of the toxic compounds in the engine exhaust to benign compounds.
On May 20, 2014, we closed a primary offering of 647,706 shares of our Common Stock with an offering price of $4.75 per share, and our shares began trading on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “TGEN”. We received $3,076,604 of gross proceeds before deducting placement agent fees and offering expenses. Scarsdale Equities LLC served as placement agent in the primary offering.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company
We are an “emerging growth company,” as that term is used in the JOBS Act and, for as long as we continue to be an “emerging growth company,” we may choose to take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies but not to “emerging growth companies,” including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We could be an “emerging growth company” for up to five years, or until the earliest of (i) the last day of the fiscal year during which our total annual gross revenues equal or exceed $1 billion (subject to adjustment for inflation), (ii) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of our public offering, (iii) the date on which we have, during the previous three-year period, issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt, or (iv) the date on which we are deemed a large accelerated filer under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act. We have chosen to “opt out” of the extended transition periods available under the JOBS Act for complying with new or revised accounting standards, and intend to take advantage of the other exemptions.
Corporate History
Tecogen began in the early 1960s as a research division of Thermo Electron Corporation, now Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., which is a publicly traded company listed on the NYSE under the symbol TMO. In 2000, Tecogen was sold to private investors including Thermo Electron’s original founders, Dr. George N. Hatsopoulos and John N. Hatsopoulos.
We were incorporated in the State of Delaware on September 15, 2000. Our offices are located at 45 First Avenue, Waltham, Massachusetts 02451. Our telephone number is 781-466-6400. Our Internet address is http://www.tecogen.com. The information on, or that may be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus and should not be considered a part of this prospectus.


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THE OFFERING
 
Securities being offered:
1,134,429 shares of Common Stock by the selling stockholders
 
 
Common Stock to be outstanding after this offering:
15,809,306 shares (1)
 
 
Offering price:
Selling stockholders will sell our Common Stock at prevailing market prices or privately negotiated prices.

Our Common Stock is listed on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “TGEN.” The last sale price of our Common Stock on June 25, 2014 was $7.60.
 
 
Securities issued and to be issued:
15,809,306 shares of our Common Stock were issued and outstanding as of June 25, 2014, 1,134,429 of which are being offered pursuant to this prospectus. Because all of the Common Stock to be sold under this prospectus will be sold by existing shareholders, there will be no increase in our issued and outstanding shares as a result of this offering.
 
 
Use of proceeds:
We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of the Common Stock by the selling stockholders.

(1) Unless we indicate otherwise, Common Stock outstanding after this offering is based on 15,809,306 shares of our Common Stock outstanding as of June 25, 2014 and excludes as of that date the following:
1,233,825 shares of Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding prior to this offering under our stock incentive plan, at a weighted average exercise price of $2.31 per share;
Zero shares of Common Stock available for future grants under our stock incentive plan;
555,556 shares of Common Stock issuable pursuant to senior convertible promissory note with an outstanding principal amount of $3,000,000 and a conversion price of $5.40 per share.


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SUMMARY CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA
The summary consolidated statements of operations data for each of the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 and the summary consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements that are included elsewhere in this prospectus.
The summary consolidated statements of operations data for the three months ended March 31, 2014 and 2013 and the summary consolidated balance sheet data as of March 31, 2014, have been derived from our unaudited consolidated financial statements that are included elsewhere in this prospectus. The unaudited consolidated financial statements were prepared on the same basis as our audited financial statements. In our opinion, such financial statements include all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments that we consider necessary for a fair presentation of the financial information set forth in those statements.
You should read this information together with the consolidated financial statements and related notes and other information under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this prospectus.
 
 
Audited
 
Unaudited
Consolidated Statement of
Operations Data:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Three months ended March 31,
 
2013
 
2012
 
2014
 
2013
Revenues
 
$
15,849,869

 
$
15,253,972

 
$
4,215,757

 
$
4,046,318

Cost of sales
 
10,819,741

 
9,388,898

 
2,789,531

 
2,934,354

Gross profit
 
5,030,128

 
5,865,074

 
1,426,226

 
1,111,964

Operating expenses
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
General and administrative
 
7,018,133

 
6,643,120

 
2,052,126

 
1,791,703

Selling
 
1,423,587

 
1,225,580

 
421,620

 
279,370

Aborted public offering costs
 
258,512

 

 

 

 
 
8,700,232

 
7,868,700

 
2,473,746

 
2,071,073

Loss from operations
 
(3,670,104
)
 
(2,003,626
)
 
(1,047,520
)
 
(959,109
)
Other income (expense)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest and other income
 
3,958

 
48,397

 
3,085

 
3,946

Interest expense
 
(141,065
)
 
(71,208
)
 
(34,770
)
 
(23,377
)
 
 
(137,107
)
 
(22,811
)
 
(31,685
)
 
(19,431
)
Loss before income taxes
 
(3,807,211
)
 
(2,026,437
)
 
(1,079,205
)
 
(978,540
)
Consolidated net loss
 
(3,807,211
)
 
(2,026,437
)
 
(1,079,205
)
 
(978,540
)
Less: Loss attributable to the noncontrolling interest
 
357,722

 
389,480

 
59,160

 
118,147

Net loss attributable to Tecogen Inc.
 
$
(3,449,489
)
 
$
(1,636,957
)
 
$
(1,020,045
)
 
$
(860,393
)
Net loss per share - basic and diluted
 
$
(0.26
)
 
$
(0.12
)
 
$
(0.07
)
 
$
(0.07
)
Weighted average shares outstanding - basic and diluted
 
13,385,155

 
13,135,071

 
14,796,413

 
13,212,894


 
 
Audited December 31,
 
Unaudited  March 31,
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
 
2013
2012
 
2014
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
7,713,899

$
1,572,785

 
$
1,946,891

Short-term investments (restricted)
 

181,859

 
583,720

Working capital
 
5,565,789

4,078,704

 
4,608,548

Total assets
 
17,630,069

9,117,249

 
13,573,924

Total liabilities
 
10,564,176

4,334,214

 
7,542,445

Total stockholders’ equity
 
$
7,065,893

$
4,783,035

 
$
6,031,479



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RISK FACTORS
The shares of Common Stock offered hereby are highly speculative and should be purchased only by persons who can afford to lose their entire investment. You should carefully consider the following risk factors and other information in this prospectus before deciding to purchase our Common Stock. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business and financial results could be negatively affected to a significant extent.
Risks Relating to Our Business
Our business faces many risks. The risks described below may not be the only risks we face. Additional risks that we do not yet know of, or that we currently think are immaterial, may also impair our business operations or financial results. If any of the events or circumstances described in the following risks occurs, our business, financial condition or results of operations could suffer and the trading price of our Common Stock could decline. Investors and prospective investors should consider the following risks and the information contained under the heading ''Cautionary Note Concerning Forward-Looking Statements'' before deciding whether to invest in our securities.
Our operating history is characterized by net losses. We anticipate incurring further losses, and we may never become profitable.
For each of our last five fiscal years and prior thereto, we have incurred annual operating losses. We expect this trend to continue until such time that we can sell a sufficient number of systems and achieve a cost structure to become profitable. We may not have adequate cash resources to reach the point of profitability, and we may never become profitable. Even if we do achieve profitability, we may be unable to increase our sales and sustain or increase our profitability in the future.
We experience significant fluctuations in revenues from quarter to quarter due to a preponderance of one-time sales.
We have low volume, high dollar sales for projects that are generally non-recurring, and therefore our sales have fluctuated significantly from period to period. For example, when compared to the previous quarter, our revenues in 2010 decreased during the first, second and fourth quarters and increased during the third quarter. In 2011, our revenue decreased during the first and fourth quarters and increased during the second and third quarters. In 2012, our revenue increased during the first, second and fourth quarters and decreased during the third quarter. In 2013, our revenue increased in the first, third and fourth quarters and decreased in the second quarter. Fluctuations cannot be predicted because they are affected by the purchasing decisions and timing requirements of our customers, which are unpredictable.
We may be unable to fund our future operating requirements, which could force us to curtail our operations.
To the extent that our funds are insufficient to fund our future operating requirements, we would need to raise additional funds through further public or private equity or debt financings depending upon prevailing market conditions. These financings may not be available to us, or if available, may be on terms that are not favorable to us and could result in significant dilution to our stockholders and reduction of the trading price of our stock (if then publicly traded). The state of worldwide capital markets could also impede our ability to raise additional capital on favorable terms or at all. If adequate capital were not available to us, we likely would be required to significantly curtail our operations or possibly even cease our operations.
We believe that our existing resources, including cash and cash equivalents, future cash flows from operations and the net proceeds from the primary offering of our Common Stock, which closed on May 20, 2014, are sufficient to meet the working capital requirements of our existing business for the next twelve months. After that our cash requirements may increase.
If we experience a period of significant growth or expansion, it could place a substantial strain on our resources.
If our cogeneration and chiller products penetrate the market rapidly, we would be required to deliver even larger volumes of technically complex products or components to our customers on a timely basis and at a reasonable cost to us. We have never ramped up our manufacturing capabilities to meet large-scale production requirements. If we were to commit to deliver large volumes of products, we may not be able to satisfy these commitments on a timely and cost-effective basis.
The execution of our growth strategy is dependent upon the continued availability of third-party financing arrangements for our customers and is affected by general economic conditions. 
The recent recession, current unstable economic conditions and limited availability of credit and liquidity could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations because purchasers of our systems often require third party financing. Purchasers may be unable or unwilling to finance the cost to purchase our products or may be forced to cancel previously submitted orders or delay taking shipment until suitable credit is again available. Collecting payment from customers facing liquidity challenges is also difficult.

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We are dependent on a limited number of third-party suppliers for the supply of key components for our products.
We use third-party suppliers for components in many of our products. Our engine supplier is GM. Our generator supplier for our cogeneration products, other than the InVerde, is Marathon Electric. To produce air conditioning, our engines drive a compressor purchased from J&E Hall International. The loss of one of our suppliers could materially and adversely affect our business, if we are unable to replace them. While alternate suppliers for the manufacture of our engine, generator and compressor have been identified, should the need arise, there can be no assurance that alternate suppliers will be available and able to manufacture our engine, generator or compressor on acceptable terms.
From time to time, shipments can be delayed because of industry-wide or other shortages of necessary materials and components from third-party suppliers. A supplier's failure to supply components in a timely manner, or to supply components that meet our quality, quantity, or cost requirements, or our inability to obtain substitute sources of these components on a timely basis or on terms acceptable to us, could impair our ability to deliver our products in accordance with contractual obligations.
We expect significant competition for our products and services.
Competition for our products is currently limited (see “Competitive Position and Business Conditions” in the “Business” section of this preliminary prospectus). Many of our competitors and potential competitors are well established and have substantially greater financial, research and development, technical, manufacturing and marketing resources than we do. If these larger competitors decide to focus on the development of distributed power or cogeneration, they have the manufacturing, marketing and sales capabilities to complete research, development and commercialization of these products more quickly and effectively than we can. There can also be no assurance that current and future competitors will not develop new or enhanced technologies or more cost-effective systems, and therefore, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in this competitive environment.
The Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency may lead to increased competition.
An Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency, including CHP, was promulgated in August 2012. The goal of the Executive Order is to supply 40 gigawatts of energy by 2020 from greater efficiency sources such as CHP systems. With this Executive Order, it is expected that a number of barriers to CHP development will be removed with effective programs, policies, and financing opportunities resulting in significant new capital investment in CHP. This initiative by the U.S. government may lead to increased competition in the CHP market.
If we are unable to maintain our technological expertise in design and manufacturing processes, we will not be able to successfully compete.
We believe that our future success will depend upon our ability to continue to develop and provide innovative products and product enhancements that meet the increasingly sophisticated needs of our customers.
However, this requires that we successfully anticipate and respond to technological changes in design and manufacturing processes in a cost-effective and timely manner. The development of new, technologically advanced products and enhancements is a complex and uncertain process requiring high levels of innovation, as well as the accurate anticipation of technological and market trends. There can be no assurance that we will successfully identify new product opportunities, develop and bring new or enhanced products to market in a timely manner, successfully lower costs, and achieve market acceptance of our products, or that products and technologies developed by others will not render our products or technologies obsolete or noncompetitive. 
The introduction of products embodying new technologies, and the shifting of customer demands or changing industry standards, could render our existing products obsolete and unmarketable. We may experience delays in releasing new products and product enhancements in the future. Material delays in introducing new products or product enhancements may cause customers to forego purchases of our products and purchase those of our competitors.
Our intellectual property may not be adequately protected.
We seek to protect our intellectual property rights through patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secret laws, confidentiality agreements, and licensing arrangements, but we cannot ensure that we will be able to adequately protect our technology from misappropriation or infringement. We cannot ensure that our existing intellectual property rights will not be invalidated, circumvented, challenged, or rendered unenforceable.
We have applied for and obtained patents on certain key components used in our products. Specifically, the Company holds three patents, all of which are utilized in our products. The first patent, from 2007, protects the incorporation of an inverter into an engine-driven CHP module and applies to our InVerde model. The second patent, also from 2007, pertains to algorithms used for combustion control in our engines. Our third patent, issued October 2013 in the United States, is for our Ultra low-emissions technology. This Ultra technology applies to all of our gas engine-driven products and may have licensing application to other natural gas engines. In addition, we have rights to a 2006 University of Wisconsin patent enabling us to use that patent’s microgrid control algorithms for our specific use: engine-based power generation fueled by natural gas and diesel for engines less than 500 kW in electric power output.

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We have also filed for patents for our Ultra low-emissions technology in Europe, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, India, Israel, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Republic of Korea, Singapore, and South Africa. As discussed under Recent Developments, the U.S. PTO has issued our patent. There is no assurance, however, that the Ultra low-emissions patent applications will be approved in any other countries.
Our competitors may successfully challenge the validity of our patents, design non-infringing products, or deliberately infringe our patents. There can be no assurance that other companies are not investigating or developing other similar technologies. In addition, our intellectual property rights may not provide a competitive advantage to us or ensure that our products and technology will be adequately covered by our patents and other intellectual property. Any of these factors or the expiration, termination, or invalidity of one or more of our patents may have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our control software is protected by copyright laws or under an exclusive license agreement. Further, we rely on treatment of our technology as trade secrets through confidentiality agreements, which our employees and vendors are required to sign. We also rely on non-disclosure agreements with others that have or may have access to confidential information to protect our trade secrets and proprietary knowledge. These agreements may be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies for any breach. Our trade secrets may also be or become known without breach of these agreements or may be independently developed by competitors. Failure to maintain the proprietary nature of our technology and information could harm our results of operations and financial condition.
Others may assert that our technology infringes their intellectual property rights.
We may be subject to infringement claims in the future. The defense of any claims of infringement made against us by third parties could involve significant legal costs and require our management to divert time from our business operations. If we are unsuccessful in defending any claims of infringement, we may be forced to obtain licenses or to pay additional royalties to continue to use our technology. We may not be able to obtain any necessary licenses on commercially reasonable terms or at all. If we fail to obtain necessary licenses or other rights, or if these licenses are costly, our operating results would suffer either from reductions in revenues through our inability to serve customers or from increases in costs to license third-party technologies.
Our success is dependent upon attracting and retaining highly qualified personnel and the loss of key personnel could significantly hurt our business.
To achieve success, we must attract and retain highly qualified technical, operational and executive employees. The loss of the services of key employees or an inability to attract, train and retain qualified and skilled employees, specifically engineering, operations, and business development personnel, could result in the loss of business or could otherwise negatively impact our ability to operate and grow our business successfully.
Our business is subject to product liability and warranty claims.
Our business exposes us to potential product liability claims, which are inherent in the manufacturing, marketing and sale of our products, and we may face substantial liability for damages resulting from the faulty design or manufacture of products or improper use of products by end users. We currently maintain a moderate level of product liability insurance, but there can be no assurance that this insurance will provide sufficient coverage in the event of a claim. Also, we cannot predict whether we will be able to maintain such coverage on acceptable terms, if at all, or that a product liability claim would not harm our business or financial condition. In addition, negative publicity in connection with the faulty design or manufacture of our products would adversely affect our ability to market and sell our products.
We sell our products with warranties. There can be no assurance that the provision in our financial statements for estimated product warranty expense will be sufficient. We cannot ensure that our efforts to reduce our risk through warranty disclaimers will effectively limit our liability. Any significant occurrence of warranty expense in excess of estimates could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, financial condition and cash flow. Further, we have at times undertaken programs to enhance the performance of units previously sold. These enhancements have at times been provided at no cost or below our cost. If we choose to offer such programs again in the future, such actions could result in significant costs.
Certain businesses and consumers might not consider cogeneration solutions as a means for obtaining their electricity and power needs.
Generating electricity and heat at the customers’ building (on-site CHP) is an established technology, but it is more complex than buying electricity from the utility and using a furnace for heat. Customers have been slow to accept on-site CHP in part because of this complexity. In addition, the development of a larger market for our products will be impacted by many factors that are out of our control, including cost competitiveness, regulatory requirements, and the emergence of newer and potentially better technologies and products. If a larger market for cogeneration technology in general and our products in particular fails to grow substantially, we may be unable to continue our business.

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We operate in a highly regulated business environment, and changes in regulation could impose significant costs on us or could make our products less economical, thereby affecting demand for our products.
Several kinds of government regulations – at federal, state, and local levels and in other countries – affect our current and future business (see “Government Regulation and Its Effect on Our Business” in the “Business” section of this preliminary prospectus). Our products must comply with various local building codes and must undergo inspection by local authorities. Our products are also certified by a third party to conform to specific standards. These certifications require continuous verification by a company that monitors our processes and design every three months. Our InVerde product is also certified to Europe’s standard CE mark (European Conformity), which is mandatory for products imported into the European Union for commercial sale. If our products ceased to meet the criteria necessary for the applicable certifications, we may lose the ability to sell our products in certain jurisdictions, which may materially and adversely affect our business.
Regulatory agencies may further impose special requirements for the implementation and operation of our products that could significantly affect or even eliminate some of our target markets. We also may incur material costs or liabilities in complying with future government regulations. Furthermore, our potential utility customers must themselves comply with numerous laws and regulations, which may be complicated by further deregulation of the utility industry. We cannot determine how such deregulation may ultimately affect the market for our products. Changes in regulatory standards or policies could reduce the level of investment in the research and development of alternative power sources, including our products. Any reduction or termination of such programs could increase the cost to our potential customers, making our systems less desirable and thereby adversely affect our business and financial condition.
Utilities or governmental entities could hinder our entry into and growth in the marketplace, and we may not be able to effectively sell our products.
Utilities or governmental entities on occasion have placed barriers to the installation of our products or their interconnection with the electric grid, and they may continue to do so. Utilities may charge additional fees to customers who install on-site CHP and rely on the grid for back-up power. These types of restrictions, fees, or charges could make it harder for customers to install our products or use them effectively, as well as increasing the cost to our potential customers. This could make our systems less desirable, thereby adversely affecting our revenue and other operating results.
We may not achieve production cost reductions necessary to competitively price our products, which would adversely affect our sales.
We believe that we will need to reduce the unit production cost of our products over time to maintain our ability to offer competitively priced products. Our ability to achieve cost reductions will depend on our ability to develop low-cost design enhancements, to obtain necessary tooling and favorable supplier contracts, and to increase sales volumes so we can achieve economies of scale. We cannot assure you that we will be able to achieve any such production cost reductions. Our failure to do so could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
We have granted sales representation rights to an affiliated company, which restricts our distribution.
Our affiliates American DG Energy and EuroSite Power Inc. have certain exclusive sales representation rights to our cogeneration products only (not including chillers) and exclusive rights to our Ultra low-emissions technology if it is applied to engines from other CHP manufacturers in projects developed by American DG Energy (see “The Company and Its Affiliates” in the “Business” section of this preliminary prospectus). As a result of these agreements, we have limited control over our distribution of certain products in New England, and this could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Commodity market factors impact our costs and availability of materials.
Our products contain a number of commodity materials, from metals, which include steel, special high temperature alloys, copper, nickel and molybdenum, to computer components. The availability of these commodities could impact our ability to acquire the materials necessary to meet our requirements. The cost of metals has historically fluctuated. The pricing could impact the costs to manufacture our products. If we are not able to acquire commodity materials at prices and on terms satisfactory to us or at all, our operating results may be materially adversely affected.

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Our products involve a lengthy sales cycle and we may not anticipate sales levels appropriately, which could impair our results of operations.
The sale of our products typically involves a significant commitment of capital by customers, with the attendant delays frequently associated with large capital expenditures. For these and other reasons, the sales cycle associated with our products is typically lengthy and subject to a number of significant risks over which we have little or no control. We expect to plan our production and inventory levels based on internal forecasts of customer demand, which is highly unpredictable and can fluctuate substantially. If sales in any period fall significantly below anticipated levels, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flow would suffer. If demand in any period increases well above anticipated levels, we may have difficulties in responding, incur greater costs to respond, or be unable to fulfill the demand in sufficient time to retain the order, which would negatively impact our operations. In addition, our operating expenses are based on anticipated sales levels, and a high percentage of our expenses are generally fixed in the short term. As a result of these factors, a small fluctuation in timing of sales can cause operating results to vary materially from period to period.
The economic viability of our projects depends on the price spread between fuel and electricity, and the variability of these prices creates a risk that our projects will not be economically viable and that potential customers will avoid such energy price risks.
The economic viability of our CHP products depends on the spread between natural gas fuel and electricity prices. Volatility in one component of the spread, such as the cost of natural gas and other fuels (e.g., propane or distillate oil), can be managed to some extent by means of futures contracts. However, the regional rates charged for both base load and peak electricity may decline periodically due to excess generating capacity or general economic recessions.
Our products could become less competitive if electric rates were to fall substantially in the future. Also, potential customers may perceive the unpredictable swings in natural gas and electricity prices as an increased risk of investing in on-site CHP, and may decide not to purchase CHP products.
We are exposed to credit risks with respect to some of our customers.
To the extent our customers do not advance us sufficient funds to finance our costs during the execution phase of our contracts, we are exposed to the risk that they will be unable to accept delivery or that they will be unable to make payment at the time of delivery.
We may make acquisitions that could harm our financial performance.
To expedite development of our corporate infrastructure, particularly with regard to equipment installation and service functions, we anticipate the future acquisition of complementary businesses. Risks associated with such acquisitions include the disruption of our existing operations, loss of key personnel in the acquired companies, dilution through the issuance of additional securities, assumptions of existing liabilities, and commitment to further operating expenses. If any or all of these problems actually occur, acquisitions could negatively impact our financial performance and future stock value.
Our ability to access capital for the repayment of debts and for future growth may be limited due to periods of fluctuating financial markets and periods of disruption and recession. We may be affected by unknown future market conditions.
Our ability to continue to access capital could be impacted by various factors including general market conditions and the continuing slowdown in the economy, interest rates, the perception of our potential future earnings and cash distributions, any unwillingness on the part of lenders to make loans to us, and any deterioration in the financial position of lenders that might make them unable to meet their obligations to us.
Our business is affected by general economic conditions and related uncertainties affecting the markets in which we operate. Potential future economic conditions including an unstable global economy could adversely impact our business in 2014 and beyond.
The current unstable economic conditions could adversely impact our business in 2014 and beyond, resulting in reduced demand for our products, increased rate of order cancellations or delays, increased risk of supplier bankruptcy, increased rate of supply order cancellation or delays, increased risk of excess and obsolete inventories, increased pressure on the prices for our products and services; and greater difficulty in collecting accounts receivable.

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Risks Related to Ownership of our Common Stock
Investment in our Common Stock is subject to price fluctuations and market volatility.
Historically, valuations of many small companies have been highly volatile. The securities of many small companies have experienced significant price and trading volume fluctuations, unrelated to the operating performance or the prospects of such companies.
Furthermore, the stock markets have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies. These fluctuations often have been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations, as well as general economic, political, and market conditions such as recessions, interest rate changes, or international currency fluctuations, may negatively impact the market price of shares of our Common Stock. In addition, such fluctuations could subject us to securities class action litigation, which could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, which could potentially harm our business. If the market price of shares of our Common Stock after this offering does not exceed the public offering price, you may not realize any return on your investment in us and may lose some or all of your investment.
Our failure to meet the continued listing requirements of The NASDAQ Capital Market could result in a de-listing of our Common Stock.
If after listing we fail to satisfy the continued listing requirements of The NASDAQ Capital Market, such as the corporate governance requirements or the minimum closing bid price requirement, NASDAQ may take steps to de-list our Common Stock. Such a de-listing would likely have a negative effect on the price of our Common Stock and would impair your ability to sell or purchase our Common Stock when you wish to do so. In the event of a de-listing, we would take actions to restore our compliance with NASDAQ’s listing requirements, but we can provide no assurance that any such action taken by us would allow our Common Stock to become listed again, stabilize the market price or improve the liquidity of our Common Stock, prevent our Common Stock from dropping below the NASDAQ minimum bid price requirement or prevent future non-compliance with NASDAQ’s listing requirements.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our share price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our Common Stock will depend on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. There can be no assurance that analysts will cover us, or provide favorable coverage. If one or more analysts downgrade our stock or change their opinion of our stock, our share price would likely decline. In addition, if one or more analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause our share price or trading volume to decline.
Purchasers in this offering may be paying a price per share that is substantially higher than the current book value of the shares of Common Stock.
The book value of the Company’s Common Stock at December 31, 2013 was $6,071,696. The book value of shares purchased by buyers in this offering may be substantially less than the price paid for them. To the extent outstanding options to purchase shares of Common Stock are exercised, the book value of the outstanding Common Stock of the Company may be reduced.
We could issue additional Common Stock, which might dilute the book value of our Common Stock.
Our board of directors has the authority, without action or vote of our stockholders, to issue all or a part of any authorized but unissued shares. Such stock issuances may be made at a price that reflects a discount from the then-current trading price of our Common Stock. We may issue securities that are convertible into or exercisable for a significant amount of our Common Stock. These issuances would dilute the percentage ownership interest of holders of our securities, which would have the effect of reducing their influence on matters on which our stockholders vote, and might dilute the book value of our Common Stock. Investors in our securities may incur additional dilution of net tangible book value if holders of stock options, whether currently outstanding or subsequently granted, exercise their options or if warrant holders exercise their warrants to purchase shares of our Common Stock. There can be no assurance that any future offering will be consummated or, if consummated, will be at a share price equal or superior to the price paid by our investors even if we meet our technological and marketing goals.
We may be subject to securities litigation, which is expensive and could divert management attention.
Our share price may be volatile, and in the past companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to an increased incidence of securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, which could seriously harm our business.

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Our quarterly operating results are subject to fluctuations, and if we fail to meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors, our share price may decrease significantly.
Our annual and quarterly results may vary significantly depending on various factors, many of which are beyond our control. If our earnings do not meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors, the price of our stock could decline. Also, because our sales are primarily made on a purchase order basis, customers may generally cancel, reduce or postpone orders, resulting in reductions to our net sales and profitability.
Future sales of Common Stock by our existing stockholders may cause our stock price to fall.
The market price of our Common Stock could decline as a result of sales by our stockholders of shares of Common Stock in the market or the perception that these sales could occur. As a result, such sales could significantly impact the trading price of our Common Stock and the ability of other stockholders to sell shares of our Common Stock. These sales might also make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities at a time and price that we deem appropriate and thus inhibit our ability to raise additional capital when it is needed.
Because we do not intend to pay cash dividends, our stockholders will receive no current income from holding our stock.
We have paid no cash dividends on our capital stock to date and we currently intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to fund the development and growth of our business. In addition, the terms of any future debt or credit facility may preclude us from paying these dividends. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our Common Stock will be the sole source of gain for our stockholders for the foreseeable future.
We are controlled by a small group of majority stockholders, and our minority stockholders will be unable to effect changes in our governance structure or implement actions that require stockholder approval, such as a sale of the Company.  
George N. Hatsopoulos and John N. Hatsopoulos, our Chief Executive Officer and a director, beneficially own approximately 46.0% of our outstanding shares of Common Stock. These stockholders have the ability to control various corporate decisions, including our direction and policies, the election of directors, the content of our charter and bylaws, and the outcome of any other matter requiring stockholder approval, including a merger, consolidation and sale of substantially all of our assets, or other change of control transaction. The concurrence of our minority stockholders will not be required for any of these decisions. This concentration of voting power could delay or prevent an acquisition of us on terms that other stockholders may desire. The interests of this group of stockholders may not always coincide with your interests or the interests of other stockholders and they may act in a manner that advances their best interests and not necessarily those of other stockholders, including seeking a premium value for their Common Stock, which might affect the prevailing market price for our Common Stock.
Further, if John Hatsopoulos or George Hatsopoulos were to sell a substantial portion of their shares in the Company, it may have a material adverse effect on the business of the Company, and substantial sales of their Common Stock may result in a decline in the market price of our Common Stock.
There has been a material weakness in our disclosure controls and procedures and our internal control over financial reporting, which could harm our operating results or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations.
As of our fiscal year end, December 31, 2013, our principal executive officer and principal accounting officer performed an evaluation of controls and procedures and concluded that our controls were not effective to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed by our Company in reports that we file under the Exchange Act, is recorded, processed, summarized and reported as when required. Management conducted an evaluation of our internal control over financial reporting and based on this evaluation, management concluded that the company’s internal control over financial reporting was not effective as of December 31, 2013. The Company currently does not have personnel with a sufficient level of accounting knowledge, experience and training in the selection, application and implementation of generally acceptable accounting principles as it relates to complex transactions and financial reporting requirements. The Company also has a small number of employees dealing with general controls over information technology security and user access. This constitutes a material weakness in financial reporting. Any failure to implement effective internal controls could harm our operating results or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. Inadequate internal controls could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our Common Stock, and may require us to incur additional costs to improve our internal control system.

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Trading of our Common Stock may be restricted by the SEC’s “penny stock” regulations which may limit a stockholder’s ability to buy and sell our stock.
The SEC has adopted regulations that generally define “penny stock” to be any equity security that has a market price less than $5.00 per share or an exercise price of less than $5.00 per share, subject to certain exceptions. Our securities may be covered by the penny stock rules, which impose additional sales practice requirements on broker-dealers who sell to persons other than established customers and accredited investors. The penny stock rules require a broker-dealer, prior to a transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from the rules, to deliver a standardized risk disclosure document in a form prepared by the SEC that provides information about penny stocks and the nature and level of risks in the penny stock market. The broker-dealer also must provide the customer with current bid and other quotations for the penny stock, the compensation of the broker-dealer and its salesperson in the transaction and monthly account statement showing the market value of each penny stock held in the customer’s account. The bid and offer quotations, and the broker-dealer and salesperson compensation information, must be given to the customer orally or in writing prior to effecting the transaction and must be given to the customer in writing before or with the customer’s confirmation. In addition, the penny stock rules require that prior to a transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from these rules, the broker-dealer must make a special written determination that the penny stock is a suitable investment for the purchaser and receive the purchaser’s written agreement to the transaction. These disclosure and suitability requirements may have the effect of reducing the level of trading activity in the secondary market for a stock that is subject to these penny stock rules. Consequently, these penny stock rules may affect the ability of broker-dealers to trade our securities. We believe that the penny stock rules may discourage investor interest in and limit the marketability of our capital stock. Trading of our capital stock may be restricted by the SEC’s “penny stock” regulations which may limit a stockholder’s ability to buy and sell our stock.
The JOBS Act allows us to postpone the date by which we must comply with certain laws and regulations and reduces the amount of information provided by us in reports filed with the SEC. We cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our Common Stock less attractive to investors.
We are and we will remain an “emerging growth company”, as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act, until the earliest to occur of (i) the last day of the fiscal year during which our total annual gross revenues equal or exceed $1 billion (subject to adjustment for inflation), (ii) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of our initial public offering, (iii) the date on which we have, during the previous three-year period, issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt, or (iv) the date on which we are deemed a large accelerated filer under the Exchange Act.
For so long as we remain an emerging growth company we are not required to:
have an auditor report on our internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act;
comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements (i.e., an auditor discussion and analysis);
submit certain executive compensation matters to shareholder non-binding advisory votes;
submit for shareholder approval golden parachute payments not previously approved; and
disclose certain executive compensation related items such as the correlation between executive compensation and financial performance and comparisons of the Chief Executive Officer’s compensation to median employee compensation, when such disclosure requirements are adopted.
In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, for complying with new or revised accounting standards. An emerging growth company can therefore delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. However, we have chosen to “opt out” of such extended transition period, and as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for non-emerging growth companies. Section 107 of the JOBS Act provides that our decision to opt out of the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards is irrevocable.
We cannot predict if investors will find our Common Stock less attractive because we may rely on some of these exemptions. If some investors find our Common Stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our Common Stock and our stock price may be more volatile. If we avail ourselves of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements, our reduced disclosure may make it more difficult for investors and securities analysts to evaluate us and may result in less investor confidence.

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We will incur significantly increased costs and devote substantial management time as a result of operating as a public company particularly after we are no longer an “emerging growth company.”
As a public company, incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. For example, we are required to comply with certain of the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, as well as rules and regulations subsequently implemented by the SEC, and The NASDAQ Capital Market, including the establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and changes in corporate governance practices. We expect that compliance with these requirements will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time consuming and costly. In addition, we expect that our management and other personnel will need to divert attention from operational and other business matters to devote substantial time to these public company requirements. In particular, we expect to incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.
As noted above, for as long as we remain an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act, we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies.” However, after we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” we expect to incur additional management time and cost to comply with the more stringent reporting requirements applicable to companies that are deemed accelerated filers or large accelerated filers, including complying with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur as a result of becoming a public company or the timing of such costs.
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, contained in this prospectus, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenues, projected costs, prospects, plans, and objectives of management, are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “target,” “potential,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “continue,” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.
The forward-looking statements in this prospectus include, among other things, statements about:
our future financial performance, including our revenue, cost of revenue, operating expenses, and ability to achieve and maintain profitability an auditor report on our internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act;
our future financial performance, including our revenue, cost of revenue, operating expenses, and ability to achieve and maintain profitability;
our ability to market, commercialize, and achieve market acceptance for our combined heat and power systems, or any other product candidates or products that we may develop
our ability to innovate and keep pace with changes in technology;
the success of our marketing and business development efforts;
our ability to maintain, protect and enhance our intellectual property;
the effects of increased competition in our market;
our ability to effectively manage our growth and successfully enter new markets;
the attraction and retention of qualified employees and key personnel; and
price fluctuations of our Common Stock and market volatility.
We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions, or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions, and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. We have included important factors in the cautionary statements included in this prospectus, particularly in the “Risk Factors” section, that we believe could cause actual results or events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements that we make. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures, or investments we may make.
You should read this prospectus and the documents that we reference in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. The forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus are made as of the date of this prospectus, and we do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements except as required by applicable law.

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USE OF PROCEEDS
We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of Common Stock by the selling stockholders which are offered in this prospectus.
DIVIDEND POLICY
To date, we have not declared or paid any dividends on our outstanding shares. We currently do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future on our Common Stock. Although we intend to retain our earnings to finance our operations and future growth, our Board of Directors will have discretion to declare and pay dividends in the future. Payment of dividends in the future will depend upon our earnings, capital requirements and other factors, which our Board of Directors may deem relevant.
DILUTION
We are not selling any of the shares of our Common Stock in this offering. All of the shares sold in this offering will be held by the selling stockholders at the time of the sale, so that no dilution will result from the sale of the shares.
CAPITALIZATION
The following table sets forth our cash and cash equivalents and our capitalization as of March 31, 2014:
on an actual basis;
You should read this table in conjunction with the sections titled “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.
 
 
March 31, 2014 (unaudited)
 
December 31, 2013 (audited)
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
1,946,891

 
$
7,713,899

Short term investments
 
583,720

 

Convertible Debentures
 
3,000,000

 
3,000,000

Demand notes payable
 

 
2,950,000

Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share - 100,000,000 shares authorized; 15,155,200 issued shares, actual; and 15,156,600 issued shares;
 
15,162

 
15,155

Additional paid-in capital
 
22,508,013

 
22,463,996

Accumulated deficit
 
(16,229,257
)
 
(15,209,212
)
Noncontrolling interest
 
(262,439
)
 
(204,046
)
Total shareholders’ equity
 
$
6,031,479

 
$
7,065,893

Total capitalization
 
$
6,031,479

 
$
7,065,893


 
 
May 31, 2014 (unaudited)
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
3,686,959

Short term investments
 
583,720

Convertible Debentures
 
3,000,000

 
 
 


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BUSINESS
Overview
Tecogen designs, manufactures, sells, and services systems that produce electricity, hot water, and air conditioning for commercial installations and buildings and industrial processes. These systems, powered by natural gas engines, are efficient because they drive electric generators or compressors, which reduce the amount of electricity purchased from the utility, plus they use the engine’s waste heat for water heating, space heating, and/or air conditioning at the customer’s building. We call this cogeneration technology CHP for combined heat and power.
Tecogen manufactures three types of CHP products:
Cogeneration units that supply electricity and hot water;
Chillers that provide air-conditioning and hot water; and
High-efficiency water heaters.
All of these are standardized, modular, small-scale CHP products that reduce energy costs, carbon emissions, and dependence on the electric grid. Market drivers include the price of natural gas, local electricity costs, and governmental energy policies, as well as customers’ desire to become more socially responsible. Traditional customers for our cogeneration and chiller systems include hospitals and nursing homes, colleges and universities, health clubs and spas, hotels and motels, office and retail buildings, food and beverage processors, multi-unit residential buildings, laundries, ice rinks, swimming pools, factories, municipal buildings, and military installations; however, the economic feasibility of using our systems is not limited to these customer types. Through our factory-owned service centers in California, New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, and Michigan our specialized technical staff maintain our products through long-term contracts. We have shipped approximately 2,000 units, some of which have been operating for almost 25 years. We have 75 full-time employees and 3 part-time employees, including 6 sales and marketing personnel and 41 service personnel.
Our CHP technology uses low-cost, mass-produced engines manufactured by GM and Ford, which we modify to run on natural gas. In the case of our mainstay cogeneration and chiller products, the engines have proved to be cost-effective and reliable. In 2009, our research team developed a low-cost process for removing air pollutants from the engine exhaust. Because these systems are fueled by natural gas, they typically produce lower levels of “criteria” air pollutants (those that are regulated by the EPA, because they can harm human health and the environment) compared with systems fueled by propane, gasoline, distillates, or residual fuel oil. We offer our new Ultra low-emissions technology as an option in our CHP systems.
After a successful field test of more than a year, in 2012 we introduced the technology commercially as an option for all of our products under the trade name Ultra, which was recently patented in the US in October 2013. The Ultra low-emissions technology repositions our engine-driven products in the marketplace, making them comparable environmentally with emerging technologies such as fuel cells, but at a much lower cost and greater efficiency.
Our products are designed as compact modular units that are intended to be applied in multiples when utilized for larger CHP plants. Approximately 68% of our CHP modules are installed in multi-unit sites ranging up to 12 units. This approach has significant advantages over utilizing single, larger units, such as building placement in constrained urban settings and redundancy during service outages. Redundancy is particularly relevant in regions where the electric utility has formulated tariff structures that have high “peak demand” charges. Such tariffs are common in many areas of the country, and are applied by such utilities as Southern California Edison, Pacific Gas and Electric, Consolidated Edison of New York, and National Grid of Massachusetts. Because these tariffs assess customers’ peak monthly demand charge over a very short interval (typically only 15 minutes), a brief service outage for a system comprised of a single unit is highly detrimental to the monthly savings of the system. For multiple unit sites, a full system outage is less likely and consequently these customers have a greater probability of capturing peak demand savings.
Our in-licensed microgrid technology enables our InVerde CHP products to provide backup power in the event of power outages that may be experienced by local, regional, or national grids.
Our CHP products are sold directly to customers by our in-house marketing team and by established sales agents and representatives, including American DG Energy and EuroSite Power which are affiliated companies. We have shipped approximately 2,000 units, some of which have been operating for almost 25 years. Our principal engine supplier is GM, and our principal generator supplier is Marathon Electric. To produce air conditioning, our engines drive a compressor purchased from J&E Hall International.
In 2009, we created a subsidiary, Ilios, to develop and distribute a line of high-efficiency heating products, starting with a water heater. We believe that these products are much more efficient than conventional boilers in commercial buildings and industrial processes (see “Our Products” below). As of the date of this filing, we own a 63.7% interest in Ilios.

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Tecogen was formed in the early 1960s as the Research and Development New Business Center of Thermo Electron Corporation, which is now Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. For the next 20 years, this group performed fundamental and applied research in many energy-related fields to develop new technologies. During the late 1970s, new federal legislation enabled electricity customers to sell power back to their utility. Thermo Electron saw a fit between the technology and know-how it possessed and the market for cogeneration systems.
In 1982, the Research and Development group released its first major product, a 60-kilowatt, or kW, cogenerator. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, they introduced air-conditioning and refrigeration products using the same gas engine-driven technology, beginning with a 150-ton chiller (tons are a measure of air-conditioning capacity). In 1987, Tecogen was spun out as a separate entity by Thermo Electron and, in 1992, Tecogen became a division of the newly formed Thermo Power Corporation.
In 2000, Thermo Power Corporation was dissolved, and Tecogen was sold to private investors including Thermo Electron’s original founders, Dr. George N. Hatsopoulos and John N. Hatsopoulos. Tecogen Inc. was incorporated in the State of Delaware on September 15, 2000. Our business and registered office is located at 45 First Avenue, Waltham, Massachusetts, 02451. Our telephone number is 781-466-6400.
Industry Background
During the 20th century, fossil-fuel power plants worldwide evolved toward large, complex central stations using high-temperature steam turbines. This technology, though steadily refined, reached a maximum efficiency of about 40% that persists to this day. As used throughout, efficiency means electrical energy output per unit of fuel energy input. According to the EPA website, the average efficiency of fossil-fuel power plants in the United States is 33% and has remained virtually unchanged for four decades.
According to a 2002 report from the Northwest Power Planning Council, titled “Natural Gas Combined-cycle Gas Turbine Power Plants,” the best efficiency obtainable at the time of the report was about 50% from a combined-cycle steam turbine. More recent reports have expressed that comparable efficiency rates are obtainable from a fuel cell. A combined-cycle system incorporates a second turbine powered by exhaust gases from the first turbine. Large-scale replacement of existing power plants with combined-cycle technology would require considerable capital investment and time. Fuel cells have high capital costs as well.
CHP, which harnesses waste energy from the power generation process and puts it to work on-site, can boost the efficiency of energy conversion to nearly 90%, a better than two-fold improvement over the average efficiency fossil fuel plant.
The implications of the CHP approach are significant. If CHP were applied on a large scale, global fuel usage might be curtailed dramatically. Small on-site power systems, in sizes like boilers and furnaces, would serve customers ranging from homeowners to large industrial plants. This is described as “distributed” energy, in contrast to central power.
CHP became recognized in the late 1970s as a technology important to aiding the reduction of fossil fuel consumption, pollution, and grid congestion. Since then, CHP has been applied increasingly around the world. According to a report by the International Energy Agency, or IEA, titled “Cogeneration and District Energy: Sustainable energy technologies for today...and tomorrow (2009), ” the value of CHP technology to customers and policy makers stems from the fact that CHP systems are “inherently energy efficient and produce energy where it is needed.”
According to the IEA report, the benefits of CHP include:
Dramatically increased fuel efficiency;
Reduced emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and other pollutants;
Cost savings for the energy consumer;
Reduced need for transmission and distribution networks; and
Beneficial use of local energy resources, providing a transition to a low-carbon future.
CHP generates about 10% of the world’s electricity. According to the IEA report, CHP could supply up to 24% of the energy generation of the Group of Eight + Five countries, while meeting 40% of Europe’s target reductions in carbon emissions.
In the United States, CHP represents only about 8% of the generating capacity. A paper issued by the United States Department of Energy, or DOE, in 2012, Combined Heat and Power, A Clean Energy Solution, states that CHP is an underutilized resource. On August 30, 2012, the White House issued an executive order, or the Executive Order, aimed at promoting investments in industrial energy efficiency, including CHP, and established a national goal of deploying 40 GW (or 40,000 megawatts, or MW) of new CHP in the United States by 2020.
On-site CHP not only eliminates the loss of electric power during transmission, but also offsets the capital expense of upgrading or expanding the utility infrastructure. The national electric grid is already challenged to keep up with existing power demand. The grid consists of power generation plants as well as the transmission and distribution network consisting of substations and wires.

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Power plants are aging, and plans for new power plants are on the decline (Figure 1). According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s “ Form EIA-860 Annual Electric Generator Report (2010),” the average age of a U.S. coal-fired power plant is 44 years. Coal plants account for about 40% of the nation’s generation capacity.
Figure 1 — Proposed U.S. New Capacity: Coal, Natural Gas, Wind, and Nuclear
Source: National Energy Technology Laboratory, Tracking New Coal Fired Power Plants (2012).
In addition, the transmission and distribution network is operating at capacity in urban areas. Decentralizing power generation by installing equipment at customer sites not only relieves the capacity burden on existing power plants, but also unburdens transmission and distribution lines. This ultimately improves the grid’s reliability and reduces the need for costly upgrades. Consolidated Edison, Inc., the electric utility of New York City and surrounding areas, has identified an opportunity to integrate energy efficiency, distributed generation, and demand response as a way to defer new infrastructure investments, according to the utility’s 2010 long-range plan.
We believe that increasingly favorable economic conditions could improve our business prospects domestically and abroad. Specifically, we believe that natural gas prices might increase from their current depressed values, but only modestly, while electric rates could go up over the long-term as utilities pay for better emission controls, efficiency improvements, and the integration of renewable power sources. The net result of relative gas and electric prices could be greater cost savings and annual rates of return to CHP customers.
Moreover, we believe that natural gas could win favor politically as a domestic fuel with low carbon emissions. Government policy, both here and abroad, might promote CHP as a way to conserve natural resources and reduce carbon and toxic emissions. Renewable wind and solar sources could encounter practical limitations, while nuclear power is likely to be affected by its safety setbacks.
Tecogen’s Strategy for Growth
Target markets and new customers
The traditional markets for CHP systems are buildings with long hours of operation and with coincident demand for electricity and heat. Traditional customers for our cogeneration systems include hospitals and nursing homes, colleges and universities, health clubs and spas, hotels and motels, office and retail buildings, food and beverage processors, multi-unit residential buildings, laundries, ice rinks, swimming pools, factories, municipal buildings, and military installations.
Traditional customers for our chillers overlap with those for our cogeneration systems. Chiller applications include schools, hospitals and nursing homes, office and apartment buildings, hotels, retailers, ice rinks and industrial facilities. Engine-driven chillers are utilized as replacements for aging electric chillers, since they both take up about the same amount of floor space.

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The Company believes that the largest number of potential new customers in the U.S. require less than 1,000 kW of electric power and less than 1,200 tons of cooling capacity. We are targeting customers in states with high electricity rates in the commercial sector, such as California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, and New York. These regions also have high peak demand rates, which favor utilization of our modular units in groups so as to assure redundancy and peak demand savings, as discussed above. Some of these regions also have generous rebates that improve the economic viability of our systems.
As stated earlier, the U.S. government’s goal, according to the Executive Order, is to deploy 40 GW (40,000 MW) of new CHP in the United States by 2020. In order to estimate the share of that new deployment of CHP that is addressable by products in our size range, we reference a study done by ICF International on the California market that breaks down projected market penetration by kW output range. According to the April 2010 Combined Heat and Power Market Assessment, prepared for the California Energy Commission, in 2029, new CHP in the size range of our products (50 kW to 500 kW), is projected to be 476 MW in the base case, or 684 MW if incentives such as carbon credits and power export credits are considered. This size range constitutes 17.4% of the total California market potential in the base case, or 11% in the case with incentives. If we assume California’s apportionment of small size CHP is applicable to the country, and conservatively extend the government’s goal of 40,000 MW to 2029, we can estimate the U.S. market addressable by our products as 17.4% of 40,000 MW in the base case (11% with incentives) which amounts to 6,972 MW (4,416 MW with incentives). If we assume we can capture 30% of the market for CHP products in the size range of 50 kW to 500 kW, we can estimate that our potential for new unit sales over the next twenty years is between 13,250 and 20,920 InVerde (100 kW) units, or approximately $1.5 to $2.4 billion in revenue, at $112,500 per unit.
The largest market sectors identified by ICF that are suitable for our products closely match our sales data from January 2007 through June 2012 (Figure 2).
Figure 2 — Tecogen Customer Distribution (CHP and Engine-Driven Chiller Systems)
From January 2007 through June 2012
Source: Tecogen Inc.

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The ICF report reveals CHP’s relatively low existing market penetration in the smaller system sizes. Given that multi-megawatt CHP is already well-established (Table 1), the market opportunity increases as size decreases. Small systems (less than one MW) may grow almost six-fold. The missed opportunity is evident and likely even more disproportionate nationally. Most areas of the country, except the Northeast, are essentially without significant market penetration of small-scale (less than 500 kW) CHP systems.
Table 1 — CHP Market Penetration by Size in California and Potential Through 2029
Source: ICF International, Combined Heat and Power Market Assessment (2010)
System Size (MW)
 
     <1
 
       1 - 4.9
 
      5 – 19.9
 
    >20
2009 Inventory (MW)
 
200

 
350

 
750

 
7,900

New Potential Through 2029 (MW)
 
1,138

 
1,279

 
764

 
3,015

Relative Growth Potential (%)
 
569
%
 
365
%
 
102
%
 
38
%
The DOE/EPA report confirms that CHP is a “largely untapped resource” and states that there is significant technical market potential for CHP at commercial and institutional facilities at just over 65 GW. This report also indicates that there was a significant decline in CHP in the early 2000s due to deregulation of the power markets that resulted in market uncertainty and delayed energy investments. However, a significant rebound and expansion of the CHP market may occur because of the following emerging drivers:
Changing outlook for natural gas supply and pricing as a result of shale exploration;
Growing state policymaking and support; and
Changing market conditions for the power and industrial sectors such as ageing power plants and boilers, as well as more strict air regulations.
We intend to seek both domestic and international customers in areas where utility pricing and government policy align with our advantages. These areas would include regions that have strict emissions regulations, such as California, or those that reward CHP systems that are especially non-polluting, such as New Jersey. There are currently 23 states that recognize CHP as part of their Renewable Portfolio Standards or Energy Efficiency Resource Standards and several of them, including New York, California, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and North Carolina, have initiated specific incentive programs for CHP (DOE/EPA report).
Our new microgrid capability, where multiple InVerde units can be seamlessly isolated from the main utility grid in the event of an outage and re-connected to it afterward, will likewise be exploited wherever utilities have resisted conventional generator interconnection but have conceded to UL-certified inverters (such as Consolidated Edison in New York and Pacific Gas and Electric Company in California). Because our InVerde systems operate independently from the grid, we also plan to exploit the need for outage security in certain market segments. These segments include military bases, hospitals, nursing homes, and hotels.
As noted above in “Industry Background,” the IEA report estimates that power from CHP produced by the Group of Eight + Five countries, currently at 10%, could increase to 24% under a best-case scenario. We hope to participate in a robust international market, which we believe will be as large as or larger than the domestic market.
Alliances
We continue to forge alliances with utilities, government agencies, universities, research facilities, and manufacturers. We have already succeeded in developing new technologies and products with several entities, including:
General Motors Company — supplier of raw materials pursuant to a supplier agreement since the development of our cogeneration product in the early 1960s.
Sacramento Municipal Utility District — has provided test sites for the Company since 2010.
Southern California Gas Company and San Diego Gas & Electric Company, each a Sempra Energy subsidiary — have granted us research and development contracts since 2004.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory — research and development contracts since 2005.
Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions — research and development contracts and provided a test site to the Company since 2005.
California Energy Commission — research and development contracts from 2004 until March 2013.
The AVL California Technology Center — support role in performance of research and development contracts as well as internal research and development on our emission control system from August 2009 to November 2011.

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We also have an exclusive licensing agreement from the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) for its proprietary control software that enables our microgrid system. The software allows our products to be integrated as a microgrid, where multiple InVerde units can be seamlessly isolated from the main utility grid in the event of an outage and re-connected to it afterward. The licensed software allows us to implement such a microgrid with minimal control devices and associated complexity and cost. Tecogen pays WARF a royalty for each cogeneration module sold using the licensed technology. Such royalty payments have been in the range of $5,000 to $20,000 on an annual basis through the year ended December 31, 2013 . In addition, WARF reserved the right to grant non-profit research institutions and governmental agencies non-exclusive licenses to practice and use, for non-commercial research purposes technology developed by Tecogen that is based on the licensed software.
Our efforts to forge partnerships continue to focus on utilities, particularly to promote the InVerde, our most utility-friendly product. The nature of these alliances varies by utility, but could include simplified interconnection, joint marketing, ownership options, peak demand mitigation agreements, and customer services. We have commissioned a microgrid with the Sacramento Municipal Utility District at its headquarters in Sacramento, California, where the central plant incorporated three InVerde systems equipped with our Ultra low-emissions technology. Some expenses for this project were reimbursed to the utility through a grant from the California Energy Commission.
Certain components of our InVerde product were developed through a grant from the California Energy Commission. This grant includes a requirement that we pay royalties on all sales of all products related to the grant. As of December 31, 2012, such royalties accrued in accordance with this grant agreement were less than $10,000 on an annual basis.
We also continue to leverage our resources with government and industry funding, which has yielded a number of successful developments. These include the Ultra low-emissions technology, sponsored by the California Energy Commission and Southern California Gas Company, and new 35-kW engine technology we developed with the California Energy Commission’s support.
Pursuant to the terms of the grants from the California Energy Commission, the California Energy Commission has a royalty-free, perpetual, non-exclusive license to these technologies, for government purposes.
For the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 , we spent approximately $866,700 and $ 384,500 , respectively, in research and development activities, of which $127,500 and $126,500 , was reimbursed through a grant agreement, respectively.
Tecogen’s Solution
Our CHP products address the inherent efficiency limitation of central power plants by siting generation close to the loads being served. This allows customers with energy-intensive buildings or processes to reduce energy costs and operate with a lower carbon footprint. Furthermore, with technology we have introduced within the last two years, such as our Ultra low-emissions technology our products can now contribute to better air quality at the local level.
According to our estimates and public sources, our cogeneration systems convert nearly 90% of the natural gas fuel to useful energy in the form of electricity and hot water or space heat. This compares to about 40% for central power. Other on-site upgrades such as insulation or lighting can help cut energy use as well, but they do not displace nearly as much low-efficiency electricity. Our engine-driven chillers, when the waste heat is effectively used, offer similar efficiency benefits compared with running an electric chiller plus a furnace or boiler.
Cogeneration and chiller products can often reduce the customer’s operating costs (for the portion of the facility loads to which they are applied) by approximately 30% to 50% based on Company estimates, which provides an excellent rate of return on the equipment’s capital cost in many areas of the country with high electricity rates. Our chillers are especially suited to regions where utilities impose extra charges during times of peak usage, commonly called “demand” charges. In these cases, the gas-fueled chiller reduces the use of electricity during the summer, the most costly time of year.
Our water heater product, introduced by Ilios, operates like an electric heat pump but uses a natural gas engine instead of an electric motor to power the system (see “Our Products” for an explanation of the heat pump). The gas engine’s waste heat is recovered and used in the process, unlike its electric counterpart, which runs on power that has already lost its waste heat. As of December 31, 2013 , we have shipped eight Ilios water heaters and have additional two in inventory to fulfill current orders.
The net effect is that our heat pump’s efficiency far surpasses that of conventional boilers for water heating. Similarly, if used for space heating, the engine-powered heat pump would be more efficient than an electric heat pump, again because heat is recovered and used. The product’s higher efficiency translates directly to lower fuel consumption and, for heavy use customers, significantly lower operating costs.
Our products also address the global objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. When burned to generate power, natural gas produces lower carbon emissions per unit of energy than any fossil fuel (Table 2), according to the EPA combined heat and power emissions calculator.

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Table 2 — Fossil Fuel Carbon Emissions
Source: EPA Emissions Calculator
Fuel
CO 2  emissions, lbs/million Btu
Natural Gas
116.7
Distillate Oil
160.9
Coal
206.7
Our products, in addition to using the lowest amount of carbon fuel, further reduce CO 2 emissions (greenhouse gases) because of CHP’s higher efficiency. Figure 3 compares the CO 2 output of our products to that of the national electric grid and other generation technologies. Our products are far superior to the grid and even outperform the CHP technologies of fuel cells and microturbines.
Figure 3 — Comparison of Carbon Emissions (GHG) for Various Sources
Including Tecogen’s CHP and Chiller Products
Source: Tecogen Inc.
(1)  
Average U.S. Powerplant CO2 emission rate of 1,293 (lb/MWh) from USEPA eGrid 2010.
(2)  
Coal Combined Cycle emissions based upon 50% efficiency (assumed to be the same as Natural Gas) and coal CO2 emission rate from EPA website.
(3)  
“Best in Class” Natural Gas combined cycle plant emissions based upon 50% efficiency. (Northwest Power Planning Council “Natural Gas Combined-cycle Gas Turbine Power Plants, August 2002).
(4)  
Fuel Cell and Microturbine emissions based upon data listed in the ICF International Combined Heat and Power Market Assessment, April 2010.
Furthermore, one Tecogen 100-kW CHP unit will reduce carbon emissions by 390 tons per year (based on 8,000 run-hours), which, according to the EPA website’s calculator, is the equivalent of 64 cars on the road. A microturbine of the same size would reduce carbon emissions by only 245 tons per year, the equivalent of 41 cars, which is less than two-thirds the emissions reduction of our CHP product. Our Ilios water heater also reduces CO 2 emissions in proportion to its fuel savings.
In addition to reducing greenhouse gases, our products with Ultra low-emission controls can improve air quality by reducing such pollutants as NOx and CO. Figure 4 presents the annual output of emissions of the InVerde unit equipped with the Ultra technology and compares it to alternative energy technologies producing the equivalent energy output on an annual basis (100 kW, 670,000 Btu/hr). Thus, for example, in lieu of an InVerde , a building would obtain electricity from a power plant and heat energy from a boiler. As Figure 4 shows, the Ultra CHP system’s emissions are significantly less than the combined emissions of the power plant and boiler for the same energy output.

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Figure 4 — Comparison of Emissions Levels of Tecogen’s Ultra Low-Emissions Technology to Conventional Energy Sources (Based on 6,000 hrs/year of operation at 100 kW and 670,000 Btu/hr)
Source: Tecogen Inc.
(1)  
Based upon an annual output of 100 kW and 670,000 Btu/hr of hot water.
(2)  
Average U.S. powerplant NOx emission rate of 1.7717 lb/MWh from (USEPA eGrid 2010), CO data not available.
(3)  
Gas boiler efficiency of 78% (www.eia.gov) with emissions of 20 ppm NOx @ 3% O2 (California Regulation SCAQMD Rule 1146.2) and 50 ppmvCO @ 3% O2 (California Regulation SCAQMD BACT).
Figure 5 presents the criteria pollutant levels of the Ultra system versus alternative CHP sources of microturbines, fuel cells, and conventional reciprocating engines. Microturbines and fuel cells, newer CHP technologies typically considered low-emission alternatives to engines, produce more NOx than an Ultra engine CHP unit. Moreover, when compared to a conventional engine’s “best available control technology” (BACT) as defined by the EPA for natural gas engines, both NOx and CO are reduced by nearly tenfold. Consequently, the Ultra low-emissions technology is potentially transformative to the engine’s reputation in the energy marketplace, allowing it to now be characterized as a source of clean power.

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Figure 5 — Comparison of Tecogen Ultra Low-Emissions Technology to Other Technologies
Source: Tecogen Inc.
(1)  
Tecogen emissions based upon actual third party source test data.
(2)  
Microturbine and Fuel Cell NOx data from California Energy Commission, Combined Heat and Power Market Assessment 2010, by ICF international.
(3)  
Stationary engine BACT as defined by SCAQMD.
(4)  
Limits represent CARB 2007 emission standard for Distributed Generation with a 60% (HHV) Overall Efficiency credit.
(5)  
CO data not available for microturbine and fuel cell.
Our Products
We manufacture natural gas engine-driven cogeneration systems and chillers, all of which are CHP products that deliver more than one form of energy. We have simplified CHP technology for inexperienced customers. Our cogeneration products are all standard, modular units that come pre-packaged from the factory. They include everything the customer needs to minimize the cost and complexity of installing the equipment at a site. The package incorporates the engine, generator, heat-recovery equipment, system controls, electrical switchgear, emission controls, and modem for remote monitoring and data logging.
All of our cogeneration systems and most of our chillers use the same engine, the TecoDrive 7400 model supplied by GM and modified by us to use natural gas fuel. The small 25-ton chiller uses a similar GM engine, the 3000 model. We worked closely with GM and the gas industry (including the Gas Research Institute) in the 1980s and 1990s to modify the engine and validate its durability. For the Ilios water heater, we introduced a more modern Ford engine that is enhanced for industrial applications. As of December 31, 2013 , we have shipped eight Ilios water heaters and have an additional two in inventory to fulfill current orders.
Our commercial product line includes:
The InVerde® and TECOGEN® cogeneration units;
TECOCHILL® chillers;
Ilios high-efficiency water heaters; and
Ultra low-emissions technology.

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InVerde Cogeneration Units
Our premier cogeneration product is the InVerde, a 100-kW CHP system that not only provides electricity and hot water, but also satisfies the growing customer demand for operation during a utility outage, commonly referred to as “black-start” capability. The InVerde incorporates an inverter, which converts direct current, or DC, electricity to alternating current, or AC. With an inverter, the engine and generator can run at variable speeds, which maximize efficiency at varying loads. The inverter then converts the generator’s variable output to the constant-frequency power required by customers (50 or 60 Hertz), as shown in Figure 6.
This inverter technology was developed originally for solar and wind power generation. The company believes that the InVerde is the first commercial engine-based CHP system to use an inverter. Electric utilities accept inverter technology as “safe” by virtue of its certification to the Underwriters Laboratory interconnection standard (1741) — a status that the InVerde has acquired. This qualifies our product for a much simpler permitting process nationwide and is mandatory in some areas such as New York City and California. The inverter also improves the CHP system’s efficiency at partial load, when less heat and power are needed by the customer.
The InVerde`s black-start feature addresses a crucial demand from commercial and institutional customers who are increasingly concerned about utility grid blackouts and brownouts, natural disasters, security threats, and antiquated utility infrastructure. Multiple InVerde units can operate collectively as a standalone microgrid, which is a group of interconnected loads served by one or more power sources. The InVerde is equipped with software that allows a cluster of units to seamlessly share the microgrid load without complex controls.
The InVerde CHP system was developed in 2007, and we began shipping it in 2008. Our largest InVerde installation utilizes 12 units, which supply 1.2 MW of on-site power and about 8.5 million Btu/hr of heat (700,000 Btu/hr per unit).
Figure 6 — Diagram of InVerde CHP System
Source: Tecogen Inc.
TECOGEN Cogeneration Units
The TECOGEN cogeneration system is the original model introduced in the 1980s, which is available in sizes of 60 kW and 75 kW, producing up to 500,000 Btu/hr of hot water. This technology is based on a conventional single-speed generator. It is meant only for grid-connected operation and is not universally accepted by utilities for interconnection, in contrast to the InVerde. Although this cogeneration product has the longest legacy and largest population, much of its production volume has been supplanted by the InVerde.

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TECOCHILL Chillers
Our TECOCHILL natural gas engine-driven chillers are available in capacities ranging from 25 to 400 tons, with the smaller units air-cooled and the larger ones water-cooled. This technology was developed in 1987. The engine drives a compressor that makes chilled water, while the engine’s free waste heat can be recovered to satisfy the building’s needs for hot water or heat. This process is sometimes referred to as “mechanical” cogeneration, as it generates no electrical power, and the equipment does not have to be connected to the utility grid.
A gas-fueled chiller provides enough air conditioning to avoid most of the utility’s seasonal peak charges for electric usage and capacity. In summer when electric rates are at their highest, natural gas is “off-peak” and quite affordable. Gas-fueled chillers also free up the building’s existing electrical capacity to use for other loads.
Ilios High-Efficiency Water Heaters
Our newest product, the Ilios high-efficiency water heater, uses a heat pump, which captures warmth from outdoor air even if it is moderately cool outside. Heat pumps work somewhat like a refrigerator, but in reverse. Refrigerators extract heat from inside the refrigerator and move it outside the refrigerator. Heat pumps extract heat from outside and move it indoors. In both cases, fluids move the heat around by flowing through heat exchangers. At various points the fluids are compressed or expanded, which absorbs or releases heat.
In the Ilios water heater, the heat pump moves heat from outdoors to the water being heated in the customer’s building. The heat pump water heater serves as a boiler, producing hot water for drinking and washing or for space heating, swimming pools, or other building loads. Energy cost savings to the customer depend on the climate. Heat pumps in general (whether gas or electric) perform best in moderate weather conditions.
In a conventional electric heat pump, the compressor is driven by an electric motor. In the Ilios design, a natural gas-fueled engine drives the compressor. This means that the heat being captured from outdoors is supplemented by the engine’s waste heat, which increases the efficiency of the process. According to scientific studies, gas engine heat pumps can deliver efficiencies in excess of 200%.
Ultra Low-Emissions Technology
All of our CHP products are available with the Ultra low-emissions technology. This breakthrough technology was developed in 2009 and 2010 as part of a research effort funded by the California Energy Commission and Southern California Gas Company. The objective was to bring our emission control systems into compliance with California’s standards, which are the most stringent in the United States.
We were able to meet or exceed the standards with an emission control system that is cost-effective, robust, and reliable. The Ultra low-emissions technology keeps our CHP systems compliant with air quality regulations over the long term. Given the proprietary nature of this work, we obtained a patent in the United States and have filed patents that are pending in Europe, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, India, Israel, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Republic of Korea, Singapore, and South Africa. We shipped the first commercial CHP units equipped with Ultra low-emissions technology to a California utility in 2011.
We conducted three validation programs for this technology:
1.
Third-party laboratory verification.   The AVL California Technology Center, a long-standing research and technology partner with the international automotive industry, confirmed our results in their state-of-the-art dynamometer test cell, which was outfitted with sophisticated emissions measurement equipment.
2.
Verifying longevity and reliability in the field.   We did so by equipping one of our TECOGEN 75-kW units, already operating at a customer location in Southern California, with the Ultra low-emissions technology and a device to monitor emissions continuously. To date, the Ultra low-emissions system has operated successfully for more than 25,000 hours (approximately 3 1/2 years) and has consistently complied with California’s emission standards. This field test is ongoing.
3.
Additional independent tests.   During the field test, two companies licensed in California to test emissions each verified our results at different times. The results from one of these tests (obtained in August 2011) enabled us to qualify for New Jersey’s fast-track permitting. Virtually every state nationwide requires some kind of permit related to local air quality, but New Jersey allows an exemption for systems such as ours that demonstrate superior emissions performance. This certification was granted in November 2011, and since then we have sold Ultra low-emissions systems to several customers.

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In 2012, a 75 kW CHP unit equipped with the Ultra system became our first unit to obtain a conditional air permit (i.e. pending a third party source test to verify compliance) in Southern California since the strict regulations went into place in 2009. A state-certified source test, administered in January 2013, verified that our emissions levels were well below the new permitting requirements, and the final permit version was approved in August 2013. To date, we have shipped over fifty units fitted with the Ultra system to sites in the Northeast, as well as California.
Contributions to Revenue
The following table summarizes net revenue by product line and services for the years ended:
 
December 31, 2013
 
December 31, 2012
Products:
 

 
 

Cogeneration
$
5,199,649

 
$
5,791,412

Chiller
1,146,401

 
1,661,810

Total Product Revenue
6,346,050

 
7,453,222

Services
7,071,388

 
7,089,491

Installations
2,432,431

 
711,259

Total Service Revenue
9,503,819

 
7,800,750

Total Revenue
$
15,849,869

 
$
15,253,972

All of the Company’s long lived assets reside in the United States of America. All of the Company’s revenue is generated in the United States of America.
Segments
The Company’s operations are comprised of one business segment. Our business is to manufacture and support highly efficient CHP products based on engines fueled by natural gas.
Product Reliability
Our product lines have a long history of reliable operation. Since 1995, we have had a remote monitoring system in place that connects to hundreds of units daily and reports their “availability,” which is the amount of time a unit is running or is ready to run (% of hours). Figure 7 shows cumulative data for an installed base of 340 units. More than 80% of them operate above 90% availability, with the average being 93.8%. By comparison, the average availability for all fossil-fueled power plants in the United States was 87.5% during 2006 – 2010, according to a report by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation.
Figure 7 — Tecogen Product Reliability
Source: Tecogen Inc. – January 2014

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Product Service
We provide long-term maintenance contracts, parts sales, and turnkey installation through a network of eight well-established field service centers in California, the Midwest, and the Northeast. These centers are staffed by full-time Tecogen technicians, working from local leased facilities. The facilities provide offices and warehouse space for inventory. We encourage our customers to provide Internet or phone connections to our units so that we can maintain communications, in which case we contact the machines daily, download their status, and provide regular operational reports (daily, monthly, and quarterly) to our service managers. This communication link is used to support the diagnosis effort of our service staff and to send messages to preprogrammed phones that a unit has experienced an unscheduled shutdown.
Our service managers, supervisors, and technicians work exclusively on our products. Because we manufacture our own equipment, our service technicians bring hands-on experience and competence to their jobs. They are trained at our manufacturing facility in Waltham, Massachusetts.
Most of our service revenue is in the form of annual service contracts, which are typically of an all-inclusive “bumper-to-bumper” type, with billing amounts proportional to achieved operating hours for the period. Customers are thus invoiced in level, predictable amounts without unforeseen add-ons for such items as unscheduled repairs or engine replacements. We strive to maintain these contracts for many years, so that the integrity and performance of the machine are maintained. Between 2007 and 2012, approximately 68% of customers signed service contracts.
R&D Capabilities
Our research and development tradition and ongoing programs have allowed us to cultivate deep engineering expertise and maintain continuity over several decades. We have strong core technical knowledge that is critical to product support and enhancements. Our TecoDrive engine, cogeneration and chiller products, InVerde, and most recently the InVerde Ultra and Ilios heat pump water heater were all created and optimized with both public and private funding support.
In March 2013, we successfully completed a $1 million program with the California Energy Commission, which was awarded in 2009, to develop a small CHP engine (about 35 kW) that uses advanced automotive technology. The engine achieves a nearly 20% fuel efficiency gain over our current TecoDrive technology. The program included an endurance test to qualify the engine for the CHP duty cycle. Final development work to transition to the 2012 model year advanced engine will occur in 2013 with rollout on the Ilios water heating product in late 2014. In 2015, we plan to develop a smaller InVerde unit (~35 kW) around this engine platform.
In October 2012, Tecogen was awarded a contract for a demonstration project to retrofit a natural-gas powered municipal water pump engine with Tecogen’s proprietary Ultra low-emissions technology. This project, co-sponsored by Southern California Gas Co. (SoCalGas), DE Solutions, and the Eastern Municipal Water District (EMWD) will be the first application of Tecogen’s emission control technology on a non-Tecogen engine, and an important proof of concept for its wider application. This system was commissioned in September 2013.
Tecogen also continues to support a contract with the DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, awarded in 2012, for microgrid development work related to the InVerde.
Distribution Methods
Our products are sold directly to end-users by our sales team and by established sales agents and representatives. Various agreements are in place with distributors and outside sales representatives, who are compensated by commissions, including American DG Energy and EuroSite Power which are affiliated companies, for certain territories and product lines. For example, we have sales representatives for the chiller market in the New York City/New Jersey territory, but we do not have a sales representative for our cogeneration products in this territory. In New England, our affiliate, American DG Energy, has exclusive sales representation rights to our cogeneration products only (not including chillers). Sales through our in-house team or sales that are not covered by a representative’s territory carry no commission or only a fractional one.

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Summary of our Products’ Advantages
Our CHP products provide an efficient on-site solution to power generation as the market seeks cost savings and clean alternatives to centralized grid power.
Our CHP products are all standard, modular units that come pre-packaged from the factory to simplify installation and grid connection. The systems are supported in the field by a nationwide network of experienced professional staff. Standardized CHP units, as opposed to custom-designed systems, achieve lower cost, better quality control, higher reliability, and easier service. Emission controls are integrated, and complete system warranty and maintenance are available.
Our Ultra low-emissions technology eliminates the air quality concerns associated with engines. Our units comply with the most rigorous air quality regulations, including California’s.
Our cogeneration systems and chillers use standard, well-proven equipment made by reputable, well-established manufacturers. These components include rugged automotive engines, certified inverters, commercial generators, and conventional compressors. Certain key components are proprietary and have patent protection. Most notably, all control software is either proprietary (and copyright protected) or under an exclusive license agreement. Suppliers of the InVerde `s inverter and generator hold certain related patent protection.
All of our CHP products can be designed for installation of multiple units at a single site, depending on the customer’s particular needs. This enhances the ability of our products to meet the building’s varying demand for electricity, heat, and/or air conditioning throughout the day and from season to season. Also, multiple units operate more efficiently throughout the range of a customer’s high and low energy requirements.
Our InVerde product is opening new market opportunities and expanding our reach to customers beyond our traditional market segments. The InVerde`s black-start feature addresses a crucial demand from customers concerned about utility blackouts and brownouts, natural disasters, security threats, and antiquated grid infrastructure. The InVerde also provides premium-quality power, which is required by operators of computer server farms and precision instrumentation, for example.
The InVerde overcomes barriers related to grid interconnection, since the product is UL-certified as utility-safe. In microgrids, InVerde units can help prevent brownouts by maximizing their power output when utilities approach peak capacity. Unlike standby diesel generators, the InVerde can operate without hourly limits because its emissions are so low, and it can serve as a stable anchor in hybrid microgrids that incorporate solar power.
Our extensive use of standardized components lets us manufacture CHP products at competitive prices, even at relatively low production volumes. Proven, well-understood hardware increases the reliability and durability of the equipment and reduces the cost of servicing in the field. We are also able to minimize spare parts inventories and simplify training requirements.
The Ilios heat pump water heater roughly doubles the efficiency of conventional water heating systems. The Ilios heat pump targets a large international market that is characterized by heavy, year-round use. This will increase fuel savings and maximize return on investment for the customer. Also, such applications are mostly central heating and cooling systems, rather than units distributed throughout the building, so it is easier to integrate new equipment. The heat pump water heater product competes only against other gas-fueled water heaters, which could expand our market beyond areas with high electric rates, and regulatory issues should be minimal.
Competitive Position and Business Conditions
Our products fall into the broad market category of distributed generation systems that produce electric power on-site to mitigate the drawbacks of traditional central power and the low efficiency of conventional heating processes.
Renewable power sources, such as wind and solar, do not improve heating inefficiencies as CHP systems do, so they do not compete with our products. That is, CHP utilization is based on the redirection of fuel from an onsite boiler to an engine (or other device) for the production of electricity; the waste heat from the engine meets the heating load of the site with only a small incremental fuel consumption increase, but with the benefit of a significant amount of electricity production. As the boiler output cannot be displaced by renewable electricity production — the output of which is far more valuable displacing utility electric power, than used for water heating — the CHP opportunity remains available even in sites fully exploited relative to their renewable potential.

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Cogeneration Systems
The ICF report breaks down the CHP market by technology as provided in Figure 8 below. We believe the California data applies to the domestic and international CHP market as a whole.
Figure 8 — Technology Size and Market Position
Source: ICF International, Combined Heat and Power Market Assessment (2010) (Data from 2004)
Our CHP products use automotive reciprocating engines originally designed for gasoline fuel and modified to run on natural gas. Diesel-fueled reciprocating engines will remain prominent in the CHP market, but only in larger, custom-designed systems (one MW or more), so these products do not compete with ours.
In smaller CHP sizes, competitors have duplicated our older design, coupling an automotive engine to a single-speed generator and adding controls and heat recovery. To be competitive with our designs, however, they would have to acquire comparable experience in the equipment and technology, installation contracting, maintenance and operation, economic evaluation of candidate sites, project financing, and energy sales, as well as the ability to cover broad regions. They would also have to meet the price of our products, which is low because we use standardized components.
We believe that no other company has developed a product that competes with our inverter-based InVerde, which offers UL-certified grid connection, outage capability, and variable-speed operation. We anticipate that an inverter-based product with at least some of these features will be introduced by others, but we believe that they will face serious challenges in duplicating the InVerde. Product development time and costs would be significant, and we expect that our patents and license for microgrid software will keep others from offering certain important functions.
Our patent application relating to the Ultra low-emissions technology was issued by the U.S. PTO in October 2013. We expect that this will make the development of alternative technologies by competitors difficult. If this is the case, we could retain a strong competitive advantage for all our products in markets where severe emissions limits are imposed or where very clean power is favored, such as New Jersey, California, and Massachusetts.
Newer technologies, such as fuel cells and microturbines, pose limited competition to our CHP products. ICF International’s 2010 CHP market assessment provides a comparison of the various small CHP technologies (50 – 500 kW), and a summary of this study is presented in Table 3. As shown, reciprocating engine CHP enjoys an economic advantage, as it has just over one-third the installed cost of a fuel cell and costs 20% less than a microturbine. With regard to operation and maintenance (O&M) costs, engine O&M costs are slightly less than those of microturbines, and just over half those of fuel cells. Although fuel cells have the highest electric efficiency (36%), they also have the lowest thermal output, so often fuel cells cannot recover enough heat to serve building loads effectively. Microturbines also recover less heat than engine CHP and have a lower electric efficiency. As a result, typical reciprocating engine CHP has the most favorable overall efficiency, at 79%, compared to 72% for microturbines and 67% for fuel cells.
With regard to pollutant emissions, Figure 5, above, compares all three technologies, along with the Tecogen engine CHP equipped with the Ultra technology. This figure illustrates that although fuel cells and microturbines are cleaner than conventional engine CHP (i.e., BACT), an engine equipped with Ultra technology now has comparable emissions to these other two technologies.

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In the growing microgrid segment, neither fuel cells nor microturbines can respond to changing energy loads when the system is disconnected from the utility grid. Engines inherently have a fast dynamic response to step load changes, which is why they are the primary choice for emergency generators. Fuel cells and microturbines would require an additional energy storage device to be utilized in off-grid operation.
Most manufacturers of microturbines have refocused on other markets. We believe that Capstone Turbine Corporation is the only microturbine manufacturer with a commercial presence in CHP. Figure 9 reveals the modest impact of both microturbines and fuel cells in California’s CHP space.
Table 3 — Comparison of CHP Technologies
Source: ICF International, Combined Heat and Power Market Assessment (2010)
 
 
Microturbine 50 – 500 kW
 
Fuel Cell
50 – 500 kW
 
Generic Engine
100 kW
Installed Costs, $/kW
 
2,739
 
6,310
 
2,210
O&M Costs, $/kWh
 
0.022
 
0.038
 
0.020
Electric Efficiency, %
 
25.2%
 
36.0%
 
28.4%
Thermal Output, Btu/kWh
 
6,277
 
2,923
 
6,100
Overall Efficiency, %
 
72%
 
67%
 
79%
Figure 9 — Share of Installed CHP by Prime Mover in California
Source: ICF International Combined Heat and Power Market Assessment (2010) — (Data from 2008)
Engine Driven Chillers (TECOCHILL)
According to the Energy Solutions Center (a non-profit consortium), three companies make gas-engine-driven chillers that compete with our products: Trane, a division of Ingersoll-Rand plc, York, a division of Johnson Controls, Inc. and Alturdyne. Natural gas can also fuel absorption chillers, which use fluids to transfer heat without an engine drive.
Today’s low natural gas prices in the United States improve the economics of gas-fueled chillers, so more competition could emerge. However, engine chillers will continue to have an efficiency advantage over absorption machines. Chiller performance is measured in terms of cooling energy output per unit of fuel input. This industry standard is called the coefficient of performance, or COP. Absorption chillers achieve COPs of about 1.2 (see, for example, The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers’ Datasheet 07, Absorption Cooling, February 2012). Our TECOCHILL products reach efficiencies well above that level (COPs ranging from 1.6 to 2.6).

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Ilios Engine-Driven Heat Pump
Although a few companies manufacture gas-engine heat pumps, their products are not directly comparable to the Ilios. The Ilios water heater and other heat pump products compete in both the high-efficiency water heating market and the CHP market. In a typical building, the Ilios heat pump would be added on to an existing heating/water heating system, but would be operated as many hours as possible. The conventional boiler would be left in place, but would serve mainly as a backup when the heat pump’s engine is down for maintenance or when the heat pump cannot meet the building’s peak heating load.
The best customers for the Ilios heat pump water heater would be very similar to those for traditional CHP — heavy consumers of hot water and process heat. In areas where low electric rates make CHP not economical, the Ilios heat pump could be a financially attractive alternative because its economics depend only on natural gas rates. In some areas with high electric rates, the Ilios option could have advantages over CHP. For example, where it is hard to connect to the utility grid or where the building’s need for electricity is too low for CHP to work economically. As of December 31, 2013 , we have shipped eight Ilios water heaters and have an additional two in inventory to fulfill current orders.
Intellectual Property
We currently hold three United States patents for our technologies:
8,578,704: “Assembly and method for reducing nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons in exhausts of internal combustion engines.” This patent, granted in November 2013, is for the Ultra emission system applicable to all our products.
7,239,034: “Engine driven power inverter system with cogeneration”. This patent, granted in July 2007, pertains to the utilization of an engine-driven CHP module combined with an inverter and applies to our InVerde product specifically.
7,243,017: “Method for controlling internal combustion engine emissions”. This patent, granted in July 2007, applies to the specific algorithms used in our engine controller for metering the fuel usage to obtain the correct combustion mixture. It applies to most of our engines.
In addition, we have licensed specific rights to microgrid algorithms developed by University of Wisconsin researchers for which we pay royalties to the assignee, The Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF). The specific patent named in our agreement is “Control of small distributed energy resources” (7,116,010), granted in 2006. Our specific rights are valid for engine-driven systems utilizing natural gas or diesel fuel in the application of power generation where the per unit output is less than 500 kW.
We consider our patents and license to be important in the present operation of our business. The expiration, termination, or invalidity of one or more of these patents may have a material adverse effect on our business. Our earliest patent, that licensed from WARF, was issued in 2006 and expires in 2022. Most of our patents expire between 2022 and 2027.
We believe that no other company has developed a product that competes with our inverter-based InVerde. We anticipate that an inverter-based product with at least some of these features will be introduced by others, but we believe that competitors will face serious challenges in duplicating the InVerde. Product development time and costs would likely be significant, and we expect that our patent for the inverter-based CHP system (7,239,034) would offer significant protection, especially in key features. Likewise, we consider the microgrid license with WARF to be a key feature of our InVerde product, and one that would be difficult to duplicate outside the patent.
The recent issuance by the U.S. PTO of the patent for the Ultra low-emissions technology keeps that technology exclusive to us. It applies to all of our gas engine-driven products and may have licensing applications to other natural gas engines. We have also filed for patents for this technology in Europe, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, India, Israel, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Republic of Korea, Singapore, and South Africa. There is no assurance, however, that the Ultra low-emissions patent applications will be approved in any other country.
Government Regulation and Its Effect on Our Business
Several kinds of government regulations affect our current and future business, such as:
Product safety certifications and interconnection requirements;
Air pollution regulations, which govern the emissions allowed in engine exhaust;
State and federal incentives for CHP technology; and
Electric utility pricing and related regulations.
Regulations that control air quality and greenhouse gases might increasingly favor our low-emission products. Regulations related to utility rates and interconnection, which are burdensome today, could evolve to embrace CHP because of its efficiency benefits.

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Product Safety Certifications and Interconnection Requirements
Our products must comply with various local building codes and must undergo inspection by local authorities. Our products are also certified by a third party to conform to specific standards. These certifications require continuous verification by a company that monitors our processes and design every three months. Our InVerde product is also certified to Europe’s standard CE mark (European Conformity), which is mandatory for products imported into the European Union for commercial sale.
Our cogeneration CHP products are also certified to a particular group of standards specific to the distributed power industry, which are used in the utility interconnection permitting process. These unique certifications were developed by various manufacturers, utilities, and government regulators to standardize the process of getting the utility’s permission to jointly power a facility.
In essence, manufacturers of standard products are allowed to submit a sample unit to be “type-tested” by a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory. This test proves that the product adheres to safety requirements and that its design is fail-safe. The product then becomes eligible for a fast-track interconnection, after passing simple site-specific screens. Under state-mandated regulations, such as California Rule 21 and Massachusetts Interconnection Tariff 09-03, most utilities must accept the fast-track process, which includes the certification.
Simplified utility interconnection is important to CHP projects, so our interconnect certification, Underwriters Laboratory Standard 1741, or UL Certification, is a significant competitive advantage. Obtaining the UL Certification was a major reason for us to develop the inverter-based CHP product. As with our other product certifications, we plan to maintain the certification through routine processes when modest design changes occur. When complete recertification is required, such as when a new revision to the standard is applicable or when the design undergoes a major upgrade, the company will follow the normal procedures for first-time certification (third party design review and test verification). The company does not anticipate any changes to the standard that would preclude recertification, as the underlying content is carefully administered by balanced committees (representing utilities, inverter suppliers, and academia). In addition, the standard and its utilization as the criterion for systems to qualify for simplified interconnection programs, is important for the solar PV industry. The company believes that this importance to the solar industry will help assure the long-term relevance in interconnection of distributed generation devices.
Air Pollution Regulations
Stationary natural gas engines are subject to emissions regulations that are part of a complex hierarchy of state and federal regulations. The EPA establishes technology-specific standards that are based on cost-benefit analysis for emission control strategies. These standards, termed BACT (best available control technology), are imposed in regions that fail to meet federal clean air standards. Local regulators can and do restrict engine emissions to lower levels.
In some instances, regional standards in our key markets have become sufficiently strict, presenting a challenge in controlling pollution from natural gas engines. However, our development of the Ultra low-emissions technology has addressed this issue, allowing us to permit our equipment in the strictest region of Southern California. In January 2013, a state-certified source test at a new customer’s site verified that our emissions levels were well below the new permitting requirements. Since we have now successfully removed this barrier, we are not only competitive in the California market, but have an advantage as a cleaner CHP technology. Likewise, in the Northeast where emissions regulations are trending towards California levels, we have already established our Ultra CHP as a certified technology in New Jersey, exempt from the air permitting process and subsequent testing, a unique status that separates us from the competition.
On the East Coast, important CHP territories are also moving toward limits below federal BACT levels. Effective in 2012, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut require 3.6 ppm NOx and about 56 ppm CO, which is on par with California’s BACT standard. New Jersey also emulates California’s BACT, but allows the project to side-step the air permit process if the CHP device is “emissions certified” through third-party testing to 10 ppm NOx and 10 ppm CO. Our Ultra low-emissions technology has qualified for New Jersey’s “clean” certification, as noted earlier. In New York, clean power is encouraged through state grants that exclude products, or reduce the grant amount, unless low emissions are demonstrated.
Air emissions regulations also affect our air conditioning and Ilios heat pump products, though the effects are muted. TECOCHILL rebates are not common, and none has been tied to a specific emissions level. The heat pump’s small size often exempts it from regulations, and the market for heat pump products could lie in lightly regulated regions (those with low electric rates). Nevertheless, the Ultra low-emissions technology can be applied to these products if required to meet regulatory standards.

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State and Federal Incentives
On August 30, 2012, the White House released an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency, including CHP. The goal of the Executive Order is to supply 40 GW of energy by 2020 from greater efficiency sources such as CHP systems. The DOE, Commerce, and Agriculture, and the Environmental Protection Agency, or EPA, in coordination with the National Economic Council, the Domestic Policy Council, the Council on Environmental Quality, and the Office of Science and Technology Policy, shall coordinate policies to encourage investment in industrial efficiency in order to reduce costs for industrial users, improve U.S. competitiveness, create jobs, and reduce harmful air pollution. With this Executive Order, it is expected that barriers to CHP development will be removed with effective programs, policies, and financing opportunities, resulting in $40 – $80 billion in new capital investment in CHP. This initiative by the U.S. government may boost CHP awareness and stimulate market activity.
In addition, some states offer incentives to CHP systems. New York and New Jersey have incentive programs that rebate a significant portion of the CHP project cost. Similar incentive programs also exist in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Maryland albeit with different structures and terms. Massachusetts has an additional CHP incentive in the form of an annual rebate proportional to the carbon savings versus conventional technology.
Also our products installed before 2010 are eligible for the bonus depreciation included in the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, and our products installed before January 1, 2014 are eligible for the bonus depreciation included in the 2012 American Taxpayer Relief Act. Also, the Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008 provides a 10% investment tax credit through 2016 for CHP in our size range, which applies to the total project cost. Our TECOCHILL and heat pump products also qualify for the credit when heat recovery achieves a minimum 60% efficiency.
Electric Utility Pricing and Related Regulations
Electricity prices, rate structures, and tariffs are another form of government incentive or disincentive. Utility pricing is administered through state agencies, typically public utility commissions, through formal proceedings involving the public, utilities, and various affected parties. Often, direct legislative mandates apply to specific issues. How these rules are structured and interpreted has a significant impact on the economic viability of CHP. These rules have hurt the CHP industry in the past, but we have designed our products to undermine their impact.
Demand Charges .  Many electric utilities structure their commercial rates such that part of the customer’s bill is fixed charges such as meter fees, and part is peak demand charges, which are a much larger line-item based on the building’s maximum short-term usage (typically 15 minutes). Fixed charges, usually small, are not addressed by CHP technology. Avoidance of peak demand charges requires a CHP system to always operate at extremely high efficiency, which is difficult to achieve in practice.
Our CHP products, being small and modular, are often installed as multiple units. This protects the customer to some degree from incurring peak demand charges at the full system rating by providing equipment redundancy. The customer would then have to buy more electricity to make up for it, possibly incurring a large demand charge. With a modular, multi-unit CHP system, all the units would have to fail simultaneously to incur an equivalent charge.
Our TECOCHILLs are highly effective in eliminating not only summertime electricity usage, but also peak demand charges. The chiller’s operation is confined to the cooling season, allowing maintenance to be scheduled for other times. Outages during the cooling season can be managed to minimize their impact.
Avoided-Cost Penalties .  In some regions, utilities have argued that CHP customers, by reducing their electric usage, have avoided paying their fair share of the costs associated with grid infrastructure. To correct this perceived inequity, some utilities have successfully petitioned their state commissions to impose a “departing load charge.” Utilities have also been allowed to add a “standby” surcharge to compensate for the cost of utility power being available when the CHP system is down.
These types of charges are not prevalent in East Coast states, but both standby and departing load charges are well-established in California. Although our CHP products are affected, our chillers and heat pumps are not.
Technology-Specific Net Metering .  Interconnection issues are safety-related and should be product-neutral, but technology bias is common. In many states, CHP is excluded from net metering while other technologies are eligible. Under net metering, utilities must pay on-site generators for excess electricity that is fed into the grid. Net metering makes it easier to manage the operation of a CHP system or other generator.
Other Utility-Related Regulations .  Another category of utility regulation that might affect our business is Renewable Portfolio Standards, or RPS. As of December 2012, some form of portfolio standards had been established in 38 states and the District of Columbia. According to the EPA, out of these states, 26 — Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, Colorado, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, Washington and West Virginia — specifically mention CHP and/or waste heat-to-power as eligible under their RPS (or related efficiency/clean energy program guidelines). RPS-type mechanisms have been adopted in several other countries, including Britain, Italy, Poland, Sweden, Belgium, and Chile.

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Overall, RPS appears to be a positive policy for Tecogen and CHP. Program structures, if fair and balanced, encourage less fossil fuel use by offering financial incentives to improve efficiency. Electric power generated from renewable sources would tend to increase overall electric rates and improve CHP investment returns. Since these programs are in their early stages, their impact is yet to be determined.
A national carbon “cap and trade” program is not anticipated in the foreseeable future. Cap and trade programs seek to reduce carbon emissions by putting a price on them. Of possible impact to Tecogen is the cap and trade bill moving forward in the California legislature. The program’s details are still being reviewed and negotiated by various government and advocacy groups.
Employees
As of June 13, 2014, we employed 75 full-time employees and 3 part-time employees. We believe that our relationship with our employees is satisfactory. Three of our New Jersey service employees are represented by a collective bargaining agreement which was executed on February 25, 2014 with a retroactive effective date of January 1, 2014. This agreement expires on December 31, 2016.
Properties
Our headquarters is located in Waltham, Massachusetts, and consists of approximately 43,000 square feet of leased space, of which Tecogen occupies approximately 27,000 square feet of manufacturing, storage and office space. We sub-lease the remaining space to Ilios, American DG Energy, and other tenants. Our lease, with an original expiration date of March 31, 2014, was renewed for an additional ten years and will expire March 31, 2024. We believe that our facilities are appropriate and adequate for our current needs.
Legal Proceedings.
From time to time, we may become party to litigation or other legal proceedings that we consider to be a part of the ordinary course of our business. We are not currently involved in legal proceedings that could reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, or results of operations. We may become involved in material legal proceedings in the future.

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SUMMARY CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA
The summary consolidated statements of operations data for each of the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 and the summary consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements that are included elsewhere in this prospectus.
The summary consolidated statements of operations data for each of the three months ended March 31, 2014 and 2013 and the summary consolidated balance sheet data as of March 31, 2014, have been derived from our unaudited consolidated financial statements that are included elsewhere in this prospectus.
You should read this information together with the consolidated financial statements and related notes and other information under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this prospectus.
 
 
Audited
 
Unaudited
Consolidated Statement of
Operations Data:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Three months ended March 31,
 
2013
 
2012
 
2014
 
2013
Revenues
 
$
15,849,869

 
$
15,253,972

 
$
4,215,757

 
$
4,046,318

Cost of sales
 
10,819,741

 
9,388,898

 
2,789,531

 
2,934,354

Gross profit
 
5,030,128

 
5,865,074

 
1,426,226

 
1,111,964

Operating expenses
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
General and administrative
 
7,018,133

 
6,643,120

 
2,052,126

 
1,791,703

Selling
 
1,423,587

 
1,225,580

 
421,620

 
279,370

Aborted public offering costs
 
258,512

 

 

 

 
 
8,700,232

 
7,868,700

 
2,473,746

 
2,071,073

Loss from operations
 
(3,670,104
)
 
(2,003,626
)
 
(1,047,520
)
 
(959,109
)
Other income (expense)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest and other income
 
3,958

 
48,397

 
3,085

 
3,946

Interest expense
 
(141,065
)
 
(71,208
)
 
(34,770
)
 
(23,377
)
 
 
(137,107
)
 
(22,811
)
 
(31,685
)
 
(19,431
)
Loss before income taxes
 
(3,807,211
)
 
(2,026,437
)
 
(1,079,205
)
 
(978,540
)
Consolidated net loss
 
(3,807,211
)
 
(2,026,437
)
 
(1,079,205
)
 
(978,540
)
Less: Loss attributable to the noncontrolling interest
 
357,722

 
389,480

 
59,160

 
118,147

Net loss attributable to Tecogen Inc.
 
$
(3,449,489
)
 
$
(1,636,957
)
 
$
(1,020,045
)
 
$
(860,393
)
Net loss per share - basic and diluted
 
$
(0.26
)
 
$
(0.12
)
 
$
(0.07
)
 
$
(0.07
)
Weighted average shares outstanding - basic and diluted
 
13,385,155

 
13,135,071

 
14,796,413

 
13,212,894


 
 
Audited December 31,
 
Unaudited March 31,
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
 
2013
2012
 
2014
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
7,713,899

$
1,572,785

 
$
1,946,891

Short-term investments (restricted)
 

181,859

 
583,720

Working capital
 
5,565,789

4,078,704

 
4,608,548

Total assets
 
17,630,069

9,117,249

 
13,573,924

Total liabilities
 
10,564,176

4,334,214

 
7,542,445

Total stockholders’ equity
 
$
7,065,893

$
4,783,035

 
$
6,031,479


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Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition
THIS DISCUSSION CONTAINS FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS THAT RELATE TO FUTURE EVENTS OR OUR FUTURE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE. THESE STATEMENTS INVOLVE KNOWN AND UNKNOWN RISKS, UNCERTAINTIES AND OTHER FACTORS THAT MAY CAUSE OUR ACTUAL RESULTS, LEVELS OF ACTIVITY, PERFORMANCE OR ACHIEVEMENTS TO BE MATERIALLY DIFFERENT FROM ANY FUTURE RESULTS, LEVELS OF ACTIVITY, PERFORMANCE OR ACHIEVEMENTS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THESE FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS. THESE RISKS AND OTHER FACTORS INCLUDE, AMONG OTHERS, THOSE LISTED UNDER “SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS” AND “RISK FACTORS” AND THOSE INCLUDED ELSEWHERE IN THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT.
Overview
Tecogen designs, manufactures and sells industrial and commercial cogeneration systems that produce combinations of electricity, hot water, and air conditioning using automotive engines that have been specially adapted to run on natural gas. Cogeneration systems are efficient because in addition to supplying mechanical energy to power electric generators or compressors – displacing utility supplied electricity – they provide an opportunity for the facility to incorporate the engine’s waste heat into onsite processes such as space and potable water heating. We produce standardized, modular, small-scale products, with a limited number of product configurations that are adaptable to multiple applications. We refer to these combined heat and power products as CHP (electricity plus heat) and MCHP (mechanical power plus heat).
Our products are sold directly to end-users by our in-house marketing team and by established sales agents and representatives. We have agreements in place with distributors and sales representatives, including American DG Energy and EuroSite Power which are affiliated companies. Our existing customers include hospitals and nursing homes, colleges and universities, health clubs and spas, hotels and motels, office and retail buildings, food and beverage processors, multi-unit residential buildings, laundries, ice rinks, swimming pools, factories, municipal buildings, and military installations. We have an installed base of more than 2,100 units.  Many of these have been operating for almost 25 years.
In 2009, we created a majority-owned subsidiary Ilios to develop and distribute a line of ultra-high-efficiency heating products, including a high efficiency water heater. These products provide twice the efficiency of conventional commercial and industrial boilers (based upon management estimates) utilizing advanced thermodynamic principles. As of the date of this report, we own a 65.0% interest in Ilios.
For each of our last five fiscal years and prior thereto, we have incurred annual operating losses. We expect this trend to continue until such time that we can sell a sufficient number of systems and achieve a cost structure to become profitable. We may not have adequate cash resources to reach the point of profitability, and we may never become profitable. Even if we do achieve profitability, we may be unable to increase our sales and sustain or increase our profitability in the future.
Although we may, from time to time, have one or a few customers who may represent more than 10% of our product revenue for a given year, we are not dependent on the recurrence of revenue from those customers. Our product revenue is such that customers may make a large purchase once and may not ever make a purchase again. Our equipment is built to last 20 or more years, therefore, our product revenue model is not dependent on recurring sales transactions from the same customer. Our service revenue, however, may lend itself to recurring revenue from particular customers; although we currently do not have any service revenue customers who make up more than 10% of our total revenues on an annual basis. American DG Energy has been considered a major customer in certain years, as disclosed in the accompanying financial statements; however, we do not consider our business “dependent” upon its recurrence.
For the last two fiscal years, more than half of our revenue was generated from long-term maintenance contracts, or service contracts, which provide us with a somewhat predictable revenue stream, especially during the summer months. We have a slight surge of activity from May through September as our “chiller season” is in full swing. Our service revenue has grown from year to year since 2005, with our New York City/New Jersey, New England and to some extent California territories experiencing the majority of the growth. This growth is consistent with the sale of new units into those territories. Our service margins are generally predictable as we service hundreds of long-term contracts with relatively low dollar, high volume sales. Fluctuations at the job level are to be expected however, due to the number of jobs, gross margin generally evens out in the aggregate.
Our product revenue is derived from the sale of the various cogeneration modules, such as the InVerde 100, the CM-75 and the CM-60, and the three chiller models, such as the smaller ST, the larger DT and the RT (roof-top) units. The sales cycle for each module varies widely, and can range from as short as a month to as long as a year or more. The length of the sales cycle is generally dependent on the size of the project and the number of decision makers in a customer’s facility. Furthermore, since our products and their installation are costly they are considered a major capital improvement and customers may be slow in making their buying decisions. Our products sales are high dollar value, low volume transactions. Therefore our product revenue can be difficult to predict and the expected margin varies.

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Our cogeneration and chiller modules are built to order and revenue is recognized upon shipment. The lead time to build and deliver a unit depends on its customized configuration and is approximately 12 to 16 weeks from time of purchase order. As revenue is recognized upon shipment, our work-in-process is an important factor in understanding our financial condition in any given quarter.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
For recent accounting pronouncements see “Note 2 – Summary of significant accounting policies” to our consolidated financial statements.
Critical Accounting Policies
For critical accounting policies see “Note 2 – Summary of significant accounting policies” to our consolidated financial statements.
Emerging Growth Company
Section 107 of the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act for complying with new or revised accounting standards. However, we chose to “opt out” of any extended transition period, and as a result we will comply with new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for non-emerging growth companies. Section 107 of the JOBS Act provides that our decision to opt out of the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards is irrevocable.
Results of Operations
First quarter of 2014 Compared to First quarter of 2013
Revenues
Revenues in the first quarter of 2014 were $4,215,757 compared to $4,046,318 for the same period in 2013 , an increase of $169,439 or 4.2%. This increase is due to an increase in installation activity during the period. Product revenues in the first quarter of 2014 were $1,944,776 compared to $2,052,665 for the same period in 2013 , a decrease of $107,889 or 5.3% . This decrease from the three months ended March 31, 2013 to March 31, 2014 was the aggregate of a decrease in cogeneration sales of $123,887 and an increase in chiller sales of $15,998 . Our product mix, as well as product revenue, can vary significantly from period to period as our products are high dollar, low volume sales. As a result, such fluctuation is expected.
Service revenues in the first quarter of 2014 were $2,270,981 compared to $1,993,653 for the same period in 2013 , an increase of $277,328 or 13.9% . The majority of this increase is due to increased installation activity by the service group.
Cost of Sales
Cost of sales in the first quarter of 2014 was $2,789,531 compared to $2,934,354 for the same period in 2013 a decrease of $144,823 , or 4.9%. During the first quarter of 2014 our overall gross profit margin was 33.8% compared to 27.5% for the same period in 2013 , an increase of 6.3% . The growth in service volume and increased number of turnkey projects have continued to improve the maintenance and engineering service margins.
Contract Research and Development
There was no contract research and development income for the three months ended March 31, 2014 . For the three months ended March 31, 2013 there was $67,000 , which is classified as an offset to applicable expenses.
Operating Expenses
Our general and administrative expenses consist of executive staff, accounting and legal expenses, office space, general insurance and other administrative expenses. Our general and administrative expenses in the first quarter of March 31, 2014 were $2,052,126 compared to $1,791,703 for the same period in 2013 , an increase of $260,423 or 14.5% . This increase was due to an overall increase in operating costs attributable to an increase in internal research and development activities of approximately $42,000 in addition to the costs associated with preparing to be a publicly traded company, and financing activities such as payroll costs of approximately $110,000, general insurance of $56,000 and franchise taxes of approximately $53,000.
Our selling expenses consist of sales staff, commissions, marketing, travel and other selling related expenses. Our selling expenses for the first quarter of 2014 were $421,620 compared to $279,370 for the same period in 2013 , an increase of $142,250 or 50.9% . This increase is due to the increase in payroll costs associated with selling activities of approximately $100,000 as well as costs associated with trade shows, commissions and royalties during the first quarter of 2014 as compared to the same period in 2013 of approximately $40,000.

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Loss from Operations
Loss from operations for the first quarter of 2014 was $1,047,520 compared to $959,109 for the same period in 2013 , an increase of $88,411 . The increase in the loss was due to the growth in operating expenses offset by the increase in revenue and gross profit discussed above.
Other Income (Expense), net
Other expense, net for the three months ended March 31, 2014 was $31,685 compared to $19,431 for the same period in 2013 . Other income (expense) includes interest income and other income of $3,085 , net of interest expense on notes payable of $34,770 for the first quarter of 2014 . For the same period in 2013 , interest and other income was $3,946 and interest expense was $23,377 . The decrease in interest income of $861 is the result of short-term investments held during the first quarter of 2014 that were not held during the first quarter of 2014 . The increase in interest expense of $11,393 was mainly due to the increase in note payable balances carried during the first three months of 2014 as compared to the first three months of 2013 .
Provision for Income Taxes
The Company did not record any benefit or provision for income taxes for the three months ended March 31, 2014 and 2013 , respectively. As of March 31, 2014 and 2013 , the income tax benefits generated from the Company’s net losses have been fully reserved.
Noncontrolling Interest
The noncontrolling interest share in the losses of Ilios was $59,160 for the three months ended March 31, 2014 compared to $118,147 for the same period in 2013 , a decrease of $58,987 or 49.9% . The decrease was due to a decrease in the Ilios loss in the first quarter of 2014 as compared to the same period in 2013 . Noncontrolling interest ownership percentage as of March 31, 2014 and 2013 was unchanged at 35.0% for both periods. Shares of restricted common stock issued under Ilios's equity compensation plan, but which have not yet vested, have not been included in calculating the noncontrolling interest ownership percentage.
Net loss
Net loss attributable to Tecogen for the first three months of 2014 was $1,020,045 compared to $860,393 for the same period in 2013 , an increase of $159,652 . The increase in net loss was the result of the increase in gross profit and the increase in operating expenses as described above.
Year Ended December 31, 2013 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2012
Revenues
Revenues in 2013 were $15,849,869 compared to $15,253,972 in 2012 , an increase of $595,897 or 3.9% . This increase is largely due to an increase in service revenue during the year as a result of increased installation revenue. Product revenues in 2013 were $6,346,050 compared to $7,453,222 in 2012 , a decrease of $1,107,172 or 14.9% . This decrease from the year ended December 31, 2012 to 2013 resulted from a decrease in cogeneration sales of $591,763 and a decrease in chiller sales of $515,409 . Our product mix, as well as product revenue, can vary significantly from period to period as our products are high dollar, low volume sales in which revenue is only recognized upon shipment. As a result, such fluctuation is expected.
Revenues derived from our service centers including installation activities, in 2013 were $9,503,819 compared to $7,800,750 for the same period in 2012 , an increase of $1,703,069 or 21.8% . Our service operation grows along with sales of cogeneration and chiller systems since the majority of our product sales are accompanied by a service contract or time and materials agreements. As a result our “fleet” of units being serviced by our service department grows with product sales. In addition, our service department revenue has increased due to turnkey projects of $2,432,431 in 2013 compared to $711,259 in 2012 .
Cost of Sales
Cost of sales in 2013 was $10,819,741 compared to $9,388,898 in 2012 , an increase of $1,430,843 or 15.2% . Our gross profit margin was 31.7% in 2013 compared to 38.4% in 2012 , a decrease of 6.7% . The decrease in gross profit margin is attributable to the margin on turnkey projects, that, although they provide us with unit sales and the subsequent service contracts, the projects themselves provide a lower gross profit than our traditional service business. In addition, this decrease is attributable to sales of certain Ilios units at below cost. These units are among the first sold, and were sold at a loss in order to provide demonstration units for our sales representatives.
Contract Research and Development
Contract research and development income, which is classified as an offset to applicable expenses, for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 was $127,500 and $126,500 , respectively, a decrease of $1,000 . Difference is related to the conclusion of contract work during 2013.

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Operating Expenses
Operating expenses increased in 2013 to $8,700,232 compared to $7,868,700 in 2012 , an increase of $831,532 or 10.6% . This increase was due to increased investments in research and development of approximately $436,000 compared to those of 2012, costs of $258,512 associated with an aborted public offering in the third quarter of 2013, an increase in our selling efforts including attendance at trade shows and the related travel expenses of approximately $150,000 and salaries, and various other expenses.
Selling expenses increased in 2013 to $1,423,587 compared to $1,225,580 for the same period in 2012 due to increased headcount in our sales and marketing departments. In addition, during the year ended December 31, 2013 the Company invested approximately $200,000 in trade shows and a traveling “road show” where three of the Company's products were showcased on an enclosed trailer which traveled through our key territories on the east coast.
Loss from Operations
Loss from operations for the year ended December 31, 2013 was $3,670,104 compared to $2,003,626 for the same period in 2012 . The increase in the loss of $1,666,478 was due to the increase in operating expenses and reduction in gross profit as discussed above.
Other Income (Expense), net
Other expense, net for the year ended December 31, 2013 was $137,107 compared to $22,811 for the same period in 2012 . Other income (expense) includes interest income and other income of $3,958 , net of interest expense on notes payable of $141,065 in 2013 . For the same period in 2012 , interest and other income was $48,397 and interest expense was $71,208 . The decrease in interest income of $44,439 is the result of a decrease in short-term investments.The increase in interest expense of $69,857 was mainly due to demand notes and line of credit with an outstanding balance of $1,200,000.
Provision for Income Taxes
We did not record any benefit or provision for income taxes for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 , respectively. As of December 31, 2013 and 2012 , the income tax benefits generated from our net losses have been fully reserved.
Noncontrolling Interest
The noncontrolling interest share in the losses of Ilios was $357,722 for the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to $389,480 for the same period in 2012 , a decrease of $31,758 or 8.2% . The decrease was due to a reduction in payroll costs that Ilios incurred in 2013, associated with the departure of its Chief Operating Officer in May of 2013 and related forfeiture of stock compensation. Noncontrolling interest ownership percentage as of December 31, 2013 and 2012 was 35.0% .
Net loss
Net loss for the year ended December 31, 2013 was $3,449,489 compared to $1,636,957 for the same period in 2012 . The increase in the loss of $1,812,532 was due to the increase in operating expenses and reduction in gross profit as discussed above.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Consolidated working capital at March 31, 2014 was $4,608,548 compared to $5,565,789 at December 31, 2013 , a decrease of $957,241 . Included in working capital were cash and cash equivalents of $1,946,891 and $583,720 in short-term investments at March 31, 2014 , compared to $7,713,899 in cash and cash equivalents at December 31, 2013 . The decrease in working capital is due to the lower cash resulting from operating losses, increases in inventory and unbilled revenue from turnkey projects.
Cash used in operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2014 was $2,153,202 compared to $255,716 for the same period in 2013 . Our accounts receivable balance increased to $4,249,889 at March 31, 2014 compared to $3,740,885 at December 31, 2013 , using $509,004 of cash due to timing of billing, shipments, collections and recovery of allowance. In addition, amounts due from related parties increased by $306,305 using cash due to timing of billing, shipments and collections. Our inventory increased to $3,473,257 as of March 31, 2014 compared to $3,343,793 as of December 31, 2013 , using $129,464 of cash to purchase inventory to build modules in backlog and to support ongoing turnkey projects.
As of May 15, 2014 , the Company's backlog of product and installation projects (and excluding service contracts) was $11 million , consisting of $5.7 million of purchase orders actually received by us and $5.3 million of projects in which the customer's internal approval process is complete, financial resources have been allocated and the customer has made a firm verbal commitment that the order is in the process of execution. Backlog at the beginning of any period is not necessarily indicative of future performance. Our presentation of backlog may differ from other companies in our industry. Our inventory balances have increased to support production demands, tightening available working capital.

40


Accounts payable decreased to $1,864,044 as of March 31, 2014 from $2,338,046 at December 31, 2013 , using $474,002 in cash due to suppliers and service providers. Accrued expenses increased to $1,407,452 as of March 31, 2014 from $1,139,554 as of December 31, 2013 , providing $267,898 of cash for operations. Interest payable, related party decreased to zero from $198,450 as of December 31, 2013 , using $198,450 of cash.
During the first three months of 2014 our investing activities used $676,106 of cash and included purchases of short-term investments of $583,720 to support performance bonds, purchases of property and equipment of $55,964 and expenditures related to intangible assets of $36,422 .
During the first three months of 2014 our financing activities included the payment of principal balances on demand notes payable to our Chief Executive Officer aggregating $2,950,000 . In addition we received proceeds from sales of our common stock of $6,300 and proceeds from the exercise of stock options of $6,000 .    
At March 31, 2014 our commitments included various leases for office and warehouse facilities of $5,183,791 to be paid over several years through 2024. The source of funds to fulfill these commitments will be provided from cash balances, operations or through debt or equity financing.
On March 14, 2013 the Company received a prepayment for purchases of modules, parts and service to be made by American DG Energy in the amount of $ 827,747 . The Company provides a discount on these prepaid purchases equal to 6% per annum on deposit balances. The 6% discount is recorded as interest expense in the accompanying statements of operations. As of March 31, 2014 the outstanding balance on this prepayment was $113,384 and is included in due from related party, net of amounts receivable but not yet due from American DG Energy, in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet.
On March 25, 2013, the Company entered into a Revolving Line of Credit Agreement, or the Credit Agreement, with John N. Hatsopoulos, our Chief Executive Officer. Under the terms of the Credit Agreement, Mr. Hatsopoulos has agreed to lend the Company up to an aggregate of $1,000,000 , from time to time, at the written request of the Company. Any amounts borrowed by the Company pursuant to the Credit Agreement will bear interest at the Bank Prime Rate as quoted from time to time in the Wall Street Journal plus 1.5% per year. On August 13, 2013, the Company and Mr. Hatsopoulos agreed to increase the amount that may be outstanding under the Credit Agreement to $1,500,000 . On October 3, 2013, the Company signed a demand note for $450,000, which accrues interest at 6% , in favor of John N. Hatsopoulos, the Company's Chief Executive Officer. As discussed above, on January 6, 2014, the Company repaid all debt owed to its Chief Executive Officer, including demand notes with a principal balance $1,750,000 and accrued interest of $175,311 and the line of credit with an outstanding principal balance of$1,200,000 and accrued interest of $25,347.
On March 26, 2014, the Company secured a working line of credit with John Hatsopoulos, the Company's CEO, in the amount of $3,500,000 which may be used in the occurrence of certain events. The Company has not drawn upon this line of credit through and as of May 1, 2014.
Based on our current operating plan, we believe existing resources, including our line of credit and cash and cash flows from operations, will be sufficient to meet our working capital requirements in the short term. As we continue to grow our business, our cash requirements are expected increase. As a result, we will need to raise additional capital through an equity offering to meet our operating and capital needs for future growth.
Our ability to continue to access capital could be impacted by various factors, including general market conditions and the continuing slowdown in the economy, interest rates, the perception of our potential future earnings and cash distributions, any unwillingness on the part of lenders to make loans to us and any deterioration in the financial position of lenders that might make them unable to meet their obligations to us. If these conditions continue and we cannot raise funds through a public or private debt financing, or an equity offering, our ability to grow our business may be negatively affected and we may need to suspend and significantly reduce our operating costs until market conditions improve.
Seasonality
We expect that the majority of our heating systems sales will be in the winter and the majority of our chilling systems sales will be in the summer. Our cogeneration and chiller system sales are not generally affected by the seasons, although customer goals will be to have chillers installed and running in the spring. Our service team does experience higher demand in the warmer months when cooling is required. These units are generally shut down in the winter and started up again in the spring. This “busy season” for the service team generally runs from May through the end of September.
Off Balance Sheet Arrangements
On July 22, 2013, the Company’s Chief Executive Officer personally pledged to support a bank credit facility of $1,055,000 to support bank guarantees issued on certain construction contracts. This credit facility expires on July 22, 2014.

41


MANAGEMENT AND GOVERNANCE
Directors and Executive Officers
The following table lists the current members of our Board of Directors and our executive officers. The address for our directors and officers is c/o Tecogen Inc., 45 First Avenue, Waltham, Massachusetts 02451.
Name
 
Age
 
Position(s)
Angelina M. Galiteva
 
47
 
Chairperson of the Board of Directors
John N. Hatsopoulos
 
80
 
Chief Executive Officer and Director
Robert A. Panora
 
60
 
Chief Operating Officer and President
Bonnie J. Brown
 
51
 
Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer, and Secretary
George N. Hatsopoulos
 
87
 
Director
Ahmed F. Ghoniem
 
62
 
Director
Charles T. Maxwell
 
82
 
Director
Joseph E. Aoun
 
61
 
Director
Angelina M. Galiteva , age 47 , has been our Chairperson of the Board of Directors since 2005. She is founder and Chair of the Board for the Renewables 100 Policy Institute, a non-profit entity dedicated to the global advancements of renewable energy solutions since 2008. Ms. Galiteva is also Chairperson at the World Council for Renewable Energy (WCRE) which focuses on the development of legislative and policy initiatives to facilitate the introduction and growth of renewable energy technologies since 2003. Since 2011, Ms. Galiteva has served on the Board of Governors of the California Independent System Operator (CA ISO), providing direction and oversight for the CA ISO which operates the California electricity grid. Also, Ms. Galiteva is a principal at New Energy Options, Inc., a company focusing on advancing the integration of sustainable energy solutions since 2006. Ms. Galiteva has also been a strategic consultant with Renewable Energy Policy and Strategy Consulting since 2004. Ms. Galiteva holds a Master’s degree in Environmental and Energy Law, a law degree from Pace University School of Law, and a bachelor’s degree from Sofia University in Bulgaria.
Our Board of Directors has determined that Ms. Galiteva’s prior experience in the energy field qualifies her to be a member of the Board of Directors in light of the Company’s business and structure.
John N. Hatsopoulos , age 80 , has been the Chief Executive Officer of the Company since the organization of the Company in 2000. He has also been the Chief Executive Officer of American DG Energy Inc., (NYSE MKT: ADGE), a publicly traded company in the On-Site Utility business since 2000, and the Chairman of EuroSite Power Inc., a subsidiary of American DG Energy Inc. since 2009. Mr. Hatsopoulos is a co-founder of Thermo Electron Corporation, which is now Thermo Fisher Scientific (NYSE: TMO), and the retired President and Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors of that company. He is a member of the Board of Directors of Ilios Inc., GlenRose Instruments Inc., Agenus Inc. (NASDAQ: AGEN), American CareSource Holdings, Inc. (NASDAQ: ANCI) and TEI Biosciences Inc., and is a former Member of the Corporation of Northeastern University. The Company, American DG Energy Inc., EuroSite Power Inc., and GlenRose Instruments Inc., are affiliated companies by virtue of common ownership. Mr. Hatsopoulos graduated from Athens College in Greece, and holds a bachelor’s degree in history and mathematics from Northeastern University, as well as honorary doctorates in business administration from Boston College and Northeastern University.
Mr. Hatsopoulos is the Company’s Chief Executive Officer and is also the Chief Executive Officer of American DG Energy and the Chairman of GlenRose Instruments. On average, Mr. Hatsopoulos spends approximately 50% of his business time on the affairs of the Company; however such amount varies widely depending on the needs of the business and is expected to increase as the business of the Company develops.
Our Board of Directors has determined that Mr. Hatsopoulos’ prior experience as co-founder, president and Chief Financial Officer of Thermo Electron Corporation, where he demonstrated leadership capability and gained extensive expertise involving complex financial matters, and his extensive knowledge of complex financial and operational issues qualify him to be a member of the Board of Directors in light of the Company’s business and structure.
Robert A. Panora , age 60 , has been our Chief Operating Officer and President since the organization of the Company in 2000 and the Chief Operating Officer of Ilios since its inception in 2009. He had been General Manager of Tecogen’s Product Group since 1990 and Manager of Product Development, Engineering Manager, and Operations Manager of the Company since 1984. Over his 27-year tenure with Tecogen, Mr. Panora has been responsible for sales and marketing, engineering, service, and manufacturing. Mr. Panora contributed to the development of Tecogen’s first product, the CM-60 cogeneration system, and was Program Manager for the cogeneration and chiller projects that followed. Mr. Panora has had considerable influence on many aspects of Tecogen’s business, from building the employee team, to conceptualizing product designs and authoring many of the original business documents, sales tools, and product literature pieces. Mr. Panora has a bachelor’s and master’s degrees in Chemical Engineering from Tufts University.

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Bonnie J. Brown , age 51 , has been our Chief Financial Officer since 2007, our Secretary since 2010 and our Treasurer as of January 1, 2013. Ms. Brown joined the Company in 2005 as Controller. She has also been the Chief Financial Officer of Ilios Inc. since its inception in 2009.  Prior to joining Tecogen, Ms. Brown was a partner at Sullivan Bille PC, a regional accounting firm, for 15 years where she provided financial, accounting, audit, tax, and business consulting services for mid-sized companies.  Ms. Brown has also worked at Enterprise Bank and Trust (NASDAQ:EBTC) as project manager for special assignments including branch acquisitions and information systems transitions in the trust department eventually serving as Internal Audit Director, establishing an in-house audit function. She has also provided independent contractor services for a wide variety of publicly traded and closely held companies, including consulting, internal control and Sarbanes-Oxley compliance services. Ms. Brown is a CPA and holds a B.S. in Accountancy from Bentley College and an M.S. in Computer Information Systems from Boston University.
George N. Hatsopoulos , age 87 , has been a member of our Board since the organization of the Company in 2000. He is the founder and Chief Executive Officer of Pharos, LLC, an organization devoted to the creation of leading edge business ventures and he is a former member of the Board of Directors of American DG Energy Inc., an affiliated company by virtue of common ownership. He is the founder and chairman emeritus of Thermo Electron Corporation and served as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer since its founding in 1956 until his retirement from those positions in 1999. Dr. Hatsopoulos has served on the board of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, including a term as chairman. He was a member of the Securities and Exchange Commission Advisory Committee on Capital Formation and Regulatory Process, the Advisory Committee of the U.S. Export-Import Bank, and the boards of various corporations and institutions. Dr. Hatsopoulos is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and other scientific and technical organizations. He is the recipient of numerous honors and awards in engineering, science, industry and academics, has authored over 60 articles in professional journals, and is the principal author of textbooks on thermodynamics and thermionic energy conversion. Dr. Hatsopoulos has been a faculty member and senior lecturer at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and continues his association with MIT as a Life Member of the Corporation. Dr. Hatsopoulos holds bachelors, masters and doctorate degrees from MIT, all in mechanical engineering.
Our Board of Directors has determined that Dr. Hatsopoulos’ prior experience as founder, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Thermo Electron Corporation, where he demonstrated leadership capability and gained extensive expertise involving complex financial matters, and his extensive knowledge of complex financial and operational issues qualify him to be a member of the Board of Directors in light of the Company’s business and structure.
Ahmed H. Ghoniem , age 62 , has been a member of our Board since 2008. He is the Ronald C. Crane Professor of Mechanical Engineering at MIT. He is also the director of the Center for 21st Century Energy, and the head of Energy Science and Engineering at MIT, where he plays a leadership role in many energy-related activities, initiatives and programs. Mr. Ghoniem joined MIT as an assistant professor in 1983. He is an associate fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and Fellow of American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Recently, he was granted the KAUST Investigator Award. He is a member of the Board of Directors of EuroSite Power Inc., and Ilios Inc., which are affiliated companies by virtue of common ownership. Mr. Ghoniem holds a Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from the University of California, Berkeley, and an M.S. and B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from Cairo University.
Our Board of Directors has determined that Dr. Ghoniem’s prior experience as a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at MIT and his prior experience in the energy sector qualify him to be a member of our Board of Directors in light of our business and structure.
Charles T. Maxwell , age 82 , has been a member of our Board since 2001. He is a widely recognized expert in the energy sector, with over 40 years of experience with major oil companies and investment banking firms. From 1999, until his retirement in 2012, Mr. Maxwell was a Senior Energy Analyst with Weeden & Co. of Greenwich, Connecticut, since 1999, where he develops strategic data and forecasts on oil, gas, and power markets. Mr. Maxwell is a member of the Board of Directors of American DG Energy, an affiliated company by virtue of common ownership. Since the early 1980s, he has been an active member of an Oxford-based organization comprised of present or past OPEC-county oil ministers and other oil industry executives from 30 countries who meet twice annually to analyze trends in global energy markets. He is a member of the board of directors of Daleco Resources Corporation (OTCQB: DLOV) and Lescarden Inc. (OTC: LCAR). Mr. Maxwell holds a bachelor’s degree in political science from Princeton University and holds a B.A. from Oxford University as a Marshall Scholar in Middle East literature and history.
Our Board of Directors has determined that Mr. Maxwell’s prior experience in the energy sector and his extensive experience as a director of public companies qualifies him to be a member of the Board of Directors in light of the Company’s business and structure.

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Joseph E. Aoun , age 61 , has been a member of our Board since 2011. He has been President of Northeastern University since 2006. President Aoun is recognized as a leader in higher education policy and serves on the board of directors of the American Council on Education as well as the Boston Private Industry Council, Boston World Partnerships, Jobs for Mass, and the New England Council. He is a member of the Executive Committee of the Greater Boston Chamber of Commerce, a member of the Massachusetts Business Roundtable and Massachusetts Math & Science Initiative, and serves on the Leadership Council for the Mass Life Sciences Collaborative and as co-chair of the City to City Boston initiative. President Aoun is the recipient of numerous honors and awards and is an internationally known scholar in linguistics. President Aoun holds a master’s degree in Oriental Languages and Literature from Saint Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon, Diploma of Advanced Study General and Theoretical Linguistics, University of Paris VIII, Paris, France, and a Ph.D. Linguistics and Philosophy from MIT.
Our Board of Directors has determined that Dr. Aoun’s prior experience as the President of Northeastern University and his prior experience in the energy sector qualify him to be a member of our Board of Directors in light of our business and structure.
Each executive officer is elected or appointed by, and serves at the discretion of, our Board of Directors. The elected officers of the Company will hold office until their successors are duly elected and qualified, or until their earlier resignation or removal.
Family Relationships
There are no family relationships among members of our Board of Directors and executive officers other than George N. Hatsopoulos and John N. Hatsopoulos, who are brothers.
Board Composition
The number of directors of the Company is established by the Board of Directors in accordance with our bylaws. The exact number of directors is currently set at six by resolution of the Board of Directors. The directors are elected to serve for one year terms, with the term of directors expiring each year at the annual meeting of stockholders; provided further, that the term of each director shall continue until the election and qualification of a successor and be subject to such director’s earlier death, resignation or removal.
Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that the authorized number of directors may be changed only by resolution of the Board of Directors, and also provide that our directors may be removed only for cause by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the votes that all our stockholders would be entitled to cast in an annual election of directors, and that any vacancy on our Board of Directors, including a vacancy resulting from an enlargement of our Board of Directors, may be filled only by vote of a majority of our directors then in office.
We have no formal policy regarding board diversity. Our priority in selection of board members is identification of members who will further the interests of our stockholders through his or her established record of professional accomplishment, the ability to contribute positively to the collaborative culture among board members, knowledge of our business, and understanding of the competitive landscape.
Board Committees
Our Board of Directors directs the management of our business and affairs and conducts its business through meetings of the Board of Directors and our committees: the Audit Committee, the Compensation Committee, and the Nominating and Governance Committee.
The members of the Audit Committee are Dr. Ghoniem, Ms. Galiteva, and Mr. Maxwell. The members of the Compensation Committee are Dr. Aoun, Ms. Galiteva, and Dr. Ghoniem. The members of our Nominating and Governance Committee are Dr. Aoun, Dr. Ghoniem and Mr. Maxwell. All committee members have been determined to be independent by our Board of Directors in accordance with the rules of the NASDAQ Capital Market rules. The Board of Directors has also determined that Mr. Maxwell qualifies as an Audit Committee financial expert. In addition, from time to time, other committees may be established under the direction of the Board of Directors when necessary to address specific issues.
The functions of the Audit Committee include reviewing and supervising the financial controls of the Company; appointing, compensating, and overseeing the work of the independent auditors; reviewing the books and accounts of the Company; meeting with the officers of the Company regarding the Company’s financial controls; acting upon recommendations of the independent auditors; and taking such further actions as the Audit Committee deems necessary to complete an audit of the books and accounts of the Company. The charter of the Audit Committee is available on the Company’s website at www.tecogen.com.

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The Compensation Committee’s functions include reviewing with management cash and other compensation policies for employees, making recommendations to the Board of Directors regarding compensation matters and determining compensation for the Chief Executive Officer. Our Chief Executive Officer has been instrumental in the design and recommendation to the Compensation Committee of compensation plans and awards for our directors and executive officers including our President, Chief Operating Officer and Chief Financial Officer. All compensation decisions for the Chief Executive Officer and all other executive officers are reviewed and approved by the Compensation Committee, subject to ratification by the Board of Directors. The charter of the Compensation Committee is available on the Company’s website at www.tecogen.com.
The Nominating and Governance Committee functions are to identify persons qualified to serve as members of the Board of Directors, to recommend to the Board of Directors persons to be nominated by the Board of Directors for election as directors at the annual meeting of stockholders and persons to be elected by the board to fill any vacancies, and recommend to the Board of Directors persons to be appointed to each of its committees. In addition, the Nominating and Governance Committee is responsible for developing and recommending to the Board of Directors a set of corporate governance guidelines applicable to the Company (as well as reviewing and reassessing the adequacy of such guidelines as it deems appropriate from time to time) and overseeing the annual self-evaluation of the Board of Directors. The charter of the Nominating and Governance Committee is available on the Company’s website at www.tecogen.com.
Director Compensation
Each director who is not also one of our employees will receive a fee of $500 per day for service on those days that our Board of Directors and/or each of the Audit, Compensation, or Nominating and Governance Committees hold meetings, or otherwise conduct business. Non-employee directors also will be eligible to receive stock or options awards under our 2006 Stock Incentive Plan, as amended, or the Stock Plan. We reimburse all of our non-employee directors for reasonable travel and other expenses incurred in attending Board of Directors and committee meetings. Any director who is also one of our employees receives no additional compensation for serving as a director. Our non-employee directors did not receive any compensation in cash prior to or during 2010. Until December 2011, the compensation of directors was only in stock awards.
Board Leadership Structure
We separate the roles of Chief Executive Officer and Chairman in recognition of the differences between the two roles. Our Chief Executive Officer is responsible for setting the strategic direction for the Company and the overall leadership and performance of the Company. Our Chairman provides guidance to the Chief Executive Officer, sets the agenda for Board of Director meetings, presides over meetings of the full Board of Directors, and leads all executive meetings of the independent directors. We are a small company with a small management team, and we feel the separation of these roles enhances high-level attention to our business.
Our Board of Directors’ Role in Risk Oversight
Our Board of Directors oversees our risk management processes directly and through its committees. Our management is responsible for risk management on a day-to-day basis. The Audit Committee assists the Board of Directors in fulfilling its oversight responsibilities with respect to risk management in the areas of financial reporting, internal controls, and compliance with legal and regulatory requirements, and discusses policies with respect to risk assessment and risk management, including guidelines and policies to govern the process by which the Company’s exposure to risk is handled. The Compensation Committee assists the Board of Directors in fulfilling its oversight responsibilities with respect to the management of risks arising from our compensation policies and programs. The Nominating and Governance Committee assists the Board of Directors in fulfilling its oversight responsibilities with respect to the management of risks associated with board organization, membership and structure, succession planning for our directors, and corporate governance.
Code of Business Conduct and Ethics
The Company has adopted a code of business conduct and ethics that applies to the Company’s directors, officers, and employees. The Company’s code of business conduct and ethics is intended to promote honest and ethical conduct, including the ethical handling of actual or apparent conflicts of interest between personal and professional relationships; full, fair, accurate, timely and understandable disclosure in reports and documents that the Company files with, or submits to, the SEC and in other public communications made by the Company; compliance with applicable governmental laws, rules and regulations; prompt internal reporting of violations of the code of business conduct and ethics to an appropriate person or persons identified in the code of business conduct and ethics; and accountability for adherence to the code of business conduct and ethics. The Company’s code of business conduct and ethics is available on the Company’s website at www.tecogen.com.

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EXECUTIVE OFFICER AND DIRECTOR COMPENSATION
The Compensation Committee and Board of Directors construct policies and guidelines regarding executive compensation. The major components of executive compensation will be base salary, annual incentive bonuses, equity incentive awards and customary employee benefits. Among the factors likely to be relevant are:
the executive officer’s skills and experience;
the particular importance of the executive officer’s position to us;
the executive officer’s individual performance;
the executive officer’s growth in his or her position; and
base salaries for comparable positions within our Company and at other companies.
Our Compensation Committee performs evaluations of our executive officers’ compensation at least annually and may solicit the input of a compensation consulting firm and peer group benchmarking data in making any adjustments believed to be appropriate.
The following table sets forth information with respect to the compensation of our executive officers for the Company's last two completed fiscal years:
Summary Compensation Table
Name and principal position
Year
Salary ($)
Bonus ($)
Stock awards ($)
Option awards ($)(1)
All other compensation ($)
Total ($)
John N. Hatsopoulos
2013
1





1

Chief Executive Officer
2012
1





1

(Principal Executive Officer)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Robert A. Panora (2)
2013
163,770




1,032

164,802

Chief Operating Officer and President
2012
163,770




1,032

164,802

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bonnie J. Brown (3)
2013
156,000




360

156,360

Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer and Secretary
2012
156,000




360

156,360

(Principal Financial Officer)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anthony S. Loumidis (4)







Former Vice President and Treasurer
2012




25,091

25,091

______________________________________________________ 
(1)  
The amounts in the “Stock Option Awards” column reflect the aggregate grant date fair value of the awards computed in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718. The assumptions used by us with respect to the valuation of stock and option awards are set forth in Note 10 – Stockholders’ equity to our financial statements included elsewhere in this registration statement.
(2)  
Includes group life insurance of $1,032 for 2013 and 2012 , respectively.
(3)  
Includes group life insurance of $360 for 2013 and 2012 .
(4)  
Mr. Loumidis resigned as Vice President and Treasurer of the Company effective December 31, 2012.

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Outstanding Equity Awards at Fiscal Year-End
The following table sets forth information with respect to outstanding equity awards held by our executive officers as of December 31, 2013 :
 
 
Option awards
 
Stock awards
Name
 
Number of securities underlying unexercised options (#)exercisable
 
Number of securities underlying unexercised options (#)unexercisable
 
Option exercise
price ($)
 
Option expiration date
 
Number of shares of stock that have not vested (#)
 
Market value of shares of stock that have not vested ($) (1)
John N. Hatsopoulos
 

 

 

 

 

 

Robert A. Panora (2)(3)
 
62,500

 
62,500

 
2.60

 
2/14/2021

 
138,350

 
622,575

Bonnie J. Brown  (4)(5)
 
25,000

 

 
1.20

 
2/13/2015

 
12,500

 
56,250

Bonnie J. Brown (6)
 
50,000

 

 
2.00

 
3/11/2019

 

 

Bonnie J. Brown (7)
 
18,750

 
6,250

 
2.60

 
2/18/2020

 

 

______________________________________________________
(1)  
Market value of shares of stock that have not vested is computed on the last private placement price of the Company’s Common Stock on January 17, 2014, which was $4.50 per share.
(2)  
Includes stock option award granted on February 15, 2011, with 25% of the shares vesting on February 15, 2012 and then an additional 25% of the shares vesting on each of the subsequent three anniversaries, subject to Mr. Panora’s continued employment and subject to acceleration of vesting upon a change in control.
(3)  
Includes 138,350 shares of restricted Common Stock at a purchase price of $.001 per share granted on December 4, 2006, with 100% of the shares vesting one year after the Company’s initial public offering, subject to acceleration of vesting upon a change in control prior to a termination event.
(4)  
Includes stock option award granted on February 13, 2008, with 25% of the shares vesting on February 13, 2009 and then an additional 25% of the shares vesting on each of the subsequent three anniversaries, subject to Ms. Brown’s continued employment and subject to acceleration of vesting upon a change in control.
(5)  
Includes 12,500 shares of restricted Common Stock at a purchase price of $.004 per share granted on December 13, 2006, with 100% of the shares vesting one year after the Company’s initial public offering, subject to acceleration of vesting upon a change in control prior to a termination event.
(6)  
Includes stock option award granted on March 11, 2009, with 25% of the shares vesting on March 11, 2010 and then an additional 25% of the shares vesting on each of the subsequent three anniversaries, subject to Ms. Brown’s continued employment and subject to acceleration of vesting upon a change in control.
(7)  
Includes stock option award granted on February 28, 2010, with 25% of the shares vesting on February 28, 2011 and then an additional 25% of the shares vesting on each of the subsequent three anniversaries, subject to Ms. Brown’s continued employment and subject to acceleration of vesting upon a change in control.
Director Compensation
Each director who is not also one of our employees will receive a fee of $500 per day for service on those days that our Board of Directors and or each of the Audit, Compensation or Nominating and Governance Committees hold meetings, or otherwise conduct business. Non-employee directors also will be eligible to receive stock or option awards under our equity incentive plan. We reimburse all of our non-employee directors for reasonable travel and other expenses incurred in attending Board and committee meetings. Any director who is also one of our employees receives no additional compensation for serving as a director.
The following table sets forth information with respect to the compensation of our directors as of December 31, 2013 :
 
Name
Fees earned or paid in cash ($)
Stock awards ($)
Option awards ($)
All other compensation ($)
Total ($)
Angelina M. Galiteva
1,500




1,500

John N. Hatsopoulos





George N. Hatsopoulos





Ahmed F. Ghoniem
500




500

Charles T. Maxwell
1,000




1,000

Joseph E. Aoun






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Outstanding Equity Awards at Fiscal Year-End Table
The following table summarizes the outstanding equity awards held by each director as of December 31, 2013 :
 
 
Option awards
 
Stock awards
Name
 
Number of
securities
underlying
unexercised
options (#)exercisable
 
Number of
securities
underlying
unexercised
options (#)
unexercisable
 
Option
exercise
price ($)
 

Option
expiration
date
 
Number of
shares
of stock
that have
not vested (#)
 
Market value
of shares
of stock
that have not vested ($)(1)
Angelina M. Galiteva (2)(3)
 
12,500

 
12,500

 
2.60

 
2/14/2021

 
25,000

 
112,500

John N. Hatsopoulos
 

 

 

 

 

 

George N. Hatsopoulos
 

 

 

 

 

 

Ahmed F. Ghoniem (4)(5)
 
12,500

 
12,500

 
2.60

 
2/14/2021

 
25,000

 
112,500

Charles T. Maxwell (6)(7)
 
12,500

 
12,500

 
2.60

 
2/14/2021

 
25,000

 
112,500

Joseph E. Aoun (8)
 

 
25,000

 
4.50

 
12/31/2023

 

 

______________________________________________________
(1)  
Market value of shares of Common Stock that have not vested is computed by the Company’s most recent private placement of Common Stock on January 17, 2014, which was $4.50 per share.
(2)  
Includes 25,000 shares of restricted Common Stock at a purchase price of $.004 per share granted on December 13, 2006, with 100% of the shares vesting one year after the Company’s initial public offering.
(3)  
Includes stock option award granted on February 15, 2011, with 25% of the shares vesting on February 15, 2012, and then an additional 25% of the shares vesting on each of the subsequent three anniversaries, provided that Ms. Galiteva serves as a director or consultant to the Company.
(4)  
Includes stock option award granted on February 15, 2011, with 25% of the shares vesting on February 15, 2012, and then an additional 25% of the shares vesting on each of the subsequent three anniversaries, provided that Mr. Ghoniem serves as a director or consultant to the Company.
(5)  
Includes 25,000 shares of restricted Common Stock at a purchase price of $.004 per share granted on October 1, 2008, with 100% of the shares vesting 180 days after the Company’s initial public offering.
(6)  
Includes stock option award granted on February 15, 2011, with 25% of the shares vesting on February 15, 2012, and then an additional 25% of the shares vesting on each of the subsequent three anniversaries, provided that Mr. Maxwell serves as a director or consultant to the Company.
(7)  
Includes 25,000 shares of restricted Common Stock at a purchase price of $.004 per share granted on October 1, 2008, with 100% of the shares vesting 180 days after the Company’s initial public offering.
(8)  
Includes stock option award granted on December 31, 2013, with 25% of the shares vesting on December 31, 2014, and then an additional 25% of the shares vesting on each of the subsequent three anniversaries, provided that Dr. Aoun serves as a director or consultant to the Company.
There have been no other stock awards granted to date and none of such options have been exercised.
2006 Stock Incentive Plan
The Company’s 2006 Stock Incentive Plan, or Stock Plan, provides for the grant of stock-based awards to employees, officers and directors of, and consultants or advisors to, the Company and any of its present or future parents, subsidiaries or affiliates. The Stock Plan is included as Exhibit 10.1 hereto.
Under the Stock Plan, the Company may grant stock options, restricted stock and other stock-based awards. As of December 31, 2013 , a total of 1,148,000 shares of Common Stock may be issued upon the exercise of options or other awards granted under the Stock Plan.
The Stock Plan is administered by the Board of Directors and the Compensation Committee. Subject to the provisions of the Stock Plan, the Board of Directors and the Compensation Committee each has the authority to select the persons, to whom awards are granted and determine the terms of each award, including the number of shares of Common Stock subject to the award. Payment of the exercise price of an award may be made in cash, in a “cashless exercise” through a broker, or if the applicable stock option agreement permits, shares of Common Stock or by any other method approved by the Board of Directors or Compensation Committee. Unless otherwise permitted by the Company, awards are not assignable or transferable except by will or the laws of descent and distribution.

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Upon the consummation of an acquisition of the business of the Company, by merger or otherwise, the Board of Directors shall, as to outstanding awards (on the same basis or on different bases as the Board of Directors shall specify), make appropriate provision for the continuation of such awards by the Company or the assumption of such awards by the surviving or acquiring entity and by substituting on an equitable basis for the shares then subject to such awards either (a) the consideration payable with respect to the outstanding shares of Common Stock in connection with the acquisition, (b) shares of stock of the surviving or acquiring corporation or (c) such other securities or other consideration as the Board of Directors deems appropriate, the fair market value of which (as determined by the Board of Directors in its sole discretion) shall not materially differ from the fair market value of the shares of Common Stock subject to such awards immediately preceding the acquisition. In addition to or in lieu of the foregoing, with respect to outstanding stock options, the Board of Directors may, on the same basis or on different bases as the Board of Directors shall specify, upon written notice to the affected optionees, provide that one or more options then outstanding must be exercised, in whole or in part, within a specified number of days of the date of such notice, at the end of which period such options shall terminate, or provide that one or more options then outstanding, in whole or in part, shall be terminated in exchange for a cash payment equal to the excess of the fair market value (as determined by the Board of Directors in its sole discretion) for the shares subject to such options over the exercise price thereof.
The Board of Directors may at any time provide that any stock options shall become immediately exercisable in full or in part, that any restricted stock awards shall be free of some or all restrictions, or that any other stock-based awards may become exercisable in full or in part or free of some or all restrictions or conditions, or otherwise realizable in full or in part, as the case may be.
The Board of Directors or Compensation Committee may, in its sole discretion, amend, modify or terminate any award granted or made under the Stock Plan, so long as such amendment, modification or termination would not materially and adversely affect the participant.
Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans
The following table provides information as of December 31, 2013, regarding Common Stock that may be issued under the Company’s equity compensation plans.
Plan category
 
Number of securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rights
 
Weighted-average exercise price of outstanding options, warrants and rights
 
Number of securities remaining available for future issuance under equity compensation plans (excluding securities reflected in second column)
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders
 
1,148,000

 
$
2.13

 
58,683

Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders
 

 

 

Total
 
1,148,000

 
$
2.13

 
58,683

In February 2011, our management conducted an assessment of the risks associated with our compensation policies and practices. This process included a review of our compensation programs, a discussion of the types of practices that could be reasonably likely to create material risks, and an analysis of the potential effects on the Company on related risks as a whole.
Although we reviewed all of our compensation programs, we paid particular attention to programs involving incentive-based payouts and programs that involve our executive officers. During the course of our assessment, we consulted with the Compensation Committee of our Board of Directors.
We believe that our compensation programs are designed to create appropriate incentives without encouraging excessive risk taking by our employees. In this regard, our compensation structure contains various features intended to mitigate risk. For example:
None of our executive officers receives any performance-based compensation or incentive payments.
A portion of the compensation package for our sales-based employees consists of commissions for shares sold and installed, which package is designed to link an appropriate portion of compensation to long-term performance, while providing a balanced compensation model overall.
The Compensation Committee oversees our compensation policies and practices and is responsible for reviewing and approving executive compensation, annual incentive compensation plans applicable to sales employees and other compensation plans.
Our Compensation Committee, in its evaluation, determined that it does not believe that the Company employs any compensation plans or practices that create incentives for employees to deliver short-term profits at the expense of generating systematic risks for the Company. Based on this and the assessment described above, we have concluded that the risks associated with our compensation policies and practices are not reasonably likely to have material adverse effect on the Company.

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Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation
None of our executive officers serve as a member of the board of directors or compensation committee, or other committee serving an equivalent function, of any other entity that has one or more of its executive officers serving as a member of our Board of Directors or Compensation Committee. None of the current members of the Compensation Committee of our Board of Directors has ever been one of our employees.
Employment Contracts and Termination of Employment and Change-in-Control Arrangements
None of our executive officers has an employment contract or change-in-control arrangement, other than stock and option awards that contain certain change-in-control provisions such as accelerated vesting due to acquisition. In the event an acquisition that is not a private transaction occurs while the optionee maintains a business relationship with the Company and the option has not fully vested, the option will become exercisable for 100% of the then number of shares as to which it has not vested and such vesting to occur immediately prior to the closing of the acquisition.
The stock and option awards that would vest for each named executive if a change-in-control were to occur are disclosed under our Outstanding Equity Awards at Fiscal Year-End Table . Specifically, as of December 31, 2013 , Robert A. Panora, our Chief Operating Officer and President, had 62,500 stock options and 138,350 shares of restricted stock that had not vested and Bonnie J. Brown, our Chief Financial Officer, had 6,250 stock options and 12,500 shares of restricted stock that had not vested.
Our stock and option awards contain certain change-in-control provisions. Descriptions of those provisions are set forth below:
Stock Awards Change-in-Control Definition
Change-in-Control shall mean (a) the acquisition in a transaction or series of transactions by any person (such term to include anyone deemed a person under Section 13(d)(3) of the Exchange Act), other than the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or any employee benefit plan or related trust of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, of beneficial ownership (within the meaning of Rule 13d-3 promulgated under the Exchange Act) of 50% or more of the combined voting power of the then outstanding voting securities of the Company entitled to vote generally in the election of directors; provided a Change-in-Control shall not occur solely as the result of an initial public offering or (b) the sale or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company in one transaction or series of related transactions.
Option Awards Change-in-Control Definition
Accelerated vesting due to acquisition . In the event an acquisition that is not a private transaction occurs while the optionee maintains a business relationship with the Company and the option has not fully vested, the option shall become exercisable for 100% of the then number of shares as to which it has not vested, such vesting to occur immediately prior to the closing of the acquisition.
Definitions . The following definitions shall apply to certain terms used in this Section:
Acquisition means (i) the sale of the Company by merger in which the stockholders of the Company in their capacity as such no longer own a majority of the outstanding equity securities of the Company (or its successor); or (ii) any sale of all or substantially all of the assets or capital stock of the Company (other than in a spin-off or similar transaction) or (iii) any other acquisition of the business of the Company, as determined by the Board.
Business relationship means service to the Company or its successor in the capacity of an employee, officer, director or consultant.
Private transaction means any acquisition where the consideration received or retained by the holders of the then outstanding capital stock of the Company does not consist of (i) cash or cash equivalent consideration, (ii) securities which are registered under the Securities Act, or any successor statute or (iii) securities for which the Company or any other issuer thereof has agreed, including pursuant to a demand, to file a registration statement within 90 days of completion of the transaction for resale to the public pursuant to the Securities Act.

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Director Independence
Under Rule 5605(b)(1) of the Nasdaq Marketplace Rules, independent directors must comprise a majority of a listed company’s board of directors within one year of listing. In addition, Nasdaq Marketplace Rules require that, subject to specified exceptions, each member of a listed company’s audit, compensation, and nominating and governance committees be independent. Audit committee members must also satisfy the independence criteria set forth in Rule 10A-3 under the Exchange Act, and compensation committee members must also satisfy the independence criteria set forth in Rule 10C under the Exchange Act. Under Nasdaq Marketplace Rule 5605(a)(2), a director will only qualify as an “independent director” if, in the opinion of that company’s board of directors, that person does not have a relationship that would interfere with the exercise of independent judgment in carrying out the responsibilities of a director. In order to be considered to be independent for purposes of Rule 10A-3, a member of an audit committee of a listed company may not, other than in his or her capacity as a member of the audit committee, the board of directors, or any other board committee: (1) accept, directly or indirectly, any consulting, advisory, or other compensatory fee from the listed company or any of its subsidiaries; or (2) be an affiliated person of the listed company or any of its subsidiaries.
Our Board of Directors intends to review its composition, the composition of its committees and the independence of each director according to the independence standards established by applicable SEC rules and the Nasdaq Marketplace Rules. As part of its review, our Board of Directors will consider the relationships that each non-employee director has with our company and all other facts and circumstances our Board of Directors deems relevant in determining their independence, including the beneficial ownership of our capital stock by each non-employee director.

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PRINCIPAL AND SELLING SHAREHOLDERS
The first table below sets forth information with respect to the beneficial ownership of our Common Stock as of June 13, 2014 by:
each of our named executive officers;
all of our directors and executive officers as a group; and
each person, or group of affiliated persons, who is known to us to beneficially own more than 5% of our outstanding shares of Common Stock.
None of our Directors or executive officers are selling shares in this offering. None of our 5% or greater shareholders is selling any shares in this secondary offering, except as noted in the following paragraph. The wife of our Chief Executive Officer, Patricia Hatsopoulos, is a selling stockholder.
The second table sets forth information with respect to the beneficial ownership of our Common Stock as of June 13, 2014 by the selling stockholders. Except as otherwise noted, the selling shareholders are selling all of their shares that are beneficially owned by them. None of the selling shareholders owns more than 1% of the Company’s outstanding Common Stock, except for the Michaelson Capital Special Finance Fund LP, which owns 444,445 shares of Common Stock and 555,556 shares issuable upon conversion of convertible debt, or a total of 1,000,001 shares and 6.1% of the Company’s outstanding Common Stock. The number of our shares owned by the selling stockholders after the offering will be 0, as will their percentage ownership of the Company’s Common Stock.
The selling stockholders are not registered broker-dealers, with the exception of: a) Anthony Low-Beer who is a registered representative with Scarsdale Equities LLC a FINRA member firm; b) ALB Private Investments LLC, which is 100% owned by Anthony Low-Beer's IRA account; c) Isac Huberman, who is a registered broker with Williams Financial Group, and d) Jeb S. Armstrong, who is a registered representative with Clear Harbor Asset Management, LLC. The selling stockholders that are broker-dealers or registered representatives with a broker-dealer may be deemed underwriters. The selling stockholders purchased the securities in the ordinary course of their businesses and at the time of the purchase they did not have any agreements or understandings directly or indirectly with any person to distribute the securities.
Except as otherwise indicated, to our knowledge, the persons named in the table below have sole voting and investment power with respect to all shares of Common Stock shown as beneficially owned by them, subject to community property laws, where applicable, and the address for each of the named directors and executive officers is 45 First Avenue, Waltham, MA 02451.
The number of shares beneficially owned by each shareholder is determined under rules promulgated by the SEC. The information does not necessarily indicate beneficial ownership for any other purpose. Under those rules, the number of shares of Common Stock deemed outstanding includes shares issuable upon exercise of stock options held by the respective person or group that may be exercised within 60 days. For purposes of calculating each person’s or group’s percentage ownership, shares of Common Stock issuable pursuant to stock options exercisable within 60 days after June 13, 2014 are reflected in the table below and included as outstanding and beneficially owned for that person or group but are not treated as outstanding for the purpose of computing the percentage ownership of any other person or group. The percentages of shares outstanding provided in the table are based on a total of 15,809,306 shares of our Common Stock outstanding on June 13, 2014. For purposes of the table below, we have assumed that all shares offered in this offering will be sold by the selling stockholders.

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Shares Beneficially
Owned Prior to
this Offering
 
Number
of Shares
Being
 
Shares Beneficially
Owned After this
Offering
Directors, Executive Officers and 5% Shareholders
 
Number (1)
 
Percent
 
Offered (1)
 
Number (1)
 
Percent 
5% or Greater Shareholders
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
John N. Hatsopoulos (2)
 
3,718,939

 
23.5
%
 
100

 
3,718,839

 
23.5
%
George N. Hatsopoulos (3)
 
3,554,651

 
22.5
%
 

 
3,554,651

 
22.5
%
Michaelson Capital Special Finance Fund (4)
 
1,000,001

 
6.1
%
 
1,000,001

 

 
%
RBC cees Nominees Limited (5)
 
904,105

 
5.7
%
 

 
904,105

 
5.7
%
Joseph J. Ritchie (6)
 
896,613

 
5.7
%
 

 
896,613

 
5.7
%
Directors and Executive Officers
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
John N. Hatsopoulos (2)
 
3,718,939

 
23.5
%
 
100

 
3,718,839

 
23.5
%
George N. Hatsopoulos (3)
 
3,554,651

 
22.5
%
 

 
3,554,651

 
22.5
%
Robert A. Panora (7)
 
257,100

 
1.6
%
 

 
257,100

 
1.6
%
Bonnie J. Brown (8)
 
112,500

 
0.7
%
 

 
112,500

 
0.7
%
Charles T. Maxwell (9)
 
93,750

 
0.6
%
 

 
93,750

 
0.6
%
Angelina M. Galiteva (10)
 
68,750

 
0.4
%
 

 
68,750

 
0.4
%
Ahmed M. Ghoniem (11)
 
43,750

 
0.3
%
 

 
43,750

 
0.3
%
Joseph E. Aoun
 

 

 

 

 

All directors and executive officers as a group (8 individuals)
 
7,849,440

 
47.3
%
 

 
7,849,340

 
47.3
%
 
(1)  
The number of shares beneficially owned by each shareholder is determined under rules promulgated by the SEC. The information does not necessarily indicate beneficial ownership for any other purpose. Under those rules, the number of shares of Common Stock deemed outstanding includes shares issuable upon exercise of stock options held by the respective person or group that may be exercised within 60 days of June 26, 2014. For purposes of calculating each person’s or group’s percentage ownership, shares of Common Stock issuable pursuant to stock options exercisable within 60 days after June 26, 2014 are reflected in the table below and included as outstanding and beneficially owned for that person or group but are not treated as outstanding for the purpose of computing the percentage ownership of any other person or group.
(2)  
Includes: (a) 2,135,210 shares of Common Stock held by J&P Enterprises LLC for the benefit of: (1) John N. Hatsopoulos and (2) Patricia L. Hatsopoulos, and of which John N Hatsopoulos is the Executive Member and has voting and investment power; (b) 593,770 shares of Common Stock held by John N. Hatsopoulos and his wife, Patricia L. Hatsopoulos, as joint tenants with rights of survivorship, each of whom share voting and investment power; (c) 989,859 shares of Common Stock held by The John N. Hatsopoulos Family Trust 2007 for the benefit of: (1) Patricia L. Hatsopoulos, (2) Alexander J. Hatsopoulos, and (3) Nia Marie Hatsopoulos, for which Dr. George N. Hatsopoulos and Ms. Patricia L. Hatsopoulos are the trustees; and (d) 100 shares of Common Stock held by Patricia L. Hatsopoulos, John’s spouse.
(3)  
Includes: (a) 1,304,651 shares of Common Stock, directly held by Dr. George N. Hatsopoulos; and (b) 2,250,000 shares of Common Stock held by The Hatsopoulos Family 2012 Trust. This amount does not include (a) 234,049 shares of Common Stock held in the 1994 Hatsopoulos Family Trust for the benefit of Nicolas Hatsopoulos, for which Ms. Daphne Hatsopoulos and Mr. Gordon Erhlich are the trustees, and (b) 334,049 shares of Common Stock held by the 1994 Hatsopoulos Family Trust for the benefit of Marina Hatsopoulos Bornhorst, for which Ms. Daphne Hatsopoulos and Mr. Gordon Erhlich are the trustees. These trusts are for the benefit of Dr. Hatsopoulos’s adult children. Dr. Hatsopoulos disclaims beneficial ownership of the shares held by these trusts. The percentage of shares owned after the offering assumes that Dr. Hatsopoulos does not sell any shares in this offering.
(4)  
Includes: (a) 444,445 shares of Common Stock purchased December 23, 2013; and (b) 555,556 shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of $3,000,000 principal amount of 4% convertible debentures.
(5)  
Includes 904,105 shares of Common Stock purchased in August 2010 and November 2011 held by RBC cees Nominees Ltd. The address of RBC cees Nominees Ltd. is 19 – 21 Broad Street, St. Hellier, Jersey JE1 3PB, Channel Islands.
(6)  
Includes 896,613 shares of Common Stock, directly held by Mr. Ritchie. The address of Mr. Ritchie is 2100 Enterprise Avenue, Geneva, IL 60134.
(7)  
Includes: (a) 163,350 shares of Common Stock, directly held by Mr. Panora, and (b) options to purchase 93,750 shares of Common Stock exercisable within 60 days of June 26, 2014.
(8)  
Includes: (a) 12,500 shares of Common Stock, directly held by Ms. Brown, and (b) options to purchase 100,000 shares of Common Stock exercisable within 60 days of June 26, 2014.
(9)  
Includes: (a) 75,000 shares of Common Stock, directly held by Mr. Maxwell, and (b) options to purchase 18,750 shares of Common Stock exercisable within 60 days of June 26, 2014.
(10)  
Includes: (a) 50,000 shares of Common Stock, directly held by Ms. Galiteva, and (b) options to purchase 18,750 shares of Common Stock exercisable within 60 days of June 26, 2014.
(11)  
Includes: (a) 25,000 shares of Common Stock, directly held by Mr. Ghoniem, and (b) options to purchase 18,750 shares of Common Stock exercisable within 60 days of June 26, 2014.

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Selling Shareholders
Date of Transaction
Number of Shares Beneficially
Owned Prior to this Offering
and Being Offered Hereby
Bruno Meier (1)
10/16/2013
66,667

Isac Huberman  (2)
11/6/2013
11,111

Anthony B. Low-Beer (3)
11/25/2013
27,500

ALB Private Investments, LLC (3)
11/25/2013
26,250

Patricia Hatsopoulos (4)
12/19/2013
100

Michaelson Capital Special Finance Fund LP (shares owned) (5)
12/23/2013
444,445

Michaelson Capital Special Finance Fund LP (shares issuable on conversion of convertible debt) (5)
12/23/2013
555,556

Jeb S. Armstrong (6)
12/23/2013
1,700

Prime World, Inc. (7)
12/30/2013
1,000

John H. Jephson (8)
1/10/2014
100

                                           
(1)  
Common stock purchased by Bruno Meier, who is a director on the Board of EuroSite Power, Inc. a majority owned subsidiary of related company American DG Energy, Inc.
(2)
Common stock purchased by Isac Huberman, who is a registered broker with Williams Financial Group.
(3)
Anthony B. Low-Beer is a registered representative with Scarsdale Equities LLC a FINRA member firm and ALB Private Investments LLC is 100% owned by an IRA Account in the name of Anthony Low-Beer.
(4)
Common stock purchased by Patricia L. Hatsopoulos, insider and Chief Executive Officer John N. Hatsopoulos’s spouse.
(5)
Common stock of 444,445 and 555,556 of common stock upon the full conversion of debt into common stock held by a 5% shareholder listed in the 5% holders table with the control over share disposition and voting held by John C. Michaelson.
(6)  
Common stock purchased by Jeb S. Armstrong, who is a registered representative with Clear Harbor Asset Management, LLC.
(7)
Common stock purchased by Prime World Inc. were purchased under the control of Joan Giacinti, a director of both American DG Energy, a related corporation and EuroSite Power a majority owned subsidiary of a related corporation.
(8)
Common stock purchased by John H. Jephson, not an insider but related by marriage to a child of the insider John N. Hatsopoulos.

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CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS
The Company has five affiliated companies: (a) American DG Energy, a publicly traded company that distributes, owns and operates on-site energy systems that produce electricity, hot water, heat, and cooling in the United States; (b) EuroSite Power, a publicly traded company that distributes, owns, and operates on-site energy systems that produce electricity, hot water, heat, and cooling in the United Kingdom and Europe; (c) GlenRose Instruments, a company that provides radiological services, operates a radiochemistry laboratory network, and provides radiological characterization and analysis, hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste management, facility, environmental, safety, and industrial hygiene health management; (d) Pharos, a private company that offers investment services in the healthcare sector; and (e) Levitronix Technologies LLC, or Levitronix, a worldwide leader in magnetically levitated bearingless motor technology, specializing in supplying medical blood pumps to the medical community and ultra-pure fluid handling devices for microelectronics, life science, and industrial applications.
These companies are affiliates because several of the major stockholders of those companies have a significant ownership position in the Company. American DG Energy, EuroSite Power, GlenRose Instruments, Pharos, and Levitronix do not own any shares of the Company, and the Company does not own any shares of American DG Energy, EuroSite Power, GlenRose Instruments, Pharos, or Levitronix. The businesses of GlenRose Instruments, Pharos, and Levitronix are not related to the business of the Company.
American DG Energy, EuroSite Power, GlenRose Instruments, Pharos and Levitronix are affiliated companies by virtue of common ownership. The common stockholders include:
John N. Hatsopoulos, the Company’s Chief Executive Officer who is also: (a) the Chief Executive Officer and a director of American DG Energy and holds 10.7% of the company’s common stock; (b) the Chairman of EuroSite Power; (c) a director of Ilios and holds 7.2% of the company’s common stock; and (d) the Chairman of GlenRose Instruments and holds 15.7% of the company’s common stock.
Dr. George N. Hatsopoulos, who is John N. Hatsopoulos’ brother, and is also: (a) a director of American DG Energy and holds 13.6% of the company’s common stock; (b) an investor in Ilios and holds 3.1% of the company’s common stock; (c) an investor of GlenRose Instruments and holds 15.7% of the company’s common stock; (d) an investor of Pharos and may be deemed to hold 24.4% of the company’s common stock; and (e) a director and an investor of Levitronix and may be deemed to hold 21.4% of the company’s common stock.
Additionally, the following related persons had or may have a direct or indirect material interest in our transactions with our affiliated companies:
Barry J. Sanders, who is: (a) the President and Chief Operating Officer of American DG Energy, (b) the Chief Executive Officer and a director of EuroSite Power and (c) the Chairman of Ilios.
Anthony S. Loumidis, the Company’s former Vice President and Treasurer who is: (a) the former Chief Financial Officer Secretary and Treasurer of American DG Energy, (b) the former Chief Financial Officer Secretary and Treasurer of EuroSite Power, (c) the former Chief Financial Officer Secretary and Treasurer of GlenRose Instruments and (d) the former Treasurer of Ilios.
American DG Energy has sales representation rights to the Company’s products and services in New England. Revenue from sales of cogeneration and chiller systems, parts and service to American DG Energy during the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 amounted to $758,930 and $3,795,666, respectively.
On October 20, 2009, American DG Energy, in the ordinary course of its business, signed a Sales Representative Agreement with Ilios to promote, sell and service the Ilios high-efficiency heating products, such as the high efficiency water heater, in the marketing territory of the New England states, including Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Maine. The marketing territory also includes all of the nations in the European Union. The initial term of this Agreement is for five years, after which it may be renewed for successive one-year terms upon mutual written agreement. American DG Energy has not yet sold any products under this agreement and therefore, no amounts have been required to be paid.
On September 24, 2001, the Company entered into subscription agreements with investors for the sale of convertible debentures. The primary investors were George N. Hatsopoulos, who subscribed for debentures having an initial principal amount of $200,000; the John N. Hatsopoulos 1989 Family Trust for the benefit of Nia Marie Hatsopoulos, or the Nia Hatsopoulos Trust, which subscribed for debentures having an initial principal amount of $50,000; and the John N. Hatsopoulos 1989 Family Trust for the benefit of Alexander John Hatsopoulos, or the Alexander Hatsopoulos Trust, which subscribed for debentures having an initial principal amount of $50,000. Nia Hatsopoulos and Alexander Hatsopoulos are John N. Hatsopoulos’ adult children. John N. Hatsopoulos disclaims beneficial ownership of the shares held by these trusts. The debentures accrue interest at a rate of 6% per annum and were due on September 24, 2007. The debentures are convertible, at the option of the holder, into shares of Common Stock at a conversion price of $1.20 per share.

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On September 24, 2007, George N. Hatsopoulos, the Nia Hatsopoulos Trust and the Alexander Hatsopoulos Trust, holding debentures representing a majority of the then-outstanding principal amount of the debentures, agreed to extend the debenture term to September 24, 2011.
On May 11, 2009, George N. Hatsopoulos converted $109,033 of the principal amount under the debentures held by him, together with accrued interest in the amount of $90,967 into 400,000 shares of Common Stock of Ilios, the Company’s then newly-formed subsidiary, which were previously held by the Company, at a conversion price of $0.50 per share. The difference between the Company’s purchase price of the Ilios shares and the amount of debt forgiveness was recorded as additional paid-in capital.
On September 30, 2009, Joseph J. Ritchie elected to convert the outstanding principal amount under the debenture held by him, $30,000, together with accrued interest of $14,433, into 37,028 shares of the Company’s Common Stock at a conversion price of $1.20 per share.
On September 24, 2011, George N. Hatsopoulos, the Nia Hatsopoulos Trust and the Alexander Hatsopoulos Trust, holding debentures representing a majority of the then-outstanding principal amount of the debentures, agreed to extend the term of the debentures to September 24, 2013 and requested that accrued interest in the aggregate amount of approximately $72,960 be converted into the Company’s Common Stock at $2.00 per share (which was the average price of the Company’s stock between September 24, 2001 and September 24, 2011). As a result, the Company issued 6,474 shares of Common Stock to George N. Hatsopoulos, 15,003 shares of Common Stock to the Nia Hatsopoulos Trust and 15,003, shares of Common Stock to the Alexander Hatsopoulos Trust.
On September 30, 2012, the remaining principal amount under the debentures held by the Nia Hatsopoulos Trust and the Alexander Hatsopoulos Trust, including the applicable accrued interest, was converted into 42,620 shares of Common Stock issued to each of the Nia Hatsopoulos Trust and the Alexander Hatsopoulos Trust.
On September 20, 2013, the term of the debentures held by George N. Hatsopoulos was extended to October 31, 2013. On October 18, 2013, George N. Hatsopoulos elected to convert the outstanding principal balance of the debenture held by him of $90,967 into 75,806 shares of the Company’s Common Stock at a conversion price of $1.20 per share. In addition, Mr. Hatsopoulos requested that the accrued interest earned in 2012 in the amount of $6,913 be converted into 2,161 shares of the Company’s Common Stock at a conversion price of $3.20 per share and that the accrued interest earned on or after January 1, 2013 in the amount of $4,366 be converted into 970 shares of the Company’s Common Stock at a conversion price of $4.50 per share.
On May 11, 2009, John Hatsopoulos converted an aggregate of $427,432 in principal amount under demand notes held by him, together with accrued interest in the amount of $72,568 into 1,000,000 shares of Common Stock of Ilios, which were previously held by the Company, at a conversion price of $0.50 per share. The difference between the Company’s purchase price of the Ilios shares and the amount of debt forgiveness was recorded as additional paid-in capital.
On September 10, 2008, the Company entered into a demand note agreement with John N. Hatsopoulos in the principal amount of $250,000 at an annual interest rate of 5%. On September 7, 2011, the Company entered into an additional demand note agreement with John N. Hatsopoulos, in the principal amount of $750,000 at an annual interest rate of 6%. On November 30, 2012, the Company entered into an additional demand note agreement with John N. Hatsopoulos in the principal amount of $300,000 at an annual interest rate of 6%. On October 3, 2013, the Company signed a demand note for $450,000, which accrues interest at 6%, to John N. Hatsopoulos, the Company’s Chief Executive Officer. Unpaid principal and interest on the demand notes are due upon demand. On January 6, 2014 these demand notes were paid in full with accrued interest.
On March 25, 2013, the Company entered into a Revolving Line of Credit Agreement, or the Credit Agreement, with John N. Hatsopoulos, our Chief Executive Officer. Under the terms of the Credit Agreement, as amended on August 13, 2013, Mr. Hatsopoulos has agreed to lend the Company up to an aggregate of $1,500,000 from time to time, at the written request of the Company. Any amounts borrowed by the Company pursuant to the Credit Agreement will bear interest at the Bank Prime Rate as quoted from time to time in the Wall Street Journal plus 1.5% per year. Repayment of the principal amount borrowed pursuant to the Credit Agreement will be due on March 1, 2014. In addition, the Company may prepay accrued interest, provided that prepayment may not be made prior to January 1, 2014. As of December 31, 2013 the Company has borrowed $1,200,000 pursuant to the Credit Agreement. On January 6, 2014, the Company repaid the then outstanding principal balance of $1,200,000 together with accrued interest of $25,347.
If the Company’s existing resources, including cash and cash equivalents and future cash flows from operations are not sufficient to meet the working capital requirements of the Company’s existing business through 2014, John Hatsopoulos has committed to provide any shortfall in the form of a demand note.

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On March 26, 2014, the Company entered into a Revolving Line of Credit Agreement, or the 2014 Credit Agreement, with John N. Hatsopoulos, our Chief Executive Officer. Under the terms of the 2014 Credit Agreement, Mr. Hatsopoulos has agreed to lend the Company up to an aggregate of $3,500,000 from time to time, at the written request of the Company.  Any amounts borrowed by the Company pursuant to the 2014 Credit Agreement will bear interest at the Bank Prime Rate as quoted from time to time in the Wall Street Journal plus 1.5% per year. Repayment of the principal amount borrowed pursuant to the 2014 Credit Agreement will be due on March 25, 2015.
For additional disclosure on the Company’s debt see Note 7 – Demand notes payable, convertible debentures and line of credit – related party.
John N. Hatsopoulos’ salary is $1.00 per year. On average, Mr. Hatsopoulos spends approximately 50% of his business time on the affairs of the Company; however such amount varies widely depending on the needs of the business and is expected to increase as the business of the Company develops.
On July 1, 2012 the Company signed a Facilities and Support Services Agreement, or the Facilities and Support Services Agreement, with American DG Energy for a period of one year, renewable annually, on July 1st, by mutual agreement. Under this agreement, the Company provides American DG Energy with certain office and business support services and also provides pricing based on a volume discount depending on the level of American DG Energy purchases of cogeneration and chiller products. For certain sites, American DG Energy hires the Company to service its chiller and cogeneration products. The Company also provides office space and certain utilities to American DG Energy based on a monthly rate set at the beginning of each year. Also, under this agreement, American DG Energy has sales representation rights to the Company's products and services in New England.
On July 1, 2013 the Company entered into the First Amendment to the Facilities, Support Services and Business Agreement, or the First Amendment, with American DG Energy. The First Amendment renewed the term of the Facilities and Support Services Agreement for a one year period, beginning on July 1, 2013. The First Amendment also increased the space provided to the Company by Tecogen from approximately 3,071 square feet to 3,282 square feet and from six offices to nine offices. Under the First Amendment, the amount that American DG Energy will pay the Company for the space and services that it provides under the Facilities and Support Services Agreement increased to $6,495 per month. The First Amendment further clarifies that the total sales thresholds for volume discounts are to be met during a calendar year and that American DG Energy’s representation rights may be terminated by either the Company or American DG Energy upon 60 days' notice, without cause.
On November 12, 2013, the Company entered into the Second Amendment to the Facilities, Support Services and Business Agreement, or the Second Amendment. The Second Amendment modified the exclusivity arrangement of the Facilities and Support Services Agreement between the Company and American DG Energy to state that in New England States American DG Energy shall have the right to purchase cogeneration products directly from the Company as described in the agreement so long as American DG Energy intends to retain long-term ownership of the cogeneration product and utilize it for the production and sale of electricity and thermal energy. The Company will not sell its products to parties for which the intended use is to earn revenue from metered energy to third parties other than American DG Energy. In cases where American DG Energy has the opportunity to sell cogeneration products to an unaffiliated party in the New England States and where the Company has no other appointed representation in that specific region, American DG Energy may buy/resell the cogeneration product as specified under the terms of the Facilities and Support Services Agreement. If, however, the Company has appointed a local exclusive representative in that specific New England region, American DG Energy will defer to the local representative for pricing and other specific details for working cooperatively.
In July 2013, the Company obtained a letter of credit for approximately $1.1 million in connection with a performance guarantee for certain of its turnkey installations. This letter of credit was collateralized by $1.055 million in personal funds by John N. Hatsopoulos. If Mr. Hatsopoulos had not provided this collateral, the Company may have been required to provide the collateral itself, and may not have been able to do so.
On November 12, 2013, Ilios entered into the First Amendment to the Sales Representative Agreement with American DG Energy Inc. The Amendment modifies and defines territories covered under the Agreement.
The Company subleases portions of its corporate offices and manufacturing facility to sub-tenants under annual sublease agreements. For the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, the Company received $113,784 and $158,898, respectively, from American DG Energy, Levitronix LLC and Alexandros Partners LLC. In addition, for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 the Company received from the same companies, $90,348 and $101,218, respectively, to offset common operating expenses incurred in the administration and maintenance of its corporate office and warehouse facility.
Our headquarters is located in Waltham, Massachusetts, and consists of approximately 43,000 square feet of leased space, of which Tecogen occupies approximately 34,600 square feet of manufacturing, storage and office space. We sub-lease the remaining space to Ilios, American DG Energy, and other tenants. Our lease, with an original expiration date of March 31, 2014, was renewed for an additional ten years and will expire March 31, 2024. We believe that our facilities are appropriate and adequate for our current needs.

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Revenue from sales of cogeneration and chiller systems, parts and service to American DG Energy during the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 amounted to $758,930 and $3,795,666, respectively. In addition, Tecogen pays certain operating expenses, including benefits and insurance, on behalf of American DG Energy. Tecogen was reimbursed for these costs. As of December 31, 2013 the total amount due to American DG Energy was $119,667 As of December 31, 2012, the total amount due from American DG Energy was $70,811.
For additional disclosure related to our related parties and related party transactions see Note 13 —  Related party transactions to our financial statements included in this prospectus.
Policies and Procedures for Related Person Transactions
Our Board of Directors will adopt a written related person transaction policy to set forth the policies and procedures for the review and approval or ratification of related person transactions. This policy will cover any transaction, arrangement, or relationship, or any series of similar transactions, arrangements, or relationships, in which we were or are to be a participant where the amount involved exceeds $120,000, and a related person had or will have a direct or indirect material interest, including, without limitation, purchases of goods or services by or from the related person or entities in which the related person has a material interest, indebtedness, guarantees of indebtedness, and employment by us of a related person.
Any related person transaction proposed to be entered into by us will be required to be reported to our Chief Financial Officer and will be reviewed and approved by the Audit Committee in accordance with the terms of the policy, prior to effectiveness or consummation of the transaction, whenever practicable. If our Chief Financial Officer determines that advance approval of a related person transaction is not practicable under the circumstances, the Audit Committee will review and, in its discretion, may ratify the related person transaction at the next meeting of the Audit Committee, or at the next meeting following the date that the related person transaction comes to the attention of our Chief Financial Officer. Our Chief Financial Officer, however, may present a related person transaction arising in the time period between meetings of the Audit Committee to the chair of the Audit Committee, who will review and may approve the related person transaction, subject to ratification by the Audit Committee at the next meeting of the Audit Committee.
In addition, any related person transaction previously approved by the Audit Committee or otherwise already existing that is ongoing in nature will be reviewed by the Audit Committee annually to ensure that such related person transaction has been conducted in accordance with the previous approval granted by the Audit Committee, if any, and that all required disclosures regarding the related person transaction are made.
Transactions involving compensation of executive officers will be reviewed and approved by the Compensation Committee in the manner specified in the charter of the Compensation Committee.
A related person transaction reviewed under this policy will be considered approved or ratified if it is authorized by the Audit Committee in accordance with the standards set forth in our related person transaction policy after full disclosure of the related person’s interests in the transaction. As appropriate for the circumstances, the Audit Committee will review and consider:
the related person’s interest in the related person transaction;
the approximate dollar value of the amount involved in the related person transaction;
the approximate dollar value of the amount of the related person’s interest in the transaction without regard to the amount of any profit or loss;
whether the transaction was undertaken in the ordinary course of business;
whether the transaction with the related person is proposed to be, or was, entered into on terms no less favorable to us than terms that could have been reached with an unrelated third party;