UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
 
 
 
 
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
 
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
or
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
for the transition period from                            to                            .
Commission file number 001-38357
 
 
 
 
 
PLAYAGS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Nevada
 
46-3698600
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
5475 S. Decatur Blvd., Ste #100
Las Vegas, NV 89118
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(702) 722-6700 
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
Securities to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: None
Securities to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
(Title of Class)
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  o  No  x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  o  No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  x  No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes  x  No  o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer  o
 
Accelerated filer o
 
Non-accelerated filer  x
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
 
Smaller reporting company  o
 
Emerging growth company x
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  o  No  x
As of March 01, 2019, there were 35,358,424 shares of the Registrant’s common stock, $.01 par value per share, outstanding.



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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements.” Forward-looking statements include any statements that address future results or occurrences. In some cases you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “might,” “will,” “would,” “should,” “could” or the negatives thereof. Generally, the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “expect,” “intend,” “estimate,” “project,” “plan” and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements. In particular, statements about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K in Item 1. “Business,” Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements include statements that are not historical facts, including statements concerning our possible or assumed future actions and business strategies.
We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections. While we believe these expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections are reasonable, such forward-looking statements are only predictions and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, many of which are outside of our control, which could cause our actual results, performance or achievements to differ materially from any results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. These risks, uncertainties and other factors include, but are not limited to:

our ability to effectively compete with numerous domestic and foreign businesses;
our ability to provide financing on favorable terms compared with our competitors;
our ability to adapt to and offer products that keep pace with evolving technology related to our businesses;
our ability to develop, enhance and/or introduce successful gaming concepts and game content, and changes in player and operator preferences in participation games, which may adversely affect demand for our products;
changing economic conditions and other factors that adversely affect the casino and gaming industry, the play levels of our participation games, product sales and our ability to collect outstanding receivables from our customers;
the effect of our substantial indebtedness on our ability to raise additional capital to fund our operations, and our ability to react to changes in the economy or our industry and make debt service payments;
changing regulations, new interpretations of existing laws, or delays in obtaining or maintaining required licenses or approvals, which may affect our ability to operate in existing markets or expand into new jurisdictions;
our history of operating losses and a significant accumulated deficit;
changes in the legal and regulatory scheme governing Native American gaming markets, including the ability to enforce contractual rights on Native American land, which could adversely affect revenues;
our ability to realize satisfactory returns on money lent to new and existing customers to develop or expand gaming facilities or to acquire gaming routes;
failures in our systems or information technology, which could disrupt our business and adversely impact our results;
slow growth in the development of new gaming jurisdictions or the number of new casinos, declines in the rate of replacement of existing gaming machines, and ownership changes and consolidation in the casino industry;
legislation in states and other jurisdictions which may amend or repeal existing gaming legislation;
intellectual property rights of others, which may prevent us from developing new products and services, entering new markets, or may expose use to liability or costly litigation;
our ability to complete future acquisitions and integrate those businesses successfully;
our dependence on the security and integrity of our systems and products;
the effect of natural events in the locations in which we or our customers, suppliers or regulators operate;
failure of our suppliers and contract manufacturers to meet our performance and quality standards or requirements could result in additional costs or loss of customers;
risks related to operations in foreign countries and outside of traditional U.S. jurisdictions;
foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations;
quarterly fluctuation of our business;
risks associated with, or arising out of, environmental, health and safety laws and regulations;
product defects which could damage our reputation and our results of operations;
changes to the Class II regulatory scheme;
state compacts with our existing Native American tribal customers, which may reduce demand for our Class II game and make it difficult to compete against larger companies in the tribal Class III market;
decreases in our revenue share percentage in our participation agreements with Native American tribal customers;
adverse local economic, regulatory or licensing changes in Oklahoma or Alabama, the states in which the majority of our revenue has been derived, or material decreases in our revenue with our two largest customers;
dependence on the protection of our intellectual property and proprietary information and our ability to license intellectual

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property from third parties;
failure to attract, retain and motivate key employees;
certain restrictive open source licenses requiring us to make the source code of some of our products available to third parties and potentially granting third parties certain rights to the software;
reliance on hardware, software and games licensed from third parties, and on technology provided by third-party vendors;
dependence on our relationships with service providers;
maintaining internal controls over financial reporting;
our ability to maintain current customers on favorable terms;
our ability to enter new markets and potential new markets;
our ability to capitalize on the expansion of Internet or other forms of interactive gaming or other trends and changes in the gaming industries;
our social gaming business is largely dependent upon our relationships with key channels;
changes in tax regulation and results of tax audits, which could affect results of operations;
our ability to generate sufficient cash to serve all of our indebtedness in the future; and
the other factors discussed under Item 1A. “Risk Factors.”

Given these risks and uncertainties, you are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are made only as of the date of this Annual Report. We do not undertake and specifically decline any obligation to update any such statements or to publicly announce the results of any revisions to any such statements to reflect future events or developments unless required by federal securities law. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all such factors.

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PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS.

Unless the context indicates otherwise, or unless specifically stated otherwise, references to the “Company”, “PlayAGS”, “AGS”, “we”, “our” and “us” refer to PlayAGS, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

Overview

We are a Nevada corporation formed and incorporated originally in Delaware in August 2013 and then reincorporated in Nevada in December 2017. We were formed to acquire, through one of our indirect wholly owned subsidiaries, 100% of the equity in AGS Capital, LLC (“AGS Capital”) from AGS Holdings, LLC (“AGS Holdings”). AGS Capital was a supplier of Electronic Gaming Machines (“EGMs”) primarily to Class II Native American gaming jurisdictions.

We are a leading designer and supplier of EGMs and other products and services for the gaming industry. Founded in 2005, we historically focused on supplying EGMs, including slot machines, video bingo machines, and other electronic gaming devices, to the Native American gaming market, where we maintain an approximately 19% market share of all Class II EGMs. Since 2014, we have expanded our product line-up to include: (i) Class III EGMs for commercial and Native American casinos permitted to operate Class III EGMs, (ii) table game products and (iii) interactive products, all of which we believe provide us with growth opportunities as we expand in markets where we currently have limited or no presence. Our expansion into Class III and ancillary product offerings has driven our strong growth and momentum in revenue, EGM adjusted EBITDA and our installed base. For the year ended December 31, 2018 , 71% of our total revenue was generated through recurring contracted lease agreements whereby we place EGMs and table game products at our customers’ gaming facilities under either a revenue sharing agreement (we receive a percentage of the revenues that these products generate) or fee-per-day agreement (we receive a daily or monthly fixed fee per EGM or table game product), or recurring revenue from our Interactive gaming operations. We operate our business in three distinct segments: EGMs, Table Products and Interactive. Each segment's activities include the design, development, acquisition, manufacturing, marketing, distribution, installation and servicing of a distinct product line.
 
Percentage of Total Revenue
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Electronic Gaming Machines
95
%
 
94
%
 
94
%
Table Products
3
%
 
2
%
 
2
%
Interactive
2
%
 
4
%
 
5
%
 
100
%
 
100
%
 
100
%

Our Operations

We provide customers with EGMs, table products, ancillary table product equipment, systems software, computer hardware, signage and other equipment for operation within their gaming facilities. In return we receive either cash for sold items, or a share of the revenue generated by these products and systems, either as a flat monthly fee or a daily fee. The determination of whether our agreement results in a revenue share, monthly fee, or daily fee arrangement is generally governed by local gaming jurisdictions. For our revenue share arrangements on EGM products, we have historically shared between 15% and 20% of the revenues generated by the EGMs. Under our agreements for EGMs, we participate in selecting the mix of titles, maintain and service the equipment and oversee certain promotional efforts. When sold, we offer the majority of our products with an optional parts and service contract. For Table Products we typically license table games and lease related equipment for which we receive monthly royalty and lease payments. We also lease and sell roulette and baccarat signs and plan to lease and sell our new shuffler, Dex S . Our Interactive segment generates revenues from (1) B2C social products where consumers purchase virtual coins used to play social casino games, (2) B2B social products where we obtain a percentage of monthly revenue generated by the white label casino apps that we build and operate for our customers, and (3) real-money gaming (“RMG”) revenues, which are earned primarily based on a percentage of the revenue produced by the games on our platform as well as monthly platform fees and initial integration fees. In support of our business and operations, we employ a professional staff including field service technicians, production, sales, account management, marketing, technology and game development, licensing and compliance and finance.

Our corporate headquarters are located in Las Vegas, Nevada, which serves as the primary location for the executive management and administrative functions such as finance, legal, licensing and compliance. Our licensing and compliance division oversees the application and renewal of our corporate gaming licenses, findings of suitability for key officers and directors and certification of our gaming equipment and systems for specific jurisdictions, human resources, as well as coordinating gaming equipment and software shipping and on-site and remote service of our equipment with gaming authorities.

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Our field service technicians are responsible for installing, maintaining and servicing our gaming products and systems. Our EGM field service operation including our call center, which operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week, is managed out of our Oklahoma facility. We can also access most of our EGMs and systems remotely from approved remote locations to provide software updates and routine maintenance. In addition, our EGM and system production facilities are located in and managed out of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Atlanta, Georgia, and Mexico City, Mexico. Our Table Product service and production facilities are primarily managed from Las Vegas, Nevada with certain products produced in our Oklahoma facility.

Sales, product management and account management are managed through our various locations and are located throughout the jurisdictions in which we do business. Sales and account management oversee the customer relationship at the individual location as well as at the corporate level and are responsible for developing new customer relationships. Account management is in charge of running on-site promotions and corporate sponsorship programs. In addition, our marketing team is in charge of general corporate marketing, including advertisements and participation at industry trade shows.

We employ game developers, software and system programmers, project managers and other development and administrative staff that oversee our internal game development efforts and manage third party relationships. Our EGM technology and game development operates primarily out of our Atlanta, Georgia and Sydney, Australia locations and to a lesser extent out of our locations in Las Vegas, Nevada, and Austin, Texas. Our Table Products technology and development operates primarily out of our Las Vegas, Nevada location. We have Interactive development teams in San Francisco, California and Tel Aviv, Israel and through the recent acquisition of Gameiom Technologies Limited (“Gameiom” currently known as “AGS iGaming”), in Hinckley, United Kingdom. Additionally, we hire independent contractors in Ukraine to support the on-line operations of AGS iGaming.

Products
    
We provide our casino customers with high-performing Class II and Class III EGMs for the tribal and commercial gaming markets, more than 40 unique table products offerings, ancillary table products equipment, systems software, computer hardware, signage, and other equipment for operation within gaming facilities. In our AGS Interactive segment, we offer a vast library of casino-themed social and mobile games, business-to-business social casino solutions available to land-based casino customers, and a real-money gaming platform and library of games for on-line operators.
  
EGM Segment

EGMs constitute our largest segment, representing 95% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018 . We have a library of over 380 proprietary game titles that we deliver on several state-of-the-art EGM cabinets, including ICON and Orion Upright (our core cabinets), Orion Portrait (our premium cabinet) and Orion Slant (our core plus cabinet) and Big Red/Colossal Diamonds (our specialty large-format jumbo cabinet). Our cabinets and game titles are consistently named among the top-performing premium leased games in the industry. We also have developed a new Latin style bingo cabinet called Alora , which we plan to use in select international markets, including Mexico, the Philippines, and potentially Brazil.

We design all of our cabinets with the intention of capturing the attention of players on casino floors while aiming to maximize operator profits. The fourth quarter 2018 Eilers - Fantini Quarterly Slot Survey stated our premium leased games outperform most of the EGMs manufactured by our competitors, generating win per day that is up to 1.7 times higher than house average.

Below are a few of our more significant cabinets:

Orion - Our Orion line of game cabinets delivers performance, flexibility, and style. We currently offer three Orion slot cabinets - Portrait, Slant, and the newly introduced Upright, which we will launch into the market in 2019. Engineered for multiple configurations, this cabinet family is powered by a common platform, available for Class II and Class III markets, and benefits from easy servicing. Powered by our Atlas operating platform, the Orion family’s self-contained logic and use of a common platform eliminate the need for multiple servers. Full-color LED lights surround Orion’s HD LCD touchscreen monitor, capable of changing colors and patterns on each machine or across entire banks in a manner that corresponds to each feature within the game. We unveiled our Orion Portrait cabinet at the Global Gaming Expo in late 2016 to positive customer feedback, and the platform has exceeded our performance expectations. In 2018, we introduced our second Orion cabinet - the Orion Slant , featuring the same distinctive starwall design, dual LCD HD monitors, and the latest HD audio for a cinematic surround-sound experience. At the Global Gaming Expo in 2018, we introduced the Orion Upright , which we expect to launch into the market in 2019. Our Orion platform family is driving momentum in Class III and newly addressable markets, and is a key driver of our equipment sales business.


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ICON - Our ICON cabinet offers modern design with seamless integration of light and sound, ergonomic features, and stunning visual effects to complement our premium game content and play mechanics. The ICON is equipped with two flush- mounted 23” HD LCDs, an integrated sound system, and two subtle light panels surrounding the LCD monitors which react to on-screen events enhancing game features, building anticipation, celebrating big wins, and highlighting bonus events. The ICON has served as our “workhorse” since its introduction, serving as the single biggest growth driver for our business due to its reliability and deep portfolio of games.

Big Red - Big Red is a premium, specialty cabinet focused on simple, classic spinning-reel gameplay. At 8’ tall and 8’ wide, its massive size and bright red color commands attention on the casino floor and creates a community-style gaming experience. Currently available with our top-performing game title Colossal Diamonds , Big Red is engineered for both Class II and Class III formats.
Alora - Alora is a specialty cabinet designed specifically for the Latin-style bingo player. Designed by a team of Brazilians for the potential Brazil market opening, the cabinet will be deployed in the Philippines and Mexico, both of which currently have mature and stable Latin-style bingo markets. The Alora platform supports dual screen 23.8” monitors and features a unique illuminated foot pedal that gives players the option to play without using the button panel. Each game theme offered on this platform supports instant bonuses, stand-alone progressives, and a community progressive. We believe that Latin-style bingo game titles have a longer life span as compared to traditional EGMs due to the nature of the markets in which these titles are deployed and the local player base. Currently, we have 12 game titles for the Alora platform, including the popular Lotto Diamond , Bingolandia , Show de Balla and Go Bananas , available in multiple languages, including Portuguese, Spanish, and English.

We categorize our EGM titles into two main groups: “Core” and “Premium and Specialty”. Our Core titles have a proven track record of success and are targeted at maintaining and growing our current installed base. Our Premium titles include unique and niche titles that provide a distinctive player experience and are targeted at increasing floor space in both existing and new jurisdictions. Specialty titles describe our jumbo games, such as Colossal Diamonds , and games made specifically for high-limit winnings. In total, our development teams have the capabilities to produce approximately 50 games per year. We believe this strategy of producing diversified content will enable us to maintain and grow our market leadership within our current Class II base, as well as continue our expansion into Class III commercial and tribal casinos.

Our Core titles, offered on our ICON cabinet, includes Jade Wins, Golden Wins, Fu Pig, Golden Skulls, Golden Dragon, Red Dragon, Longhorn Jackpots, and the So Hot family of games, which are some of the top-performing Class II games in the market today. We design our Core titles to provide a universal appeal.

Our Premium and Specialty titles, offered on ICON , our Orion family and Big Red , include an assortment of compelling features that maximize the capabilities of their hardware. Top-performing titles include Colossal Diamonds, Fu Nan Fu Nu, Olympus Strikes, and Eastern Dragon. These titles are premium in nature because they include dynamic play mechanics such as Pick ‘em Progressives, Must-Hit-By Progressives, Streaming Stacks, Reel Surges, Free Spin Bonuses, and much more. Their main game features are wrapped inside crisp graphics and sounds that maximize the hardware’s capabilities to provide universal player appeal that helps optimize our customer’s operations.

Table Products

In addition to our existing portfolio of EGMs, we also offer our customers more than 40 unique table product offerings, including live felt table games, side bet offerings, progressives, signage, and other ancillary table game equipment. Our table products are designed to enhance the table games section of the casino floor (commonly known as “the pit”). Over the past 10 years, there has been a trend of introducing side bets on blackjack tables to increase the game’s overall hold. Our table products segment offers a full suite of side bets and specialty table games that capitalize on this trend, and we believe that this segment will serve as an important growth engine for our company by generating further cross-selling opportunities with our EGM offerings. As of December 31, 2018, we had placed 3,162 table products domestically and internationally and based on the number of products placed, we believe we are presently a leading supplier of table products to the gaming industry.

Our premium game titles include Criss Cross Poker , Chase The Flush , Dai Bacc , and Double Draw Poker, to name a few. This segment of the table product business provides an area for growth and expansion in the marketplace, as the industry’s revenues are currently primarily dominated by a single competitor, and we have recently expanded our sales efforts to cover greater territory. The game mechanics of our proprietary, premium titles take classic public domain games and offer a twist on game play that increases volatility while simultaneously increasing hold for operators. This means players experience larger wins, which keeps them engaged in the games for longer periods of time, and operators have the potential to earn incremental revenue. We also recently acquired five dynamic new games: Super 4 Progressive Blackjack , Blackjack Match Progressive , Jackpot Blackjack , Royal 9 , and Jackpot Baccarat . These games have more than 700 installs worldwide and feature a simple, rewarding side bet that extends the winning experience in interactive ways and further engages players.

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As one of the fastest-growing bonus bets in the world, Buster Blackjack headlines our side-bets product category, quadrupling its installed base since we acquired the title in 2015. Most recently, Buster Blackjack has been installed at Harrah’s New Orleans Casino and Horseshoe Baltimore Maryland Casino. In addition to Buster Blackjack , we have other top-performing side-bet games such as War Blackjack , In-Bet , Push Your Luck , and Trifecta Blackjack .
    
Bonus Spin Blackjack is a first-of-its kind wheel-based table products progressive side-bet solution that uses built-in, light-up bet sensors, a tablet-style dealer interface, and a progressive engine that’s fully customizable. Operators can offer anything from a progressive top prize, a fixed top prize, or an experience-based top prize. Sophisticated 3D graphics and a double-sided display draw players into the game and show prizes, results, and bet limits. By adding Bonus Spin to any of their table products, operators can instantly be more effective at marketing their games by offering customizable prizes that target specific player segments, resulting in more player excitement, interaction, and a potential increase in revenues and visits. In addition, Bonus Spin can be easily added to any of our table products, providing substantial growth opportunities. Bonus Spin was recognized among the Top 20 Most Innovative Gaming & Technology Products Awards of 2017. As of December 31, 2018, and in less than one year since its launch, we have placed more than 250 Bonus Spin units.

In 2018, due to our success with Bonus Spin Blackjack , we formally introduced Bonus Spin Xtreme at the Global Gaming Expo 2018 which we expect will be launched in 2019. This next-generation of Bonus Spin is a progressive side-bet that attracts players with three eye-catching wheels, and offers a community bonus feature that awards secondary prizes to every player who has wagered a side-bet.
    
Another AGS progressive innovation is STAX , which offers multi-level and must-hit-by progressive jackpots that can be added to basic table games like blackjack, as well as AGS proprietary table games like Criss Cross Poker and Chase the Flush . This game, with it’s eye-catching, colorful display advertising the progressive levels, and the opportunity for players to win more, won the top award for table innovation in the 2019 Gaming & Technology Awards and the Top 20 Most Innovative Gaming & Technology Products Awards of 2017.

One of the newer areas of our Table Products segment are ancillary equipment offerings to table games, such as card shufflers and table signage, which provide casino operators a greater variety of choice in the marketplace. This product segment includes baccarat signage, animated roulette readerboards, and our highly anticipated single-card shuffler, Dex S , which was approved by our industry’s primary independent testing lab Gaming Laboratories International (“GLI”) in 2018 and we expect to launch full-scale in early 2019. The Dex S shuffler features a streamlined design with fewer moving parts, making it exceptionally functional, economical, and reliable, and it easily fits into existing table cutouts so casino operators can seamlessly install without changing their current layouts or replacing any tables. We believe that the table equipment area of our business holds many opportunities for growth, as the technology currently installed in the signage and readerboard areas are in a replacement cycle.
    
Interactive

Our Business-to-Consumer (“B2C”) social casino games include online versions of our popular EGM titles and are accessible to players worldwide on multiple mobile platforms, which we believe establishes brand recognition and cross-selling opportunities. Our B2C social casino games operate on a free-to-play model, whereby game players may collect virtual currency or other virtual consumable goods (collectively referred to as “virtual goods” or “virtual currency”) free of charge, through the passage of time or through targeted marketing promotions. Additionally, players have the ability to send free “gifts” of virtual goods to their friends through interactions with certain social platforms. If a game player wishes to obtain virtual goods above and beyond the level of free virtual goods available to that player, the player may purchase additional virtual goods. Once obtained, virtual currency (either free or purchased) cannot be redeemed for cash nor exchanged for anything other than game play. We design our portfolio of B2C games to appeal to the interests of the broad group of people who like to play casino-themed social and mobile games.

Currently, our B2C social casino games consist of our mobile app, Lucky Play Casino . The app contains numerous AGS game titles available for consumers to play for fun or with chips they purchase in the app. Some of our most popular social games include content that is also popular in land-based casinos, such as Fire Wolf , Gold Dragon Red Dragon , Legend of the White Buffalo , Royal Reels , Colossal Diamonds , So Hot , Monkey in the Bank , and many more. Our B2C games leverage the global connectivity and distribution of Facebook, as well as mobile platforms such as the Apple App Store for Apple devices and the Google Play Store for Android devices, which provides a platform to offer our games as well payment processing.

We have recently expanded into the Business-to-Business (“B2B”) space, whereby we enable our land-based casino customers to brand the social gaming product with their own casino name and brand identity through our Social White-Label Casino (“WLC”) solution. This turn-key, free-to-play mobile casino app solution blends the casino’s brand with AGS’ player-

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favorite games to strengthen a casino’s relationship with players, provide monetization opportunities while players are off property, reach new players, and incentivize players to return to the casino. To date, five customers are using our Social WLC solution.

With the acquisition of Gameiom Technologies Limited (formerly known as “Gameiom”, and currently known as “AGS iGaming”) in the current year, we now offer a B2B platform for content aggregation used by RMG and sports-betting partners. Our acquired B2B platform aggregates content from game suppliers and offers on-line casino operators the convenience to reduce the number of integrations that are needed to supply the on-line casino. By integrating with us, on-line casino operators have access to a significant amount of content from several game suppliers. AGS iGaming operates in regulated, legal on-line gaming jurisdictions such as the UK and parts of Europe.

Other Segment Information

Customers and marketing. We market our products to casinos and other legal gaming establishments around the world with our domestic and international sales force and several domestic and international distributors and/or representatives. We believe the quality and breadth of our customer base is a strong testament to the effectiveness and performance of our product offerings, technological innovation, and customer service. Our customer base includes leading casino operators in leading established gaming markets such as the United States, Canada, and Latin America. Our customers include, among others, Caesars Entertainment, MGM Resorts International, Poarch Band of Creek Indians, and the Chickasaw Nation.

Our products and the locations in which we may sell them are subject to the licensing and product approval requirements of various national, state, provincial, and tribal jurisdictional agencies that regulate gaming around the world.  See “Regulation and Licensing” section below. We lease and sell our products, with an emphasis on leasing versus selling. We service the products we lease and offer service packages to customers who purchase products from us.

Product supply. We obtain most of the parts for our products from outside suppliers, including both off-the-shelf items as well as components manufactured to our specifications. We also manufacture parts in-house that are used for product assembly and for servicing existing products. We generally perform warehousing, quality control, final assembly and shipping from our facilities in Las Vegas, Atlanta, Mexico City and Oklahoma City, although small inventories are maintained and repairs are performed by our field service employees. We believe that our sources of supply for components and raw materials are adequate and that alternative sources of materials are available.

Manufacturing
We have manufacturing agreements to build our gaming cabinets with multiple manufacturing vendors. We believe we have limited concentration risk with any one of these vendors, because we own the rights to our cabinet designs and thus have the ability to change manufacturers in the event of a dispute. We believe any of these vendors would be able to build our gaming cabinets for titles on any platform. As the supplier base is large, we are able to gain competitive pricing and delivery on any of our cabinets and have limited risk in supply disruptions. Manufacturing commitments are generally based on projected quarterly demand from customers.

Our primary EGM production facility is located in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Production at this facility includes assembling and refurbishing gaming machines (excluding gaming cabinets), parts support and purchasing. We also assemble EGMs at our Las Vegas, Nevada and Mexico City, Mexico facilities at lower volumes to support the Nevada, California and Mexican markets, respectively. System production is based at our Atlanta, Georgia office, where our system design team and our U.S. research and development team are based. Table games products are primarily manufactured in our Las Vegas, Nevada facility, with the exception of the Dex S shuffler, which is produced in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

Field service technicians are located in various jurisdictions throughout the United States and Mexico and are dispatched from centralized call centers. They are responsible for installing, maintaining and servicing the electronic gaming machines, table games and systems.

Customers

We believe the quality and breadth of our customer base is a strong testament to the effectiveness and quality of our product offerings, technological innovation and customer service. At the core of our relationship with our customers is our participation model, which aligns our financial incentives with those of our customers through a shared dependence on the games’ performance. The combination of our customer-aligned participation model, quality customer service and strong game performance has allowed us to develop long-term relationships with our tribal and commercial casino customers. Our top

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participation customers have been with us for more than a decade, and we believe that we maintain long-term relationships with key customer decision-makers.

We have historically offered select existing and prospective customers an upfront payment, or placement fee, in exchange for exclusive rights to a percentage of their floor space. To a lesser extent, we have offered financing for casino development and expansion projects. In addition to our long-term relationships and contractual arrangements, the consistent demand for our games from the loyal, repeat players of our games further ensures our strong presence on our customers’ casino floors.

Within the Native American tribal market, we provide both Class II and Class III games. We also serve customers in commercial, video lottery terminal, charity bingo and route-based markets.

Oklahoma is our largest market and our EGMs in the state accounted for approximately 22% of our total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018 . Our largest customer is the Chickasaw Nation, a Native American gaming operator in Oklahoma, which accounted for approximately 11% of our total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018 . The revenues we earn from the Chickasaw Nation are derived from numerous agreements, which are scheduled for renewal in 2019, but which we would expect to renew.

Alabama is our second largest domestic market and our EGMs in the state accounted for approximately 9% of our total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018 . The Poarch Band of Creek Indians, a Native American gaming operator in Alabama, is our second largest customer and accounted for approximately 9% of our total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018 .

For the year ended December 31, 2018 , we did not receive more than 10% of our total revenue from any of our other customers.

Customer Contracts

We derive the majority of our gaming revenues from participation agreements, whereby we place EGMs and systems, along with our proprietary and other licensed game content, at a customer’s facility in return for either a share of the revenues that these EGMs and systems generate or a daily fee. For licensed table products and related equipment, we typically receive monthly royalty payments. We measure the performance of our domestic installed base of participation EGMs on the net win per day per machine, often referred to as the win per day, or “WPD”. Under our participation agreements, we earn a percentage of the win per day of our domestic installed base of participation EGMs.

Our standard contracts are one to three years in duration and may contain auto-renewal provisions for an additional term. Our contracts generally specify the number of EGMs and other equipment to be provided, revenue share, daily fee or other pricing, provisions regarding installation, training, service and removal of the machines, and other terms and conditions standard in the industry. In some circumstances, we enter into trial agreements with customers that provide a free or fee-based trial period, during which such customers may use our EGMs or table products. Each trial agreement lays out the terms of payment should the customer decide to continue using our machines.

The Company enters into development agreements and placement fee agreements with certain customers to secure floor space under lease agreements for its gaming machines. Amounts paid in connection with the development agreements are repaid to the Company in accordance with the terms of the agreement, whereas placements fees are not reimbursed. For development agreements in the form of a loan, interest income is recognized on the repayment of the loan based on the stated rate or, if not stated explicitly in the development agreement, on an imputed interest rate. If the stated interest rate is deemed to be other than a market rate or zero, a discount is recorded on the loan receivable as a result of the difference between the stated and market rate and a corresponding intangible asset is recorded. These agreements have typically been longer-term contracts, ranging from four to seven years depending on the amount of financing provided, market, and other factors.

We generally make efforts to obtain waivers of sovereign immunity in our contracts with Native American customers. However, we do not always obtain these provisions and when we do, they can be limited in scope. There is no guarantee that we will continue or improve our ability to get this term in future contracts. While we have not had any experience with contract enforceability vis-à-vis our Native American customers, we are cognizant of recent cases involving other parties dealing with waivers of sovereign immunity. Those cases put into question how sovereign immunity may be viewed by courts in the future. In the event that we enter into contracts with Native American customers in the future that do not contain a waiver of sovereign immunity, such contracts may be practically unenforceable.

Our game sale contracts are typical of those in the industry. They specify the general terms and conditions of the sale, equipment and services to be provided, as well as pricing and payment terms. In some cases, we provide the central server that is

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used to operate the purchased equipment on a lease and charge a fee-per-day based on the number of gaming machines connected to the server.

For our interactive segment, we enter into agreements whereby revenues are generated from (1) B2C social products where customers purchase virtual coins to play social casino games, (2) B2B social products where we obtain a percentage of monthly revenue generated by the white label casino apps that we build and operate for our customers, and (3) B2B RMG revenues which are earned primarily based on a percentage of the revenue produced by the games on our game aggregation platform that we provide to certain on-line RMG operators as well as monthly platform fees and initial integration fees.

Research and Development

We conduct research and development through an internal team to develop new gaming systems and gaming content. Research and development costs consist primarily of salaries and benefits, travel and expenses and other professional services. For the years ended December 31, 2018 , 2017 and 2016 , we incurred research and development costs of $31.7 million , $25.7 million and $21.3 million , respectively. We employ 246 game developers, software and system programmers, project managers and other development and administrative staff that oversee internal game development efforts and manage third party relationships. The technology and game development division for the EGM segment operates primarily out of our Atlanta, Georgia, Austin, Texas and Sydney, Australia locations as well as a studio in Las Vegas, Nevada that primarily supports our Table Products segment. We also have development and support teams for our Interactive segment in Tel Aviv, Israel. Additionally, we hire independent contractors in the Ukraine to support the on-line operations of AGS iGaming. The Company does not have customer-sponsored research and development costs.


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Intellectual Property

We use a combination of internally developed and third-party intellectual property, all of which we believe maintain and enhance our competitive position and protect our products. Such intellectual property includes owned or licensed patents, patent applications, trademarks, and trademark applications in the United States. In addition, we have rights in intellectual property in certain foreign jurisdictions. Some of these rights, however, are shared with other third parties, including in an industry wide manufacturers’ patent pool. Additionally, pursuant to our license agreements with third-party game developers, we license and distribute gaming software. We also have pooling arrangements with third parties, whereby all parties to such arrangement are permitted to use certain intellectual property contributed to the pool.

Competition

We encounter competition from other designers, manufacturers and operators of electronic gaming machines, table products, social casino and real-money gaming games. Our competitors range from small, localized companies to large, multi-national corporations, several of which have substantial resources and market share.

Our competitors for the live casino floor gaming machines include, but are not limited to, International Game Technology PLC (“IGT”), Scientific Games Corporation (“Scientific Games”), Aristocrat Technologies Inc. (“Aristocrat”), Everi Holdings Inc. (“Everi”), Konami Co. Ltd. (“Konami”), Ainsworth Game Technology Ltd., and Galaxy Gaming, Inc. Additionally, there are hundreds of non-gaming companies that design and develop social casino games and apps and real-money gaming products and services. Many of our competitors are large, well-established companies with substantially larger operating staffs and greater capital resources and have been engaged in the design, manufacture and operation of gaming products for many years. Some of these companies contain significant intellectual property including patents in gaming technology and hardware design, systems and game play and trademarks. In addition, the larger competitors contain significantly larger content portfolios and content development capability and resources, are licensed in markets throughout the United States, and have international distribution. IGT, Scientific Games, Aristocrat, and Konami all have a presence in the back-office accounting and player tracking business which expands their relationship with casino customers. Aristocrat and Everi are our primary competitors in the Class II market.

To compete effectively, we must, among other things, continue to develop high-performing, innovative games for the Class II and Class III markets, provide excellent service and support to our existing customers, effectively manage our installed base of participation gaming machines, expand our library of proprietary content, develop niche products with strong appeal to both local and next-generation players, be first to market in new non-traditional markets, implement effective marketing and sales functions, and offer competitive pricing and terms on our participation and sale agreements.

Seasonality

We experience fluctuations in revenues and cash flows from quarter to quarter, as our operating results have been highest during the first and second quarters and lowest in our third and fourth quarters, primarily due to the seasonality of player demand. These fluctuations, however, do not have a material impact on our revenues and cash flows.

Inflation

Our operations have not been, nor are they expected to be in the future, materially affected by inflation. However, our operational expansion is affected by the cost of hardware components, which are not considered to be inflation sensitive, but rather, sensitive to changes in technology and competition in the hardware markets. In addition, we expect to continue to incur increased legal and other similar costs associated with regulatory compliance requirements and the uncertainties present in the operating environment in which we conduct our business.

Employees
    
As of December 31, 2018 , we had over 678 full-time equivalent employees, with approximately 169 employed internationally and approximately 509 employed domestically.
    
We are not a party to any collective bargaining agreements in the United States and have not experienced any strikes or work stoppages in the past.

Regulation and Licensing

Licensing and Suitability Determinations

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We operate in numerous gaming jurisdictions, and our business operations, which include the manufacture, sale, and distribution, of gaming devices, gaming related equipment, related software and/or the provision of gaming related services, are subject to extensive federal, state, local, tribal and foreign government regulation as applicable in each of the gaming jurisdictions in which we operate. A significant portion of our operations take place at facilities conducting gaming activities on the tribal lands of Native American tribes resulting in our operations being subject to tribal and/or federal and sometimes state regulation depending on the classification of gaming being conducted in each such case as defined in the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (“IGRA”). In states where commercial gaming has been legalized, our operations are conducted subject to the applicable federal, state, and local government regulation.

While the specific regulatory requirements of the various jurisdictions vary, the gaming laws in most jurisdictions require us, each of our subsidiaries engaged in manufacturing, selling and distributing gaming products and services, our directors, officers and employees and, in some cases, certain entities or individuals who hold some level of beneficial ownership, typically 5% or more, in the Company or its affiliates as well as our lenders and other individuals or entities affiliated with us (contractually or otherwise) to obtain a license, permit, finding of suitability or other approval from gaming authorities. Gaming authorities have broad discretion in determining whether an applicant qualifies for licensing or should be deemed suitable and the burden of demonstrating suitability and the cost of the investigation is the responsibility of the applicant. While the criteria vary between jurisdictions, generally, in determining whether to grant or renew a license, the gaming authorities will consider the good character, honesty and integrity of the applicant and the financial ability, integrity and responsibility of the applicant. For individual applicants, gaming authorities consider the individual’s business experience and reputation for good character, the individual’s criminal history and the character of those with whom the individual associates. Qualification and suitability determinations for individuals requires the individual to submit detailed personal and financial information to the gaming authority, followed by a thorough background investigation. Gaming authorities may deny an application for licensing or a determination of suitability for any cause which they deem reasonable. If one or more gaming authorities were to find that an officer, director or key employee fails to qualify or is unsuitable to participate in the gaming industry in such jurisdiction, we would be required to sever all relationships with such person. Additionally, gaming authorities may require us to terminate the employment of any person who refuses to file appropriate applications. The gaming regulators having jurisdiction over us have broad power over our business operations and may deny, revoke, suspend, condition, limit, or not renew our gaming or other licenses, permits or approvals, impose substantial fines and take other action, any one of which could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operation. We believe we and our officers, directors, managers, key employees and affiliates have obtained or are in the process of obtaining all required gaming related licenses, permits, findings of suitability and other forms of approvals necessary to carry on our business.

It is common for gaming regulators to monitor, or to require us to disclose, our activities and any disciplinary actions against us in other gaming jurisdictions. Consequently, the business activities or disciplinary actions taken against us in one jurisdiction could result in disciplinary actions in other jurisdictions.

Licensing Requirements of Security Holders

In some jurisdictions in which we operate, certain of our stockholders or holders of our debt securities may be required to undergo a suitability determination or background investigation. Many jurisdictions require any person who acquires, directly or indirectly, beneficial ownership of more than a certain percentage of our voting securities, generally 5% or more, to report the acquisition of the ownership interest and the gaming authorities may require such holder to apply for qualification or a finding of suitability. Most jurisdictions allow an “institutional investor” to apply for a waiver from such requirements provided that the institutional investor holds the ownership interest in the ordinary course of its business and for passive investment purposes only. Generally, an “institutional investor” includes an investor who is a bank, insurance company, investment company, investment advisor, or pension fund. In some jurisdictions, an application for a waiver as an institutional investor requires the submission of detailed information concerning the institutional investor and its business including, among other things, the name of each person that beneficially owns more than 5% of the voting securities of such institutional investor. If such a waiver is granted, then the institutional investor may acquire, in most cases, up to 10% of our voting securities without applying for a finding of suitability or qualification and, in some cases, a higher percentage of beneficial ownership. Even if a waiver is granted, an institutional investor may not take any action inconsistent with its status when the waiver is granted without becoming subject to a suitability determination or background investigation. A change in the investment intent of the institutional investor requires immediate reporting to the respective gaming authorities.

Notwithstanding the 5% ownership threshold, gaming authorities have broad discretion and each person who acquires, directly or indirectly, beneficial ownership of any voting security or beneficial or record ownership of any nonvoting security of any debt security of ours may be required to be found suitable if a gaming authority has reason to believe that such person’s acquisition of that ownership would otherwise be inconsistent with the declared policy of the jurisdiction.

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Generally, any person who fails or refuses to apply for a finding of suitability or a license within the prescribed period of time after being advised that such a finding or license is required by a gaming authority may be denied a license or be found unsuitable. The same restrictions may also apply to a record owner if the record owner, after being requested, fails to identify the beneficial owner. Any person denied a license or found unsuitable and who holds, directly or indirectly, any beneficial ownership interest in us beyond such period of time as may be prescribed by the applicable gaming authorities may be guilty of a criminal offense. Additionally, we may be subject to disciplinary action if, after we receive notice that a person is unsuitable to be a stockholder or to have a relationship with us or any of our subsidiaries, we:

pay that person any dividend or interest upon our voting securities;
allow that person to exercise, directly or indirectly, any voting right conferred through securities held by that person;
pay remuneration in any form to that person for services rendered or otherwise; or
fail to pursue all lawful efforts to terminate our relationship with that person including, if necessary, the immediate purchase of said voting securities for cash at fair market value.

In light of these regulations and their potential impact on our business, our amended and restated articles of incorporation contain provisions establishing our right to redeem the securities of disqualified holders if necessary to avoid any regulatory sanctions, to prevent the loss or to secure the reinstatement of any license, permit or approval, or if such holder is determined by any gaming authority to be unsuitable, has an application for a license or permit denied or rejected or has a previously issued license or permit rescinded, suspended, revoked or not renewed. The amended and restated articles of incorporation also include provisions defining the redemption price of such securities and the rights of a disqualified security holder.

Testing and Approvals of our Gaming Products

Many jurisdictions require our gaming devices, related gaming equipment, software, and platform to be tested for compliance with the jurisdiction’s technical standards and regulations prior to our being permitted to distribute such devices, equipment, software and platform. The gaming authorities will conduct rigorous testing of our devices, equipment, software and platform through a testing laboratory which may be operated by the gaming authority or by an independent third party and may require a field trial of the device, equipment, software or platform before determining that it meets the gaming authority’s technical standards. As part of the approval process, a gaming authority may require us to modify, update, or revise our device, equipment, software or platform and the approval process may require several rounds before approval is ultimately granted. The time required for product testing can be extensive.

Continued Reporting and Monitoring

In most jurisdictions, even though we are licensed or approved, we remain under the on-going obligation to provide financial information and reports as well as to keep the applicable gaming authorities informed of any material changes in the information provided to them as part of our licensing and approval process. All licenses and approvals must be periodically renewed, in some cases as often as annually. In connection with any initial application or renewal of a gaming license or approval, we (and individuals or entities required to submit to background investigations or suitability determinations in connection with our application or renewal) are typically required to make broad and comprehensive disclosures concerning our history, finances, ownership and corporate structure, operations, compliance controls and business relationships. We must regularly report changes in our officers, key employees and other licensed positions to applicable gaming authorities.

Most gaming jurisdictions impose fees and taxes that are payable by us in connection with our application, maintenance and renewal of our licensure or our approval to conduct business. Laws, regulations, and ordinances governing our gaming related activities and the obligations of gaming companies in any jurisdiction in which we have or in the future may have gaming operations are subject to change that could impose additional operating, financial, or other burdens on our business.

Federal Registration

The Gambling Devices Act of 1962 makes it unlawful for a person to manufacture, transport, or receive gaming devices (including our products), or components across interstate lines unless that person has first registered with the Attorney General of the United States Department of Justice. This act also imposes gambling device identification and record keeping requirements. Violation of this act may result in seizure and forfeiture of the equipment, as well as other penalties. As an entity involved in the manufacture and transportation of gaming devices, we are required to register annually.

Native American Gaming Regulation


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Gaming on Native American lands is governed by federal law, tribal-state compacts, and tribal gaming regulations. Federally, gaming on Native American lands is subject to “the IGRA”, which is administered by the National Indian Gaming Commission (“NIGC”). Under the IGRA, gaming activities conducted by federally recognized Native American tribes are segmented into three classes:

Class I, Class II and Class III.

Class I . Class I gaming represents traditional forms of Native American gaming as part of, or in connection with, tribal ceremonies or celebrations (e.g., contests and games of skill) and social gaming for minimal prizes. Class I gaming is regulated only by each individual Native American tribe. We do not participate in any Class I gaming activities.

Class II . Class II gaming involves the game of chance commonly known as bingo (whether or not electronic, computer, or other technological aids are used in connection therewith to facilitate play) and if played in the same location as bingo, also includes pull tabs, punch board, tip jars, instant bingo, and other games similar to bingo. Class II gaming also includes non-banked card games, that is, games that are played exclusively against other players rather than against the house or a player acting as a bank such as poker. However, the definition of Class II gaming specifically excludes slot machines or electronic facsimiles of Class III games. Class II gaming is regulated by the NIGC and the ordinances and regulations of the Native American tribe conducting such gaming. Subject to the detailed requirements of the IGRA, including NIGC approval of such Native American tribe’s gaming ordinance, federally recognized Native American tribes are typically permitted to conduct Class II gaming on Indian lands pursuant to tribal ordinances approved by the NIGC.

Class III . Class III gaming includes all other forms of gaming that are neither Class I nor Class II and includes a broad range of traditional casino games such as slot machines, blackjack, craps and roulette, as well as wagering games and electronic facsimiles of any game of chance. The IGRA generally permits a Native American tribe to conduct Class III gaming activities on reservation lands subject to the detailed requirements of the IGRA and provided that the Native American tribe has entered into a written agreement or compact with the state that specifically authorizes the types of Class III gaming the tribe may offer. The tribal-state compacts vary from state to state. Many such tribal-state compacts address the manner and extent to which the state or tribe will license manufacturers and suppliers of gaming devices and conduct background investigations and certify the suitability of persons such as officers, directors, key persons and, in some cases, shareholders of gaming device manufacturers and suppliers.

The IGRA is administered by the NIGC and the Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior. The NIGC has authority to issue regulations related to tribal gaming activities, approve tribal ordinances for regulating gaming, approve management agreements for gaming facilities, conduct investigations and monitor tribal gaming generally. The IGRA is subject to interpretation by the NIGC and may be subject to judicial and legislative clarification or amendment. The gaming ordinance of each Native American tribe conducting gaming under the IGRA and the terms of any applicable tribal-state compact establish the regulatory requirements under which we must conduct business on Native American tribal lands.

Under the IGRA, the NIGC’s authority to approve gaming-related contracts is limited to management contracts and collateral agreements related to management contracts. A “management contract” includes any agreement between a Native American tribe and a contractor if such contract or agreement provides for the management of all or part of a gaming operation. To the extent that any of our agreements with Native American tribes are deemed to be management contracts, such agreements would require the approval of the NIGC in order to be valid. To our knowledge, none of our current agreements with Native American tribes qualify as management contracts under the IGRA

In addition, to the extent that any of our agreements with Native American tribes are deemed by the NIGC to create an impermissible proprietary interest, such agreements are void and unenforceable. To our knowledge, none of our current agreements with Native American tribes create an impermissible proprietary interest in Indian gaming.

International Regulation

Certain foreign countries permit the importation, sale, and operation of gaming equipment, software and related equipment in casino and non-casino environments. Some countries prohibit or restrict the payout feature of the traditional slot machine or limit the operation and the number of slot machines to a controlled number of casinos or casino-like locations. Gaming equipment must comply with the individual country’s regulations. Certain jurisdictions do not require the licensing of gaming equipment operators and manufacturers. In Mexico, for example, gaming regulations have not been formalized and although we believe that we are compliant with the current informal regulations, if there are changes or new interpretations of the regulations in that jurisdiction we may be prevented or hindered from operating our business in Mexico.

Social Gaming Regulation

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With respect to our social interactive gaming business, it is largely unregulated at this time. There are, however, movements in some jurisdictions to review social interactive gaming and possibly implement social interactive gaming regulations. We cannot predict the likelihood, timing, scope or terms of any such regulation or the extent to which any such regulation would affect our social interactive gaming business.

We are subject to various federal, state and international laws that affect our interactive business including those relating to the privacy and security of our customer and employee personal information and those relating to the Internet, behavioral tracking, mobile applications, advertising and marketing activities, sweepstakes and contests. Additional laws in all of these areas are likely to be passed in the future, which would result in significant limitations on or changes to the ways in which we collect, use, host, store or transmit the personal information and data of our customers or employees, communicate with our customers or deliver our products and services or may significantly increase our costs of compliance.


Available Information

The Company’s Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act will be made available free of charge on or through our website at www.playags.com as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The information on our website is not, and shall not be deemed to be, part of this report or incorporated into any other filings we make with the SEC. You may also read and obtain copies of any document we file at the SEC’s website. The address of this website is www.sec.gov.

From time to time, we may use our website as a channel of distribution of material information. Financial and other material information regarding the Company is routinely posted on and accessible at www.playags.com.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS.

The following risk factors should be considered carefully in addition to the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those contained in the forward-looking statements. Factors that may cause such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed below as well as those discussed elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

We operate in highly competitive industries and our success depends on our ability to effectively compete with numerous domestic and foreign businesses.

We face significant competition in our businesses and in the evolving interactive gaming industry, not only from our traditional competitors but also from a number of other domestic and foreign providers (or, in some cases, the operators themselves), some of which have substantially greater financial resources and/or experience than we do. Many of our competitors are large, well-established companies with substantially larger operating staffs and greater capital resources and have been engaged in the design, manufacture and operation of electronic gaming equipment business for many years. In addition, we cannot assure you that our products and services will be successful or that we will be able to attract and retain players as our products and services compete with the products and services of others, which may impact the results of our operations.

Our business faces significant competition, including from illegal operators. There are a limited number of gaming operators and many established companies offer competing products. We compete on the basis of the content, features, quality, functionality, responsiveness and price of our products and services.

We also face high levels of competition in the supply of products and services for newly legalized gaming jurisdictions and for openings of new or expanded casinos. Our success is dependent on our ability to successfully enter new markets and compete successfully for new business especially in the face of declining demand for electronic gaming machine replacements.

We also compete to obtain space and favorable placement on casino gaming floors. Casino operators focus on performance, longevity, player appeal and price when making their purchasing and leasing decisions. Competitors with a larger installed base

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of electronic gaming machines and more game themes than ours may have an advantage in obtaining and retaining placements in casinos.

We have offered customers discounts, free trials and free gaming equipment, including conversion kits (and, in some cases, free electronic gaming machines) in connection with the sale or placement of our products and services. In addition, we have, in some cases, agreed to modify pricing and other contractual terms in connection with the sale or placement of our products. In select instances, we may pay for the right to place electronic gaming machines on a casino’s floor and increased fee requirements from such casino operators may greatly reduce our profitability. There can be no assurance that competitive pressure will not cause us to increase the incentives that we offer to our customers or agree to modify contractual terms in ways that are unfavorable to us, which could adversely impact the results of our operations.

Our competitors may provide a greater amount of financing or better terms than we do and this may impact demand for our products and services.

Competition for table game content is focused on player appeal, brand recognition and price. We compete on this basis, as well as on the extent of our sales, service, marketing and distribution channels. We also compete with several companies that primarily develop and license table games, as well as with non-proprietary table games such as blackjack and baccarat.

Our interactive social gaming business is subject to significant competition. We have expanded into interactive social gaming as have several of our competitors and our customers. This expansion causes us to compete with social gaming companies that have no connection to traditional regulated gaming markets and many of those companies have a base of existing users that is larger than ours. In order to stay competitive in our interactive social gaming businesses, we will need to continue to create and market game content that attracts players and invest in new and emerging technologies.

Our success is dependent upon our ability to adapt to and offer products that keep pace with evolving technology related to our businesses.

The success of our products and services is affected by changing technology and evolving industry standards. Our ability to anticipate or respond to such changes and to develop and introduce new and enhanced products and services, including, but not limited to, gaming content, electronic gaming machines, table products and interactive gaming products and services, on a timely basis or at all is a significant factor affecting our ability to remain competitive, retain existing contracts or business and expand and attract new customers and players. There can be no assurance that we will achieve the necessary technological advances or have the financial resources needed to introduce new products or services on a timely basis or at all.

Our success depends upon our ability to respond to dynamic customer and player demand by producing new and innovative products and services. The process of developing new products and systems is inherently complex and uncertain. It requires accurate anticipation of changing customer needs and player preferences as well as emerging technological trends. If our competitors develop new game content and technologically innovative products and we fail to keep pace, our business could be adversely affected. If we fail to accurately anticipate customer needs and player preferences through the development of new products and technologies, we could lose business to our competitors, which would adversely affect our results of operations.

We may experience manufacturing, operational or design problems that could delay or prevent the launch of new products or services. Introducing new and innovative products and services requires us to adapt and refine our manufacturing, operations and delivery capabilities to meet the needs of our product innovation. If we cannot efficiently adapt our manufacturing infrastructure to meet the needs associated with our product innovations, or if we are unable to upgrade our production capacity in a timely manner, our business could be negatively impacted. In the past, we have experienced delays in launching new products and services due to the complex or innovative technologies embedded in our products and services. Such delays can adversely impact our results of operations.

In addition, the social gaming landscape is rapidly evolving and is characterized by major fluctuations in the popularity of social products and platforms, such as mobile. We may be unable to develop products at a rate necessary to respond to these changes, or at all, or that anticipate the interests of social players. Likewise, our social gaming offerings operate largely through Facebook, Google Play for Android devices and Apple’s iOS platform. If alternative platforms increase in popularity, we could be adversely impacted if we fail to timely create compatible versions of our products.

Our success also depends on creating products and services with strong and sustained player appeal. We are under continuous pressure to anticipate player reactions to, and acceptance of, our new products while continuing to provide successful products that generate a high level of play. In some cases, a new game or electronic gaming machine will only be accepted by our casino or interactive gaming customers if we can demonstrate that it is likely to produce more revenue and/or has more player

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appeal than our existing products and services or our competitors’ products and services.

We have invested, and may continue to invest, significant resources in research and development efforts. We invest in a number of areas, including product development for game and system-based hardware, software and game content. In addition, because of the sophistication of our newer products and the resources committed to their development, they are generally more expensive to produce. If our new products do not gain market acceptance or the increase in the average selling or leasing price of these new products is not proportionate to the increase in production cost, in each case as compared to our prior products, or if the average cost of production does not go down over time, whether by reason of long-term customer acceptance, our ability to find greater efficiencies in the manufacturing process as we refine our production capabilities or a general decrease in the cost of the technology, our margins will suffer and could negatively impact our business and results of operations. There can be no assurance that our investment in research and development will lead to successful new technologies or products. If a new product is not successful, we may not recover our development, regulatory approval or promotion costs.

Our success depends in part on our ability to develop, enhance and/or introduce successful gaming concepts and game content. Demand for our products and the level of play of our products could be adversely affected by changes in player and operator preferences.

We believe that creative and appealing game content produces more revenue for our electronic gaming machine customers and provides them with a competitive advantage, which in turn enhances our revenue and our ability to attract new business and to retain existing business. There can be no assurance that we will be able to sustain the success of our existing game content or effectively develop or obtain from third parties game content or licensed brands that will be widely accepted both by our customers and players. As a supplier of gaming equipment, we must offer themes and products that appeal to gaming operators and players. Our revenues are dependent on the earning power and life span of our games. We therefore face continuous pressure to design and deploy new and successful game themes and technologically innovative products to maintain our revenue and remain competitive. If we are unable to anticipate or react timely to any significant changes in player preferences, the demand for our gaming products and the level of play of our gaming products could decline. Further, we could fail to meet certain minimum performance levels, or operators may reduce revenue sharing arrangements with us, each of which could negatively impact our sales and financial results. In addition, general changes in consumer behavior, such as reduced travel activity or redirection of entertainment dollars to other venues, could result in reduced demand and reduced play levels for our gaming products.

Our business is vulnerable to changing economic conditions and to other factors that adversely affect the casino industry, which have negatively impacted and could continue to negatively impact the play levels of our participation games, our product sales and our ability to collect outstanding receivables from our customers.

Demand for our products and services depends largely upon favorable conditions in the casino industry, which is highly sensitive to casino patrons’ disposable incomes and gaming activities. Discretionary spending on entertainment activities could further decline for reasons beyond our control, such as natural disasters, acts of war, terrorism, transportation disruptions or the results of adverse weather conditions. Additionally, disposable income available for discretionary spending may be reduced by higher housing, energy, interest, or other costs, or where the actual or perceived wealth of customers has decreased because of circumstances such as lower residential real estate values, increased foreclosure rates, inflation, increased tax rates, or other economic disruptions. Any prolonged or significant decrease in consumer spending on entertainment activities could result in reduced play levels on our participation games, causing our cash flows and revenues from a large share of our recurring revenue products to decline.

We have incurred, and may continue to incur, additional provisions for bad debt related to credit concerns on certain receivables.

Our ability to operate in our existing markets or expand into new jurisdictions could be adversely affected by changing regulations, new interpretations of existing laws, and difficulties or delays in obtaining or maintaining required licenses or approvals.

We operate only in jurisdictions where gaming is legal. The gaming industry is subject to extensive governmental regulation by U.S. federal, state and local governments, as well as Native American tribal governments, and foreign governments. While the regulatory requirements vary by jurisdiction, most require:

licenses and/or permits;
documentation of qualifications, including evidence of financial stability;
other required approvals for companies who design, assemble, supply or distribute gaming equipment and services; and
individual suitability of officers, directors, major equity holders, lenders, key employees and business partners.

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Any license, permit, approval or finding of suitability may be revoked, suspended or conditioned at any time. We may not be able to obtain or maintain all necessary registrations, licenses, permits or approvals, or could experience delays related to the licensing process which could adversely affect our operations and our ability to retain key employees.

To expand into new jurisdictions, in most cases, we will need to be licensed, obtain approvals of our products and/or seek licensure of our officers, directors, major equity holders, key employees or business partners and potentially lenders. If we fail to obtain a license required in a particular jurisdiction for our games and electronic gaming machines, hardware or software or have such license revoked, we will not be able to expand into, or continue doing business in, such jurisdiction. Any delays in obtaining or difficulty in maintaining regulatory approvals needed for expansion within existing markets or into new jurisdictions can negatively affect our opportunities for growth. In addition, the failure of our officers, directors, key employees or business partners, equity holders, or lenders to obtain or receive licenses in one or more jurisdictions may require us to modify or terminate our relationship with such officers, directors, key employees or business partners, equity holders, or lenders, or forego doing business in such jurisdiction.

Although we plan to maintain our compliance with applicable laws as they evolve, there can be no assurance that we will do so and that law enforcement or gaming regulatory authorities will not seek to restrict our business in their jurisdictions or institute enforcement proceedings if we are not compliant. Moreover, in addition to the risk of enforcement action, we are also at risk of loss of business reputation in the event of any potential legal or regulatory investigation whether or not we are ultimately accused of or found to have committed any violation. A negative regulatory finding or ruling in one jurisdiction could have adverse consequences in other jurisdictions, including with gaming regulators. Furthermore, the failure to become
licensed, or the loss or conditioning of a license, in one market may have the adverse effect of preventing licensing in other markets or the revocation of licenses we already maintain.

Further, changes in existing gaming regulations or new interpretations of existing gaming laws may hinder or prevent us from continuing to operate in those jurisdictions where we currently do business, which would harm our operating results. In particular, the enactment of unfavorable legislation or government efforts affecting or directed at manufacturers or gaming operators, such as referendums to increase gaming taxes or requirements to use local distributors, would likely have a negative impact on our operations. Gaming regulations in Mexico have not been formalized and although we believe that we are compliant with the current informal regulations, if there are changes or new interpretations of the regulations in that jurisdiction we may be prevented or hindered from operating our business in Mexico.

Many jurisdictions also require extensive personal and financial disclosure and background checks from persons and entities beneficially owning a specified percentage (typically 5% or more) of our equity securities and may require the same from our lenders. The failure of these beneficial owners or lenders to submit to such background checks and provide required disclosure could jeopardize our ability to obtain or maintain licensure in such jurisdictions.

Smoking bans in casinos may reduce player traffic and affect our revenues.
 
Some U.S. jurisdictions have introduced or proposed smoking bans in public venues, including casinos, which may reduce player traffic in the facilities of our current and prospective customers, which may reduce revenues on our participation electronic gaming machines or impair our future growth prospects and therefore may adversely impact our revenues in those jurisdictions. Other participants in the gaming industry have reported declines in gaming revenues following the introduction of a smoking ban in jurisdictions in which they operate and we cannot predict the magnitude or timing of any decrease in revenues resulting from the introduction of a smoking ban in any jurisdiction in which we operate.

We have a history of operating losses and a significant accumulated deficit, and we may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future.

We have not been profitable and cannot predict when we will achieve profitability, if ever. As of December 31, 2018 , we had an accumulated deficit of approximately $222.4 million , as a result of historical operating losses. These losses have resulted principally from depreciation and amortization, interest, research and development, sales and marketing and administrative expenses. We also expect our costs to increase in future periods. For example, we intend to expend significant funds to expand our sales and marketing operations, develop new products, meet the increased compliance requirements associated with our transition to and operation as a public company, and expand into new markets, and we may not be able to increase our revenue enough to offset our higher operating expenses. We may incur significant losses in the future for a number of other reasons, including the other risks described in this Form 10-K, and unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications and delays, and other unknown events. While we believe our growth strategy will help us achieve profitability, there can be no guarantee. If we are unable to achieve and sustain profitability, our stock price may significantly decrease.

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We derive a significant portion of our revenue from Native American tribal customers, and our ability to effectively operate in Native American gaming markets is vulnerable to legal and regulatory uncertainties, including the ability to enforce contractual rights on Native American land.

We derive a significant amount of our revenue from participation agreements with Native American gaming operators. Native American tribes are independent governments with sovereign powers and, in the absence of a specific grant of authority by Congress to a state or a specific compact or agreement between a tribal entity and a state that would allow the state to regulate activities taking place on Native American lands, they can enact their own laws and regulate gaming operations and contracts subject to the IGRA. In this capacity, Native American tribes generally enjoy sovereign immunity from lawsuits similar to that of the individual states and the United States. Accordingly, before we can seek to enforce contract rights with a Native American tribe, or an agency or instrumentality of a Native American tribe, we must obtain from the Native American tribe a waiver of its sovereign immunity with respect to the matter in dispute, which we are not always able to do. Without a limited waiver of sovereign immunity, or if such waiver is held to be ineffective, we could be precluded from judicially enforcing any rights or remedies against a Native American tribe, including the right to enter Native American lands to retrieve our property in the event of a breach of contract by the tribal party to that contract. Even if the waiver of sovereign immunity by a Native American tribe is deemed effective, there could be an issue as to the forum in which a lawsuit may be brought against the Native American tribe. Federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction and generally do not have jurisdiction to hear civil cases relating to Native American tribes, and we may be unable to enforce any arbitration decision effectively. Although we attempt to agree upon governing law and venue provisions in our contracts with Native American tribal customers, these provisions vary widely and may not be enforceable.

Certain of our agreements with Native American tribes are subject to review by regulatory authorities. For example, our development agreements may be subject to review by the NIGC, and any such review could require substantial modifications to our agreements or result in the determination that we have a proprietary interest in a Native American tribe’s gaming activity (which is prohibited), which could materially and adversely affect the terms on which we conduct our business. The NIGC may also reinterpret applicable laws and regulations, which could affect our agreements with Native American tribes. We could also be affected by alternative interpretations of the Johnson Act as the Native American tribes, who are the customers for our Class II games, could be subject to significant fines and penalties if it is ultimately determined they are offering an illegal game, and an adverse regulatory or judicial determination regarding the legal status of our products could have material adverse consequences for our results of operations.

Government enforcement, regulatory action, judicial decisions and proposed legislative action have in the past, and will likely continue to affect our business and prospects in Native American tribal lands. The legal and regulatory uncertainties surrounding our Native American tribal agreements could result in a significant and immediate material adverse effect on our results of operations. Additionally, such uncertainties could increase our cost of doing business and could take management’s attention away from operations. Regulatory action against our customers or equipment in these or other markets could result in machine seizures and significant revenue disruptions, among other adverse consequences. Moreover, Native American tribal policies and procedures, as well as tribal selection of gaming vendors, are subject to the political and governance environment
within each Native American tribe. Changes in tribal leadership or tribal political pressure can affect our business relationships within Native American markets.

We may not realize satisfactory returns on money lent to new and existing customers to develop or expand gaming facilities or to acquire gaming routes.

We enter into agreements to provide financing for construction, expansion, or remodeling of gaming facilities, primarily in the state of Oklahoma, and also have agreements in other jurisdictions where we provide loans and advances to route operators to acquire location contracts and fund working capital. Under these agreements, we secure long-term contracts for game placements under either a revenue share or daily fee basis in exchange for the loans and advances. We may not, however, realize the anticipated benefits of any of these strategic relationships or financings as our success in these ventures is dependent upon the timely completion of the gaming facility, the placement of our electronic gaming machines, and a favorable regulatory environment.

These activities may result in unforeseen operating difficulties, financial risks, or required expenditures that could adversely affect our liquidity. In connection with one or more of these transactions, and to obtain the necessary funds to enter these agreements, we may need to extend secured and unsecured credit to potential or existing customers that may not be repaid, incur debt on terms unfavorable to us or that we are unable to repay, or incur other contingent liabilities.

The failure to maintain controls and processes related to billing and collecting accounts receivable or the deterioration of the financial condition of our customers could negatively impact our business. As a result of these agreements, the collection of notes receivable has become a matter of greater significance. While we believe the increased level of these specific receivables

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has allowed us to grow our business, it has also required direct, additional focus of and involvement by management. Further, and especially due to the current downturn in the economy, some of our customers may not pay the notes receivable when due.

We rely on information technology and other systems and any failures in our systems could disrupt our business and adversely impact our results.

We rely on information technology systems that are important to the operation of our business, some of which are managed by third parties. These systems are used to process, transmit and store electronic information, to manage and support our business operations and to maintain internal controls over our financial reporting. We could encounter difficulties in developing new systems, maintaining and upgrading current systems and preventing security breaches. Among other things, our systems are susceptible to outages due to fire, floods, power loss, break-ins, cyber-attacks, network penetration, denial of service attacks and similar events. While we have and will continue to implement network security measures and data protection safeguards, our servers and other computer systems are vulnerable to viruses, malicious software, hacking, break-ins or theft, data privacy or security breaches, third-party security breaches, employee error or malfeasance and similar events. Failures in our systems or services or unauthorized access to or tampering with our systems and databases could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation and results of operations. Any failures in our computer systems or telecommunications services could affect our ability to operate our linked games or otherwise conduct business.

Portions of our information technology infrastructure also may experience interruptions, delays or cessations of service or produce errors in connection with systems integration or migration work that takes place from time to time. We may not be successful in implementing new systems and transitioning data, which could cause business disruptions and be more expensive, time consuming, disruptive and resource-intensive. Such disruptions could materially and adversely impact our ability to deliver products to customers and interrupt other processes. If our information systems do not allow us to transmit accurate information, even for a short period of time, to key decision makers, the ability to manage our business could be disrupted and our results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. Failure to properly or adequately address these issues could impact our ability to perform necessary business operations, which could materially and adversely affect our reputation, competitive position and results of operations.

Due to the ever-changing threat landscape, our operations and services may be subject to certain risks, including hacking or other unauthorized access to control or view systems.
 
Companies are under increasing attack by cybercriminals around the world. While we implement security measures within our operations and systems, those measures may not prevent cybersecurity breaches; the access, capture, or alteration of information by criminals; the exposure or exploitation of potential security vulnerabilities; distributed denial of service attacks; the installation of malware or ransomware; acts of vandalism; computer viruses; or misplaced data or data loss that could be detrimental to our reputation, business, financial condition, and results of operations. Third parties, including our vendors, could also be a source of security risk to us in the event of a failure of their own products, components, networks, security systems, and infrastructure. In addition, we cannot be certain that advances in criminal capabilities, new discoveries in the field of cryptography, or other developments will not compromise or breach the technology protecting the networks that access our products and services.
Our Interactive segment’s products are accessed through the Internet, and leverage the connectivity of Facebook and other mobile platforms. As such, security breaches in connection with the delivery of our services via the Internet may affect us and could be detrimental to our reputation, business, operating results, and financial condition. In addition, we depend on our information technology infrastructure for the business-to-business and business-to-consumer portions of our Interactive Segment. Security breaches of, or sustained attacks against, this infrastructure could create system disruptions and shutdowns that could negatively impact our operations. We continue to invest in new and emerging technology and other solutions to protect our network and information systems, but there can be no assured that these investments and solutions will prevent any of the risks described above.
Slow growth in the development of new gaming jurisdictions or the number of new casinos, declines in the rate of replacement of existing electronic gaming machines and ownership changes and consolidation in the casino industry could limit or reduce our future prospects.

Demand for our new participation electronic gaming machine placements and game sales is partially driven by the development of new gaming jurisdictions, the addition of new casinos or expansion of existing casinos within existing gaming jurisdictions and the replacement of existing electronic gaming machines. The establishment or expansion of gaming in any jurisdiction typically requires a public referendum or other legislative action. As a result, gaming continues to be the subject of public debate, and there are numerous active organizations that oppose gaming. There can be no assurances that new gaming

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jurisdictions will be established in the future or that existing jurisdictions will expand gaming, and, thus, our growth strategy could be negatively impacted.

To the extent new gaming jurisdictions are established or expanded, we cannot guarantee we will be successful penetrating such new jurisdictions or expanding our business in line with the growth of existing jurisdictions. As we enter into new markets, we may encounter legal and regulatory challenges that are difficult or impossible to foresee and which could result in an unforeseen adverse impact on planned revenues or costs associated with the new market opportunity. If we are unable to effectively develop and operate within these new markets, then our business, operating results and financial condition would be impaired. Furthermore, as we attempt to generate new streams of revenue by placing our participation electronic gaming machines with new customers we may have difficulty implementing an effective placement strategy for jurisdictional specific games. Our failure to successfully implement an effective placement strategy could cause our future operating results to vary materially from what management has forecasted.

In addition, the construction of new casinos or expansion of existing casinos fluctuates with demand, general economic conditions and the availability of financing. We believe the rate of gaming growth in North America has decelerated and machine replacements are at historically low levels. Slow growth in the establishment of new gaming jurisdictions or delays in the opening of new or expanded casinos and continued declines in, or low levels of demand for, electronic gaming machine replacements could reduce the demand for our products and our future profits. Our business could be negatively affected if one or more of our customers is sold to or merges with another entity that utilizes more of the products and services of one of our competitors or that reduces spending on our products or causes downward pricing pressures. Such consolidations could lead to order cancellations, a slowing in the rate of electronic gaming machine replacements, or require our current customers to switch to our competitors’ products, any of which could negatively impact our results of operations.

States and other jurisdictions may amend or repeal gaming enabling legislation which could materially impact our business.

States and other jurisdictions may amend or repeal gaming enabling legislation which could materially impact our business. Changes to gaming enabling legislation could increase our operating expenses and compliance costs or decrease the profitability of our operations. Repeal of gaming enabling legislation could result in losses of capital investments and revenue, limit future growth opportunities and have a material adverse impact in our financial condition and results of operations. If any jurisdiction in which we operate were to repeal gaming enabling legislation, there could be no assurance that we could sufficiently increase our revenue in other markets to maintain operations or service our existing indebtedness.

The intellectual property rights of others may prevent us from developing new products and services, entering new markets or may expose us to liability or costly litigation and litigation regarding our intellectual property could have a material adverse effect on the results of our business or intellectual property.

Our success depends in part on our ability to continually adapt our products to incorporate new technologies and to expand into markets that may be created by new technologies. If technologies are protected by the intellectual property rights of others, including our competitors, we may be prevented from introducing products based on these technologies or expanding into markets created by these technologies. If the intellectual property rights of others prevent us from taking advantage of innovative technologies, our prospects and results of operations may be adversely affected.

There can be no assurance that our business activities, games, products, services and systems will not infringe upon the proprietary rights of others, or that other parties will not assert infringement claims against us. In addition to infringement claims, third parties may allege claims of invalidity or unenforceability against us or against our licensees or manufacturers in connection with their use of our technology. A successful challenge to, or invalidation of, one of our intellectual property interests, a successful claim of infringement by a third party against us, our products or services, or one of our licensees in connection with the use of our technologies, or an unsuccessful claim of infringement made by us against a third party or its products or services could adversely affect our business or cause us financial harm. Any such claim and any resulting litigation, should it occur, could:

be expensive and time consuming to defend or require us to pay significant amounts in damages;
invalidate our proprietary rights;
cause us to cease making, licensing or using products or services that incorporate the challenged intellectual property;
require us to redesign, reengineer or rebrand our products or services or limit our ability to bring new products and services to the market in the future;
require us to enter into costly or burdensome royalty, licensing or settlement agreements in order to obtain the right to use a product, process or component;
impact the commercial viability of the products and services that are the subject of the claim during the pendency of such claim; or

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require us by way of injunction to remove products or services on lease or stop selling or leasing new products or services.

A significant portion of our success depends on the protection of our intellectual property. In the future we may make claims of infringement, invalidity or enforceability against third parties. This enforcement could:

cause us to incur greater costs and expenses in the protection of our intellectual property;
potentially negatively impact our intellectual property rights;
cause one or more of our patents, trademarks, copyrights or other intellectual property interests to be ruled or rendered unenforceable or invalid; or
divert management’s attention and our resources.

Our inability to complete future acquisitions and integrate those businesses successfully could limit our future growth.

From time to time, we pursue strategic acquisitions in support of our strategic goals. In connection with any such acquisitions, we could face significant challenges in managing and integrating our expanded or combined operations, including acquired assets, operations and personnel. There can be no assurance that acquisition opportunities will be available on acceptable terms or at all or that we will be able to obtain necessary financing or regulatory approvals to complete potential acquisitions. Our ability to succeed in implementing our strategy will depend to some degree upon the ability of our management to identify, complete and successfully integrate commercially viable acquisitions. Acquisition transactions may disrupt our ongoing business and distract management from other responsibilities.

In addition, there can be no assurance regarding when or the extent to which we will be able to realize any anticipated financial or operational benefits, synergies or cost savings from these acquisitions. We may also incur greater costs than estimated to achieve all of the synergies and other benefits from an acquisition. Integration may also be difficult, unpredictable and subject to delay because of possible company culture conflicts and different opinions on technical decisions and product roadmaps. We may be required to integrate or, in some cases, replace, numerous systems, such as those involving management information, purchasing, accounting and finance, sales, billing, employee benefits, payroll, data privacy and security and regulatory compliance.

Our business is dependent on the security and integrity of the systems and products we offer.

We believe that our success depends, in part, on providing secure products, services and systems to our customers. Attempts to penetrate security measures may come from various combinations of customers, retailers, vendors, employees and others. Our ability to prevent anomalies and monitor and ensure the quality and integrity of our products and services is periodically reviewed and enhanced. Similarly, we regularly assess the adequacy of our security systems to protect against any material loss to any of our customers and the integrity of our products and services to players. Expanded utilization of the internet and other interactive technologies may result in increased security risks for us and our customers. There can be no assurance that our business will not be affected by a security breach or lapse, which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.

Our success depends on our ability to avoid, detect, replicate and correct software and hardware anomalies and fraudulent manipulation of our electronic gaming machines. We incorporate security features into the design of our electronic gaming machines and other systems, which are designed to prevent us, our customers and players from being defrauded. We also monitor our software and hardware to avoid, detect and correct any technical errors. However, there can be no guarantee that our security features or technical efforts will continue to be effective in the future. If our security systems fail to prevent fraud or if we experience any significant technical difficulties, our operating results could be adversely affected. Additionally, if third parties breach our security systems and defraud players, or if our hardware or software experiences any technical anomalies, our customers and the public may lose confidence in our electronic gaming machines and operations, or we could become subject to legal claims by our customers or to investigation by gaming authorities.

Our EGMs have experienced anomalies and fraudulent manipulation in the past. Games and EGMs may be replaced by casinos and other electronic gaming machine operators if they do not perform according to expectations or they may be shut down by regulators. The occurrence of anomalies in, or fraudulent manipulation of, our electronic gaming machines or our other gaming products and services (including our interactive products and services), may give rise to claims from players and claims for lost revenue and profits and related litigation by our customers and may subject us to investigation or other action by regulatory authorities, including suspension or revocation of our licenses or other disciplinary action. Additionally, in the event of the occurrence of any such issues with our products and services, substantial engineering and marketing resources may be
diverted from other projects to correct these issues, which may delay other projects and the achievement of our strategic objectives.

Although our network is private, it is susceptible to outages due to fire, floods, power loss, break-ins, cyberattacks and similar events. We have back-up capabilities for our services in the event of any such occurrence. Despite our implementation of

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network security measures, our servers are vulnerable to computer viruses and break-ins. Similar disruptions from unauthorized tampering with our computer systems in any such event could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

The results of our operations could be affected by natural events in the locations in which we or our customers, suppliers or regulators operate.

We may be impacted by severe weather and other geological events, including hurricanes, earthquakes, floods or tsunamis that could disrupt our operations or the operations of our customers, suppliers, data service providers and regulators. Natural disasters or other disruptions at any of our facilities or our suppliers’ facilities may impair or delay delivery of our products and services. Additionally, disruptions experienced by our regulators due to natural disasters or otherwise could delay our introduction of new products or entry into new jurisdictions where regulatory approval is necessary. Adverse weather conditions, particularly flooding, tornadoes, heavy snowfall and other extreme weather conditions often deter our customer’s players from traveling, or make it difficult for them to frequent the sites where our games are installed. If any of those sites
experienced prolonged adverse weather conditions, or if the sites in Oklahoma, where a significant number of our games are installed, simultaneously experienced adverse weather conditions, our results of operations and financial condition would be materially and adversely affected. While we insure against certain business interruption risks, we cannot provide any assurance that such insurance will compensate us for any losses incurred as a result of natural or other disasters. Any serious disruption to our operations, or those of our customers, our suppliers or our regulators, could have a material adverse effect on the results of our operations.

We are dependent on our suppliers and contract manufacturers and any failure of these parties to meet our performance and quality standards or requirements could cause us to incur additional costs or lose customers.
 
The manufacturing, assembling and designing of our electronic gaming machines depends upon a continuous supply of raw materials and components, such as source cabinets, which we currently source primarily from a limited number of suppliers. Our operating results could be adversely affected by an interruption or cessation in the supply of these items or a serious quality assurance lapse, including as a result of the insolvency of any of our key suppliers. We may be unable to find adequate replacements for our suppliers within a reasonable time frame, on favorable commercial terms or at all. Further, manufacturing costs may unexpectedly increase and we may not be able to successfully recover any or all of such cost increases.

The risks related to operations in foreign countries and outside of traditional U.S jurisdictions could negatively affect our results.

We operate in jurisdictions outside of the United States, principally in Mexico and on tribal lands of Native American tribes. The developments noted below, among others, could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations:

social, political or economic instability;
additional costs of compliance with international laws or unexpected changes in regulatory requirements;
tariffs and other trade barriers;
fluctuations in foreign exchange rates outside the United States;
adverse changes in the creditworthiness of parties with whom we have significant receivables or forward currency exchange contracts;
expropriation, nationalization and restrictions on repatriation of funds or assets;
difficulty protecting our intellectual property;
recessions in foreign economies;
difficulties in maintaining foreign operations;
changes in consumer tastes and trends;
risks associated with compliance with anti-corruption laws;
acts of war or terrorism; and
U.S. government requirements for export.

In addition, our ability to expand successfully in foreign jurisdictions involves other risks, including difficulties in integrating foreign operations, risks associated with entering jurisdictions in which we may have little experience and the day-to-day management of a growing and increasingly geographically diverse company. Our investment in foreign jurisdictions often entails partnering or other business relationships with locally based entities, which can involve additional risks arising from our lack of sole decision-making authority, our reliance on a partner’s financial condition, inconsistency between our business interests or goals and those of our partners and disputes between us and our partners.


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Brexit . On June 23, 2016, the United Kingdom held a referendum at which the electorate voted to leave the Council of the European Union (the “E.U.”). On March 29, 2017, the government of the United Kingdom invoked article 50 of the Treaty of Lisbon (the “Treaty”) and formally initiated the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the E.U. The Treaty provides for a period of up to two years for negotiation of withdrawal arrangements, at the end of which (whether or not agreement has been reached) the treaties cease to apply to the withdrawing member state unless the European Council, in agreement with the member state concerned, unanimously decides to extend this period. While the government of the United Kingdom and the E.U. continue the withdrawal negotiations, and possibly after these negotiations have been completed, there is considerable uncertainty as to the position of the United Kingdom and the arrangements which will apply to its relationships with the E.U. and other countries following its withdrawal. This uncertainty may affect other countries in the E.U., or elsewhere, if they are considered to be impacted by these events. Additionally, political parties in several other E.U. member states have proposed that a similar referendum be held to determine their country’s membership in the E.U. It is unclear whether any other E.U. member states will hold such referendums, but such referendums could result in one or more other countries leaving the E.U. or in major reforms being made to the E.U. or to the Eurozone. It is also unclear what status Gibraltar will have after the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the E.U. This outcome may further have a material adverse effect on our operations as AGS iGaming operates in Gibraltar.

Foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations and other risks could impact our business.

For the year ended December 31, 2018 , we derived approximately 11% of our revenue from customers outside of the United States. Our consolidated financial results are affected by foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations. Foreign currency exchange rate exposures arise from current transactions and anticipated transactions denominated in currencies other than U.S. dollars and from the translation of foreign currency denominated balance sheet accounts into U.S. dollar-denominated balance sheet accounts. We are exposed to currency exchange rate fluctuations because portions of our revenue and expenses are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, particularly the Mexican Peso. If a foreign currency is devalued in a
jurisdiction in which we are paid in such currency, we may require our customers to pay higher amounts for our products, which they may be unable or unwilling to pay.

Our business is subject to quarterly fluctuation.

Historically, our operating results have been highest during the first and second quarters and lowest in our third and fourth quarters, primarily due to the seasonality of player demand. Our quarterly operating results may vary based on the timing of the opening of new gaming jurisdictions, the opening or closing of casinos, the expansion or contraction of existing casinos, approval or denial of our products and corporate licenses under gaming regulations, the introduction of new products, the seasonality of customer capital budgets, the mix of domestic versus international sales and the mix of lease and royalty revenue versus sales and service revenue. As a result, our operating results could be volatile, particularly on a quarterly basis.

In light of the foregoing, results for any quarter are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be achieved in another quarter or for the full fiscal year. There can be no assurance that the seasonal trends and other factors that have impacted our historical results will repeat in future periods as we cannot influence or forecast many of these factors.

We could face risks associated with, or arising out of, environmental, health and safety laws and regulations.

We are subject to various U.S. federal, state and local laws and regulations that (i) regulate certain activities and operations that may have environmental or health and safety effects, such as the use of regulated materials in the manufacture of our products by third parties or our disposal of materials, substances or wastes, (ii) impose liability for costs of cleaning up, and damages to natural resources from, past spills, waste disposals on and off-site, or other releases of hazardous materials or regulated substances, and (iii) regulate workplace safety. Compliance with these laws and regulations could increase our and our third-party manufacturers’ costs and impact the availability of components required to manufacture our products. Violation of these laws may subject us to significant fines, penalties or disposal costs, which could negatively impact our results of operations. We could be responsible for the investigation and remediation of environmental conditions at currently or formerly operated or leased sites, as well as for associated liabilities, including liabilities for natural resource damages, third party property damage or personal injury resulting from lawsuits that could be brought by the government or private litigants, relating to our operations, the operations of facilities or the land on which our facilities are located. We may be subject to these liabilities regardless of whether we lease or own the facility, and regardless of whether such environmental conditions were created by us or by a prior owner or tenant, or by a third party or a neighboring facility whose operations may have affected such facility or land. That is because liability for contamination under certain environmental laws can be imposed on current or past owners or operators of a site without regard to fault. We cannot assure you that environmental conditions relating to our prior, existing or future sites or those of predecessor companies whose liabilities we may have assumed or acquired will not have a material adverse effect on our business.


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If our products contain defects, we may be liable for product defects or other claims, our reputation could be harmed and our results of operations adversely affected.

Our products could be defective, fail to perform as designed or otherwise cause harm to our customers, their equipment or their products. If any of our products are defective, we may be required to recall the products and/or repair or replace them, which could result in substantial expenses and affect our profitability. Any problem with the performance of our products, such as a false jackpot or other prize, could harm our reputation, which could result in a loss of sales to customers and/or potential customers and in turn termination of leases, cancellation of orders, product returns and diversion of our resources. In addition, the occurrence of errors in, or fraudulent manipulation of, our products or software may give rise to claims by our customers or by our customers’ players, including claims by our customers for lost revenues and related litigation that could result in significant liability. Any claims brought against us by customers may result in diversion of management’s time and attention, expenditure of large amounts of cash on legal fees and payment of damages, lower demand for our products or services, or injury to our reputation. Our insurance may not sufficiently cover a judgment against us or a settlement payment and is subject to customary deductibles, limits and exclusions. In addition, a judgment against us or a settlement could make it
difficult for us to obtain insurance in the coverage amounts necessary to adequately insure our businesses, or at all, and could materially increase our insurance premiums and deductibles in the future. In addition, software bugs or malfunctions, errors in distribution or installation of our software, failure of our products to perform as approved by the appropriate regulatory bodies or other errors or malfunctions, may subject us to investigation or other action by gaming regulatory authorities, including fines. Any of these occurrences could also result in the loss of or delay in market acceptance of our products and loss of revenue.

Our revenues are vulnerable to the impact of changes to the Class II regulatory scheme.

Our Native American tribal customers that operate Class II games under the IGRA are subject to regulation by the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC). The NIGC has conducted and is expected to again conduct consultations with industry participants regarding Native American gaming activities, including the clarification of regulations regarding Class II electronic gaming machines. It is possible that any such changes in regulations, when finally enacted, could cause us to modify our Class II games to comply with the new regulations, which may result in our products becoming less competitive. Any required conversion of games pursuant to changing regulatory schemes could cause a disruption to our business. In addition, we could lose market share to competitors who offer games that do not appear to comply with published regulatory restrictions on Class II games and therefore offer features not available in our products.

State compacts with our existing Native American tribal customers to allow Class III gaming could reduce demand for our Class II games and our entry into the Class III market may be difficult as we compete against larger companies in the tribal Class III market.

Most of our Class II Native American tribal customers have entered into compacts with the states in which they operate to permit the operation of Class III games. While we seek to also provide Class III alternatives in these markets, we believe the number of our Class II game machine placements in those customers’ facilities could decline, and our operating results could be materially and adversely affected. As our Native American tribal customers continue to transition to gaming under compacts with the state, we continue to face significant uncertainty in the market that makes our business in these states difficult to manage and predict and we may be forced to compete with larger companies that specialize in Class III gaming. We believe the establishment of state compacts depends on a number of political, social, and economic factors that are inherently difficult to ascertain. Accordingly, although we attempt to closely monitor state legislative developments that could affect our business, we may not be able to timely predict if or when a compact could be entered into by one or more of our Native American tribal customers. For example, in Oklahoma, the continued introduction of Class III games since the passage of the tribal gaming compact in 2004 may put pressure on our revenue and unit market share and our revenue share percentages and may result in a shift in the market from revenue share arrangements to a “for sale” model.

The participation share rates for gaming revenue we receive pursuant to our participation agreements with our Native American tribal customers has, on average, decreased in recent years and may continue to decrease in the future.

The percentage of gaming revenue we receive pursuant to our participation agreements, or our participation share rates, with our Native American tribal customers has, on average, decreased in recent years, negatively affecting our profit margins. There can be no assurance that participation rates will not decrease further in the future. In addition, our Native American tribal customers may adopt policies or insist upon additional business terms during the renewal of our existing participation agreements that negatively affect the profitability of those relationships. In addition, any participation agreements we may enter into in the future with new customers or in new jurisdictions may not have terms as favorable as our existing participation agreements.



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We generate a substantial amount of our total revenue from two customers and in two states.

For the year ended December 31, 2018 , approximately 22% of our total revenue was derived from gaming operations in Oklahoma, and approximately 11% of our total revenue was from one Native American gaming tribe in that state. Additionally, for the year ended December 31, 2018 , approximately 9% of our total revenue was derived from gaming operations in Alabama, and approximately 9% of our total revenue was from one Native American gaming tribe in that state. The significant concentration of our revenue in Oklahoma and Alabama means that local economic, regulatory and licensing changes in Oklahoma or Alabama may adversely affect our business disproportionately to changes in national economic conditions, including adverse economic declines or slower economic recovery from prior declines. While we continue to seek to diversify the markets in which we operate, changes to our business, operations, game performance and customer relationships in Oklahoma or Alabama, due to changing gaming regulations or licensing requirements, higher taxes, increased competition, declines in market revenue share percentages or otherwise, could have a material and adverse effect on or financial condition and results of operations. In addition, changes in our relationship with our two largest customers, including any disagreements or disputes, a decrease in revenue share, removal of electronic gaming machines or non-renewal of contracts, could have a material and adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Our business depends on the protection of our intellectual property and proprietary information and on our ability to license intellectual property from third parties.

We believe that our success depends, in part, on protecting our intellectual property in the U.S. and in foreign countries and our ability to license intellectual property from third parties on commercially reasonable terms. The patent, trademark and trade secret laws of some countries may not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. Our intellectual property includes certain patents, trademarks and copyrights relating to our products and services (including electronic gaming machines, interactive gaming products, table games, card shufflers and accessories ), as well as proprietary or confidential information that is not subject to patent or similar protection. Our success may depend, in part, on our ability to obtain protection for the trademarks, names, logos or symbols under which we market our products and to obtain copyright and patent protection for our proprietary technologies, intellectual property and innovations. There can be no assurance that we will be able to build and maintain consumer value in our trademarks, obtain patent, trademark or copyright protection or that any trademark, copyright or patent will provide us with competitive advantages. In particular, the Alice Corp. v. CLS Bank International (2014) U.S. Supreme Court decision tightened the standard for patent eligibility of software patents and other court decisions in recent years have trended towards a narrowing of patentable subject matter. A change in view at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (the “USPTO”) has resulted in Patents for table games having been put into serious doubt by the USPTO. Thus, our ability to protect table games with patents can impact our ability to sustain a competitive advantage. Furthermore, at least one federal court has held that United States patent, trademark and trade secret laws of general application are not binding on Native American tribes absent a binding waiver of sovereign immunity. These and similar decisions in the future may negatively impact the validity or enforceability of certain of our patents, our ability to protect our inventions, innovations and new technology and the value of our substantial patent portfolio.

Our intellectual property protects the integrity of our games and services. Competitors may independently develop similar or superior products or software, which could negatively impact the results of our operations. We have a limited ability to prevent others from creating materially similar products. Despite our efforts to protect these proprietary rights, unauthorized parties may try to copy our gaming products, business models or systems, use certain of our confidential information to develop competing products, or develop independently or otherwise obtain and use our gaming products or technology. In cases where our technology or product is not protected by enforceable intellectual property rights, such independent development may result in a significant diminution in the value of such technology or product.

We rely on products, technologies and intellectual property that we license from third parties for our businesses. The future success of our business may depend, in part, on our ability to obtain, retain and/or expand licenses for popular technologies and games in a competitive market. There can be no assurance that these third-party licenses, or support for such licensed products and technologies, will continue to be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. In the event that we cannot renew and/or expand existing licenses, we may be required to discontinue or limit our use of the products that include or incorporate the licensed intellectual property. Certain of our license agreements grant the licensor rights to audit our use of their intellectual property. Disputes with licensors over uses or terms could result in the payment of additional royalties or penalties by us, cancellation or non-renewal of the underlying license or litigation.

We also rely on trade secrets and proprietary know-how. We enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees and independent contractors regarding our trade secrets and proprietary information, but we cannot assure you that the obligation to maintain the confidentiality of our trade secrets and proprietary information will be honored. If these agreements are breached, it is unlikely that the remedies available to us will be sufficient to compensate us for the damages suffered. Additionally, despite

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various confidentiality agreements and other trade secret protections, our trade secrets and proprietary know-how could become known to, or independently developed by, competitors. Moreover, if our competitors independently develop equivalent knowledge, methods or know-how, it will be more difficult for us to enforce our rights and our business could be harmed.

Failure to attract, retain and motivate key employees may adversely affect our ability to compete.

Our success depends largely on recruiting and retaining talented employees. The market for qualified, licensable executives and highly skilled, technical workers, such as content developers, is intensely competitive. The loss of key employees or an inability to hire a sufficient number of technical workers could limit our ability to develop successful products, cause delays in getting new products to market, cause disruptions to our customer relationships or otherwise adversely affect our business.

Some of our products contain open source software which may be subject to restrictive open source licenses, requiring us to make our source code available to third parties and potentially granting third parties certain rights to the software.

Some of our products contain open source software which may be subject to restrictive open source licenses.
Some of these licenses may require that we make our source code governed by the open source software licenses available to third parties and/or license such software under the terms of a particular open source license, potentially granting third parties certain rights to our software. We may incur legal expenses in defending against claims that we did not abide by such licenses. If our defenses are unsuccessful, we may be enjoined from distributing products containing such open source software, be required to make the relevant source code available to third parties, be required to grant third parties certain rights to the software, be subject to potential damages or be required to remove the open source software from our products. Any of these outcomes could disrupt our distribution and sale of related products and adversely affect our business.

We rely on hardware, software and games licensed from third parties, and on technology provided by third-party vendors, the loss of which could materially and adversely affect our business, increase our costs and delay deployment or suspend development of our electronic gaming machines, games and systems.

We have entered into license agreements with third parties for the exclusive use of their technology and intellectual property rights in the gaming industry and we also rely on third-party manufacturers to manufacture certain gaming equipment. We rely on these other parties to maintain and protect this technology and the related intellectual property rights. If our licensors fail to protect their intellectual property rights in material that we license and we are unable to protect such intellectual property rights, the value of our licenses may diminish significantly and our business could be significantly harmed.

In addition, if these agreements expire and we are unable to renew them, or if the manufacturers of this software or hardware, or functional equivalents of this software or hardware, were either no longer available to us or no longer offered to us on commercially reasonable terms, we may lose a valuable competitive advantage and our business could be harmed.

Acts of God, adverse weather and shipping difficulties, particularly with respect to international third-party suppliers of our components, could cause significant production delays. If we are unable to obtain these components from our established third-party vendors, we could be required to either redesign our product to function with alternate third-party products or to develop or manufacture these components ourselves, which would result in increased costs and could result in delays in the deployment of our electronic gaming machines, games and systems. Furthermore, we might be forced to limit the features available in our current or future offerings.

We rely on intellectual property licenses from one or more third-party competitors, the loss of which could materially and adversely affect our business and the sale or placement of our products. Various third-party gaming manufacturers with which we compete are much larger than us and have substantially larger intellectual property assets. The gaming manufacturer industry is very competitive and litigious, and a lawsuit brought by one of our larger competitors, whether or not well-founded, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operations or cash flows and our ability to sell or place our products.

Continued operation and our ability to service several of our installed electronic gaming machines depends upon our relationships with service providers, and changes in those relationships could negatively impact our business.

We operate many electronic gaming machines that utilize third party software for which we do not own or control the underlying software code. Further, we enter into arrangements with third party vendors, from time to time, for the provision of services related to development and operation of our products. Consequently, our operations, growth prospects and future revenues could be dependent on our continued relationships with third party vendors. While we have historically maintained good relationships with third party vendors, our business would suffer if we are unable to continue these relationships in the future. Our third party vendors may have economic or business interests or goals that are inconsistent with our interests and goals, take actions

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contrary to our objectives or policies, undergo a change of control, experience financial and other difficulties or be unable or unwilling to fulfill their obligations under our arrangements. The failure to avoid or mitigate the risks described
above or other risks associated with such arrangements could have a material adverse effect on our results of
operations.

We are continuing to maintain our internal controls over financial reporting.

Our independent registered public accounting firm is not required to audit the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting until after we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, which at the latest would be the end of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the initial public offering. At such time, our internal controls over financial reporting may be insufficiently documented, designed or operating, which may cause our independent registered public accounting firm to issue a report that is adverse.

Certain contracts with our customers are on a month-to-month basis, and if we are unable to maintain our current customers on terms that are favorable to us, our business, financial condition, or results of operations may suffer a detrimental effect.

Certain contracts with our customers are generally on a month-to-month basis, except for customers with whom we have entered into development and placement fee agreements. We do not rely upon the stated term of our gaming device contracts to retain the business of our customers. We rely instead upon providing competitive electronic gaming machines, games and systems to give our customers the incentive to continue doing business with us. At any point in time, a significant portion of our gaming device business is subject to nonrenewal, which may have a detrimental effect on our earnings, financial condition and cash flows. To renew or extend any of our customer contracts generally, we may be required to accept financial and other terms that are less favorable to us than the terms of the expired contracts. In addition, we may not succeed in renewing customer contracts when they expire. If we are required to agree to other less favorable terms to retain our customers or we are not able to renew our relationships with our customers upon the expiration of our contracts, our business, financial condition or results of operations may suffer a detrimental effect.

We may not successfully enter new markets and potential new markets may not develop quickly or at all.

If and as new and developing domestic markets develop, competition among providers of gaming-related products and services will intensify. We will face a number of hurdles in our attempts to enter these markets, including the need to expand our sales and marketing presence, compete against pre-existing relationships that our target customers may have with our competitors, the uncertainty of compliance with new or developing regulatory regimes (including regulatory regimes relating to internet gaming) with which we are not currently familiar, and oversight by regulators that are not familiar with us or our businesses. Each of these risks could materially impair our ability to successfully expand our operations into these new and developing domestic markets.

In addition, as we attempt to sell our gaming-related products and services into international markets in which we have not previously operated, we may become exposed to political, economic, tax, legal and regulatory risks not faced by businesses that operate only in the United States. The legal and regulatory regimes of foreign markets and their ramifications on our business are less certain. Our international operations are subject to a variety of risks, including different regulatory requirements and interpretations, trade barriers, difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations, higher rates of fraud, compliance with anti-corruption and export control laws, fluctuations in currency exchange rates, difficulty in enforcing or interpreting contracts or legislation, political and economic instability and potentially adverse tax consequences. Difficulties in obtaining approvals, licenses or waivers from the gaming authorities of other jurisdictions, in addition to other potential regulatory and quasi-regulatory issues that we have not yet ascertained, may arise in international jurisdictions into which we attempt to enter. In these new markets, our operations will rely on an infrastructure of, among other things, financial services and telecommunications facilities that may not be sufficient to support our business needs. In these new markets, we may additionally provide services based upon interpretations of applicable law, which interpretation may be subject to regulatory or judicial review. These risks, among others, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and operations. In connection with our expansion into new international markets, we may forge strategic relationships with business partners to assist us. The success of our expansion into these markets therefore may depend in part upon the success of the business partners with whom we forge these strategic relationships. If we do not successfully form strategic relationships
with the right business partners or if we are not able to overcome cultural or business practice differences, our ability to penetrate these new international markets could suffer.

We may not be able to capitalize on the expansion of internet or other forms of interactive gaming or other trends and changes in the gaming industries, including due to laws and regulations governing these industries.


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We participate in the new and evolving interactive gaming industry through our social and interactive gaming products. Part of our strategy is to take advantage of the liberalization of interactive gaming, both within the U.S. and internationally. These industries involve significant risks and uncertainties, including legal, business and financial risks. The success of these industries and of our interactive gaming products and services may be affected by future developments in social networks, including Apple, Google or Facebook developments, mobile platforms, regulatory developments, data privacy laws and other factors that we are unable to predict and are beyond our control. This fast-changing environment can make it difficult to plan strategically and can provide opportunities for competitors to grow their businesses at our expense. Consequently, the future results of our operations relating to our interactive gaming products and services are difficult to predict and may not grow at the rates we expect, and we cannot provide assurance that these products and services will be successful in the long term.

In general, our ability to successfully pursue our interactive gaming strategy depends on the laws and regulations relating to our gaming activities through interactive channels.

With respect to our interactive gaming business, although largely unregulated at this time, there are movements in some jurisdictions to review social gaming and possibly implement social gaming regulations. We cannot predict the likelihood, timing, scope or terms of any such regulation or the extent to which they may affect our social gaming business. The social business is subject to evolving regulations and the status of any particular jurisdiction may change at any time. The regulatory structure surrounding certain aspects of these businesses is currently in flux in certain jurisdictions.

In jurisdictions that authorize internet gaming, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in offering our technology, content and services to internet gaming operators as we expect to face intense competition from our traditional competitors in the gaming industry as well as a number of other domestic and foreign providers (or, in some cases, the operators themselves), some of which have substantially greater financial resources and/or experience in this area than we do. In addition, there is a risk that the authorization of the sale of gaming offerings via interactive channels in a particular jurisdiction could, under certain circumstances, adversely impact our gaming offerings through traditional channels in such jurisdiction. Any such adverse impact would be magnified to the extent we are not involved in, and generating revenue from, the provision of interactive gaming products or services in such jurisdiction. Know-your-customer and geo-location programs and technologies supplied by third parties are an important aspect of certain internet and mobile gaming products and services because they confirm certain information with respect to players and prospective players, such as age, identity and location. Payment processing programs and technologies, typically provided by third parties, are also a necessary feature of interactive wagering products and services. These programs and technologies are costly and may have an adverse impact on the results of our operations. Additionally, there can be no assurance that products containing these programs and technologies will be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, if at all, or that they will perform accurately or otherwise in accordance with our required specifications.

Our social gaming business is largely dependent upon our relationships with key channels and changes in those relationships could negatively impact our social gaming business.

In our social gaming business, our services operate largely through Facebook, Google Play for Android devices and Apple’s iOS platforms. Consequently, our expansion and prospects of our social gaming offerings are dependent on our continued relationships with these channels (and any emerging app store channels). Our relationships with Facebook, Google and Apple are not governed by contracts but rather by the channel’s standard terms and conditions for app developers. Our social gaming business will be adversely impacted if we are unable to continue these relationships in the future or if the terms and conditions offered by these channels are altered to our disadvantage. For instance, if any of these channels were to increase their fees, the results of our operations would suffer. Likewise, if Facebook, Google or Apple were to alter their operating platforms, we could be adversely impacted as our offerings may not be compatible with the altered platforms or may require significant and costly modifications in order to become compatible. If Facebook, Google or Apple were to develop competitive offerings, either on their own or in cooperation with one or more competitors, our growth prospects would be negatively impacted.

Changes in tax regulation and results of tax audits could affect results of operations of our business.

We are subject to taxation in the United States, Canada, Mexico, United Kingdom, Brazil, Australia, Philippines and Israel. Significant judgment is required to determine and estimate tax liabilities and there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Our future annual and quarterly effective tax rates could be affected by numerous factors, including changes in the applicable tax laws; the composition of pre-tax income in jurisdictions with differing tax rates; the valuation of or valuation allowances against our deferred tax assets and liabilities and substantive changes to tax rules and the application thereof by United States federal, state, local and foreign governments, all of which could result in materially higher corporate taxes than would be incurred under existing tax law or interpretation and could adversely affect our profitability. It is possible that future tax audits or changes in tax regulation may require us to change our prior period tax returns and also to incur additional costs. This may negatively affect future period results.

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Further, our determination of our tax liability is always subject to audit and review by applicable domestic and foreign tax authorities. Any adverse outcome of any such audit or review could have an adverse effect on our business and reduce our profits to the extent potential tax liabilities exceed our reserves, and the ultimate tax outcome may differ from the amounts recorded in our financial statements and may materially affect our financial results in the period or periods for which such determination is made, as well as future periods. We assess the likelihood of favorable or unfavorable outcomes resulting from examinations by the Internal Revenue Service and state, local and foreign tax authorities to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, there can be no assurance that any final determination will not be materially different from the treatment reflected in our historical income tax provisions and accruals, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Capital Structure

Our substantial indebtedness could adversely affect our ability to raise additional capital or to fund our operations, expose us to interest rate risk to the extent of our variable rate debt, limit our ability to react to changes in the economy, and prevent us from making debt service payments.

We are a highly leveraged company. As of December 31, 2018 , we had $538.8 million aggregate principal amount of outstanding indebtedness, in addition to $30.0 million available for borrowing under the revolving credit facility at that date. For the year ended December 31, 2018 , we had debt service costs of $42.3 million.

Our substantial indebtedness could have important consequences for us, including, but not limited to, the following:

limit our ability to borrow money for our working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements, strategic initiatives or other purposes;
make it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations, and any failure to comply with the obligations of any of our debt instruments, including restrictive covenants and borrowing conditions, could result in an event of default under the agreements governing our indebtedness;
require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to the repayment of our indebtedness, thereby reducing funds available to us for other purposes;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our operations or business and the industry in which we operate;
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that are less leveraged and that, therefore, may be able to take advantage of opportunities that our leverage prevents us from exploring;
impact our rent expense on leased space, which could be significant;
increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic industry and competitive conditions;
restrict us from making strategic acquisitions, engaging in development activities, introducing new technologies, or exploiting business opportunities;
cause us to make non-strategic divestitures;
limit, along with the financial and other restrictive covenants in the agreements governing our indebtedness, among other things, our ability to borrow additional funds or dispose of assets;
limit our ability to repurchase shares and pay cash dividends; and
expose us to the risk of increased interest rates, as certain of our borrowings are at variable rates of interest.

In addition, our senior secured credit agreement contain restrictive covenants that will limit our ability to engage in activities that may be in our long-term best interest. Our failure to comply with those covenants could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of substantially all of our indebtedness.

We may be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future, subject to the restrictions contained in the credit facility. If new indebtedness is added to our current debt levels, the related risks described above could intensify.

We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness, and we may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness that may not be successful.

Our ability to pay principal and interest on our debt obligations will depend upon, among other things, (a) our future financial and operating performance (including the realization of any cost savings described herein), which will be affected by prevailing economic, industry and competitive conditions and financial, business, legislative, regulatory and other factors, many of which are beyond our control; and (b) our future ability to borrow under the revolving credit facility, the availability of which depends on, among other things, our complying with the covenants in the credit agreement governing such facility.

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We cannot assure you that our business will generate cash flow from operations, or that we will be able to draw under the revolving credit facility or otherwise, in an amount sufficient to fund our liquidity needs, including the payment of principal and interest on our debt. If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to service our indebtedness, we may be forced to reduce or delay capital expenditures, sell assets, seek additional capital, or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. Our ability to restructure or refinance our debt will depend on the condition of the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. Any refinancing of our debt could be at higher interest rates and may require us to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict our business operations. In addition, the terms of existing or future debt agreements may restrict us from adopting some of these alternatives. In the absence of such operating results and resources, we could face substantial liquidity problems and might be required to dispose of material assets or operations to meet our debt service and other obligations. We may not be able to consummate those dispositions for fair market value or at all. Furthermore, any proceeds that we could realize from any such dispositions may not be adequate to meet our debt service obligations then due. Apollo and its affiliates have no continuing obligation to provide us with debt or equity financing. Our inability to generate sufficient cash flow to satisfy our debt obligations, or to refinance our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition, and could negatively impact our ability to satisfy our debt obligations.

Changes to the method of determining LIBOR or a the selection of a replacement for LIBOR may affect our financial instruments.

In July 2017, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority announced that it intends to stop collecting LIBOR rates from banks after 2021. The announcement indicates that LIBOR will not continue to exist on the current basis. We are unable to predict the effect of any changes to LIBOR, the establishment and success of any alternative reference rates, or any other reforms to LIBOR or any replacement of LIBOR that may be enacted in the United Kingdom or elsewhere. Such changes, reforms or replacements relating to LIBOR could have an adverse impact on the market for or value of any LIBOR-linked securities, loans, derivatives or other financial instruments or extensions of credit held by or due to us.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

Our stock price may fluctuate significantly.

The market price of our common stock could vary significantly as a result of a number of factors, some of which are beyond our control. In the event of a drop in the market price of our common stock, you could lose a substantial part or all of your investment in our common stock. The following factors could affect our stock price:

our operating and financial performance;
quarterly variations in the rate of growth (if any) of our financial indicators, such as net income per
share, net income and revenues;
the public reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the SEC;
strategic actions by our competitors;
changes in operating performance and the stock market valuations of other companies;
announcements related to litigation;
our failure to meet revenue or earnings estimates made by research analysts or other investors;
changes in revenue or earnings estimates, or changes in recommendations or withdrawal of research
coverage, by equity research analysts;
speculation in the press or investment community;
sales of our common stock by us or our stockholders, or the perception that such sales may occur;
changes in accounting principles, policies, guidance, interpretations or standards;
additions or departures of key management personnel;
actions by our stockholders;
general market conditions;
domestic and international economic, legal and regulatory factors unrelated to our performance; and
the realization of any risks described under this “Risk Factors” section, or other risks that may materialize in the future.

The stock markets in general have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the trading price of our common stock. Securities class action litigation has often been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in the overall market and in the market price of a company’s securities. Such litigation, if instituted against us, could result in very substantial costs, divert our management’s attention and resources and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We are an “emerging growth company,” and are able take advantage of reduced disclosure requirements applicable to “emerging growth companies,” which could make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or JOBS Act, and, for as long as we continue to be an “emerging growth company,” we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies but not to “emerging growth companies.” These exemptions include not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We could be an “emerging growth company” until the earliest of(i) the last day of the first fiscal year in which our annual gross revenues exceed $1 billion, (ii) the date that we become a “large accelerated filer” as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act, which would occur if the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter, (iii) the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the consummation of our initial public offering, and (iv) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt during the preceding three-year period. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive if we choose to rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result of any choices to reduce future disclosure, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.

We will continue to incur significant costs and devote substantial management time as a result of operating as a public company, particularly after we are no longer an “emerging growth company.”

As a public company, we will continue to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses. For example, we will be required to comply with certain requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, as well as rules and regulations subsequently implemented by the Securities and Exchange Commission, and the New York Stock Exchange, our stock exchange, including the establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and changes in corporate governance practices. We expect that compliance with these requirements continue to result in increased legal and financial compliance costs and will continue to make some activities more time consuming and costly. In addition, we expect that our management and other personnel will continue to divert attention from operational and other business matters to devote substantial time to these public company requirements. In particular, we expect to continue incurring significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. In that regard, we may need to hire additional accounting and financial staff with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting knowledge.

However, for as long as we remain an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act, we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies” including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.

Under the JOBS Act, “emerging growth companies” can delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this exemption from new or revised accounting standards and, therefore, we will be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies.”

After we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” we expect to incur additional management time and cost to comply with the more stringent reporting requirements applicable to companies that are deemed accelerated filers or large accelerated filers, including complying with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

We cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur as a result of becoming a public company or the timing of such costs.

Even though we are no longer effectively controlled by Apollo, Apollo’s interests may conflict with our interests and the interests of other stockholders.

As of December 31, 2018, VoteCo, an entity owned and controlled by individuals affiliated with Apollo, beneficially owns 33.5% of our common equity pursuant to an irrevocable proxy, which provides VoteCo with sole voting and sole dispositive

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power over all shares beneficially owned by the the Apollo Group, which includes any of (a) Apollo Gaming Holdings, L.P. (“Holdings”), (b) Apollo Investment Fund VIII, L.P., (c) each of their respective affiliates (including, for avoidance of doubt, any syndication vehicles and excluding, for the avoidance of doubt, any portfolio companies of Apollo Management VIII, L.P. or its affiliates other than Holdings, VoteCo, the Company and their respective subsidiaries) to which any transfers of our common stock are made and (d) VoteCo to the extent that it has beneficial ownership of shares of our common stock pursuant to an irrevocable proxy (collectively, the “Apollo Group”). The Apollo Group beneficially owns 33.5% of our common equity. As a result, the Apollo Group beneficially owns less than 50% of our equity, and VoteCo and individuals affiliated with Apollo no longer have effective control and do not have significant influence over the outcome of votes on all matters requiring approval by our stockholders, including entering into significant corporate transactions such as mergers, tender offers and the sale of all or substantially all of our assets and issuance of additional debt or equity. Nevertheless, the interests of Apollo and its affiliates, including the Apollo Group, could conflict with or differ from our interests or the interests of our other stockholders. For example, the concentration of ownership held by the Apollo Group could delay, defer or prevent a change of control of our company or impede a merger, takeover or other business combination which may otherwise be favorable for us. Additionally, Apollo and its affiliates are in the business of making investments in companies and may, from time to time, acquire and hold interests in businesses that compete, directly or indirectly with us. Apollo and its affiliates may also pursue acquisition opportunities that may be complementary to our business, and as a result, those acquisition opportunities may not be available to us. So long as the Apollo Group continues to directly or indirectly own a significant amount of our equity, even though such amount is less than 50%, Apollo and its affiliates will continue to be able to substantially influence or effectively control our ability to enter into corporate transactions.

Our amended and restated articles of incorporation contain a provision renouncing our interest and expectancy in certain corporate opportunities.

Under our amended and restated articles of incorporation, neither Apollo, its portfolio companies, funds or other affiliates, nor any of their officers, directors, agents, stockholders, members or partners have any duty to refrain from engaging, directly or indirectly, in the same business activities, similar business activities or lines of business in which we operate. In addition, our amended and restated articles of incorporation provide that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, we waive and must indemnify any officer or director of ours who is also an officer, director, employee, managing director or other affiliate of Apollo against any claim that any such individual is liable to us or our stockholders for breach of any fiduciary duty solely by reason of the fact that such individual directs a corporate opportunity to Apollo instead of us, or does not communicate information regarding a corporate opportunity to us that the officer, director, employee, managing director or other affiliate has directed to Apollo. For instance, a director of our company who also serves as a director, officer or employee
of Apollo or any of its portfolio companies, funds or other affiliates may pursue certain acquisitions or other opportunities that may be complementary to our business and, as a result, such acquisition or other opportunities may not be available to us. These potential conflicts of interest could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects if attractive corporate opportunities are allocated by Apollo to itself or its portfolio companies, funds or other affiliates instead of to us. The terms of our amended and restated articles of incorporation are more fully described in “Description of Capital Stock.”

Our amended and restated articles of incorporation provide that the Eighth Judicial District Court of Clark County, Nevada is the sole and exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.

Our amended and restated articles of incorporation provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law the Eighth Judicial District Court of Clark County, Nevada is the sole and exclusive forum for any or all actions, suits or proceedings, whether civil, administrative or investigative or that asserts any claim or counterclaim: (a) brought in our name or right or on our behalf; (b) asserting a claim for breach of any fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, employees or agents to us or our stockholders; (c) arising or asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Nevada Revised Statutes (the “NRS”) Chapters 78 or 92A or any provision of our amended and restated articles of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws; (d) to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our amended and restated articles of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws; or (e) asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine. The choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a
judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our amended and restated articles of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.


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Our organizational documents may impede or discourage a takeover, which could deprive our investors of the opportunity to receive a premium for their shares.

Provisions of our amended and restated articles of incorporation, our amended and restated bylaws and our Stockholders Agreement (see “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions—Stockholders Agreements”) may make it more difficult for, or prevent a third party from, acquiring control of us without the approval of our board of directors. These provisions include:

having a classified board of directors;
prohibiting cumulative voting in the election of directors;
empowering only the board to fill any vacancy on our board of directors, whether such vacancy occurs as a result of an increase in the number of directors or otherwise, and requiring that, until the first time the Apollo Group ceases to beneficially own at least 5% of our common stock, any vacancy resulting from the death, removal or resignation of a director nominated by Holdings pursuant to the Stockholders Agreement (see “Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance—Apollo Group Approval of Certain Matters and Rights to Nominate Certain Directors”) be filled by a nominee of Holdings;
authorizing “blank check” preferred stock, the terms and issuance of which can be determined by our board of directors without any need for action by stockholders;
restricting stockholders from acting by written consent or calling special meetings;
requiring the approval of Holdings to approve certain business combinations and certain other significant matters until the first time the Apollo Group ceases to beneficially own at least 33 1/3% of our common stock; and
establishing advance notice requirements for nominations for election to our board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted on by stockholders at stockholder meetings.

An issuance of shares of preferred stock could delay or prevent a change in control of us. Our board of directors has the authority to cause us to issue, without any further vote or action by the stockholders, shares of preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share, in one or more series, to designate the number of shares constituting any series, and to fix the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions thereof, including dividend rights, voting rights, rights and terms of redemption, redemption price or prices and liquidation preferences of such series. The issuance of shares of our preferred stock may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control without further action by the stockholders, even where stockholders are offered a premium for their shares.

Our Stockholders Agreement also requires the approval of Holdings for certain important matters, including mergers and acquisitions, issuances of equity and the incurrence of debt, until the first time Apollo Group ceases to beneficially own at least 33 1/3% of our common stock. Together, these articles of incorporation, bylaws, and contractual provisions could make the removal of management more difficult and may discourage transactions that otherwise could involve payment of a premium over prevailing market prices for our common stock. Furthermore, the existence of the foregoing provisions, as well as the significant common stock beneficially owned by the Apollo Group and Holdings’ rights to nominate a specified number of directors in certain circumstances, could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock. They could also deter potential acquirers of us, thereby reducing the likelihood that you could receive a premium for your common stock in an acquisition.

We are a holding company and rely on dividends, distributions and other payments, advances and transfers of funds from our subsidiaries to meet our obligations.

We are a holding company that does not conduct any business operations of our own. As a result, we are largely dependent upon cash dividends and distributions and other transfers from our subsidiaries to meet our obligations. The agreements governing the indebtedness of our subsidiaries, and limitations on payment of dividends and distributions under applicable law, impose restrictions on our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends or other distributions to us. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Indebtedness.” The deterioration of the earnings from, or other available assets of, our subsidiaries for any reason could also limit or impair their ability to pay dividends or other distributions to us.

You may be diluted by the future issuance of additional common stock or convertible securities in connection with our incentive plans, acquisitions or otherwise, which could adversely affect our stock price.

As of December 31, 2018, we had 414,646,704 shares of common stock authorized but unissued. Our amended and restated articles of incorporation authorize us to issue these shares of common stock and options, rights, warrants and appreciation rights relating to common stock for the consideration and on the terms and conditions established by our board of directors in its sole discretion, whether in connection with acquisitions or otherwise. We have reserved 1,651,244 shares for issuance upon exercise

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of outstanding stock options and restricted shares and 1,607,389 for issuances under our new equity incentive plan. Any common stock that we issue, including under our new equity incentive plan or other equity incentive plans that we may adopt in the future, as well as under outstanding options would dilute the percentage ownership held by the investors who purchase common stock in this offering.

From time to time in the future, we may also issue additional shares of our common stock or securities convertible into common stock pursuant to a variety of transactions, including acquisitions. Our issuance of additional shares of our common stock or securities convertible into our common stock would dilute your ownership of us and the sale of a significant amount of such shares in the public market could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock.

Future sales of our common stock in the public market, or the perception in the public market that such sales may occur, could reduce our stock price.

A substantial amount of our outstanding shares of common stock, including those held by Apollo and members of management, are “restricted securities” within the meaning of Rule 144 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). As restricted shares, these shares may be resold only pursuant to an effective registration statement or under the requirements of Rule 144 or other applicable exemptions from registration under the Securities Act and as required under applicable state securities laws. All of the issued and outstanding shares of our common stock are eligible for future sale, subject to the applicable volume, manner of sale, holding periods and other limitations of Rule 144. Sales of significant amounts of stock in the public market could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock.

We do not anticipate paying dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future.
    
We do not anticipate paying any dividends in the foreseeable future on our common stock. We intend to retain all future earnings for the operation and expansion of our business and the repayment of outstanding debt. Our senior secured credit facilities contain, and any future indebtedness likely will contain, restrictive covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us, including restrictions on our ability to pay dividends and make other restricted payments. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock may be your major source of gain for the foreseeable future. While we may change this policy at some point in the future, we cannot assure you that we will make such a change. See “Dividend Policy.”

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or publish negative reports, our stock price could decline.
    
The trading market for our common stock is influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline. Moreover, if one or more of the analysts who cover our company downgrades our common stock or if our operating results do not meet their expectations, our stock price could decline.

We may issue preferred stock, the terms of which could adversely affect the voting power or value of our common stock.
    
Our amended and restated articles of incorporation authorize us to issue, without the approval of our stockholders, one or more classes or series of preferred stock having such designations, preferences, limitations and relative rights, including preferences over our common stock respecting dividends and distributions, as our board of directors may determine. The terms of one or more classes or series of preferred stock could adversely impact the voting power or value of our common stock. For example, we might grant holders of preferred stock the right to elect some number of our directors in all events or on the happening of specified events or the right to veto specified transactions. Similarly, the repurchase or redemption rights or liquidation preferences we might assign to holders of preferred stock could affect the residual value of the common stock. No shares of preferred stock have been issued to date.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.

None.


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ITEM 2. PROPERTIES.

We currently lease the following properties:
Location
Purpose
Square footage
Segment
308 Anthony Ave., Oklahoma City, OK. 73128
Administrative offices, manufacturing and warehousing
91,961
EGM, Table Products
2400 Commerce Ave, Duluth, GA 30096
Research and development
55,264
EGM
5475 S. Decatur Blvd. #100, Las Vegas, NV. 89118
Corporate headquarters, manufacturing and warehousing
42,964
EGM, Table Products
165 Ottley Drive, Atlanta, GA 30324
Research and development
19,533
EGM
Lago Tana No. 43, Warehouse 8 and 10, Colonia Huichapan, Mexico City, Mexico
Warehousing
18,191
EGM
39 Delhi Road, Suite 1, Level 5, Triniti II, Sydney, Australia
Research and development
8,450
EGM
Jaime Balmes No. 8, office no. 204, Colonia Los Morales Polanco, Mexico City, Mexico
Administrative offices
8,154
EGM
11401 Century Oaks Terrace, Austin, TX. 78758
Administrative offices
2,951
EGM
24 Raoul Wallenberg St. Building C, Floors 5 and 10, Tel Aviv, Israel
Research and development
1,850
Interactive
Elizabeth House, St. Mary’s Road, Hinckley, Leicestershire. LE10 1EO
Administrative offices
1,452
Interactive

None of the properties listed above are held in fee or subject to any major encumbrance. In addition to those listed above, we lease a number of additional properties in the United States and internationally that support our operations.


ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.

We are party to various claims and legal actions that arise in the ordinary course of business. We do not believe the outcome of such disputes or legal actions will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, liquidity or capital resources.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES.

Not applicable.

PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.

Market Information

The Company’s common stock began trading on the NYSE under the symbol “AGS” on January 26, 2018. On March 01, 2019, we had approximately 2 holders of record.

Dividends

We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future. We are not required to pay dividends, and our stockholders are not guaranteed, or have contractual or other rights to receive, dividends. The declaration and payment of any future dividends is at the sole discretion of our board of directors and depends upon, among other things, our earnings, financial condition, capital requirements, level of indebtedness, contractual restrictions with respect to the payment of dividends, and other considerations

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that our board of directors deems relevant. Our board of directors may decide, in its discretion, at any time, to modify or repeal the dividend policy or discontinue entirely the payment of dividends.

The ability of our board of directors to declare a dividend is also subject to limits imposed by Nevada corporate law. Under Nevada law, our board of directors and the boards of directors of our corporate subsidiaries incorporated in Delaware may declare dividends only to the extent of our “surplus,” which is defined as total assets at fair market value minus total liabilities, minus statutory capital, or if there is no surplus, out of net profits for the fiscal year in which the dividend is declared and/or the preceding fiscal year. Additionally our debt agreements contain limitations on our ability to declare and pay dividends.

Equity Compensation

Refer to Item 11 for a description of the Company’s Management Incentive Plan.

Stockholder Return Performance Graph

The following graph compares the cumulative total return to stockholders on our then outstanding shares of common stock, the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) Composite Index and indices of our peer group companies that operate in industries or lines of business similar to ours from January 2018, the month in which we completed our initial public offering, through December 31, 2018. Our peer group companies consist of Aristocrat (Australian Securities Exchange: ALL), IGT (New York Stock Exchange: IGT), Everi Holdings Inc. (New York Stock Exchange: EVRI) and Scientific Games Corporation (Nasdaq Composit Index: SGMS).

The companies in each peer group have been weighted based on their relative market capitalization each year. The graph assumes that $100 was invested in our then outstanding common stock, the New York Stock Exchange and the peer group indices at the beginning of the one-year period and that any dividends were reinvested. The comparisons are not intended to be indicative of future performance of our shares of common stock.

ITEM5PERFORMANCEGRAPHA01.GIF

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1/18
 
1/18
 
2/18
 
3/18
 
4/18
 
5/18
 
6/18
 
7/18
 
8/18
 
9/18
 
10/18
 
11/18
 
12/18
PlayAGS
100.00

 
105.78

 
111.95

 
125.73

 
122.22

 
136.86

 
146.32

 
154.32

 
173.19

 
159.30

 
131.08

 
121.35

 
124.32

NYSE Composite
100.00

 
104.47

 
99.13

 
97.78

 
98.44

 
98.87

 
98.89

 
102.66

 
103.38

 
104.09

 
97.27

 
99.53

 
91.05

Peer Group
100.00

 
98.12

 
92.91

 
91.66

 
100.90

 
109.18

 
105.35

 
107.04

 
95.56

 
84.92

 
78.89

 
76.13

 
63.21


Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

None.

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA.

The selected financial data set forth below is qualified in its entirety by, and should be read in conjunction with, “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the audited financial statements, the notes thereto and other financial and statistical information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The selected financial data presented below has been derived from the audited financial statements, including the consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, and 2014, and the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss and of cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015 and 2014. The historical results set forth below do not indicate results expected for any future periods. Our future results of operations will be subject to significant business, economic, regulatory and competitive uncertainties and contingencies, some of which are beyond our control (amounts in thousands, except per share data):
 
For the Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Consolidated Statement of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
$
285,299

 
$
211,955

 
$
166,806

 
$
123,292

 
$
72,140

Income / (loss) from operations
25,290

 
14,502

 
(17,064
)
 
(29,439
)
 
(8,421
)
Net loss
(20,846
)
 
(45,106
)
 
(81,374
)
 
(38,545
)
 
(28,376
)
Total comprehensive loss
(20,817
)
 
(44,363
)
 
(84,109
)
 
(40,644
)
 
(28,087
)
Basic and diluted loss per common share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
(0.61
)
 
$
(1.94
)
 
$
(3.51
)
 
$
(1.92
)
 
$
(1.83
)
Diluted
$
(0.61
)
 
$
(1.94
)
 
$
(3.51
)
 
$
(1.92
)
 
$
(1.83
)

 
As of December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
$
731,342

 
$
697,242

 
$
634,092

 
$
711,147

 
$
256,152

Total liabilities
595,538

 
725,177

 
617,664

 
610,610

 
192,396

Total long-term obligations (1)
548,099

 
681,457

 
584,635

 
580,661

 
166,057

Total stockholders’ equity/(deficit)
135,804

 
(27,935
)
 
16,428

 
100,537

 
63,756

(1) Includes long-term debt, deferred tax liability - noncurrent, and other long-term liabilities.


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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.

Overview

We are a leading designer and supplier of EGMs and other products and services for the gaming industry. Founded in 2005, we historically focused on supplying EGMs, including slot machines, video bingo machines, and other electronic gaming devices, to the Native American gaming market, where we maintain an approximately 19% market share of all Class II EGMs. Since 2014, we have expanded our product line-up to include: (i) Class III EGMs for commercial and Native American casinos permitted to operate Class III EGMs, (ii) table game products and (iii) interactive products, all of which we believe provide us with growth opportunities as we expand in markets where we currently have limited or no presence. Our expansion into Class III and ancillary product offerings has driven our strong growth and momentum in revenue, EGM adjusted EBITDA and our installed base. For the year ended December 31, 2018 , 71% of our total revenue was generated through recurring contracted lease agreements whereby we place EGMs and table game products at our customers’ gaming facilities under either a revenue sharing agreement (we receive a percentage of the revenues that these products generate) or fee-per-day agreement (we receive a daily or monthly fixed fee per EGM or table game product), or recurring revenue from our Interactive gaming operations. We operate our business in three distinct segments: EGMs, Table Products and Interactive. Each segment's activities include the design, development, acquisition, manufacturing, marketing, distribution, installation and servicing of a distinct product line.
EGM Segment

EGMs constitute our largest segment, representing 95% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018 . We have a library over 350 proprietary game titles that we deliver on several state-of-the-art EGM cabinets, including ICON and Orion Upright (our core cabinets), Orion Portrait (our core plus cabinet) and Orion Slant (our premium cabinets) and Big Red/Colossal Diamonds (our specialty large-format jumbo cabinet). Our cabinets and game titles are consistently named among the top-performing premium leased games in the industry. We also have developed a new Latin-style bingo cabinet called Alora , which we plan to use in select international markets, including Mexico, the Philippines, and potentially Brazil.

We design all of our cabinets with the intention of capturing the attention of players on casino floors while aiming to maximize operator profits. The fourth quarter 2018 Eilers-Fantini Quarterly Slot Survey stated our premium leased games outperform most of the EGMs manufactured by our competitors, generating win per day that is up to 1.7 times higher than house average.

We have increased our installed base of EGMs every year from 2005 through the year ended December 31, 2018 , and as of December 31, 2018 , our total EGM footprint comprised 24,647 units ( 16,296 domestic and 8,351 international). We remain highly focused on continuing to expand our installed base of leased EGMs in markets that we currently serve as well as new jurisdictions where we do not presently have any EGMs installed. Since our founding, we have made significant progress in expanding the number of markets where we are licensed to sell or lease our EGMs. In 2005, we were licensed in three states (5 total licenses) and currently we are licensed in 38 U.S. states and eight foreign countries (approximately 270 total licenses). As of December 31, 2018 , our installed base represented only approximately 2.4% of the total domestic market of approximately 990,000 EGMs installed throughout the United States and Canada. According to Eilers & Krejcik, U.S. casino operators expect to allocate approximately 4% of their 2018 EGM purchases to AGS products. We believe we are positioned to gain significant market share over the next several years.

We offer our customers the option of either leasing or purchasing our EGMs and associated gaming systems. Currently, we derive a substantial portion all of our revenues from EGMs installed under revenue sharing or fee-per-day lease agreements, also known as “participation” agreements, and we refer to such revenue generation as our “participation model”. As we expand into new gaming markets and roll out our new and proprietary cabinets and titles, we expect the sales of gaming machines and systems will play an increasingly important role in our business and will complement our core participation model.

We are focused on creating new internal content and leveraging our Atlas operating platform, as a conduit for our current and future products. Currently, our ICON, Orion Portrait , Orion Slant and Orion Upright cabinets run on the Atlas operating platform. We will continue porting our legacy games onto the Atlas platform, enhancing both our Class II and III offerings. We expect internally-generated content to be a larger source of our installed base going forward.

We categorize our EGM titles into two main groups: “Core” and “Premium and Specialty”. Our Core titles have a proven track record of success and are targeted at maintaining and growing our current installed base. Our Premium titles include unique and niche titles that provide a distinctive player experience and are targeted at increasing floor space in both existing and new

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jurisdictions. Specialty titles describe our jumbo games, such as Colossal Diamonds , and games made specifically for high-limit winnings. In total, our development teams have the capabilities to produce approximately 50 games per year. We believe this strategy of producing diversified content will enable us to maintain and grow our market leadership within our current Class II base, as well as continue our expansion into Class III commercial and tribal casinos.

Table Products

In addition to our existing portfolio of EGMs, we also offer our customers more than 40 unique table product offerings, including live felt table games, side bet offerings, progressives, signage, and other ancillary table game equipment. Our table products are designed to enhance the table games section of the casino floor (commonly known as “the pit”). Over the past 10 years, there has been a trend of introducing side bets on blackjack tables to increase the game’s overall hold. Our table products segment offers a full suite of side bets and specialty table games that capitalize on this trend, and we believe that this segment will serve as an important growth engine for our company, including by generating further cross-selling opportunities with our EGM offerings. As of December 31, 2018 , we had placed 3,162 table products domestically and internationally and based on the number of products placed, we believe we are presently a leading supplier of table products to the gaming industry .

Our Table Products segment focuses on high margin recurring revenue generated by leases. Nearly all of the revenue we generate in this segment is recurring. We have acquired several proprietary table games and side-bets and developed others in-house.
As one of the newer areas of our Table Products business, our equipment offerings are ancillary to table games, such as card shufflers and table signage, and provide casino operators a greater variety of choice in the marketplace. This product segment includes our highly-anticipated single-card shuffler, Dex S , as well as our baccarat signage solution and roulette readerboard. We believe this area of the business holds many opportunities for growth, as the technology currently installed in the signage and readerboard areas are in a replacement cycle.

After acquiring intellectual property around progressive bonusing systems, our Table Products segment has taken the base systems and heavily expanded on it to now offer customers a bonusing solution for casino operators. We believe progressive bonusing on table products is a growing trend with substantial growth opportunities. We continue to develop and expand our core system to offer new and exciting bonusing and progressive products for the marketplace.

Interactive

Our Business-to-Consumer (“B2C”) social casino games include online versions of our popular EGM titles and are accessible to players worldwide on multiple mobile platforms, which we believe establishes brand recognition and cross-selling opportunities. Our B2C social casino games operate on a free-to-play model, whereby game players may collect virtual currency or other virtual consumable goods (collectively referred to as “virtual goods” or “virtual currency”) free of charge, through the passage of time or through targeted marketing promotions. Additionally, players have the ability to send free “gifts” of virtual goods to their friends through interactions with certain social platforms. If a game player wishes to obtain virtual goods above and beyond the level of free virtual goods available to that player, the player may purchase additional virtual goods. Once obtained, virtual currency (either free or purchased) cannot be redeemed for cash nor exchanged for anything other than game play. We design our portfolio of B2C games to appeal to the interests of the broad group of people who like to play casino-themed social and mobile games.

Currently, our B2C social casino games consist of our mobile app, Lucky Play Casino . The app contains numerous AGS game titles available for consumers to play for fun or with chips they purchase in the app. Some of our most popular social casino games include content that is also popular in land-based casinos such as Fire Wolf , Gold Dragon Red Dragon , Legend of the White Buffalo , Royal Reels , Colossal Diamonds , So Hot , Monkey in the Bank , and many more. Our B2C games leverage the global connectivity and distribution of Facebook, as well as mobile platforms such as the Apple App Store for Apple devices and the Google Play Store for Android devices, which provides a platform to offer our games as well payment processing.

We have recently expanded into the Business-to-Business (“B2B”) space, whereby we enable our land-based casino customers to brand the social gaming product with their own casino name and brand identity through our Social White-Label Casino (“WLC”) solution. This turnkey, free-to-play mobile casino app solution blends the casino’s brand with AGS’ player-favorite games to strengthen a casino’s relationship with players, provide monetization opportunities while players are off property, reach new players, and incentivize players return to the casino. To date, five customers are using our Social WLC solution.

With the acquisition of Gameiom Technologies Limited (formerly known as “Gameiom”, and currently known as “AGS iGaming”) in the current year, we now offer a B2B platform for content aggregation used by RMG and sports-betting partners. Our acquired B2B platform aggregates content from game suppliers and offers on-line casino operators the convenience to reduce

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the number of integrations that are needed to supply the on-line casino. By integrating with us, on-line casino operators have access to a significant amount of content from several game suppliers. AGS iGaming operates in regulated, legal on-line gaming jurisdictions such as the UK and parts of Europe.

Other Segment Information

Customers and marketing. We market our products to casinos and other legal gaming establishments around the world with our domestic and international sales force and several domestic and international distributors and/or representatives. We believe the quality and breadth of our customer base is a strong testament to the effectiveness and performance of our product offerings, technological innovation, and customer service. Our customer base includes leading casino operators in leading established gaming markets such as the United States, Canada, and Latin America. Our customers include, among others, Caesars Entertainment, MGM Resorts International, Poarch Band of Creek Indians, and the Chickasaw Nation.

Our products and the locations in which we may sell them are subject to the licensing and product approval requirements of various national, state, provincial, and tribal jurisdictional agencies that regulate gaming around the world.  See “Regulation and Licensing” section below. We lease and sell our products, with an emphasis on leasing versus selling. We service the products we lease and offer service packages to customers who purchase products from us.

Product supply. We obtain most of the parts for our products from outside suppliers, including both off-the-shelf items as well as components manufactured to our specifications. We also manufacture parts in-house that are used for product assembly and for servicing existing products. We generally perform warehousing, quality control, final assembly and shipping from our facilities in Las Vegas, Atlanta, Mexico City and Oklahoma City, although small inventories are maintained and repairs are performed by our field service employees. We believe that our sources of supply for components and raw materials are adequate and that alternative sources of materials are available.

Key Drivers of Our Business

Our revenues are impacted by the following key factors:

the amount of money spent by consumers on our domestic revenue share installed base;
the amount of the daily fee and selling price of our participation electronic gaming machines;
our revenue share percentage with customers;
the capital budgets of our customers;
the level of replacement of existing electronic gaming machines in existing casinos;
expansion of existing casinos;
development of new casinos;
opening of new gaming jurisdictions both in the United States and internationally;
our ability to obtain and maintain gaming licenses in various jurisdictions;
the relative competitiveness and popularity of our electronic gaming machines compared to competitive products offered in the same facilities; and
general macro-economic factors, including levels of and changes to consumer disposable income and personal consumption spending.

Our expenses are impacted by the following key factors:

fluctuations in the cost of labor relating to productivity;
overtime and training;
fluctuations in the price of components for gaming equipment;
fluctuations in energy prices;
changes in the cost of obtaining and maintaining gaming licenses; and
fluctuations in the level of maintenance expense required on gaming equipment.


40

Table of Contents


Variations in our selling, general and administrative expenses, or SG&A, and research and development, or R&D are primarily due to changes in employment and salaries and related fringe benefits.


41

Table of Contents


Acquisitions and Divestitures

We have made several strategic acquisitions over the past three years.

AGS iGaming

During the quarter ended June 30, 2018, the Company acquired all of the equity of Gameiom, a licensed gaming aggregator and content provider for real-money gaming (“RMG”) and sports betting partners.

The total consideration for this acquisition was $5.0 million, which included cash paid of $4.5 million and $0.5 million of deferred consideration that is payable within 18 months of the acquisition date. The consideration was preliminarily allocated primarily to goodwill that is not tax deductible for $3.7 million and intangible assets of $2.1 million.

Rocket Gaming Systems

On December 6, 2017, we acquired an installed base of approximately 1,500 networked Class II slot machines, together with related intellectual property, which were operated by Rocket Gaming Systems (“Rocket”) for $56.9 million. The acquired Class II slot machines are located across the United States, with significant presence in key markets such as California, Oklahoma, Montana, Washington and Texas. The Class II portfolio from Rocket includes wide-area progressive and standalone video and spinning-reel games and platforms, including Galaxy, Northstar and the player-favorite Gold Series, a suite of games that feature a $1 million-plus progressive prize and is the longest-standing million dollar wide-area progressive on tribal casino floors.

In Bet Gaming

In August 2017, we acquired five dynamic, new games from New Jersey-based In Bet Gaming (“In Bet”), including Super 4, Blackjack Match Progressive, Jackpot Blackjack, Royal 9, and Jackpot Baccarat. At the acquisition date, these games had approximately 500 installs worldwide and the acquisition represents our largest table game investment to date. Each of these games features a simple, rewarding side bet that extends the winning experience in interactive ways and further engages players. The acquisition of In Bet strategically combined In Bet’s innovative table game side bet technology with our expertise in table game progressive technology to deliver players and operators unmatched gaming play.

The acquisition was accounted for as an acquisition of a business and the assets acquired and liabilities assumed were measured based on our estimates of their fair values at the acquisition date. We attribute the goodwill acquired to our ability to commercialize the products over our distribution and sales network, opportunities for synergies, and other strategic benefits. The total consideration for this acquisition was $9.6 million, which included an estimated $2.6 million of contingent consideration that is payable upon the achievement of certain targets and periodically based on a percentage of product revenue earned on the purchased table games.  The consideration was allocated primarily to tax deductible goodwill for $3.2 million and intangible assets of $5.5 million, which will be amortized over a weighted average period of approximately 9 years.




42

Table of Contents


Results of Operations

Year Ended December 31, 2018 compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2017
The following tables set forth certain selected audited consolidated financial data for the periods indicated (in thousands, except key performance indicators):  
 
Year ended December 31,
 
$
 
%
 
2018
 
2017
 
Change
 
Change
Consolidated Statements of Operations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gaming operations
$
201,809

 
$
170,252

 
31,557

 
18.5
 %
Equipment sales
83,490

 
41,703

 
41,787

 
100.2
 %
Total revenues
285,299

 
211,955

 
73,344

 
34.6
 %
Operating expenses
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of gaming operations
39,268

 
31,742

 
7,526

 
23.7
 %
Cost of equipment sales
39,670

 
19,847

 
19,823

 
99.9
 %
Selling, general and administrative
63,038

 
44,015

 
19,023

 
43.2
 %
Research and development
31,745

 
25,715

 
6,030

 
23.4
 %
Write-downs and other charges
8,753

 
4,485

 
4,268

 
95.2
 %
Depreciation and amortization
77,535

 
71,649

 
5,886

 
8.2
 %
Total operating expenses
260,009

 
197,453

 
62,556

 
31.7
 %
Income from operations
25,290

 
14,502

 
10,788

 
74.4
 %
Other expense (income)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest expense
37,607

 
55,511

 
(17,904
)
 
(32.3
)%
Interest income
(207
)
 
(108
)
 
(99
)
 
(91.7
)%
Loss on extinguishment and modification of debt
6,625

 
9,032

 
(2,407
)
 
(26.6
)%
Other expense (income)
10,488

 
(2,938
)
 
13,426

 
457.0
 %
Loss before income taxes
(29,223
)
 
(46,995
)
 
17,772

 
(37.8
)%
Income tax benefit
8,377

 
1,889

 
6,488

 
343.5
 %
Net loss
$
(20,846
)
 
$
(45,106
)
 
24,260

 
53.8
 %

43




Revenues

Gaming Operations. The increase in gaming operations revenue was primarily due to the increase in our EGM installed base. During the year ended December 31, 2018, revenues increased due to the contribution of 1,500 EGMs acquired from Rocket in December 2017 as described in Item 15. “Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.” Note 2 to our condensed consolidated financial statements. The increase is also attributable to the continued success of our ICON cabinet and the popularity of our Orion Portrait cabinet and the placement of over 500 domestic Class II units in casino expansions and newly opened casinos offset by the strategic removal of approximately 500 EGMs in the third quarter at one casino as well as the sale of previously leased EGMs. Additionally, we had an increase of $1.25 , or 4.9% in our domestic EGM revenue per day driven by our new product offerings, recently entered jurisdictions and through the optimization of our installed base by installing our newer and more competitive game content on our EGMs. In addition, the increase is due to the increase of 624 international EGM units, which is attributable to our gaining market share in under serviced markets within Mexico. Furthermore, we had a $3.4 million increase in Table Products gaming operations revenue which is attributable to the increase in the Table Products installed base to 3,162 units compared to 2,400 units in the prior year period most notably due to the increased installed base of our side bets and progressive games as well as revenue from the In Bet games for the entire current year period, as those games were acquired in August of 2017.
    
Equipment Sales. The increase in equipment sales is due to the sale of 4,387 EGM units in the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to 2,565 EGM units in the prior year period. The increase in the number of units sold is primarily attributable to the success of our premium Orion Portrait cabinet and our growth in the Class III market as well as the continued success of our ICON and Orion Slant cabinet. The increase was also attributable to a $2,031 , or 12.4% increase in the average sales price compared to the prior year period. The increase in the average sales price is due to the higher sales price of our premium Orion Portrait and Orion Slant cabinets compared to other cabinets.

Operating Expenses

Cost of gaming operations. The increase in costs of gaming operations was the result of our increased installed base of 24,647 EGM units compared to 23,805 units in the prior year period, as well as increased table games installed base that increased 31.8% compared to the prior year period. As a percentage of gaming operations revenue, costs of gaming operations was 19.5% for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to 18.6% for the prior year primarily due to increased service costs, as well as period costs related to manufacturing.

Cost of Equipment Sales. The increase in cost of equipment sales is attributable to 4,387 EGM units sold for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to 2,565 in the prior year period. As a percentage of equipment sales revenue, costs of equipment sales was 47.5% for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to 47.6% for the prior year period primarily due to changes in the mix of products sold in each period and the costs to manufacture the sold products.

Selling, general and administrative. The increase in selling, general and administrative expenses is primarily due to $8.0 million of stock-based compensation expense (which includes an initial charge of $6.2 million recorded in connection with the IPO), increase in salary and benefit costs of $5.8 million due to higher headcount. Additionally, the increase is attributable to professional fees of $5.8 million related to the acquisition and integration of AGS iGaming, the Company’s IPO and related offerings as well as legal settlements, increased occupancy and costs related to our increased presence of $2.4 million, and increased insurance costs of $0.7 million. These increases were offset by decreases in property tax of $1.1 million, user acquisition costs of $1.3 million, and bad debts and customer related concessions in the amount of $1.5 million.

Research and development . The increase in research and development expenses is primarily due to $2.7 million of stock-based compensation expense (which includes an initial charge of $1.6 million recorded in connection with the IPO), an increase of $2.0 million of salary and benefit costs due to higher headcount, and the remaining increase is related to professional fees, software testing and external product approval costs. As a percentage of total revenue, research and development expense was 11.1% for the period ended December 31, 2018 compared to 12.1% for the prior year period.

Write-downs and other charges. The Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) include various non-routine transactions or consulting and transaction-related fees that have been classified as write-downs and other charges. During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company recognized $8.8 million in write-downs and other charges driven by losses from the disposal of assets of $2.0 million , the impairment of goodwill related to Interactive Social Gaming reporting unit of $4.8 million (the Company used level 3 fair value measurements based on projected cash flows), the full impairment of intangible assets related to game titles and assets associated with terminated development agreements of $1.3 million (the Company used level 3 of observable inputs in conducting the impairment tests), and a fair value adjustment to contingent consideration of $0.7 million (the Company used level 3 fair value measurements based on projected cash flows).

44




During the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company recognized $4.5 million in write-downs and other charges driven by losses from the disposal of assets of $3.2 million , write-offs related to prepaid royalties of $0.7 million , the full impairment of certain intangible assets of $0.6 million (level 3 fair value measurement based on projected cash flows for the specific assets), losses from the disposal of intangible assets of $0.5 million , offset by a fair value adjustment to an acquisition contingent receivable of $0.6 million (level 3 fair value measurements based on projected cash flows). The contingency was resolved in the quarter ending March 31, 2017.

Due to the changing nature of our write-downs and other charges, we describe the composition of the balances as opposed to providing a year over year comparison.

Depreciation and amortization. The increase was predominantly due to a $5.2 million increase in depreciation driven by an increased installed base, and an increase of amortization expense of $0.7 million due to the acquisition of In Bet, AGS iGaming and Rocket Gaming Systems. See Item 15. “Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.” Note 2 for a detailed discussion regarding the acquisitions of In Bet, AGS iGaming and Rocket Gaming Systems.

Other Expense (Income)

Interest expense. The decrease in interest expense is predominantly attributed to the redemption of our 11.25% senior secured PIK notes in January 2018. Additionally, several transactions resulted in a decrease of our weighted average interest rate, including the termination of our senior secured credit facilities and seller notes and entering into a first lien credit agreement on June 6, 2017 and further decreases in the interest rate on our first lien credit facilities that we obtained on February 7, 2018 and October 5, 2018. See Item 15. “Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.” Note 6 for a detailed discussion regarding long-term debt. These decreases were partially offset by an increase in the principal amounts outstanding under the first lien credit facilities as of December 31, 2018, compared to the amount outstanding at December 31, 2017.

Loss on extinguishment and modification of debt. The decrease is attributed to the refinancing of the Company’s long-term debt, as described in Item 15. “Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.” Note 6 to our consolidated financial statements. Approximately $3.9 million of deferred loan costs and discounts, which related to senior secured PIK notes and first lien credit facilities, were written-off and included in the loss on extinguishment and modification of debt and $2.7 million in third-party costs related to the first lien credit facilities were expenses.

During the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company recognized (a) approximately $3.3 million of deferred loan costs and discounts, which related to our old senior secured credit facilities and were written off as a portion of the loss on extinguishment and modification of debt, and (b) expensed $5.7 million in debt issuance costs related to the first lien credit facilities.

Other expense (income). The increase is predominantly attributed to the write-off in the current year of indemnification receivables of $9.3 million as the related liability for uncertain tax positions was also written off due to the applicable lapse in the statute of limitations. See Item 15. “Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.” Note 12 for a detailed description of the indemnification receivable. The remaining change was due to the effect of foreign currency fluctuation on trade payables and receivables denominated in foreign currencies.

Income Taxes

The Company’s effective income tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2018, was a benefit of 28.7%. The difference between the federal statutory rate of 21% and the Company’s effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2018, was primarily due to changes in our valuation allowance on deferred tax assets, various permanent items and the lapse in applicable statute of limitations for certain uncertain tax positions. The Company’s effective income tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2017, was a benefit of 4.0%. The difference between the federal statutory rate of 35% and the Company’s effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2017 was primarily due to changes in our valuation allowance on deferred tax assets.


45



Year Ended December 31, 2017 compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2016
The following tables set forth certain selected audited consolidated financial data for the periods indicated (in thousands, except key performance indicators):  
 
Year ended December 31,
 
$
 
%
 
2017
 
2016
 
Change
 
Change
Consolidated Statements of Operations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gaming operations
$
170,252

 
$
154,857

 
15,395

 
9.9
 %
Equipment sales
41,703

 
11,949

 
29,754

 
249.0
 %
Total revenues
211,955

 
166,806

 
45,149

 
27.1
 %
Operating expenses
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of gaming operations
31,742

 
26,736

 
5,006

 
18.7
 %
Cost of equipment sales
19,847

 
6,237

 
13,610

 
218.2
 %
Selling, general and administrative
44,015

 
46,108

 
(2,093
)
 
(4.5
)%
Research and development
25,715

 
21,346

 
4,369

 
20.5
 %
Write-downs and other charges
4,485

 
3,262

 
1,223

 
37.5
 %
Depreciation and amortization
71,649

 
80,181

 
(8,532
)
 
(10.6
)%
Total operating expenses
197,453

 
183,870

 
13,583

 
7.4
 %
Income/(loss) from operations
14,502

 
(17,064
)
 
31,566

 
185.0
 %
Other expense (income)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest expense
55,511

 
59,963

 
(4,452
)
 
(7.4
)%
Interest income
(108
)
 
(57
)
 
(51
)
 
(89.5
)%
Loss on extinguishment and modification of debt
9,032

 

 
9,032

 
100.0
 %
Other expense
(2,938
)
 
7,404

 
(10,342
)
 
(139.7
)%
Loss before income taxes
(46,995
)
 
(84,374
)
 
37,379

 
44.3
 %
Income tax benefit
1,889

 
3,000

 
(1,111
)
 
(37.0
)%
Net loss
$
(45,106
)
 
$
(81,374
)
 
36,268

 
44.6
 %

Revenues

Gaming Operations. The increase in gaming operations revenue was primarily due to the increase in our EGM installed base of approximately 600 domestic units, which is primarily attributable to the continued success of our ICON cabinet and the popularity of our new Orion Portrait cabinet, as well as the purchase of approximately 1,500 EGMs from Rocket in December 2017 as described in as described in Item 15. “Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.” Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements. In addition, the increase is also attributed to the increase of approximately 800 international EGM units, which is attributable to our gaining market share in under serviced markets within Mexico. We also had an increase in our domestic EGM revenue per day driven by our new product offerings, recently entered jurisdictions and through the optimization of our installed base by installing our newer and more competitive game content on our EGMs. Although the Company has experienced a decrease in participation share rates for gaming revenue received pursuant to participation agreements with certain Native American tribal customers, player demand, driven by the Company’s newer and more competitive game content, has offset the effects of decreased participation share rates and domestic EGM revenue per day has increased in total. The fiscal year ended December 31, 2017 results have been negatively impacted by $0.7 million relating to foreign currency fluctuations compared to the prior year period. Additionally, we had a $1.4 million increase in Table Products gaming operations revenue which is attributable to the increase in the Table Products installed base to 2,400 units compared to 1,500 units in the prior year period most notably due to the purchase of In Bet assets with an installed base of 493 table games.


46



Equipment Sales. The increase in equipment sales is due to the sale of 2,565 units in the year ended December 31, 2017 , compared to 465 units in the prior year period. The increase in the number of units sold is primarily attributable to the success of our new ICON and Orion Portrait cabinets and our growth in the Class III market in which many customers prefer to buy rather than lease EGMs. The increase was also attributable to a $1,432, or 9.6%, increase the average sales price compared to the prior year period. The increase in equipment sales was offset by a decrease in revenues from the sale of nontransferable and nonexclusive licenses of certain licensed game content to a third party for $4.3 million in the prior year period that was not present in the year ended December 31, 2017 .

Operating Expenses

Cost of gaming operations. The increase in costs of gaming operations was due to increased service and indirect production costs driven by our increased installed base of 23,805 EGM units compared to 20,851 units in the prior year period, as well as increased table games installed base that increased 60.0% compared to the prior year period. As a percentage of gaming operations revenue, costs of gaming operations was 18.6% for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 17.3% for the prior year period.
 
Cost of Equipment Sales. The increase in cost of equipment sales is attributable to the increase of 2,565 EGM units sold for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 465 in prior year period. As a percentage of equipment sales revenue, costs of equipment sales was 47.6% for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 52.2% for the prior year period. The improved margin is due to higher average selling price of EGMs. Additionally, the prior year was negatively affected by the sale of approximately 850 older generation gaming machines in secondary markets in 2016.

Selling, general and administrative. The decrease in selling, general and administrative expenses is primarily due to decreased user acquisition fees of $3.4 million from our Interactive segment in efforts to optimize marketing spend, and decreased bad debt expense and customer related discounts of $1.1 million, which are offset with increased salary and benefit costs of $1.3 million due to higher headcount and increased marketing and trade show costs of $1.0 million when compared to the prior year period.

Research and development. The increase in research and development expenses is driven by increased salary and benefit costs of $4.3 million due to higher headcount and protype parts and testing of $1.7 million associated with the development of our new Orion Portrait and Orion Slant cabinets, which are offset by decreased professional fees related to software testing and compliance of $1.9 million. As a percentage of total revenue, research and development expense was 12.1% for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 12.8% for the prior year period.

Write-downs and other charges. The Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss include various non-routine transactions or consulting and transaction-related fees that have been classified as write downs and other charges. During the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company recognized $4.5 million in write-downs and other charges driven by losses from the disposal of assets of $3.2 million , write-offs related to prepaid royalties of $0.7 million , the full impairment of certain intangible assets of $0.6 million (level 3 fair value measurement based on projected cash flows for the specific same titles), losses from the disposal of intangible assets of $0.5 million , offset by a fair value adjustment to an acquisition contingent receivable of $0.6 million (level 3 fair value measurements based on projected cash flows). The contingency was resolved in the quarter ending March 31, 2017.

During the year ended December 31, 2016, the Company recognized $3.3 million in write-downs and other charges, driven by a $3.3 million impairment of an intangible asset related to a customer contract that the Company expects will provide less benefit than originally estimated from the Cadillac Jack acquisition (a level 3 fair value measurement based on a decrease in projected cash flows). The value of the intangible asset was written down to $1.1 million at an interim date and subsequently fully amortized by December 31, 2016. Additionally the Company recorded a write-down of long-lived assets of $2.0 million related to older generation gaming machines (level 3 fair value measurement based on projected cash flow for the specific assets) in which the long-lived assets were written down to $0 , and losses from the disposal of assets of $1.0 million . These charges were offset by a $3.0 million fair value adjustment to a contingent consideration receivable related to the Cadillac Jack acquisition (level 3 fair value measurement based on expected and probable future realization of the receivable).

Due to the changing nature of our write downs and other charges, we describe the composition of the balances as opposed to providing a year over year comparison.
    
Depreciation and amortization. The decrease was primarily due to a $8.8 million decrease in amortization driven by certain intangible assets that have reached the end of their useful lives, and offset with an increase of $0.2 million in depreciation directly correlated to an increase in depreciable assets.

47




Other Expense (Income), net

Interest expense. The decrease in interest expense is primarily attributed to the termination of our senior secured credit facilities and seller notes as well as entering into a first lien credit agreement on June 6, 2017. See Item 15. “Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.” Note 6 to our consolidated financial statements for a detailed discussion regarding long-term debt. These transactions resulted in a lower weighted average interest rate. These decreases were partially offset by an increase in the average principal amounts outstanding under the senior secured PIK notes of $15.8 million as of December 31, 2017, compared to the amount outstanding at December 31, 2016.

Loss on extinguishment and modification of debt. The increase is attributed to the refinancing of the Company’s long-term debt, as described in Item 15. “Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.” Note 6 to our consolidated financial statements. Approximately $3.3 million of deferred loan costs and discounts related to our old senior secured credit facilities were written off as a portion of the loss on extinguishment and modification of debt and $5.7 million in debt issuance costs related to the first lien credit facilities were expensed.

Other expense (income). The increase is primarily attributed to a $5.3 million change in the balance of the tax indemnification receivable recorded in connection with the acquisition of Cadillac Jack. To a lesser extent, the change was due
effect of foreign currency fluctuation on trade payables and receivables denominated in foreign currencies.

Income Taxes

The Company’s effective income tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2017, was a benefit of 4.0%. The difference between the federal statutory rate of 35% and the Company’s effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2017, was primarily due to changes in our valuation allowance on deferred tax assets and effects of H.R. 1, originally known as the “Tax Cuts and Jobs Act,” (the “Tax Act”) that was enacted on December 22, 2017. The Company’s effective income tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2016, was a benefit of 3.6%. The difference between the federal statutory rate of 35% and the Company’s effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2016, was primarily due to changes in our valuation allowance on deferred tax assets.

Segment Operating Results

We report our business segment results in accordance with the “management approach.” The management approach follows the internal reporting used by our chief operating decision maker, who is our Chief Executive Officer, for making decisions and assessing performance of our reportable segments.

See Item 8. “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” Note 1 for a detailed discussion of our three segments. Each segment’s activities include the design, development, acquisition, manufacturing, marketing, distribution, installation and servicing of its product lines. We evaluate the performance of our operating segments based on revenues and segment adjusted EBITDA.
    
Segment revenues include leasing, licensing or selling of products within each reportable segment. We measure segment performance in terms of revenue, segment-specific adjusted EBITDA and unit placements. We believe that unit placements are an important gauge of segment performance for EGMs and Table Products because it measures historical market placements of leased and sold units and provides insight into potential markets for next-generation products and service. We do not present a cumulative installed base as previously sold units may no longer be in use by our customers or may have been replaced by other models or products. For our Interactive segment, we view the number of unique players and revenues provided by players on a daily or monthly basis.
 

48



Electronic Gaming Machines

Year Ended December 31, 2018 compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2017
 
Year ended December 31,
 
$
 
%
 
2018
 
2017
 
Change
 
Change
EGM segment revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gaming operations
$
187,809

 
$
158,335

 
$
29,474

 
18.6
 %
Equipment sales
83,216

 
41,596

 
41,620

 
100.1
 %
Total EGM revenues
$
271,025


$
199,931

 
$
71,094

 
35.6
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
EGM segment expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of gaming operations (1)
35,216

 
28,103

 
7,113

 
25.3
 %
Cost of equipment sales (1)
39,627

 
19,839

 
19,788

 
99.7
 %
Selling, general and administrative
55,933

 
38,224

 
17,709

 
46.3
 %
Research and development
26,018

 
22,446

 
3,572

 
15.9
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
EGM segment adjusted expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adjusted cost of gaming operations (2)
(33,061
)
 
(24,683
)
 
8,378

 
33.9
 %
Cost of equipment sales
(39,627
)
 
(19,839
)
 
19,788

 
99.7
 %
Adjusted selling, general and administrative (2)
(42,182
)
 
(32,316
)
 
9,866

 
30.5
 %
Adjusted research and development (2)
(23,336
)
 
(19,988
)
 
3,348

 
16.8
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Accretion of placement fees
4,552

 
4,680

 
(128
)
 
(2.7
)%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
EGM adjusted EBITDA
$
137,371

 
$
107,785

 
$
29,586

 
27.4
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
EGM unit information:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
VLT
797

 
1,217

 
(420
)
 
(34.5
)%
Class II
11,790

 
11,952

 
(162
)
 
(1.4
)%
Class III
3,709

 
2,909

 
800

 
27.5
 %
Domestic installed base, end of period
16,296

 
16,078

 
218

 
1.4
 %
International installed base, end of period
8,351

 
7,727

 
624

 
8.1
 %
Total installed base, end of period
24,647

 
23,805

 
842

 
3.5
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Domestic revenue per day
$
27.02

 
$
25.77

 
$
1.25

 
4.9
 %
International revenue per day
$
8.41

 
$
8.31

 
$
0.10

 
1.2
 %
Total revenue per day
$
20.96

 
$
19.88

 
$
1.08

 
5.4
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
EGM units sold
4,387

 
2,565

 
1,822

 
71.0
 %
Average sales price
$
18,360

 
$
16,329

 
$
2,031

 
12.4
 %
(1) Exclusive of depreciation and amortization.
(2) For a reconciliation of this item to its most closely comparable GAAP number, please see the tables set forth under “-Adjusted Expenses.”

Gaming Operations Revenue

The increase in gaming operations revenue was primarily due to the increase in our EGM installed base. During the year ended December 31, 2018, revenues increased due to the contribution of 1,500 EGMs acquired from Rocket in December 2017 as described in Item 15. “Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.” Note 2 to our condensed consolidated financial statements. The increase is also attributable to the continued success of our ICON cabinet and the popularity of our Orion Portrait cabinet

49



and the placement of over 500 domestic Class II units in casino expansions and newly opened casinos offset by the strategic removal of approximately 500 EGMs in the third quarter at one casino as well as the sale of previously leased EGMs. Additionally, we had an increase of $1.25 , or 4.9% in our domestic EGM revenue per day driven by our new product offerings, recently entered jurisdictions and through the optimization of our installed base by installing our newer and more competitive game content on our EGMs. In addition, the increase is due to the increase of 624 international EGM units, which is attributable to our gaining market share in under serviced markets within Mexico.

Equipment Sales

The increase in equipment sales is due to the sale of 4,387 units in the year ended December 31, 2018 , compared to 2,565 units in the prior year period. The increase in the number of units sold is primarily attributable to the success of our premium Orion Portrait cabinet and our growth in the Class III market as well as the continued success of our ICON cabinet. The increase was also attributable to a $2,031 , or 12.4% increase in the average sales price compared to the prior year period. The increase in the average sales price is due the higher sales price of our premium Orion Portrait cabinet compared to other cabinets.

EGM Adjusted EBITDA

EGM adjusted EBITDA includes the revenues and operating expenses from the EGM segment adjusted for depreciation, amortization, write-downs and other charges, accretion of placement fees, as well as other costs. See Item 15 “Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.” Note 14 for further explanation of adjustments. The increase in EGM adjusted EBITDA is attributable to the increases in revenue described above, and offset by increased adjusted selling, general and administrative expenses of $9.9 million, and increased research and development expenses of $3.3 million, both driven by the increase in salaries and benefit costs due to increased headcount and other operating expenses. The increase in revenue was further offset by increased adjusted cost of gaming operations and equipment sales of $28.2 million due to higher sales volume. EGM adjusted EBITDA margin was 50.7% and 53.9% for the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The decrease in adjusted EBITDA margin is attributable to the increased proportion of equipment sales as part of total revenues, increased service costs and period costs related to manufacturing and increased operating costs.

50




Year Ended December 31, 2017 compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2016
 
Year ended December 31,
 
$
 
%
 
2017
 
2016
 
Change
 
Change
EGM segment revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gaming operations
$
158,335

 
$
144,510

 
$
13,825

 
9.6
 %
Equipment sales
41,596

 
11,897

 
29,699

 
249.6
 %
Total EGM revenues
$
199,931

 
$
156,407

 
$
43,524

 
27.8
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
EGM segment expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of gaming operations (1)
28,103

 
23,195

 
4,908

 
21.2
 %
Cost of equipment sales (1)
19,839

 
6,237

 
13,602

 
218.1
 %
Selling, general and administrative
38,224

 
34,901

 
3,323

 
9.5
 %
Research and development
22,446

 
17,951

 
4,495

 
25.0
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
EGM segment adjusted expenses
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adjusted cost of gaming operations (2)
(24,683
)
 
(18,903
)
 
5,780

 
30.6
 %
Cost of equipment sales
(19,839
)
 
(6,237
)
 
13,602

 
218.1
 %
Adjusted selling, general and administrative (2)
(32,316
)
 
(27,310
)
 
5,006

 
18.3
 %
Adjusted research and development (2)
(19,988
)
 
(16,930
)
 
3,058

 
18.1
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Accretion of placement fees
4,680

 
4,702

 
(22
)
 
(0.5
)%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
EGM adjusted EBITDA
$
107,785

 
$
91,729

 
$
16,056

 
17.5
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
EGM unit information:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
VLT
1,217

 
1,223

 
(6
)
 
(0.5
)%
Class II
11,952

 
10,361

 
1,591

 
15.4
 %
Class III
2,909

 
2,369

 
540

 
22.8
 %
Domestic installed base, end of period
16,078

 
13,953

 
2,125

 
15.2
 %
International installed base, end of period
7,727

 
6,898

 
829

 
12.0
 %
Total installed base, end of period
23,805

 
20,851

 
2,954

 
14.2
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Domestic revenue per day
$
25.77

 
$
24.74

 
$
1.03

 
4.2
 %
International revenue per day
$
8.31

 
$
9.23

 
$
(0.92
)
 
(10.0
)%
Total revenue per day
$
19.88

 
$
19.78

 
$
0.10

 
0.5
 %
 
 
 
 
 

 

EGM units sold (3)
2,565

 
465

 
2,100

 
451.6
 %
Average sales price (3)
$
16,329

 
$
14,897

 
$
1,432

 
9.6
 %
(1) Exclusive of depreciation and amortization.
(2) For a reconciliation of this item to its most closely comparable GAAP number, please see the tables set forth under “-Adjusted Expenses.”
(3) Does not include the sale of approximately 850 older generation gaming machines in secondary markets in 2016.

Gaming Operations Revenue

The increase in gaming operations revenue was primarily due to the increase in our EGM installed base of approximately 600 domestic units, which is primarily attributable to the continued success of our ICON cabinet and the popularity of our new Orion Portrait cabinet, as well as the purchase of approximately 1,500 EGMs from Rocket in December 2017 as described in as

51



described in Item 15 “Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.” Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements. In addition, the increase is also attributed to the increase of approximately 800 international EGM units, which is attributable to our gaining market share in under serviced markets within Mexico. We also had an increase in our domestic EGM revenue per day driven by our new product offerings, recently entered jurisdictions and through the optimization of our installed base by installing our newer and more competitive game content on our EGMs. Although the Company has experienced a decrease in participation share rates for gaming revenue received pursuant to participation agreements with certain Native American tribal customers, player demand, driven by the Company’s newer and more competitive game content, has offset the effects of decreased participation share rates and domestic EGM revenue per day has increased in total.

Equipment Sales

The increase in equipment sales is due to the sale of 2,565 units in the year ended December 31, 2017, compared to 465 units in the prior year period. The increase in the number of units sold is primarily attributable to the continued success of our ICON cabinet and the newly released Orion Portrait cabinet and our growth in the Class III market in which many customers prefer to buy rather than lease EGMs. The increase was also attributable to an increase in the average sales price compared to the prior year period driven by the pricing of our premium Orion Portrait cabinet. The increase in equipment sales was offset by a decrease in revenues from the sale of nontransferable and nonexclusive licenses of certain licensed game content to a third party for $4.3 million in the prior year period that was not present in the year ended December 31, 2017.

EGM Adjusted EBITDA

EGM adjusted EBITDA includes the revenues and operating expenses from the EGM segment adjusted for depreciation, amortization, write downs and other charges, accretion of placement fees, as well as other costs. See Item 15 “Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.” Note 14 for further explanation of adjustments. The increase in EGM adjusted EBITDA is attributable to the increases in revenue described above, and offset by increased adjusted selling, general and administrative expenses of $5.0 million and increased research and development expenses of $3.1 million, both driven by the increase in salaries and benefit costs due to increased headcount. The increase in revenue was further offset by increased total cost of recurring revenue and equipment sales of $19.4 million due to higher sales volume.


52




Table Products

Year Ended December 31, 2018 compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2017
 
Year ended December 31,
 
$
 
%
 
2018
 
2017
 
Change
 
Change
Table products segment revenue: