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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on January 15, 2020
Registration No. 333-

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
 
AquaBounty Technologies, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware
 
0273
 
04-3156167
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
2 Mill & Main Place, Suite 395
Maynard, Massachusetts 01754
(978) 648-6000
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
 
David A. Frank
Chief Financial Officer
AquaBounty Technologies, Inc.
2 Mill & Main Place, Suite 395
Maynard, Massachusetts 01754
Telephone: (978) 648-6000
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

Copies to:
Jocelyn M. Arel, Esq.
Michael J. Minahan, Esq.
Goodwin Procter LLP
100 Northern Avenue
Boston, Massachusetts 02210
Telephone: (617) 570-1000
 
Angela M. Olsen
General Counsel and Corporate Secretary
AquaBounty Technologies, Inc.
2 Mill & Main Place, Suite 395
Maynard, Massachusetts 01754
Telephone: (978) 648-6000
 
Jonathan R. Zimmerman
Ryan R. Woessner
Faegre Baker Daniels LLP
2200 Wells Fargo Center
90 South Seventh Street
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55402
Telephone: (612) 766-7000
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to public: As soon as practicable after this Registration Statement is declared effective.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box.  ☐
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
 
 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☐



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CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of
Securities to be Registered
Proposed Maximum Aggregate Offering Price(1)
Amount of
Registration Fee(2)
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share(3)
$11,500,000
$1,493
(1)
Estimated solely for the purposes of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
(2)
The Registrant previously paid $2,706.74 of the registration fee.
(3)
Includes offering price of any additional shares of common stock that the underwriters have an option to purchase to cover over-allotments, if any.
 
The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment that specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.
 



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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
Subject to Completion, Dated January 15, 2020
PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS
$10,000,000
LOGO.JPG
COMMON STOCK
 
We are offering $10.0 million of shares of our common stock.
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “AQB”. On January 14, 2020, the closing sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market was $2.66 per share.
We are an “emerging growth company” under applicable federal securities laws and will be subject to reduced public company reporting requirements for this prospectus and future filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Our business and investment in our common stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 10 of this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
 
 
Per Share
 
Total
Public offering price
$
 
$
Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)(2)
$
 
$
Proceeds, before expenses, to us
$
 
$
(1)
The underwriters will receive no underwriting discount in respect of shares sold to a certain existing shareholder or its affiliates, if such shareholder or affiliates participate in this offering.
(2)
We have also agreed to reimburse certain expenses of the underwriters. See “Underwriting” beginning on page 67 of this prospectus for additional information regarding underwriting compensation.
We have granted the underwriters an option to purchase up to an additional $1.5 million of shares of common stock from us at the public offering price, less the underwriting discounts and commissions, within 45 days from the date of this prospectus to cover over-allotments, if any.
The underwriters expect to deliver the shares of common stock to investors on or about                 , 2020, subject to customary closing conditions.
 
LAKE STREET
The date of this prospectus is                       , 2020



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F-1
 
You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or contained in any free writing prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Neither we nor the underwriters have authorized any person to provide you with any information or make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and that we authorize to be distributed to you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, unless the information specifically indicates that another date applies, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or of any sale of the common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since such date.
For investors outside of the United States: Neither we nor the underwriters have done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and to observe any restrictions relating to, this offering and the distribution of this prospectus outside of the United States.
In this prospectus, unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, references to “AquaBounty,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our,” and similar references refer to AquaBounty Technologies, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries. “AquAdvantage,” “Aqua Bounty,” and certain other marks are our registered trademarks in several jurisdictions. This prospectus contains additional trade names, trademarks, and service marks of other companies, and such tradenames, trademarks, and service marks are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this prospectus may be referred to without the ® and ™ symbols, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names, trademarks, or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, these other companies.


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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights selected information that is presented in greater detail elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our common stock. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the sections titled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus, before making an investment decision.
Overview
AquaBounty is a leader in the field of land-based aquaculture and the use of technology for improving its productivity and sustainability. Our objective is to ensure the availability of high-quality seafood to meet global consumer demand, while addressing critical production constraints in the most popular farmed species.
In 1995, we began the process of seeking regulatory approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) for our first bioengineered product, AquAdvantage Salmon, which grows to harvest size faster than conventional Atlantic salmon. In 1996, we acquired our first land-based, recirculating aquaculture system (“RAS”) hatchery on Prince Edward Island, Canada, and we now have over two decades of experience in successfully rearing Atlantic salmon in RAS facilities.
On November 19, 2015, we received approval from the FDA of our New Animal Drug Application (“NADA”) for the production, sale, and consumption in the United States of AquAdvantage Salmon. This was followed on May 19, 2016, by the approval from Health Canada for the production, sale, and consumption of AquAdvantage Salmon in Canada. Consequently, we have received approvals for our product from what we believe are two of the most respected and rigorous regulatory agencies in the world.
We believe that receipt of FDA approval for AquAdvantage Salmon not only represents a major milestone for us, but also a significant pioneering development in introducing bioengineered animals into the food chain. Although genetically modified crops have been accepted by consumers in the United States and South America for some time, AquAdvantage Salmon is the first bioengineered animal to be approved for human consumption.
We farm AquAdvantage Salmon in land-based, contained, freshwater aquaculture systems, which allows inland fish farms to be established close to major demand centers in a profitable and environmentally sustainable manner. Our years of experience growing Atlantic salmon in land-based farms, coupled with the economic advantage of our faster-growing AquAdvantage Salmon, offers the opportunity to energize salmon aquaculture in the United States, which imported more than $3.4 billion of Atlantic salmon in 2018 according to the U.S. Department of Commerce (“DOC”).
In 2017, we purchased an existing land-based aquaculture facility in Indiana as our first farm in the United States. We currently are growing both conventional Atlantic salmon and AquAdvantage Salmon at the farm, with our first harvests of conventional Atlantic salmon expected in the second quarter of 2020 and our first harvests of AquAdvantage Salmon expected in the fourth quarter of 2020. Our future plans include construction of four to five new farms in North America at sites close to consumer consumption over the next several years. Additionally, we are pursuing regulatory approval for AquAdvantage Salmon in Argentina, Brazil, China, and Israel.
We have incurred significant losses since our inception in 1991 and expect to continue to incur significant losses until we achieve market acceptance for our product and expand our production capacity. We have sold small quantities of AquAdvantage Salmon from our demonstration farm site in Panama during 2018 and 2019, and we expect more significant revenues in 2020 once we begin to harvest from our farms in Indiana and on Prince Edward Island. For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, we experienced operating losses of $10.4 million and $9.3 million, respectively.
The Aquaculture Industry
Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and aquatic plants. It involves cultivating freshwater or saltwater species under controlled conditions, as an alternative to the commercial harvesting of wild species of aquatic organisms. According to Research and Markets, an industry research organization, the global aquaculture market was valued at $264.5 billion in 2018 and is expected to grow at a compound annual rate of 7.7% to reach a market size of $509.7 billion by the year 2027. We believe that the aquaculture industry—and in particular salmon farming—is poised for significant additional growth in the coming years as the global population expands and consumers seek out high-quality proteins.
Salmon Farming
Atlantic salmon farming is a major industry in the cold-water countries of the northern and southern hemispheres. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (“FAO”), Atlantic salmon aquaculture production grew by approximately 5.9% annually between 2000 and 2017. Total production volume of farmed Atlantic salmon during 2017 was 2.36 million metric tons with a value of over $16.7 billion. Industry analyst Kontali Analyse (“Kontali”) expects increases in demand to drive continued production growth through 2020, although at a lower annual rate of approximately 3.0%, primarily due to supply constraints.
Below is a break-down by major producing country for the time period 2012 through 2017, which is the last year for which data is readily available from FAO.

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Worldwide Atlantic Salmon Production by Country (in metric tons)
Country
 
2012
 
2013
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
Norway
 
1,232,095

 
1,168,324

 
1,258,356

 
1,303,346

 
1,233,619

 
1,236,353

Chile
 
399,678

 
492,329

 
644,459

 
608,546

 
532,225

 
614,180

United Kingdom
 
162,547

 
163,518

 
179,397

 
172,146

 
163,135

 
189,707

Canada
 
116,101

 
97,629

 
86,347

 
121,926

 
123,522

 
120,553

Faroe Islands
 
76,564

 
75,821

 
86,454

 
80,600

 
83,300

 
86,800

Australia
 
43,982

 
42,825

 
41,591

 
48,331

 
56,115

 
52,580

Ireland
 
12,440

 
9,125

 
9,368

 
13,116

 
16,300

 
18,342

United States
 
19,295

 
18,866

 
18,719

 
18,719

 
16,185

 
14,685

All other
 
11,696

 
25,549

 
23,376

 
14,849

 
22,892

 
25,463

Volume - Worldwide (mt)
 
2,074,398

 
2,093,986

 
2,348,067

 
2,381,579

 
2,247,293

 
2,358,663

© FAO - Fisheries and Aquaculture Information and Statistics Service 12/17/2019
Pricing
According to the DOC, which tracks the volume and value of Atlantic salmon imports into the United States, from 2011 to 2018 the average wholesale price of Atlantic salmon imported into the country increased from $3.81 per pound ($8.39/kilogram) to $4.77 per pound ($10.51/kilogram).
The daily spot (farm-gate or wholesale market) price for Atlantic salmon is very volatile due to the species’ long production cycle, which normally ranges between two and three years, and its short shelf life, which usually ranges between two and three weeks. Farmed salmon is typically sold as fresh and thus must be consumed within this timeframe. Consequently, the available supply is very inelastic over the short term, while demand can be very elastic due to price, season, or market size.
Major Producers
The global Atlantic salmon farming industry includes several very large companies with operations in each of the major producing countries. Consolidation has been evident in the past few years as producers attempt to gain competitive cost advantages while overcoming the regulatory challenges associated with developing new marine farm sites. Major market producers include the following companies: Mowi, Cermaq, Agrosuper, Leroy Seafood Group, SalMar, Cooke Aquaculture, and Grieg Seafood. According to Kontali, these seven companies accounted for approximately 46% of the Atlantic salmon produced in 2018.
U.S. Atlantic Salmon Market
According to the DOC, in 2018 the United States imported a record 719 million pounds (326 thousand metric tons) of Atlantic salmon with an aggregate market value of approximately $3.4 billion, or $4.77 per pound. The DOC also reported that over 89% of the total quantity of Atlantic salmon imports into the United States in 2018 originated from Chile, Canada, and Norway. The Atlantic salmon farming industry in the United States contracted significantly beginning in the 1990s in the face of environmental concerns and lower costs of production from foreign sources, notably Chile. According to the FAO, a total of only 32 million pounds (15 thousand metric tons) of farmed Atlantic salmon was produced in the United States in 2017, representing only 4.7% of the total farmed Atlantic salmon supplied to the country.
Despite intensive public consumer education campaigns promoting its health benefits, seafood consumption in the United States still lags behind other protein sources and trails consumption in overseas markets. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (“USDA”), during the period from 2012 to 2017, annual seafood consumption in the United States ranged between 14 and 16 pounds per capita, significantly behind consumption of poultry (96 to 108 pounds), beef (53 to 57 pounds), and pork (45 to 50 pounds). In comparison, according to FAO, average seafood consumption worldwide was 45 pounds per capita in 2016.
Perception of Bioengineered Atlantic Salmon
Though Atlantic salmon is the second most consumed seafood in the United States, activist groups opposing bioengineering have pressured a number of retail food outlets and grocery chains to publicly state that they will not carry bioengineered Atlantic salmon.
However, we do not expect that this will have a significant impact on overall consumer demand and product placement in the marketplace generally, and in particular the wholesale marketplace. To date, large wholesalers have not followed the example of these retailers, and we believe that there will be sufficient demand from smaller retailers, wholesalers, and institutional seafood buyers to absorb our projected production. We believe that FDA approval reinforces the message that AquAdvantage Salmon is a safe and nutritious seafood product that is identical to conventional farmed Atlantic salmon.
There are surveys that have been cited by various non-governmental organizations (“NGOs”) that indicate that consumers are reluctant to purchase bioengineered food and that they would like to see labeling in order to avoid it. In response to the potential for state-by-state labeling laws, Congress passed the National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Law in 2016, which directed USDA to establish a

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national mandatory standard (“Disclosure Standard”) for disclosing foods that are or may be bioengineered. The Disclosure Standard requires food manufacturers, importers, and certain retailers to ensure bioengineered foods are appropriately disclosed. The implementation date of the Disclosure Standard was January 1, 2020, except for small food manufacturers, whose implementation date is January 1, 2021. The mandatory compliance date of the Disclosure Standard is January 1, 2022. We plan to implement the Disclosure Standard immediately with the first sales of AquAdvantage Salmon.
In conjunction with the bioengineered disclosure, we plan to educate consumers on the benefits of AquAdvantage Salmon versus conventional Atlantic salmon, including its 25% improved feed conversion (meaning less feed is needed to produce the same harvest), a lower carbon footprint due to local production, reduced impact on the environment, reduced exposure of the fish to environmental toxins due to use of land-based aquaculture systems, and reduced reliance on vaccines or antibiotics due to improved biosecurity.
Atlantic Salmon Disease Impact
An area of concern with current Atlantic salmon farming production is the environmental impact and the cost of disease management associated with those operations. Salmon farming systems, particularly conventional, open sea-cage systems, are vulnerable to disease introduction and transmission, primarily from the marine environment or adjacent culture systems. The economic impact of disease to these production systems can be significant, as farmers must incur the cost of preventative measures, such as vaccines and antibiotics and then, if infected, the cost of lost or reduced harvests.
The most prevalent disease and health management issues are infectious salmon anemia (“ISA”) and sea lice. ISA is a viral disease in Atlantic salmon, and outbreaks have occurred in virtually every major salmon farming geography since 1984, including a major event in Chile in 2008 that impacted the country’s production for three years. There is currently no effective treatment for the disease, and the salmon farming industry relies on health management practices to mitigate its impact.
Sea lice are marine parasites that occur naturally and attach to the skin of Atlantic salmon. Even a few sea lice can increase the likelihood of secondary infections and mortality, and the presence of significant numbers are likely to have adverse effects on fish health and aesthetic appearance. The cost of managing sea lice in sea-cage farming environments can be significant.
The closed, contained, land-based production systems using RAS technology used for the grow-out of AquAdvantage Salmon are less susceptible, though not immune, to the same disease-related pressures because this type of culture system is isolated from the environment. RAS facilities employ sophisticated water treatment technology including the use of ozone, salt treatment and ultraviolet radiation to kill potential bacterial, fungal, or viral pathogens which might enter the system. In addition, incoming water is similarly filtered and treated prior to entering the system, and water quality is regularly measured as part of the standard procedures. The fish in RAS facilities are generally not vaccinated against typical fish diseases, and no antibiotics, pesticides, or pharmacological agents are typically required. RAS facilities employ effective biosecurity to prevent disease by reducing or eliminating the introduction of pathogens and continuously treating the water to assure optimal fish health. RAS production will allow the AquAdvantage Salmon to be raised in optimized conditions with total control of the water coming in and going out of the system, while recirculating greater than 95% of the water used.
In contrast, conventional salmon aquaculture takes place in large cages (sea cages) in coastal waterways exposed to currents, which can bring a variety of pathogens in contact with the farmed salmon. The presence of pathogens in an uncontrolled environment is a universally accepted fact in human and animal health. The presence of disease agents in these uncontrolled water currents could result in infection and spread of infection within the captive population. The risks and outcomes of conventional, open sea-cage systems are well established, and are often evidenced by outbreaks of a variety of bacterial and viral diseases as well as water fouling and contamination due to algal blooms and similar events. This risk of disease has led to the widespread use of antibiotics, vaccines, and other pharmacological agents, which are unnecessary in a RAS environment.
Further, stocking RAS facilities with disease-free eggs results in a much higher degree of biosecurity and protection from disease. We expect that production and economic losses due to disease will be significantly less in the closed, land-based culture systems proposed for the production of AquAdvantage Salmon, because of greater control over environmental conditions and superior biosecurity than in traditional Atlantic salmon production systems.
Restrictions on Atlantic Salmon Farming
Environmental concerns have led certain states to impose legislative and regulatory restrictions or bans on the farming of Atlantic salmon. This could reduce the number of potential sites available to us for production farms in the United States. Nevertheless, we have identified several states that would be excellent potential sites for AquAdvantage Salmon farms and are in the process of conducting a site search for the location of our next farm.
Our Product
Our product, AquAdvantage Salmon, is a bioengineered Atlantic salmon that can grow to market size faster than conventional farmed Atlantic salmon. The original research on the Atlantic salmon was conducted at Memorial University in Newfoundland, Canada, by a team seeking to protect the fish from the effects of the cold waters of the North Atlantic Ocean. They discovered that the single genetic change made by placing a second copy of the salmon growth hormone gene under the control of an alternative genetic promoter (gene switch) from the ocean pout resulted in more consistent levels of growth hormone being released, which accelerated the early stages of

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the salmon’s development, a time period when the salmon are more susceptible to disease and mortality. The accelerated growth allows these fish to reach a marketable size sooner. This can reduce farming time from between 28 to 36 months for conventional Atlantic salmon to between 18 to 20 months for AquAdvantage Salmon.
This accelerated growth has economic and environmental advantages. The faster life cycle, from birth to harvesting, of AquAdvantage Salmon, as compared to conventional salmon, allows it to be produced more economically in contained, land-based RAS farms. Although this requires greater capital investment than the sea cage approach, we believe that the higher costs will be offset by more efficient growth, 25% better feed conversion, reduced exposure to environmental threats, and more effective control of disease. In addition, with farms located nearer to the major food markets, we believe there will be savings on transportation of the harvested stock, a reduced carbon footprint, and an improved ability to get fresh product to market faster.
Plan of Operation
We are an aquaculture company that utilizes technology to produce fish economically and sustainably. We have over 25 years of experience raising Atlantic salmon in land-based RAS facilities, and our first bioengineered product is the AquAdvantage Salmon, which can grow to harvest size faster than conventional Atlantic salmon. Our near-term business plan contemplates that we will construct and operate four to five new, land-based RAS farms in North America at locations close to consumer consumption. Each of these farms could cost $75 million to $100 million to construct. We currently have two farms in operation, a 250-metric-ton farm in Rollo Bay, Prince Edward Island, and a 1,200-metric-ton farm in Indiana. Based on our progress to date, we expect that the Indiana farm will begin harvesting its fish in the second quarter of 2020, and the Rollo Bay farm will begin harvesting in the fourth quarter of 2020. Our target is to achieve an annual production output of at least 50,000 metric tons by 2027.
We also are seeking regulatory approval for AquAdvantage Salmon in Brazil, Argentina, Israel, and China. Once approved in these locations, we plan to commercialize through a combination of partnerships, joint ventures, and licensing arrangements.
In order to scale up our egg production capabilities, we have begun construction on a new broodstock facility at our farm site in Rollo Bay. Once completed and at full capacity, this facility will be capable of producing over ten million AquAdvantage Salmon eggs annually.
We intend to continue investing in research and development. We anticipate that our research and development expenditures will increase as we continue to develop our other aquaculture products and initiate new research projects focusing on health and productivity. Any additions to staff in our research and production activities will depend on the number of development activities we undertake and the success of our commercialization efforts for AquAdvantage Salmon. We also expect to increase our staffing in administration and at our farms as we grow our company.
Our Competitive Strengths
We believe the following key competitive strengths are core to our ability to successfully commercialize our products and to grow the company within the aquaculture industry:
Over 25 years of experience developing and breeding salmon in a land-based RAS facility.
Successful regulatory review and approval of AquAdvantage Salmon by two of the most respected and rigorous regulatory agencies in the world.
Pipeline of additional products in development.
Experienced management team.
Our Strategy
Our goal is to leverage our technology and our experience in raising fish in land-based RAS farms to become a leader in land-based, sustainable aquaculture. Key elements of our strategy include:
Prove the profitability of the conventional Atlantic salmon grown at our Indiana RAS farm.
Prove the economic benefit and consumer acceptance of AquAdvantage Salmon.
Gain approval for AquAdvantage Salmon in additional markets.
Increase our production output in North America.
Seek partnerships and licensing arrangements to leverage our investment.
Continue to leverage our technology leadership in land-based aquaculture and biotechnology.
To advance our strategy, we have progressed on the following activities:
We established production farm sites in Indiana and Rollo Bay.

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We initiated construction of a broodstock facility in Rollo Bay for year-round egg production to stock our production facilities.
We initiated field trials in Argentina and Brazil, the first step in seeking approval of our AquAdvantage Salmon in those countries.
We received approval of our application to conduct field trials in China.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects are subject to numerous risks. These risks are discussed more fully in the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus. These risks, uncertainties and other factors include, but are not limited to:
our limited operating history and track record of operating losses;
our cash position and ability to raise additional capital to finance our activities;
the anticipated benefits and characteristics of our AquAdvantage Salmon product;
the ability to secure any necessary regulatory approvals to commercialize any products;
our ability to adapt to changes in laws or regulations and policies;
the uncertainty of achieving the business plan, future revenue and operating results;
developments concerning our research projects;
our ability to successfully enter new markets or develop additional products;
competition from existing technologies and products or new technologies and products that may emerge;
actual or anticipated variations in our operating results;
market conditions in our industry;
our ability to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights and technologies;
the rate and degree of market acceptance of any products developed through the application of bioengineering, including bioengineered fish;
our ability to retain and recruit key personnel;
the success of any of our future acquisitions or investments;
international business risks and exchange rate fluctuations;
the possible volatility of our stock price; and
our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing.
Corporate Information
We were formed under the laws of the State of Delaware on December 17, 1991. Our principal executive offices are located at 2 Mill & Main Place, Suite 395, Maynard, Massachusetts 01754. Our telephone number is (978) 648-6000. We maintain a website at www.aquabounty.com. The reference to our website is intended to be an inactive textual reference only. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. On January 19, 2017, our common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “AQB”.
Emerging Growth Company Status
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”), as amended by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (the “JOBS Act”) enacted on April 5, 2012. For as long as we are an “emerging growth company,” we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies.” These include, but are not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”); an exemption from the adoption of new or revised financial accounting standards until they would apply to private companies; an exemption from compliance with any new requirements adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (the “PCAOB”); reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements; and exemptions from the requirements of holding advisory “say-on-pay” votes on executive compensation and shareholder advisory votes on golden parachute compensation not previously approved.
Section 107 of the JOBS Act provides that an “emerging growth company” can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act for complying with new or revised accounting standards. In other words, an

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“emerging growth company” can delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected to take advantage of this extended transition period. Our financial statements may therefore not be comparable to those of companies that comply with such new or revised accounting standards. Section 107 of the JOBS Act provides that our decision not to opt out of the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards is irrevocable.
We may take advantage of these exemptions for up to five years or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. We would cease to be an emerging growth company upon the earliest to occur of (1) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenue; (2) the date we qualify as a “large accelerated filer,” with at least $700.0 million of equity securities held by non-affiliates; (3) the issuance, in any three-year period, by our company of more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities; and (4) December 1, 2023, which is the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the first sale of our common stock pursuant to an effective registration statement filed under the Securities Act.

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The Offering
The following summary contains general information about this offering. The summary is not intended to be complete. You should read the full text and more specific details contained elsewhere in this prospectus.
Common stock offered by us
$10 million of shares.

Underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares
We have granted the underwriters a 45-day option to purchase up to an additional $1.5 million of shares from us at the public offering price, less underwriting discounts and commissions, to cover over-allotments, if any.

Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering
25,364,720 shares (or 25,928,630 shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full).

Use of proceeds
We estimate that the net proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock in this offering will be approximately $9.2 million (or approximately $10.6 million if the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares in this offering is exercised in full), based upon an assumed public offering price of $2.66 per share, which was the closing sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on January 14, 2020, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We currently intend to use the net proceeds of this offering to continue construction and renovation activities of our existing facilities in Rollo Bay and Indiana, for working capital costs associated with growing our first batches of fish at our Indiana and Rollo Bay farm sites; and other general corporate purposes, including investing further in our sales and marketing and research and development efforts and payment of anticipated general and administrative expenses. See the section of this prospectus titled “Use of Proceeds” for a more complete description of the intended use of proceeds from this offering.

Risk factors
See the section of this prospectus titled “Risk Factors” beginning on page 10 of this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our common stock.

The Nasdaq Capital Market trading symbol
“AQB”
The number of shares of common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 21,605,322 shares of common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2019, and excludes:
538,925 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of September 30, 2019, with a weighted-average exercise price of $4.94 per share under our 2006 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2006 Plan”), and our 2016 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2016 Plan”);
263,077 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2016 Plan, as more fully described in the section of this prospectus titled “Executive Compensation—Employee Benefit Plans”; and
1,662,304 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of September 30, 2019, with an exercise price of $3.25 per share, which warrants were issued in January 2018 as part of a public offering of units consisting of our common stock and the warrants.
Except as otherwise indicated, the information in this prospectus reflects or assumes the following:
no exercise of options or warrants outstanding as of September 30, 2019; and
no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to an additional $1.5 million of shares of our common stock in this offering.

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SUMMARY CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA
The summary consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2017, and 2018, and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2018, have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The summary consolidated statement of operations data for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2019, and the summary condensed consolidated balance sheet data as of September 30, 2019, have been derived from our unaudited financial statements for such period, included elsewhere in this prospectus. In our opinion, these unaudited consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a basis consistent with our audited consolidated financial statements and contain all adjustments, consisting only of normal and recurring adjustments, necessary for a fair presentation of such consolidated financial data. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in the future. The following summary consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with the sections of this prospectus titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Selected Consolidated Financial Data” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes beginning on page F-1 of this prospectus.
 
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
Fiscal Years Ended
December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2018
 
2017
(in thousands, except share data)
(unaudited)
 
 
 
 
Statement of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product revenues
$
140

 
$
78

 
$
85

 
$
53

Costs and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product costs
121

 
72

 
78

 
51

Sales and marketing
382

 
223

 
298

 
799

Research and development
1,923

 
2,664

 
3,459

 
3,372

General and administrative
7,489

 
5,067

 
6,616

 
5,063

Total costs and expenses
9,915

 
8,026

 
10,451

 
9,285

Operating loss
(9,775
)
 
(7,948
)
 
(10,366
)
 
(9,232
)
Other income (expense):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gain on disposal of equipment
9

 
12

 
13

 
1

Interest expense
(46
)
 
(16
)
 
(22
)
 
(22
)
Other income (expense), net
3

 
(6
)
 
(7
)
 
(6
)
Total other income (expense)
(34
)
 
(10
)
 
(16
)
 
(27
)
Net loss
(9,809
)
 
$
(7,958
)
 
$
(10,382
)
 
$
(9,259
)
Other comprehensive income:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation income (loss)
134

 
(113
)
 
(360
)
 
72

Total other comprehensive income (loss)
134

 
(113
)
 
(360
)
 
72

Comprehensive loss
$
(9,675
)
 
$
(8,071
)
 
$
(10,742
)
 
$
(9,187
)
Earnings per share
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net loss
$
(9,809
)
 
$
(7,958
)
 
$
(10,382
)
 
$
(9,259
)
Deemed dividend
$

 
$

 
$
(1,823
)
 
$

Net loss attributable to common shareholders
$
(9,809
)
 
$
(7,958
)
 
$
(12,205
)
 
$
(9,259
)
Basic and diluted net loss per share
$
(0.50
)
 
$
(0.64
)
 
$
(0.94
)
 
$
(1.06
)
Weighted average number of common shares—basic and diluted
19,556,607

 
12,528,995

 
13,028,760

 
8,772,494


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As of September 30, 2019
 
As of December 31
 
Actual
 
As Adjusted(1)
 
2018
 
2017
 
(unaudited)
 
 
 
 
Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and CD’s
$
6,426

 
$
15,651

 
$
3,003

 
$
506

Total assets
$
32,959

 
$
42,184

 
$
27,671

 
$
23,732

Debt
$
4,547

 
$
4,547

 
$
3,591

 
$
3,084

Stockholders’ equity (deficit)
$
26,880

 
$
36,105

 
$
23,234

 
$
17,981

(1)
The as-adjusted balance sheet data reflects the receipt by us of proceeds from the sale of $10.0 million of shares of common stock by us in this offering, based on an assumed public offering price of $2.66 per share, which was the closing price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on January 14, 2020, and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed public offering price of $2.66 per share, which was the closing price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on January 14, 2020, would increase (decrease) cash and cash equivalents, total stockholders’ equity, and total capitalization by $3.6 million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Each increase of 1 million shares in the number of shares offered by us, assuming that the assumed public offering price remains the same, would increase cash, total stockholders’ equity, and total capitalization by $2.6 million. Similarly, each decrease of 1 million shares in the number of shares offered by us, assuming that the assumed public offering price remains the same, would decrease cash and cash equivalents, total stockholders’ equity, and total capitalization by $2.6 million.

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RISK FACTORS
The following are certain risk factors that could affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. You should carefully consider the risks described below, together with the other information contained in this prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto. We cannot assure you that any of the events discussed in the risk factors below will not occur. These risks could have a material and adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition, or prospects. If that were to happen, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment.
Risks Relating to our Business
We must raise additional capital in the first quarter of 2020 to fund our operations in order to continue as a going concern.
Currently, we do not have sufficient capital to continue our operations after the first three months of 2020. If we are unable to generate additional funds through financings, sales of our products, government grants, loans, or from other sources or transactions, we would exhaust our resources and be unable to maintain our currently planned operations and continue as a going concern. We therefore plan to seek additional financing in the form of debt or equity to fund our cash requirements for the next twelve months. We may also cut operating costs or delay capital spend in order to preserve available cash. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in securing additional financing, and, if we do not, we would not be able to continue as a going concern, and our stockholders would likely lose most or all of their investment in us. You should not rely on our consolidated balance sheet as an indication of the amount of proceeds that would be available to satisfy claims of creditors, and potentially be available for distribution to shareholders, in the event of liquidation. Our consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus have been prepared assuming that we will continue as a going concern and do not include any adjustment to reflect the possible future effects on the recoverability and classification of assets, or the amounts and classification of liabilities that may result if we do not continue as a going concern.
We have a history of net losses and will likely incur future losses and may not achieve or maintain profitability.
Although we were established in 1991, we did not start to develop our current product portfolio until 1996. In the period from incorporation to September 30, 2019, we have incurred net losses of approximately $129 million. These losses reflect our personnel, research and development, and marketing costs. We have constructed a 250-metric-ton annual capacity production facility in Rollo Bay and in 2017 we acquired a facility in Indiana, which has undergone renovations to increase its annual capacity to 1,200 metric tons. We expect more significant revenues in 2020 once our new facilities are in full production. However, our ability to realize revenues and the timing thereof are not certain, and achieving revenues does not assure that we will become profitable.
We will need substantial additional capital in the future in order to fund our business.
To date we have not generated any profit and expect to incur losses for the foreseeable future and may never become profitable. Therefore, based on our current business plan, we anticipate a need to raise further funds. Any issuance of shares of our common stock could have an effect of depressing the market price of shares of our common stock through dilution of earnings per share or otherwise. The amount and timing of the expenditures needed to achieve our commercialization plans, including the construction of four to five new, land-based RAS farms at a cost of $75 million to $100 million each, will depend on numerous factors, some of which are outside our control. Changes in our plans could also result in the need for additional funds.
Our share price and our ability to raise additional funds may depend on our success in growing, or our perceived ability to grow, our AquAdvantage Salmon successfully and profitably at commercial scale.
We have not yet demonstrated that we can grow our AquAdvantage Salmon successfully or profitably at commercial scale. If we are unsuccessful in growing our salmon to harvest size and selling the fish in the market at a profit from our commercial-scale facilities, or are perceived as being unable to do so prior to commercial-scale harvest and sale, we may lose credibility with the investor community and other funding sources, which may negatively impact our share price and our ability to raise additional funds.
There can be no assurance that additional funds will be available on a timely basis, on favorable terms, or at all, or that such funds, if raised, would be sufficient to enable us to continue to implement our business strategy.
To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the ownership interests of holders of our common stock will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect the rights of holders of our common stock. Debt financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures, or declaring dividends. If we raise additional funds through government or other third-party funding; marketing and distribution arrangements; or other collaborations, strategic alliances, or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs, or product candidates or to grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us.

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Our ability to generate revenue to support our operations depends on maintaining regulatory approvals for AquAdvantage Salmon and our farm sites and obtaining new approvals for farm sites and the sale of our products in other markets, the receipt of which is uncertain.
As a bioengineered animal for human consumption, AquAdvantage Salmon required approval from the FDA in the United States and the Ministers of Health and Environment in Canada before it could be produced, sold, or consumed in those countries. Our FDA approval covers the production of our eggs in our hatchery in Canada and the grow-out of our eggs in our facilities in Indiana and Rollo Bay. FDA approvals will be needed for each additional facility we plan to operate. Additionally, we will require local regulatory approvals in other countries in which we hope to operate. There is no guarantee that we will receive or be able to maintain regulatory approvals from the FDA or other regulatory bodies or that there will not be a significant delay before approval. There is also no guarantee that any approvals granted will not be subject to onerous obligations in relation to matters such as production or labeling, or that any regulator will not require additional data prior to approval, which may be costly and time-consuming to acquire.
We will be required to continue to comply with FDA and foreign regulations.
Even with the approval of our NADA and other regulatory applications for AquAdvantage Salmon, we must continue to comply with FDA and other regulatory requirements not only for manufacturing, but also for labeling, advertising, record keeping, and reporting to the FDA and other regulators of adverse events and other information. Failure to comply with these requirements could subject us to administrative or judicial enforcement actions, including but not limited to product seizures, injunctions, civil penalties, criminal prosecution, refusals to approve new products, or withdrawal of existing approvals, as well as increased product liability exposure, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
Ethical, legal, and social concerns about bioengineered products could limit or prevent the use of our products and limit our revenues.
Our technologies include the use of bioengineering. Public perception about the safety and environmental hazards of, and ethical concerns over, bioengineered products could influence public acceptance of our technologies and products. Activist groups opposing the bioengineering of organisms have in the past pressured a number of retail food outlets and grocery chains to publicly state that they will not carry bioengineered Atlantic salmon. If we are not able to overcome the ethical, legal, and social concerns relating to bioengineering, products using our technologies may not be accepted in the marketplace, and demand for our products could fall short of what we expect. These concerns could also result in increased expenses, regulatory scrutiny, delays, or other impediments to implementation of our business plan.
The subject of bioengineered products has received negative publicity, which has aroused public debate. This adverse publicity could lead to greater regulation and trade restrictions on imports of bioengineered products. Further, there is a concern that products produced using our technologies could be perceived to cause adverse events, which could also lead to negative publicity.
We may have limited success in gaining consumer acceptance of our products.
There is an active and vocal group of opponents to bioengineered products who wish to ban or restrict the technology and who, at a minimum, hope to sway consumer perceptions and acceptance of this technology. Their efforts include regulatory legal challenges and labeling campaigns for bioengineered products, as well as application of pressure to consumer retail outlets seeking a commitment not to carry bioengineered Atlantic salmon. Consumer acceptance could also be adversely affected if AquAdvantage Salmon were believed to grow to a larger final size than conventional Atlantic salmon. We may not be able to overcome the negative consumer perceptions that these organizations have instilled against our products.
We or regulatory agencies approving of our products may be sued by non-governmental organizations and others who are opposed to the development or commercialization of bioengineered products.
There are many organizations in the United States and elsewhere that are fundamentally opposed to the development of bioengineered products. These groups have a history of bringing legal action against companies attempting to bring new biotechnology products to market. On December 23, 2013, an application was filed by two NGOs with the Canadian Federal Court seeking judicial review to declare invalid the decision by the Canadian Minister of the Environment to publish in the Canadian Gazette a Significant New Activity Notice (“SNAN”) with respect to AquAdvantage Salmon. Though the Canadian Federal Court dismissed this challenge, the petitioners filed an appeal of the ruling, which was subsequently dismissed by the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal on October 21, 2016.
In the United States, a coalition of NGOs filed a complaint on March 30, 2016, against the FDA, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, and related individuals for their roles in the approval of AquAdvantage Salmon, claiming that the FDA had no statutory authority to regulate bioengineered animals, and, if it did, that the agency failed to analyze and implement measures to mitigate ecological, environmental, and socioeconomic risks that could impact wild salmon and the environment, including the risk that AquAdvantage Salmon could escape and threaten endangered wild salmon stocks. Among other things, the claimants are seeking a judgment that the FDA decision to approve AquAdvantage Salmon is not authorized by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (“FFDCA”), that an injunction be issued requiring the FDA to withdraw its assertion of jurisdiction over bioengineered animals, that

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the FDA decision to approve AquAdvantage Salmon and its Environmental Assessment (“EA”) and Finding of No Significant Impact (“FONSI”) determinations be declared in violation of the FFDCA, and that the decision to approve the AquAdvantage Salmon NADA be vacated.
Though we believe this legal action lacks merit, it is currently ongoing and may take considerable time to resolve, and plaintiffs may seek to have importation or sale of AquAdvantage Salmon in the United States put on hold until such resolution. We may be subject to future litigation brought by one or more of these organizations in their attempt to block the development or sale of our product. In addition, animal rights groups and various other organizations and individuals have attempted to stop bioengineering activities by pressing for legislation and additional regulation in these areas. To the extent the actions of these organizations are successful, commercialization of our product may be restricted, and our business may be adversely affected. Such actions, even if unsuccessful, may distract management from its operational priorities and may cause us to incur significant costs.
The term “genetically engineered” will need to be included as part of the acceptable market name for AquAdvantage Salmon, and bioengineering disclosures will need to be provided at the retail level, in accordance with USDA regulations. These disclosures could negatively impact consumer acceptance.
Until the passage of the National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Law in July 2016, which contained the requirement to establish the Disclosure Standard, our AquAdvantage Salmon did not need to be labeled as containing a bioengineered product, because it had been deemed to be “substantially equivalent” to the conventional product. However, because several states either passed or considered new laws specifying varying requirements for labeling products sold at the retail level that contain bioengineered ingredients, the United States Congress passed the National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Law in July 2016, requiring USDA to establish a mandatory standard for disclosing foods that are or may be bioengineered. USDA issued the National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard in December 2018. AquaBounty plans to include the bioengineered logo on its AquAdvantage Salmon packaging, in accordance with the Disclosure Standard. In addition, the 2020 Appropriations Act, which was signed into law in December 2019, contains an amendment that requires that any engineered animal approved by FDA prior to the effective date of the Disclosure Standard shall include the words ‘‘genetically engineered’’ prior to the existing acceptable market name. While the Company believes that this labeling requirement is unnecessary and redundant to the requirement of the Disclosure Standard, it plans to work with the USDA and the FDA to determine how to comply. Labeling requirements could cause consumers to view the label as either a warning or as an indication that AquAdvantage Salmon is inferior to conventional Atlantic salmon, which could negatively impact consumer acceptance of our product.
The markets in which we intend to sell our products are subject to significant regulations.
In addition to our FDA approval for the sale and consumption of AquAdvantage Salmon in the United States, we also will be subject to state and local regulations and permitting requirements, which could impact or delay the commercialization and commencement of revenue generation from the sale of AquAdvantage Salmon. International sales also are subject to rules and regulations promulgated by regulatory bodies within foreign jurisdictions. There can be no assurance that foreign, state, or local regulatory bodies will approve the sale and consumption of our product in their jurisdiction.
We may incur significant costs complying with environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations, and failure to comply with these laws and regulations could expose us to significant liabilities.
Our operations are subject to a variety of federal, state, local, and international laws and regulations governing, among other matters, the use, generation, manufacture, transportation, international shipment, storage, handling, disposal of, and human exposure to our products in both the United States and overseas, including regulation by governmental regulatory agencies, such as the FDA and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We have incurred, and will continue to incur, capital and operating expenditures and other costs in the ordinary course of our business in complying with these laws and regulations.
We may become subject to increasing regulation, changes in existing regulations, and review of existing regulatory decisions.
Regulations pertaining to bioengineered animals are still developing and could change from their present state. In addition, new legislation could require new regulatory frameworks, changes in existing regulation, or re-evaluation of prior regulatory decisions. For example, despite the FDA’s final determination that AquAdvantage Salmon may be sold without being labeled as a bioengineered product, a provision added to the 2016 Omnibus Appropriations Act required the FDA to issue final guidance for such labeling. The FDA was therefore obligated to maintain an Import Alert starting in January 2016 that prohibited import of AquAdvantage Salmon until such guidance was finalized or the provision was no longer effective. On March 8, 2019, several months after the USDA promulgated its final rule establishing the Disclosure Standard, which included disclosure requirements for bioengineered foods, including AquAdvantage Salmon, the FDA lifted the Import Alert.
Similarly, in July 2017, a bill was introduced in the United States Senate that could have, had it become law, required labeling unique to, as well as re-examination of the environmental assessments used by the FDA in its 2015 approval of the NADA for, AquAdvantage Salmon. While this bill was reintroduced in January 2019 without the requirement for re-examination of those environmental assessments, any such legislatively imposed review of a completed regulatory process could result in new restrictions on, or delays in, commercialization of our product in the United States. We could be subject to increasing or more onerous regulatory hurdles as we

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attempt to commercialize our product, which could require us to incur significant additional capital and operating expenditures and other costs in complying with these laws and regulations. Our regulatory burdens could also increase if AquAdvantage Salmon are found, or believed, to grow to a larger final size than conventional Atlantic salmon.
In addition, the 2020 Appropriations Act, which was signed into law in December 2019, contains an amendment that requires that any bioengineered animal approved by FDA prior to the effective date of the Disclosure Standard shall include the words ‘‘genetically engineered’’ prior to the existing acceptable market name. While the Company believes that this labeling requirement is unnecessary and redundant to the requirement of the Disclosure Standard, it plans to work with the USDA and the FDA to determine how to comply.
Atlantic salmon farming is restricted in certain states.
Concerns regarding the possible environmental impact from AquAdvantage Salmon have led several states to impose legislative and regulatory restrictions or bans on its farming. In addition, some states, such as Alaska, have enacted restrictions on Atlantic salmon farming generally. While we currently believe that many states will offer excellent potential sites for AquAdvantage Salmon production systems, if additional states adopt similar restrictions, or otherwise prohibit the rearing of AquAdvantage Salmon in those states, the number of potential sites available to us for production farms in the United States could be reduced.
The loss of AquAdvantage Salmon broodstock could result in the loss of our commercial technology.
AquAdvantage Salmon, or more specifically the breeding population of live fish, or broodstock, themselves, is a product of our combined intellectual property, which includes our trade secrets related to creating and maintaining the broodstock. Destruction of AquAdvantage Salmon broodstocks by whatever means would result in the loss of the product of that commercial technology. Live animals are subject to disease that may, in some cases, prevent or cause delay in the export of fish or eggs to customers. Disease organisms may be present undetected and transferred inadvertently. In addition, our broodstock is kept at a limited number of facilities, and damage to or failure of critical systems at any one of those facilities could lead to the loss of a substantial percentage of our broodstock. Such events may cause loss of revenue, increased costs, or both. The broodstock, however, could be reinstated, in whole or in part, using our technology and stored breeding reserves.
Atlantic salmon farming is subject to disease outbreaks, which can increase the cost of production and/or reduce production harvests.
Salmon farming systems, particularly conventional, open sea-cage systems, are vulnerable to disease introduction and transmission, primarily from the marine environment or adjacent culture systems. The economic impact of disease to these production systems can be significant, as farmers must incur the cost of preventative measures, such as vaccines and antibiotics, and then, if the fish become infected, the cost of lost or reduced harvests.
Although we will produce and grow our AquAdvantage Salmon in land-based, closed containment facilities, we will still be at risk for potential disease outbreaks. We have implemented biosecurity measures in our facilities intended to prevent or mitigate disease impact, but there can be no assurance that any measures will be 100% effective.
Our ability to compete may be negatively impacted if we do not adequately protect our proprietary technologies or if we lose some of our intellectual property rights.
Our success depends in part on our ability to obtain patents and maintain adequate protection of our intellectual property in the United States and abroad for our technologies and resultant products and potential products. We have adopted a strategy of seeking patent protection in the United States and abroad with respect to certain of the technologies used in or relating to our products; however, the patent to the technology covering AquAdvantage Salmon, which we license under a global, perpetual, royalty-free, non-exclusive license from Genesis Group, Inc., an affiliate of Memorial University of Newfoundland, and an affiliate of the Hospital for Sick Children of Toronto, expired in August 2013. We expect to protect our proprietary technology in regards to AquAdvantage Salmon through a combination of in-house know-how and the deterrence of the regulatory process that would need to be completed for a competing product to be commercialized, which we believe would be cost-prohibitive to our competitors. There can be no guarantee that this strategy will be successful.
We also rely on trade secrets to protect our technologies, particularly in cases when we believe patent protection is not appropriate or obtainable. However, trade secrets are difficult to protect, and we may not be able to adequately protect our trade secrets or other proprietary or licensed information. While we require our employees, academic collaborators, consultants, and other contractors to enter into confidentiality agreements with us, if we cannot maintain the confidentiality of our proprietary and licensed technologies and other confidential information, our ability and that of our licensor to receive patent protection, and our ability to protect valuable information owned or licensed by us may be imperiled.
Enforcing our intellectual property rights may be difficult and unpredictable.
Enforcing our intellectual property rights can be expensive and time consuming, and the outcome of such efforts can be unpredictable. If we were to initiate legal proceedings against a third party to enforce a patent covering one of our technologies, the

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defendant could counterclaim that our patent is invalid and/or unenforceable or assert that the patent does not cover its manufacturing processes, manufacturing components, or products. Furthermore, in patent litigation in the United States, defendant counterclaims alleging both invalidity and unenforceability are commonplace. Although we may believe that we have conducted our patent prosecution in accordance with the duty of candor and in good faith, the outcome following legal assertions of invalidity and unenforceability during patent litigation is unpredictable. With respect to the validity of our patent rights, we cannot be certain, for example, that there is no invalidating prior art, of which we and the patent examiner were unaware during prosecution. If a defendant were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity and/or unenforceability, we would not be able to exclude others from practicing the inventions claimed therein. Such a loss of patent protection could have a material adverse impact on our business. Even if our patent rights are found to be valid and enforceable, patent claims that survive litigation may not cover commercially valuable products or prevent competitors from importing or marketing products similar to our own, or using manufacturing processes or manufacturing components similar to those used to produce the products using our technologies.
Although we believe that we have obtained assignments of patent rights from all inventors, if an inventor did not adequately assign their patent rights to us, a third party could obtain a license to the patent from such inventor. This could preclude us from enforcing the patent against such third party.
We may not be able to enforce our intellectual property rights throughout the world.
The laws of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in certain foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, often do not favor the enforcement of patents and other intellectual property protection, particularly those relating to bioengineering. This could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents or misappropriation of our other intellectual property rights. Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business. Accordingly, our efforts to protect our intellectual property rights in such countries may be inadequate.
Security breaches and other disruptions could compromise our information, expose us to fraud or liability, or interrupt our operations, which would cause our business and reputation to suffer.
In the ordinary course of our business, we use our servers and networks to store sensitive data, including our proprietary business and financial information; general business information regarding our customers, suppliers, and business partners; and personally identifiable information of our employees. The secure storage and maintenance of this information is critical to our operations. Despite our security measures, our information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breached due to employee error or malfeasance. A breach of our security could compromise our networks, and the information stored there could be accessed, manipulated, publicly disclosed, lost, or stolen. Any such access, manipulation, disclosure, or loss of information could result in errors in our records, fraudulent use of our financial information, legal claims or proceedings, liability under laws that protect the privacy of personal information, theft of our intellectual property, or damage to our reputation. In addition, our systems could be the subject of denial of service or other interference, which could disrupt our operations and commercial transactions. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our business, revenues, and competitive position.
Competitors and potential competitors may develop products and technologies that make ours obsolete or garner greater market share than ours.
We do not believe that we have a direct competitor for bioengineered, growth-enhanced Atlantic salmon. However, the market for Atlantic salmon is dominated by a group of large, multinational corporations with entrenched distribution channels. Our ability to compete successfully will depend on our ability to demonstrate that AquAdvantage Salmon is superior to and/or less expensive than other products available in the market.
Certain of our competitors may benefit from government support and other incentives that are not available to us. As a result, our competitors may be able to develop competing and/or superior products and compete more aggressively and sustain that competition over a longer period of time than we can. As more companies develop new intellectual property in our markets, a competitor could acquire patent or other rights that may limit our ability to successfully market our product.
If our technologies or products are stolen, misappropriated, or reverse engineered, others could use the technologies to produce competing technologies or products.
Third parties, including our collaborators, contractors, and others involved in our business often have access to our technologies. If our technologies or products were stolen, misappropriated, or reverse engineered, they could be used by other parties that may be able to reproduce our technologies or products using our technologies for their own commercial gain. If this were to occur, it would be difficult for us to challenge this type of use, especially in countries with limited intellectual property protection.

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If we lose key personnel, including key management personnel, or are unable to attract and retain additional personnel, it could delay our commercialization plans or harm our research and development efforts, and we may be unable to sell or develop our own products.
Our success depends substantially on the efforts and abilities or our officers and other key employees. The loss of any key members of our management, or the failure to attract or retain other key employees who possess the requisite expertise for the conduct of our business, could prevent us from developing and commercializing our products and executing on our business strategy. We may not be able to attract or retain qualified employees in the future due to the intense competition for qualified personnel among aquaculture, biotechnology, and other technology-based businesses, or due to the unavailability of personnel with the particular qualifications or experience necessary for our business. If we are not able to attract and retain the necessary personnel to accomplish our business objectives, we may experience staffing constraints that could adversely affect our ability to meet the demands of our customers in a timely fashion, adequately staff existing or new production facilities, or support our internal research and development programs. In particular, our production facilities require individuals experienced in RAS-based aquaculture, and our product development programs are dependent on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled scientists. Competition for experienced production staff, scientists, and other technical personnel from numerous companies and academic and other research institutions may limit our ability to attract and retain such personnel on acceptable terms.
We may encounter difficulties managing our growth, which could adversely affect our business.
We could face a period of rapid growth following commercial availability of our products, which may place significant pressure on our management, sales, operational, and financial resources. The execution of our business plan and our future success will depend, in part, on our ability to manage current and planned expansion and on our ability to continue to implement and improve our operational management. Any failure to manage the planned growth may have a significant adverse effect on our business, financial condition, trading performance, and prospects.
We may pursue strategic acquisitions and investments that could have an adverse impact on our business if they are unsuccessful.
If appropriate opportunities become available, we may acquire businesses, assets, technologies, or products to enhance our business in the future. In connection with any future acquisitions, we could:
issue additional equity securities, which would dilute our current shareholders;
incur substantial debt to fund the acquisitions; or
assume significant liabilities.
Acquisitions involve numerous risks, including:
difficulties integrating the purchased operations, technologies, or products;
unanticipated costs and other liabilities;
diversion of management’s attention from our core business;
adverse effects on existing business relationships with current and/or prospective customers and/or suppliers;
risks associated with entering markets in which we have no or limited prior experience; and
potential loss of key employees.
We do not have extensive experience in managing the integration process, and we may not be able to successfully integrate any businesses, assets, products, technologies, or personnel that we might acquire in the future without a significant expenditure of operating, financial, and management resources. The integration process could divert management time from focusing on operating our business, result in a decline in employee morale, or cause retention issues to arise from changes in compensation, reporting relationships, future prospects, or the direction of the business. Acquisitions also may require us to record goodwill and non-amortizable intangible assets that will be subject to impairment testing on a regular basis and potential periodic impairment charges, incur amortization expenses related to certain intangible assets, and incur large and immediate write-offs and restructuring and other related expenses, all of which could harm our operating results and financial condition. In addition, we may acquire companies that have insufficient internal financial controls, which could impair our ability to integrate the acquired company and adversely impact our financial reporting. If we fail in our integration efforts with respect to any of our acquisitions and are unable to efficiently operate as a combined organization, our business and financial condition may be adversely affected.
We have entered into agreements that require us to pay a significant portion of our future revenue to third parties.
In 2009, we received a grant from the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency to fund a research program. A total of C$2.9 million was made available under the grant, and we received the entire amount through December 31, 2015. Once we begin to generate revenue from any of the products from the research program, we must commence repayment of the outstanding loan in the form of a

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10% royalty. These payments could negatively impact our ability to support our operations. Revenues from sales of our AquAdvantage Salmon are not subject to the royalty.
In February 2013, we entered into an Exclusive Channel Collaboration Agreement (“ECC”) with Intrexon Corporation (to be renamed Precigen, Inc. as of February 1, 2020; “Precigen”), pursuant to which we are permitted to use Precigen’s UltraVector and other technology platforms to develop and commercialize additional bioengineered traits in finfish for human consumption. The ECC grants us a worldwide license to use certain patents and other intellectual property of Precigen in connection with the research, development, use, importing, manufacture, sale, and offer for sale of products involving DNA administered to finfish for human consumption. We agreed under the ECC to pay Precigen, on a quarterly basis, 16.66% of the gross profits calculated for each developed product. We also agreed to pay Precigen 50% of the quarterly revenue obtained from a sublicensee in the event of a sublicensing arrangement. In addition, we agreed to reimburse Precigen for the costs of certain services provided by Precigen. While we are winding down the activities under the ECC, and may renegotiate its terms, it remains in effect. These payments could negatively impact our ability to support our operations.
Our financial condition or results of operations may be adversely affected by international business risks, including exchange rate fluctuation.
The majority of our employees, including our research personnel, are currently located outside of the United States. As a consequence of the international nature of our business, we are exposed to risks associated with international operations. For example, we are based in the United States and present our financial statements in U.S. dollars, and the majority of our cash resources are held in U.S. dollars or in Canadian dollars. Some of our future expenses and revenues are expected to be denominated in currencies other than in U.S. dollars. Other risks include possible governmental restrictions of the movement of funds, limitation of contractual rights, or expropriation of assets without fair compensation. Therefore, movements in exchange rates to translate to foreign currencies and other international operational risks may have a negative impact on our reported results of operations, financial position, and cash flows.
We have received government research grants and loans in the past, but such grants and loans may not be available in the future.
We have in the past received government assistance in the form of research grants and loans to partially fund various research projects, including projects involving our AquAdvantage Salmon. There can be no assurance that additional government assistance will be available in the future to help offset the cost of our research activities, in which case we would need to fund our research projects entirely from our available cash resources, which may be limited. This could delay progress on future product development and introduction. In addition, we may be subject to audit by the government agencies that provided research assistance to ensure that the funds were used in accordance with the terms of the grant or loan. Any audit of the use of these funds would require the expenditure of funds and result in the diversion of management’s attention.
Certain members of management and our Board of Directors may hold stock in both Precigen and AquaBounty, and as a result may face actual or potential conflicts of interest.
The management and directors of each of Precigen and AquaBounty may own both Precigen common stock and AquaBounty common stock. This ownership overlap could create, or appear to create, potential conflicts of interest when AquaBounty management and directors and Precigen management and directors face decisions that could have different implications for AquaBounty and Precigen.
Our ability to use net operating losses and other tax attributes to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.
In general, under Sections 382 and 383 of the U.S. Tax Code (the “Code”), a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” is subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its pre-change net operating losses (“NOLs”), tax credits, or other tax attributes to offset future taxable income or taxes. For these purposes, an ownership change generally occurs where the aggregate stock ownership of one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders who owns at least 5% of a corporation’s stock increases its ownership by more than 50 percentage points over its lowest ownership percentage within a specified testing period. In addition to limitations imposed by the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, a portion of our NOLs are subject to substantial limitations arising from previous ownership changes, and, if we undergo another ownership change, our ability to utilize NOLs could be further limited by Sections 382 and 383 of the Code. In addition, future changes in our stock ownership, many of which are outside of our control, could result in an ownership change under Sections 382 and 383 of the Code. Our NOLs may also be impaired under state law. Accordingly, we may not be able to utilize a material portion of our NOLs. Furthermore, our ability to utilize our NOLs is conditioned upon our attaining profitability and generating U.S. federal and state taxable income.

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Risks Relating to this Offering and our Common Stock
TS AquaCulture LLC’s significant share ownership position allows it to influence corporate matters.
Based solely on a Schedule 13D/A filed on October 31, 2019, by Randal J. Kirk (“Mr. Kirk”), Third Security, LLC (“Third Security”), TS AquaCulture LLC (“TS AquaCulture”), and Precigen, as of issuance, TS AquaCulture owns 8,239,199 shares of our common stock, or approximately 38.1% of our outstanding shares. In addition, entities controlled by Mr. Kirk, including Third Security and its affiliates other than TS AquaCulture, currently hold 837,554 shares of our common stock, or approximately 3.9% of our outstanding shares. TS AquaCulture is managed by Third Security and is successor-in-interest to Precigen under the Relationship Agreement entered into by AquaBounty and Precigen dated as of December 5, 2012 (the “Relationship Agreement”). Based on these holdings, Mr. Kirk, Precigen’s Executive Chairman and Third Security’s Chief Executive Officer and Senior Managing Director, has reported control over approximately 42.0% of our outstanding shares. Given this, and our grant to TS AquaCulture, as successor-in-interest to Precigen under the Relationship Agreement, of certain rights to nominate members of our Board of Directors that are intended to ensure that TS AquaCulture-nominated Board members represent a percentage of our Board that is proportionate to TS AquaCulture’s percentage ownership of our common stock, TS AquaCulture will be able to significantly influence who serves on our Board of Directors and the outcome of matters required to be submitted to our shareholders for approval, including decisions relating to the outcome of any proposed merger or consolidation of our company. TS AquaCulture’s interests may not be consistent with those of our other shareholders. Furthermore, TS AquaCulture’s significant interest in us may discourage third parties from seeking to acquire control of us, which may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
An active trading market for our common stock may not develop or be sustained.
Although our common stock is currently traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market, an active trading market for our common stock may not be maintained. If an active market for our common stock is not maintained, it may be difficult for shareholders to sell shares of our common stock. An inactive trading market may impair our ability to raise capital to continue to fund operations by selling shares and may impair our ability to acquire other companies or technologies by using our shares as consideration.
The price of our shares of common stock is likely to be volatile.
The share price of publicly traded emerging companies can be highly volatile and subject to wide fluctuations. The prices at which our common stock is quoted and the prices which investors may realize will be influenced by a large number of factors, some specific to our company and operations and some that may affect the quoted biotechnology sector, or quoted companies generally. These factors could include variations in our operating results, publicity regarding the process of obtaining regulatory approval to commercialize our products, divergence in financial results from analysts’ expectations, changes in earnings estimates by stock market analysts, overall market or sector sentiment, legislative changes in our sector, the performance of our research and development programs, large purchases or sales of our common stock, currency fluctuations, legislative changes in the bioengineering environment, and general economic conditions. Certain of these events and factors are outside of our control. Stock markets have from time to time experienced severe price and volume fluctuations, which, if recurring, could adversely affect the market prices for our commons stock.
We do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future, and, accordingly, shareholders must rely on stock appreciation for any return on their investment.
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future and intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the operations, development, and growth of our business. There can be no assurance that we will have sufficient surplus under Delaware law to be able to pay any dividends at any time in the future. As a result, absent payment of dividends, only appreciation of the price of our common stock, which may never occur, will provide a return to shareholders. You may also have to sell some or all of your shares of our common stock in order to generate cash flow from your investment in us.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research or reports about our business, our share price and trading volume could decline.
The U.S. trading market for our shares of common stock depends, in part, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. If we obtain securities or industry analyst coverage, and one or more of the analysts who covers us downgrades our shares of common stock, changes their opinion of our shares, or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our share price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of us or fails to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our shares of common stock could decrease, and we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause our share price and trading volume to decline.

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We are an “emerging growth company,” and we cannot be certain if the reduced reporting requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our shares of common stock less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act. For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including the auditor attestation requirements in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, compliance with any new requirements adopted by the PCAOB, disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and the requirements of holding advisory “say-on-pay” votes on executive compensation and shareholder advisory votes on golden parachute compensation not previously approved. Under the JOBS Act, we will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (1) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenue; (2) the date we qualify as a “large accelerated filer,” with at least $700.0 million of equity securities held by non-affiliates; (3) the issuance, in any three-year period, by our company of more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities; and (4) December 1, 2023, which is the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the first sale of our common stock pursuant to an effective registration statement filed under the Securities Act. We cannot predict if investors will find our shares of common stock to be less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our shares of common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our shares of common stock, and our share price may be more volatile.
Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies also can delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We have irrevocably elected to avail ourselves of this exemption from new or revised accounting standards and, therefore, will not be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud.
Effective internal controls over financial reporting are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and, together with adequate disclosure controls and procedures, are designed to prevent fraud. Any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation, could cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. In addition, any testing by us conducted in connection with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, or any subsequent testing by our independent registered public accounting firm, may reveal deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses or that may require prospective or retroactive changes to our financial statements or identify other areas for further attention or improvement. Ineffective internal controls could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our common stock.
We may issue preferred stock with terms that could dilute the voting power or reduce the value of our common stock.
While we have no specific plan to issue preferred stock, our certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue, without the approval of our shareholders, one or more series of preferred stock having such designation, relative powers, preferences (including preferences over our common stock respecting dividends and distributions), voting rights, terms of conversion or redemption, and other relative, participating, optional, or other special rights, if any, of the shares of each such series of preferred stock and any qualifications, limitations, or restrictions thereof, as our Board of Directors may determine. The terms of one or more classes or series of preferred stock could dilute the voting power or reduce the value of our common stock. For example, the repurchase or redemption rights or liquidation preferences we could assign to holders of preferred stock could affect the residual value of the common stock.
The financial reporting obligations of being a public company in the United States are expensive and time consuming and place significant additional demands on our management.
The obligations of being a public company in the United States place additional demands on our management and require significant expenditures, including costs resulting from public company reporting obligations under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”); the rules and regulations regarding corporate governance practices, including those under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Dodd Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act; and the listing requirements for the Nasdaq Capital Market. Our management and other personnel devote a substantial amount of time to ensure that we comply with all of these requirements. Moreover, despite reforms made possible by the JOBS Act, the reporting requirements, rules, and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly, particularly if we were no longer to qualify as an emerging growth company. Any changes that we make to comply with these obligations may not be sufficient to allow us to satisfy our obligations as a public company on a timely basis, or at all.
These rules and regulations make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. These factors also could make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our Board of Directors, particularly to serve on our Audit Committee and Compensation Committee, or as executive officers.

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There can be no assurance that we will be able to comply with the continued listing standards of the Nasdaq Capital Market.
Even though our common stock has been listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market, we cannot assure you that we will be able to comply with standards necessary to maintain a listing of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market. Our failure to meet the continuing listing requirements may result in our common stock being delisted from the Nasdaq Capital Market.
If you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you will experience substantial and immediate dilution.
If you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you will experience substantial and immediate dilution in the pro forma net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering, based on an assumed public offering price of $2.66 per share, which was the closing sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on January 14, 2020, because the price that you pay will be substantially greater than the pro forma net tangible book value per share of the common stock that you acquire. This dilution is due in large part to the fact that our earlier investors paid substantially less than the public offering price when they purchased their shares of our capital stock. You will experience additional dilution upon exercise of any warrant, upon exercise of options to purchase common stock under our equity incentive plans, vesting of restricted stock units issued to our employees, if we further issue restricted stock to our employees under our equity incentive plans, or if we otherwise issue additional shares of our common stock. For a further description of the dilution that you will experience immediately after this offering, see the section of this prospectus titled “Dilution.”
Our management will have broad discretion over the use of the proceeds we receive in this offering and might not apply the proceeds in ways that increase the value of your investment.
Our management will have broad discretion to use the net proceeds we receive from this offering, and you will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding the application of these proceeds. Our management might not apply the net proceeds that we receive from this offering in ways that increase the value of your investment. We currently intend to use the net proceeds of this offering to complete construction and renovations of our existing facilities in Rollo Bay and Indiana, for working capital and other general corporate purposes. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds for acquisitions of complementary businesses, technologies, or other assets, although we do not currently have any agreements, commitments, or understandings with respect to any such acquisitions. Until we use the net proceeds that we receive from this offering, we plan to invest them, and these investments may not yield a favorable rate of return. If we do not invest or apply the net proceeds we receive from this offering in ways that enhance stockholder value, we may fail to achieve expected financial results, which could cause our stock price to decline.
Provisions in our corporate documents and Delaware law could have the effect of delaying, deferring, or preventing a change in control of us, even if that change may be considered beneficial by some of our shareholders.
The existence of some provisions of our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws or Delaware law could have the effect of delaying, deferring, or preventing a change in control of us that a shareholder may consider favorable. These provisions include:
providing that the number of members of our board is limited to a range fixed by our bylaws;
establishing advance notice requirements for nominations of candidates for election to our Board of Directors or for proposing matters that can be acted on by shareholders at shareholder meetings; and
authorizing the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock, which could be issued by our Board of Directors to issue securities with voting rights and thwart a takeover attempt.
As a Delaware corporation, we are also subject to provisions of Delaware law, including Section 203 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware. Section 203 prevents some shareholders holding more than 15% of our voting stock from engaging in certain business combinations unless the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the shareholder becoming an interested shareholder was approved in advance by our Board of Directors, results in the shareholder holding more than 85% of our voting stock (subject to certain restrictions), or is approved at an annual or special meeting of shareholders by the holders of at least 66 2/3% of our voting stock not held by the shareholder engaging in the transaction. Any provision of our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our shareholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock and affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus, particularly the sections of this prospectus titled “Prospectus Summary,” “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and “Business,” contains forward-looking statements. All statements other than present and historical facts and conditions contained in this prospectus, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial positions, business strategy, plans, and our objectives for future operations, are forward-looking statements. When used in this prospectus, the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “can,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “is designed to,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “objective,” “should,” or the negative of these and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements include statements that are not historical facts, including statements regarding management’s expectations for future financial and operational performance and operating expenditures, expected growth, and business outlook; the nature of and progress toward our commercialization plan; the future introduction of our products to consumers; the countries in which we may obtain regulatory approval and the progress toward such approvals; the volume of eggs or fish we may be able to produce; the timeline for our production of saleable fish; the expected advantages of land-based systems over sea cage production; the validity and impact of legal actions; the completion of renovations at our farms; and the establishment of a larger-scale grow-out facility.
We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations, assumptions, estimates, and projections. While we believe these expectations, assumptions, estimates, and projections are reasonable, such forward-looking statements are only predictions and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors, many of which are outside of our control, which could cause our actual results, performance, or achievements to differ materially from any results, performance, or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements in this prospectus include, but are not limited to, statements about:
the anticipated benefits and characteristics of our AquAdvantage Salmon product;
the implementation and likelihood of achieving the business plan, future revenue, and operating results;
our plans for and the timing of the development of new farms and the output of those farms;
developments concerning our research projects;
our expectations regarding our ability to successfully enter new markets or develop additional products;
our competitive position and developments and projections relating to our competitors and our industry;
expectations regarding anticipated operating results;
our cash position and ability to raise additional capital to finance our activities;
our ability to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights and technologies;
the impact of and our ability to adapt to changes in laws or regulations and policies;
the ability to secure any necessary regulatory approvals to commercialize any products;
the rate and degree of market acceptance of any products developed through the application of bioengineering, including bioengineered fish;
our ability to retain and recruit key personnel;
the success of any of our future acquisitions or investments;
our expectations regarding the time during which we will be an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act; and
our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements, and needs for additional financing.
We caution you that the foregoing list may not contain all of the risks to which the forward-looking statements made in this prospectus are subject. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions, or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions, and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. We have included important factors in the cautionary statements included in this prospectus, particularly in the section titled “Risk Factors,” that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements that we make. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures, or investments that we may make.
Given these risks and uncertainties, you are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are made only as of the date of this prospectus. We do not undertake and specifically decline any obligation to update any such statements or to publicly announce the results of any revisions to any such statements to reflect future events or developments unless required by federal securities law. New risks emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all such risks.

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MARKET, INDUSTRY AND OTHER DATA
This prospectus includes statistical and other industry and market data that we obtained from industry publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties, including the U.S. Department of Commerce, Kontali Analyse, and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. This information involves a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such information. Industry publications and third-party research, surveys, and studies generally indicate that their information has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. While we believe that the third-party sources are reliable and the conclusions contained in the publications are reasonable, such information is inherently imprecise. Projections, assumptions, and estimates of our future performance and the future performance of the industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risks due to high variety of factors, including those included in the section of this prospectus titled “Risk Factors.” These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by third parties and by us.

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USE OF PROCEEDS
We estimate that the net proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock that we are selling in this offering will be approximately $9.2 million, based upon an assumed public offering price of $2.66 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on January 14, 2020, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. If the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares from us is exercised in full, we estimate that our net proceeds would be approximately $10.6 million, based on the same assumed public offering price, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed public offering price of $2.66 per share would increase or decrease the net proceeds that we receive from this offering by approximately $3.6 million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Similarly, each increase or decrease of one million in the number of shares of common stock offered by us would increase or decrease the net proceeds that we receive from this offering by approximately $2.6 million, assuming the assumed public offering price remains the same and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
We anticipate that we will use the net proceeds we receive from this offering, including any net proceeds we receive from the exercise of the underwriter’s option to acquire additional shares of common stock in this offering for the following purposes:
approximately $2.0 million to continue construction and renovations at our Indiana and Rollo Bay farm sites;
approximately $2.0 million for working capital costs associated with the continued grow-out of our first batches of fish at our Indiana and Rollo Bay farm sites; and
the balance of the funds for other general corporate purposes, including investing further in our sales and marketing and research and development efforts and payment of anticipated general and administrative expenses.
We anticipate that completion of all construction and renovation projects at our facilities in Rollo Bay and Indiana will require a total of $11.0 million in expenses. These projects will allow us to conduct primary processing activities at our Indiana farm and produce ten million eyed eggs annually at our Rollo Bay farm. If our capital requirements are higher than we anticipate, we may need to seek alternative sources of capital, and we are currently seeking to secure debt financing in the form of a mortgage on our Indiana farm site and a provincial loan on the Rollo Bay farm site to finance these projects.
We may use a portion of the net proceeds we receive for the acquisition of businesses, technologies, or other assets that we believe are complementary to our own, although we have no agreements, commitments, or understandings with respect to any such transaction.
The amount of what, and timing of when, we actually spend for these purposes may vary significantly and will depend on a number of factors, including our future revenue and expenses and the other factors described in the section of this prospectus captioned “Risk Factors.” Accordingly, our management will have broad discretion in applying a portion of the net proceeds we receive from this offering. Pending these uses, we intend to invest the remaining net proceeds in high quality, investment-grade instruments.

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DIVIDEND POLICY
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock. We currently intend to retain earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business. We do not expect to pay any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. Payment of future dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, restrictions contained in current or future financing instruments, provisions of applicable law, and other factors the Board of Directors deems relevant.

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CAPITALIZATION
The following table sets forth our cash and capitalization as of September 30, 2019:
on an actual basis; and
on an as-adjusted basis to reflect our receipt of the net proceeds from our sale of $10.0 million of shares of common stock in this offering at an assumed public offering price of $2.66 per share, which was the closing sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on January 14, 2020, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
You should read this table together with the section of this prospectus titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto appearing elsewhere in this prospectus.
 
As of September 30, 2019
 
Actual
 
As
Adjusted(1)
 
(in thousands, except for share numbers)
Cash and CD’s
$
6,426

 
$
15,651

Current debt
149

 
149

Long-term debt
4,398

 
4,398

Total liabilities
6,079

 
6,079

Preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share; 5 million shares authorized; no shares issued and outstanding

 

Common stock, $0.001 par value per share; 50 million shares authorized, actual and as adjusted; 21,605,322 shares issued and outstanding, actual; 25,364,721shares issued and outstanding, as adjusted
22

 
25

Additional paid-in capital
156,022

 
165,244

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(441
)
 
(441
)
Accumulated deficit
(128,723
)
 
(128,723
)
Total stockholders’ equity
26,880

 
36,105

Total capitalization
$
32,959

 
$
42,184

(1)
A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed public offering price of $2.66 per share, which was the closing price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on January 14, 2020, would increase (decrease) cash and cash equivalents, total stockholders’ equity, and total capitalization by $3.6 million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Each increase of 1 million shares in the number of shares offered by us, assuming that the assumed public offering price remains the same and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, would increase cash, total stockholders’ equity, and total capitalization by $2.6 million. Similarly, each decrease of 1 million shares in the number of shares offered by us, assuming that the assumed public offering price remains the same and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, would decrease cash and cash equivalents, total stockholders’ equity, and total capitalization by $2.6 million.
The number of shares of common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 21,605,322 shares of common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2019, and excludes:
538,925 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of September 30, 2019, with a weighted-average exercise price of $4.94 per share under the 2006 Plan and the 2016 Plan;
263,077 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under the 2016 Plan, as more fully described in the section of this prospectus titled “Executive Compensation—Employee Benefit Plans”; and
1,662,304 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of September 30, 2019, with an exercise price of $3.25 per share, which warrants were issued in January 2018 as part of a public offering of units consisting of our common stock and the warrants.

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DILUTION
If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share of our common stock and the as-adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering. Net tangible book value dilution per share to new investors represents the difference between the amount per share paid by purchasers of shares of common stock in this offering and the as-adjusted net tangible book value per share of common stock immediately after completion of this offering.
Net tangible book value per share is determined by dividing our total tangible assets, less our total liabilities, by the number of shares of common stock outstanding. Our historical net tangible book value as of September 30, 2019, was $26.5 million, or $1.23 per share.
After giving effect to the sale by us of $10.0 million of shares of common stock in this offering at an assumed public offering price of $2.66 per share, which was the closing sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on January 14, 2020, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as-adjusted net tangible book value as of September 30, 2019, would have been $35.7 million, or $1.41 per share. This represents an immediate increase in as-adjusted net tangible book value of $0.18 per share to our existing stockholders and immediate dilution of $1.25 per share to investors purchasing shares of common stock in this offering at the public offering price. The following table illustrates this dilution:
Assumed public offering price per share
 
$
2.66

Historical net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2019
$
1.23

 
Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors in this offering
$
0.18

 
As adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering
 
$
1.41

Dilution per share to new investors in this offering
 
$
1.25

If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase an additional $1.5 million of shares in full, the as-adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering would be $1.43 per share, and the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering would be $1.23 per share, assuming a public offering price of $2.66 per share, which was the closing sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on January 14, 2020, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed public offering price of $2.66 per share, which is the closing price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on January 14, 2020, would increase (decrease) cash and cash equivalents, total stockholders’ equity and total capitalization by $3.6 million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Each increase of 1 million shares in the number of shares offered by us, assuming that the assumed public offering price remains the same and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, would increase cash, total stockholders’ equity, and total capitalization by $2.6 million. Similarly, each decrease of 1 million shares in the number of shares offered by us, assuming that the assumed public offering price remains the same and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, would decrease cash and cash equivalents, total stockholders’ equity, and total capitalization by $2.6 million.
The number of shares of common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 21,605,322 shares of common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2019, and excludes:
538,925 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of September 30, 2019, with a weighted-average exercise price of $4.94 per share under the 2006 Plan and the 2016 Plan;
263,077 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under the 2016 Plan, as more fully described in the section of this prospectus titled “Executive Compensation—Employee Benefit Plans”; and
1,662,304 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of September 30, 2019, with an exercise price of $3.25 per share, which warrants were issued in January 2018 as part of a public offering of units consisting of our common stock and the warrants.
To the extent that outstanding options or warrants are exercised, you will experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities may result in further dilution to our stockholders.

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SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA
You should read the selected consolidated financial data below in conjunction with the section of this prospectus titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements, related notes, and other financial information included elsewhere in this prospectus. The selected consolidated financial data in this section are not intended to replace the consolidated financial statements and are qualified in their entirety by the consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.
The following table sets forth our selected consolidated financial data for the periods and as of the dates indicated. You should read the following selected consolidated financial data in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus and the section of this prospectus titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
The consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements. Our audited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in U.S. dollars in accordance with United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, or U.S. GAAP. The summary consolidated statement of operations data for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018, and the summary consolidated balance sheet data as of September 30, 2019 and 2018, have been derived from our unaudited financial statements for such period, included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Our historical results for any prior period are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected in any future period.
 
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
Fiscal Years Ended
December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2018
 
2017
(in thousands, except share data)
(unaudited)
 
 
 
 
Statement of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product revenues
$
140

 
$
78

 
$
85

 
$
53

Costs and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product costs
121

 
72

 
78

 
51

Sales and marketing
382

 
223

 
298

 
799

Research and development
1,923

 
2,664

 
3,459

 
3,372

General and administrative
7,489

 
5,067

 
6,616

 
5,063

Total costs and expenses
9,915

 
8,026

 
10,451

 
9,285

Operating loss
(9,775
)
 
(7,948
)
 
(10,366
)
 
(9,232
)
Other income (expense):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gain on disposal of equipment
9

 
12

 
13

 
1

Interest expense
(46
)
 
(16
)
 
(22
)
 
(22
)
Other income (expense), net
3

 
(6
)
 
(7
)
 
(6
)
Total other income (expense)
(34
)
 
(10
)
 
(16
)
 
(27
)
Net loss
(9,809
)
 
$
(7,958
)
 
$
(10,382
)
 
$
(9,259
)
Other comprehensive income:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation income (loss)
134

 
(113
)
 
(360
)
 
72

Total other comprehensive income (loss)
134

 
(113
)
 
(360
)
 
72

Comprehensive loss
$
(9,675
)
 
$
(8,071
)
 
$
(10,742
)
 
$
(9,187
)
Earnings per share
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net loss
$
(9,809
)
 
$
(7,958
)
 
$
(10,382
)
 
$
(9,259
)
Deemed dividend
$

 
$

 
$
(1,823
)
 
$

Net loss attributable to common shareholders
$
(9,809
)
 
$
(7,958
)
 
$
(12,205
)
 
$
(9,259
)
Basic and diluted net loss per share
$
(0.50
)
 
$
(0.64
)
 
$
(0.94
)
 
$
(1.06
)
Weighted average number of common shares—basic and diluted
19,556,607

 
12,528,995

 
13,028,760

 
8,772,494


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Table of Contents

 
As of September 30
 
As of December 31
 
2019
 
2018
 
2018
 
2017
 
(unaudited)
 
 
 
 
Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and CD’s
$
6,426

 
$
1,044

 
$
3,003

 
$
506

Total assets
$
32,959

 
$
26,043

 
$
27,671

 
$
23,732

Debt
$
4,547

 
$
3,030

 
$
3,591

 
$
3,084

Stockholders’ equity (deficit)
$
26,880

 
$
21,529

 
$
23,234

 
$
17,981


27

Table of Contents

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes that appear elsewhere in this prospectus. In addition to historical consolidated financial information, the following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates, and beliefs. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those discussed below and elsewhere in this prospectus, particularly in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus.
Overview
We believe that we are a leader in the field of land-based aquaculture and the use of technology for improving its productivity and sustainability. Our lead product is the AquAdvantage Salmon, which received FDA approval in 2015 as the first bioengineered animal available for sale for human consumption. We have commenced commercial activities with operations in the United States and Canada where we have received regulatory approval.
Revenue
We generate product revenue primarily through the sales of our AquAdvantage Salmon. We also sell conventional Atlantic salmon, salmon eggs, fry, and byproducts. We expect that our sales will be modest and infrequent until our grow-out farms in Indiana and Rollo Bay commence harvesting, which is expected in mid-2020.
In the future, we believe that our revenue will depend upon the number of countries in which we have received regulatory approval for the sale of our products, the number and capacity of grow-out farms we have in operation, and the market acceptance we achieve.
Cost of Products
Cost of products includes the labor and related costs to grow out our fish, including feed, oxygen, and other direct costs; an application of overhead; and the cost to process and ship our products to customers. As of September 30, 2019, we had twenty-seven employees engaged in production activities.
Sales and Marketing Expenses
Our sales and marketing expenses currently include personnel costs, travel, and consulting fees for market-related activities. As of September 30, 2019, we had two employees dedicated to sales and marketing.
Research and Development Expenses
As of September 30, 2019, we employed twenty-one scientists and technicians at our facilities on Prince Edward Island to oversee our broodstock of AquAdvantage Salmon, as well as the lines of fish we maintain for research and development purposes. We recognize research and development expenses as they are incurred. Our research and development expenses consist primarily of:
salaries and related overhead expenses for personnel in research, development functions, and brood-stock husbandry;
fees paid to contract research organizations and consultants who perform research for us;
costs related to laboratory supplies used in our research and development efforts; and
costs related to the operation of our field trials.
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and related costs for employees in executive, corporate, and finance functions. Other significant general and administrative expenses include corporate governance and public market maintenance, regulatory compliance, rent and utilities, insurance, and legal services, along with pre-production and capacity utilization costs for our Rollo Bay and Indiana farms, respectively. We had eleven employees in our general and administrative group at September 30, 2019.
Other Income (Expense)
Interest expense includes the interest on our outstanding loans. Other income (expense) includes bank charges, fees, gain on disposal of equipment, and interest income.
Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates
This Management’s Discussion and Analysis of our Financial Condition and Results of Operations is based on our consolidated financial statements, which we have prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”). The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. We evaluate these estimates and judgments on an ongoing

28

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basis. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Our actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. While our significant accounting policies are more fully described in Note 2 to our audited consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this prospectus, we believe that the following accounting policies are the most critical for fully understanding and evaluating our financial condition and results of operations.
Inventories
The Company measures inventory at the lower of cost or net realizable value (“NRV”), where NRV is defined as the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation. The Company also considers capacity utilization in calculating its inventory value with any excess capacity charged to general and administrative expenses as idle capacity.
Valuation Allowance for Net Deferred Tax Assets
We record a valuation allowance to offset any net deferred tax assets if, based upon the available evidence, it is more likely than not that we will not recognize some or all of the deferred tax assets. We have had a history of net losses since inception, and, as a result, we have established a 100% valuation allowance for our net deferred tax assets. If circumstances change, and we determine that we will be able to realize some or all of these net deferred tax assets in the future, we will record an adjustment to the valuation allowance. Additionally, enacted changes in domestic or foreign tax rates that require remeasurement of our deferred tax assets and liabilities also require remeasurement of our valuation allowance.
Results of Operations
Comparison of the nine months ended September 30, 2019, to the nine months ended September 30, 2018.
The following table summarizes our results of operations for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018, together with the changes in those items in dollars and as a percentage (all dollar amounts in thousands):
 
 
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
Dollar
Change
 
%
Change
 
 
2019
 
2018
 
 
 
 
(unaudited)
 
 
 
 
Product revenue
 
$
140

 
$
78

 
$
62

 
79
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product costs
 
121

 
72

 
49

 
68
 %
Sales and marketing
 
382

 
223

 
159

 
71
 %
Research and development
 
1,923

 
2,664

 
(741
)
 
(28
)%
General and administrative
 
7,489

 
5,067

 
2,422

 
48
 %
Operating loss
 
9,775

 
7,948

 
1,827

 
23
 %
Total other (income) expense
 
34

 
10

 
24

 
240
 %
Net loss
 
$
9,809

 
$
7,958

 
$
1,851

 
23
 %
Product Revenue and Product Cost
Product revenue for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, consisted primarily of sales of AquAdvantage Salmon and conventional Atlantic salmon eggs and byproducts. We expect that our sales will be modest and infrequent until our grow-out farms in Indiana and Rollo Bay commence harvesting in mid-2020.
Sales and Marketing Expenses
Sales and marketing expenses for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, were up from the corresponding period in 2018 due to increased personnel and consulting expenses, travel costs, and compensation charges related to the commencement of marketing activities for our salmon. We expect that our sales and marketing expenses will increase as we increase our production at our farm sites.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, were down from the corresponding period in 2018 due to lower personnel costs, outside contract service fees, travel expenses, and field trial costs, primarily related to the closing of our demonstration farm in Panama. We expect that our research and development expenses will increase as we expand our broodstock capacity, commence new field trials and continue to pursue regulatory approval for additional products and additional markets.

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Table of Contents

General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, were up significantly from the corresponding period in 2018 due to increases in personnel costs, stock compensation charges related to the hiring of our new CEO and the retirement of our previous CEO, travel costs associated with headcount additions to our management team, regulatory legal fees associated with the FDA legal challenge, and excess capacity charges at the Indiana and Rollo Bay farms as they continue their start-up.
Total Other (Income) Expense
Total other (income) expense is comprised of interest on debt, bank charges, a gain on disposal of equipment, and interest income for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018.
Comparison of the year ended December 31, 2018, to the year ended December 31, 2017.
The following table summarizes our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, together with the changes in those items in dollars and as a percentage (all dollar amounts in thousands):
 
 
Year Ended
December 31,
 
Dollar
Change
 
%
Change
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
Product revenue
 
$
85

 
$
53

 
$
32

 
60
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product costs
 
78

 
51

 
27

 
53
 %
Sales and marketing
 
298

 
799

 
(501
)
 
(63
)%
Research and development
 
3,459

 
3,372

 
87

 
3
 %
General and administrative
 
6,616

 
5,063

 
1,553

 
31
 %
Operating loss
 
(10,366
)
 
(9,232
)
 
(1,134
)
 
12
 %
Total other (income) expense, net
 
(16
)
 
(27
)
 
11

 
(41
)%
Net loss
 
$
(10,382
)
 
$
(9,259
)
 
$
(1,123
)
 
12
 %
Product Revenue and Product Costs
Product revenues for the year ended December 31, 2018, were up from the corresponding period in 2017, as a result of selling conventional Atlantic Salmon eggs and fry in addition to the sale of AquAdvantage Salmon.
Product costs on sales for the year ended December 31, 2018, were up from the corresponding period in 2017.
Sales and Marketing Expenses
Sales and marketing expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018, were down from the corresponding period in 2017 due to lower personnel and travel costs. We expect that our sales and marketing expenses will be relatively flat until we increase our production of AquAdvantage Salmon.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018, were slightly up from the corresponding period in 2017 due to increases in personnel and field trial costs, which were partially offset by a reduction in outside contracted research and development services. We expect that our research and development expenses will continue to increase as we further develop our Rollo Bay farm site and as we continue to pursue regulatory approval for additional products and additional markets.
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018, were significantly higher than the corresponding period in 2017 due to increases in personnel, legal fees and Board costs, along with the pre-production and start-up costs at our Indiana site. We expect that our general and administrative expenses will decrease as production increases at the Indiana facility.
Total Other (Income) Expense
Total other (income) expense for 2018 and 2017 is comprised of interest on debt, bank charges, interest income, and a net gain on the disposal of assets.

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Table of Contents

Comparison of the year ended December 31, 2017, to the year ended December 31, 2016.
The following table summarizes our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, together with the changes in those items in dollars and as a percentage (all dollar amounts in thousands):
 
 
Year Ended
December 31,
 
Dollar
Change
 
%
Change
 
 
2017
 
2016
 
Product revenue
 
$
53

 
$

 
$
53

 
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product costs
 
51

 

 
51

 
0
 %
Sales and marketing
 
799

 
860

 
(61
)
 
(7
)%
Research and development
 
3,372

 
3,430

 
(58
)
 
(2
)%
General and administrative
 
5,063

 
3,775

 
1,288

 
34
 %
Operating loss
 
(9,232
)
 
(8,065
)
 
(1,167
)
 
14
 %
Total other (income) expense, net
 
(27
)
 
(406
)
 
379

 
(93
)%
Net loss
 
$
(9,259
)
 
$
(8,471
)
 
$
(788
)
 
9
 %
Product Revenue and Product Costs
The first sales of AquAdvantage Salmon were recognized during the year ended December 31, 2017. Regulatory approval for the harvest and export of our fish from our Panama farm site was received during the year, and a batch of fish was sold and shipped to customers in Canada.
Product costs on sales consisted of the labor and related direct costs to grow out our fish, an application of overhead, and processing and shipping costs.
Sales and Marketing Expenses
Sales and marketing expenses for the year ended December 31, 2017, were down from the corresponding period in 2016 due to lower travel and outside service costs related to the exploratory design fees for a land-based recirculating aquaculture facility.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses for the year ended December 31, 2017, were down from the corresponding period in 2016 due to a reduction in outside contract research expenses and an allocation of cost to inventory, which were partly offset by an increase in compensation.
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2017, were significantly higher than the corresponding period in 2016 due to increased compensation charges and higher professional fees, corporate taxes, and the pre-production costs at the Indiana site, which were partially offset by a reduction in stock compensation charges and legal fees.
Total Other (Income) Expense
Total other (income) expense for 2017 is comprised of interest on debt, bank charges, interest income, and gains on asset disposals. Total other (income) expense for 2016 is comprised of interest on the convertible debt with Precigen, bank charges, interest income, and gains on asset disposals.

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Quarterly Results
The following tables set forth our unaudited consolidated quarterly statement of operations data for the seven quarters ended September 30, 2019. In our opinion, this unaudited information has been prepared on substantially the same basis as the consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this prospectus and includes all adjustments necessary for a fair statement of the unaudited consolidated quarterly data. The unaudited consolidated quarterly data should be read together with the consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. The results for any quarter are not necessarily indicative of results for any future period, and you should not rely on them as such.
 
 
2018
 
2019
 
 
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
 
Q1
Q2
Q3
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Statement of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product revenues
 
$
19

$
48

$
11

$
7

 
$
98

$
42

$

Costs and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product costs
 
16

47

9

6

 
82

39


Sales and marketing
 
82

76

65

75

 
72

104

206

Research and development
 
978

881

805

795

 
664

813

446

General and administrative
 
1,387

1,828

1,852

1,549

 
2,036

3,106

2,347

Total costs and expenses
 
2,463

2,832

2,731

2,425

 
2,854

4,062

2,999

Operating loss
 
(2,444
)
(2,784
)
(2,720
)
(2,418
)
 
(2,756
)
(4,020
)
(2,999
)
Total other income (expense)
 
(6
)
3

(7
)
(6
)
 
(8
)
(7
)
(19
)
Net loss
 
$
(2,450
)
$
(2,781
)
$
(2,727
)
$
(2,424
)
 
$
(2,764
)
$
(4,027
)
$
(3,018
)
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Sources of Liquidity
We have incurred losses from operations since our inception in 1991, and, as of September 30, 2019, we had an accumulated deficit of $128.7 million. In January 2017, we completed a private placement of 2,421,073 shares of our common stock to Precigen, our majority shareholder at that time, for proceeds of approximately $25.0 million. During 2017, we also received $227 thousand in proceeds from the issuance of debt. In January 2018, we completed a public offering of 3,692,307 shares of common stock and warrants to purchase 4,246,153 shares of common stock. Net proceeds to the Company were $10.6 million. Precigen participated in the offering, purchasing 1,538,461 shares of common stock and warrants to purchase 1,538,461 shares of common stock for gross proceeds of $5.0 million. During the period of March 2018 to June 2018, 249,824 shares of common stock were issued through the conversion of outstanding warrants at a price of $3.25 per share. Proceeds to the Company totaled $0.8 million. In October 2018, 2,250,461 shares of common stock were issued through the exercise of outstanding warrants at a discounted price of $2.00 per share. Net proceeds to the Company were $4.3 million. Precigen participated in the exercise, converting warrants for 1,538,461 shares of common stock, resulting in gross proceeds of $3.1 million. During 2018, we also received $772 thousand in proceeds from the issuance of debt. During the period of March 2019 to April 2019, we completed two public offerings totaling 6,246,360 shares of common stock with net proceeds to the Company of $12.4 million. During the period of March 2019 to July 2019, 83,564 shares of common stock were issued through the conversion of outstanding warrants at a price of $3.25 per share. Proceeds to the Company totaled $0.3 million. During 2019, we also received $901 thousand in proceeds from the issuance of debt.
As of September 30, 2019, we had a cash balance of $6.4 million.
Cash Flows
The following table sets forth the significant sources and uses of cash for the periods set forth below (in thousands):
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
 
Years Ended
December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
(unaudited)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net cash provided by (used in):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating activities
$
(8,288
)
 
$
(7,469
)
 
$
(9,817
)
 
$
(9,101
)
 
$
(7,449
)
Investing activities
(1,816
)
 
(3,354
)
 
(4,082
)
 
(19,046
)
 
(1,074
)
Financing activities
13,511

 
11,385

 
16,449

 
25,238

 
10,541

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash
16

 
(24
)
 
(53
)
 
77

 
(7
)
Net increase (decrease) in cash
$
3,423

 
$
538

 
$
2,497

 
$
(2,832
)
 
$
2,011


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Cash Flows from Operating Activities
Net cash used in operating activities during the nine months ended September 30, 2019, was primarily comprised of our $9.8 million net loss, offset by non-cash depreciation and stock compensation charges of $1.6 million, and increased by working capital uses of $53 thousand. Net cash used in operating activities during the nine months ended September 30, 2018, was primarily comprised of our $8.0 million net loss, offset by non-cash depreciation and stock compensation charges of $738 thousand, and increased by working capital uses of $249 thousand.
Net cash used in operating activities during the year ended December 31, 2018, was primarily comprised of our $10.4 million net loss, offset by non-cash depreciation and stock compensation charges of $1.1 million, and increased by working capital uses of $527 thousand. Spending on operations increased in 2018 due to headcount additions and commencement of partial activities at our Rollo Bay and Indiana farm sites. The use of cash in working capital in 2018 was primarily due to a reduction in accounts payable and accrued liabilities and increases in prepaid expenses and other current assets.
Net cash used in operating activities during the year ended December 31, 2017, was primarily comprised of our $9.3 million net loss, offset by non-cash depreciation and stock compensation charges of $307 thousand, and increased by working capital uses of $148 thousand. Spending on operations increased in 2017 due to headcount additions and renovation costs at our Indiana site, offset by a reduction in legal fees. The use of cash in working capital in 2017 was due to the establishment of inventory in Panama and Canada, deposits for insurance and utilities in Indiana, and costs of our public offering.
Net cash used in operating activities during the year ended December 31, 2016, was primarily comprised of our $8.5 million net loss, offset by non-cash depreciation and stock compensation charges and accrued interest of $765 thousand, and working capital sources of $257 thousand. Spending on operations increased during 2016 due to headcount additions, increased legal fees, the commencement of two international field trials, and the purchase of a new farm site. The increase in cash sourced by working capital in 2016 was due to an increase in accrued expenses, offset by an increase in government receivables.
Cash Flows from Investing Activities
During the nine months ended September 30, 2019, we used $1.8 million for renovations to our Indiana farm site and for construction charges at our Rollo Bay site, offset by $9 thousand in proceeds from the sale of equipment. During the same period in 2018, we used $3.4 million for renovations to our Indiana farm site and for construction charges at our Rollo Bay site, offset by $22 thousand in proceeds from the sale of equipment.
During 2018, we used $4.1 million for property and equipment purchases for renovations to our Indiana farm site and for construction charges at our Rollo Bay site. This was partly offset by the $23 thousand in proceeds from the sale of existing assets. During 2017, we used $19.0 million for property and equipment purchases, including $14.7 million for the purchase and initial renovation work of our Indiana site and $4.2 million for construction activities at our Rollo Bay site. During 2016, we used $1.1 million for property and equipment purchases, primarily for the purchase of the Rollo Bay farm site, and $6 thousand for patent charges. This was offset by $24 thousand in proceeds from the sale of existing assets.
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
During the nine months ended September 30, 2019, we received approximately $12.4 million in net proceeds from the issuance of shares of common stock in a public offering and $272 thousand from the exercise of warrants. In addition, we received $901 thousand in proceeds from issuance of debt. This was offset by $57 thousand in the repayment of debt. During the same period in 2018, we received approximately $10.6 million in net proceeds from the issuance of shares of common stock and warrants in a public offering and $812 thousand from the exercise of warrants. This was offset by $43 thousand in the repayment of debt.
During 2018, we received approximately $10.6 million in net proceeds from the issuance of shares of common stock and warrants in a public offering and $5.1 million from the exercise of warrants, and $716 thousand from the issuance of debt, net of repayments. During 2017, we received $25.0 million in proceeds from the issuance of our common stock in a private placement of shares, $28 thousand from the exercise of stock options, and $221 thousand from the issuance of debt, net of repayments. During 2016, we received $10.0 million in proceeds from the issuance of convertible debt, which was converted into common stock, and $541 thousand in proceeds from the issuance of term debt, net of repayments.
Future Capital Requirements
For the Company’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, management previously stated that there was substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern due to its limited capital resources, and the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm emphasized this matter in its report to the shareholders and the Board of Directors. At that time, management prepared a plan to mitigate this doubt, which included an equity raise that subsequently provided the Company with $12.4 million of net new funds in 2019.
As discussed in Note 1 to the September 30, 2019, unaudited financial statements, as included elsewhere in this prospectus, the Company has experienced net losses and negative cash flows from operations since its inception and has cumulative losses attributable to common stockholders of $129.0 million and a cash balance of $6.4 million as of September 30, 2019. Management has evaluated

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the Company’s cash resources in view of its planned spending for ongoing operations, capital expenditures, and working capital for the next twelve months from the filing date of this prospectus and has determined that its current funds will be exhausted by March 31, 2020. As a result, there is substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that these financial statements were issued.
Management plans to seek additional financing in the form of equity or debt, partnerships, or other non-dilutive transactions to fund the Company’s cash requirements. However, the Company may not be able to raise additional financing or to do so at terms that are acceptable. In this event, management has the ability to reduce expenditures, slow down or delay capital spending, and divest assets in order to ensure its cash will extend through the next twelve months.
If we are unable to generate additional funds in the future through financings, sales of our products, government grants, loans, or from other sources or transactions, we will exhaust our resources and will be unable to maintain our currently planned operations. If we cannot continue as a going concern, our stockholders would likely lose most or all of their investment in us.
Until such time, if ever, as we can generate positive operating cash flows, we may finance our cash needs through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings, government or other third-party funding, strategic alliances, and licensing arrangements. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the ownership interests of holders of our common stock will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect the rights of holders of our common stock. Debt financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures, or declaring dividends. If we raise additional funds through government or other third-party funding; marketing and distribution arrangements; or other collaborations, strategic alliances, or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs, or product candidates or to grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We did not have during the periods presented, and we do not currently have, any off-balance sheet arrangements as defined under SEC rules.
Contractual Obligations
The following table summarizes our significant contractual obligations and commercial commitments at December 31, 2018, and the effects such obligations are expected to have on our liquidity and cash flows in future periods (in thousands):
 
 
Total
 
Less than
1 year
 
1-3 years
 
3-5 years
 
More than
5 years
Prince Edward Island (“PEI”) Finance term loan
 
$
1,219

 
$
34

 
$
86

 
$
1,099

 
$

Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency (“ACOA”) term loan
 
204

 
27

 
55

 
55

 
67

Kubota Canada Ltd
 
61

 
10

 
20

 
20

 
11

ACOA Atlantic Innovation Fund (“AIF”) grant (1)
 
2,107

 

 

 

 
2,107

Maynard office lease
 
278

 
63

 
131

 
84

 

Panama site lease
 
60

 
60

 

 

 

Indiana auto lease
 
11

 
5

 
6

 

 

Indiana well lease
 
717

 
15

 
32

 
33

 
637

Total
 
$
4,657

 
$
214

 
$
330

 
$
1,291

 
$
2,822

(1) Repayment of the AIF grant is royalty-based and estimated on revenue projections of products resulting from the project.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
We do not expect any recently issued, but not yet effective, accounting standards to have a material effect on our results of operations or financial condition.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
The following sections provide quantitative information on our exposure to interest rate risk and foreign currency exchange risk. We make use of sensitivity analyses, which are inherently limited in estimating actual losses in fair value that can occur from changes in market conditions.

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Interest Rate Risk
Our primary exposure to market risk is interest rate risk associated with debt financing that we utilize from time to time to fund operations or specific projects. The interest on this debt is usually determined based on a fixed rate and is contractually set in advance. At September 30, 2019, December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, we had $1.8 million, $1.2 million and $545 thousand, respectively, in interest-bearing debt instruments on our consolidated balance sheet. All of our interest-bearing debt is at fixed rates.
Foreign Currency Exchange Risk
Our functional currency is the U.S. Dollar. The functional currency of our Canadian subsidiary, AQUA Bounty Canada Inc. (the “Canadian Subsidiary”), is the Canadian Dollar, and the functional currency of our Panama, U.S., and Brazil subsidiaries is the U.S. Dollar. For the Canadian Subsidiary, assets and liabilities are translated at the exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date, equity accounts are translated at the historical exchange rate, and the income statement accounts are translated at the average rate for each period during the year. Net translation gains or losses are adjusted directly to a separate component of other comprehensive loss within shareholders’ equity (deficit).

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BUSINESS
Overview
AquaBounty is a leader in the field of land-based aquaculture and the use of technology for improving its productivity and sustainability. Our objective is to ensure the availability of high-quality seafood to meet global consumer demand, while addressing critical production constraints in the most popular farmed species.
In 1995, we began the process of seeking regulatory approval from the FDA for our first bioengineered product, AquAdvantage Salmon, which grows to harvest size faster than conventional Atlantic salmon. In 1996, we acquired our first land-based RAS hatchery on Prince Edward Island, Canada, and we now have over two decades of experience in successfully rearing Atlantic salmon in RAS facilities.
On November 19, 2015, we received approval from the FDA of our NADA for the production, sale, and consumption in the United States of AquAdvantage Salmon. This was followed on May 19, 2016, by the approval from Health Canada for the production, sale, and consumption of AquAdvantage Salmon in Canada. Consequently, we have received approvals for our product from what we believe are two of the most respected and rigorous regulatory agencies in the world.
We believe that receipt of FDA approval for AquAdvantage Salmon not only represents a major milestone for us, but also a significant pioneering development in introducing bioengineered animals into the food chain. Although genetically modified crops have been accepted by consumers in the United States and South America for some time, AquAdvantage Salmon is the first bioengineered animal to be approved for human consumption.
We farm AquAdvantage Salmon in land-based, contained, freshwater aquaculture systems, which allows inland fish farms to be established close to major demand centers in a profitable and environmentally sustainable manner. Our years of experience growing Atlantic salmon in land-based farms, coupled with the economic advantage of our faster-growing AquAdvantage Salmon, offers the opportunity to energize salmon aquaculture in the United States, which imported more than $3.4 billion of Atlantic salmon in 2018 according to the DOC.
In 2017, we purchased an existing land-based aquaculture facility in Indiana as our first farm in the United States. We currently are growing both conventional Atlantic salmon and AquAdvantage Salmon at the farm, with our first harvests of conventional Atlantic salmon expected in Q2 of 2020 and our first harvests of AquAdvantage Salmon expected in Q4 of 2020. Our future plans include construction of four to five new farms in North America at sites close to consumer consumption over the next several years. Additionally, we are pursuing regulatory approval for AquAdvantage Salmon in Argentina, Brazil, China, and Israel.
See “—Our Product” for more information on AquAdvantage Salmon and “—Regulatory Environment” for more information on our completed NADA process with the FDA.
Due to an Import Alert that was implemented by the FDA in response to a provision in the 2016 Appropriations bill requiring labeling guidance for our product, AquAdvantage Salmon could not be imported into the U.S. until March 2019. In the interim, we introduced conventional Atlantic salmon Salmon into our Indiana facility for grow-out, and, after the Import Alert was lifted, added AquAdvantage Salmon. We expect our first harvest of each group in the second half of 2020. For more information, see “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—We may become subject to increasing regulation, changes in existing regulations, and review of existing regulatory decisions.” We also anticipate the first harvest from our Rollo Bay farm in the same period.
We have incurred significant losses since our inception in 1991 and expect to continue to incur significant losses until we achieve market acceptance for our product and expand our production capacity. We have sold small quantities of AquAdvantage Salmon from our demonstration farm site in Panama during 2018 and 2019, and we expect more significant revenues in 2020 once we begin to harvest from our farms in Indiana and on Prince Edward Island. For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, we experienced operating losses of $10.4 million and $9.3 million, respectively.
The Aquaculture Industry
Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and aquatic plants. It involves cultivating freshwater or saltwater species under controlled conditions, as an alternative to the commercial harvesting of wild species of aquatic organisms. According to Research and Markets, an industry research organization, the global aquaculture market was valued at $264.5 billion in 2018 and is expected to grow at a compound annual rate of 7.7% to reach a market size of $509.7 billion by the year 2027. We believe that the aquaculture industry—and in particular salmon farming—is poised for significant additional growth in the coming years as the global population expands and consumers seek out high-quality proteins.
Salmon Farming
Atlantic salmon farming is a major industry in the cold-water countries of the northern and southern hemispheres. According to the FAO, Atlantic salmon aquaculture production grew by approximately 5.9% annually between 2000 and 2017. Total production volume of farmed Atlantic salmon during 2017 was 2.36 million metric tons with a value of over $16.7 billion. Industry analyst Kontali expects increases in demand to drive continued production growth through 2020, although at a lower annual rate of approximately 3.0%, primarily due to supply constraints.

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Below is a break-down by major producing country for the time period 2012 through 2017, which is the last year for which data is readily available from FAO.
Worldwide Atlantic Salmon Production by Country (in metric tons)
Country
 
2012
 
2013
 
2014
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
Norway
 
1,232,095

 
1,168,324

 
1,258,356

 
1,303,346

 
1,233,619

 
1,236,353

Chile
 
399,678

 
492,329

 
644,459

 
608,546

 
532,225

 
614,180

United Kingdom
 
162,547

 
163,518

 
179,397

 
172,146

 
163,135

 
189,707

Canada
 
116,101

 
97,629

 
86,347

 
121,926

 
123,522

 
120,553

Faroe Islands
 
76,564

 
75,821

 
86,454

 
80,600

 
83,300

 
86,800

Australia
 
43,982

 
42,825

 
41,591

 
48,331

 
56,115

 
52,580

Ireland
 
12,440

 
9,125

 
9,368

 
13,116

 
16,300

 
18,342

United States
 
19,295

 
18,866

 
18,719

 
18,719

 
16,185

 
14,685

All other
 
11,696

 
25,549

 
23,376

 
14,849

 
22,892

 
25,463

Volume - Worldwide (mt)
 
2,074,398

 
2,093,986

 
2,348,067

 
2,381,579

 
2,247,293

 
2,358,663

© FAO - Fisheries and Aquaculture Information and Statistics Service 12/17/2019
Pricing
According to the DOC, which tracks the volume and value of Atlantic salmon imports into the United States, from 2011 to 2018 the average wholesale price of Atlantic salmon imported into the country increased from $3.81 per pound ($8.39/kilogram) to $4.77 per pound ($10.51/kilogram).
The daily spot (farm-gate or wholesale market) price for Atlantic salmon is very volatile due to the species’ long production cycle, which normally ranges between two and three years, and its short shelf life, which usually ranges between two and three weeks. Farmed salmon is typically sold as fresh and thus must be consumed within this timeframe. Consequently, the available supply is very inelastic over the short term, while demand can be very elastic due to price, season, or market size.
Major Producers
The global Atlantic salmon farming industry includes several very large companies with operations in each of the major producing countries. Consolidation has been evident in the past few years as producers attempt to gain competitive cost advantages while overcoming the regulatory challenges associated with developing new marine farm sites. Major market producers include the following companies: Mowi, Cermaq, Agrosuper, Leroy Seafood Group, SalMar, Cooke Aquaculture, and Grieg Seafood. According to Kontali, these seven companies accounted for approximately 46% of the Atlantic salmon produced in 2018.
U.S. Atlantic Salmon Market
According to the DOC, in 2018 the United States imported a record 719 million pounds (326 thousand metric tons) of Atlantic salmon with an aggregate market value of approximately $3.4 billion, or $4.77 per pound. The DOC also reported that over 89% of the total quantity of Atlantic salmon imports into the United States in 2018 originated from Chile, Canada, and Norway. The Atlantic salmon farming industry in the United States contracted significantly beginning in the 1990s in the face of environmental concerns and lower costs of production from foreign sources, notably Chile. According to the FAO, a total of only 32 million pounds (15 thousand metric tons) of farmed Atlantic salmon was produced in the United States in 2017, representing only 4.7% of the total farmed Atlantic salmon supplied to the country.
Despite intensive public consumer education campaigns promoting its health benefits, seafood consumption in the United States still lags behind other protein sources and trails consumption in overseas markets. According to the USDA, during the period from 2012 to 2017, annual seafood consumption in the United States ranged between 14 and 16 pounds per capita, significantly behind consumption of poultry (96 to 108 pounds), beef (53 to 57 pounds), and pork (45 to 50 pounds). In comparison, according to FAO, average seafood consumption worldwide was 45 pounds per capita in 2016.
Perception of Bioengineered Atlantic Salmon
Though Atlantic salmon is the second most consumed seafood in the United States, activist groups opposing bioengineering have pressured a number of retail food outlets and grocery chains to publicly state that they will not carry bioengineered Atlantic salmon.
However, we do not expect that this will have a significant impact on overall consumer demand and product placement in the marketplace generally, and in particular the wholesale marketplace. To date, large wholesalers have not followed the example of these retailers, and we believe that there will be sufficient demand from smaller retailers, wholesalers, and institutional seafood buyers to absorb our projected production. We believe that FDA approval reinforces the message that AquAdvantage Salmon is a safe and nutritious seafood product that is identical to conventional farmed Atlantic salmon.

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There are surveys that have been cited by various NGOs that indicate that consumers are reluctant to purchase bioengineered food and that they would like to see labeling in order to avoid it. In response to the potential for state-by-state labeling laws, Congress passed the National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Law in 2016, which directed USDA to establish a national mandatory standard for disclosing foods that are or may be bioengineered. The Disclosure Standard requires food manufacturers, importers, and certain retailers to ensure bioengineered foods are appropriately disclosed. The implementation date of the Disclosure Standard is January 1, 2020, except for small food manufacturers, whose implementation date is January 1, 2021. The mandatory compliance date of the Disclosure Standard is January 1, 2022. We plan to implement the Disclosure Standard immediately with the first sales of AquAdvantage Salmon.
In conjunction with the bioengineered disclosure, we plan to educate consumers on the benefits of AquAdvantage Salmon versus conventional Atlantic salmon, including its 25% improved feed conversion (meaning less feed is needed to produce the same harvest), a lower carbon footprint due to local production, reduced impact on the environment, reduced exposure of the fish to environmental toxins due to use of land-based aquaculture systems, and reduced reliance on vaccines or antibiotics due to improved biosecurity.
Atlantic Salmon Disease Impact
An area of concern with current Atlantic salmon farming production is the environmental impact and the cost of disease management associated with those operations. Salmon farming systems, particularly conventional, open sea-cage systems, are vulnerable to disease introduction and transmission, primarily from the marine environment or adjacent culture systems. The economic impact of disease to these production systems can be significant, as farmers must incur the cost of preventative measures, such as vaccines and antibiotics and then, if infected, the cost of lost or reduced harvests.
The most prevalent disease and health management issues are infectious salmon anemia and sea lice. ISA is a viral disease in Atlantic salmon, and outbreaks have occurred in virtually every major salmon farming geography since 1984, including a major event in Chile in 2008 that impacted the country’s production for three years. There is currently no effective treatment for the disease, and the salmon farming industry relies on health management practices to mitigate its impact.
Sea lice are marine parasites that occur naturally and attach to the skin of Atlantic salmon. Even a few sea lice can increase the likelihood of secondary infections and mortality, and the presence of significant numbers are likely to have adverse effects on fish health and aesthetic appearance. The cost of managing sea lice in sea-cage farming environments can be significant.
The closed, contained, land-based production systems using RAS technology proposed for the grow-out of AquAdvantage Salmon are less susceptible, though not immune, to the same disease-related pressures because this type of culture system is isolated from the environment. RAS facilities employ sophisticated water treatment technology including the use of ozone, salt treatment and ultraviolet radiation to kill potential bacterial, fungal, or viral pathogens which might enter the system. In addition, incoming water is similarly filtered and treated prior to entering the system, and water quality is regularly measured as part of the standard procedures. The fish in RAS facilities are generally not vaccinated against typical fish diseases, and no antibiotics, pesticides, or pharmacological agents are typically required. RAS facilities employ effective biosecurity to prevent disease by reducing or eliminating the introduction of pathogens and continuously treating the water to assure optimal fish health. RAS production will allow the AquAdvantage Salmon to be raised in optimized conditions with total control of the water coming in and going out of the system, while recirculating greater than 95% of the water used.
In contrast, conventional salmon aquaculture takes place in large cages (sea cages) in coastal waterways exposed to currents, which can bring a variety of pathogens in contact with the farmed salmon. The presence of pathogens in an uncontrolled environment is a universally accepted fact in human and animal health. The presence of disease agents in these uncontrolled water currents could result in infection and spread of infection within the captive population. The risks and outcomes of conventional, open sea-cage systems are well established, and are often evidenced by outbreaks of a variety of bacterial and viral diseases as well as water fouling and contamination due to algal blooms and similar events. This risk of disease has led to the widespread use of antibiotics, vaccines, and other pharmacological agents, which are unnecessary in a RAS environment.
Further, stocking RAS facilities with disease-free eggs results in a much higher degree of biosecurity and protection from disease. We expect that production and economic losses due to disease will be significantly less in the closed, land-based culture systems proposed for the production of AquAdvantage Salmon, because of greater control over environmental conditions and superior biosecurity than in traditional Atlantic salmon production systems.
Restrictions on Atlantic Salmon Farming
Environmental concerns have led certain states to impose legislative and regulatory restrictions or bans on the farming of Atlantic salmon. This could reduce the number of potential sites available to us for production farms in the United States. Nevertheless, we have identified several states that would be excellent potential sites for AquAdvantage Salmon farms and are in the process of conducting a site search for the location of our next farm.
Our Product
Our product, AquAdvantage Salmon, is a bioengineered Atlantic salmon that can grow to market size faster than conventional farmed Atlantic salmon. The original research on the Atlantic salmon was conducted at Memorial University in Newfoundland, Canada, by a

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team seeking to protect the fish from the effects of the cold waters of the North Atlantic Ocean. They discovered that the single genetic change made by placing a second copy of the salmon growth hormone gene under the control of an alternative genetic promoter (gene switch) from the ocean pout resulted in more consistent levels of growth hormone being released, which accelerated the early stages of the salmon’s development, a time period when the salmon are more susceptible to disease and mortality. The accelerated growth allows these fish to reach a marketable size sooner. This can reduce farming time from between 28 to 36 months for conventional Atlantic salmon to between 18 to 20 months for AquAdvantage Salmon.
This accelerated growth has economic and environmental advantages. The faster life cycle, from birth to harvesting, of AquAdvantage Salmon as compared to conventional salmon allows it to be produced more economically in contained, land-based RAS farms. Although this requires greater capital investment than the sea cage approach, we believe that the higher costs will be offset by more efficient growth, 25% better feed conversion, reduced exposure to environmental threats, and more effective control of disease. In addition, with farms located nearer to the major food markets, we believe there will be savings on transportation of the harvested stock, a reduced carbon footprint, and an improved ability to get fresh product to market faster.
Plan of Operation
We are an aquaculture company that utilizes technology to produce fish economically and sustainably. We have over 25 years of experience raising Atlantic salmon in land-based RAS facilities, and our first bioengineered product is the AquAdvantage Salmon, which can grow to harvest size faster than conventional Atlantic salmon. Our near-term business plan contemplates that we will construct and operate four to five new, land-based RAS farms in North America at locations close to consumer consumption. Each of these farms could cost $75 million to $100 million to construct. We currently have two farms in operation, a 250-metric-ton farm in Rollo Bay, Prince Edward Island, and a 1,200-metric-ton farm in Indiana. Based on our progress to date, we expect that the Indiana farm will begin harvesting its fish in the second quarter of 2020, and the Rollo Bay farm will begin harvesting in the fourth quarter of 2020. Our target is to achieve an annual production output of at least 50,000 metric tons by 2027.
We also are seeking regulatory approval for AquAdvantage Salmon in Brazil, Argentina, Israel, and China. Once approved in these locations, we plan to commercialize through a combination of partnerships, joint ventures, and licensing arrangements.
In order to scale up our egg production capabilities, we have begun construction on a new broodstock facility at our farm site in Rollo Bay. Once completed and at full capacity, this facility will be capable of producing over ten million AquAdvantage Salmon eggs annually.
We intend to continue investing in research and development. We anticipate that our research and development expenditures will increase as we continue to develop our other aquaculture products and initiate new research projects focusing on health and productivity. Any additions to staff in our research and production activities will depend on the number of development activities we undertake and the success of our commercialization efforts for AquAdvantage Salmon. We also expect to increase our staffing in administration and at our farms as we grow our company.
Our Markets
With regulatory approvals in the United States and Canada, we plan to market AquAdvantage Salmon throughout both countries. In addition, we intend to focus on those significant fish farming markets where we believe we will have success in gaining further regulatory approvals and consumer acceptance. We currently expect to market AquAdvantage Salmon in the United States and Canada, as well as Argentina, Brazil, China, and Israel following receipt of required regulatory approval in the respective jurisdictions.
The salmon distribution system in the United States is complex and varied. Participants include fishermen, fish farmers, processors, importers, secondary processors, broadline distributors, specialty seafood distributors, brokers, traders, and many different kinds of retail and food service companies. Salmon distribution channels are evolving, with fewer and larger distributors handling an increasing share of total volume and an increasing share of salmon being sold directly by large fish-farming companies and large wild salmon processors to large retail and food service chains. We expect that harvested AquAdvantage Salmon will be sold into this distribution network.
Regulatory Environment
United States Regulation of Bioengineered Products
The bioengineering of food using the tools of modern biotechnology is regulated in the United States by two government organizations, the USDA for bioengineered plants and the FDA for bioengineered animals.
The regulatory system for bioengineered plants is based upon the Coordinated Framework, issued by the Office of Science and Technology Policy in 1986 and regulated by the USDA’s Biotechnology Regulatory Services and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services under the Federal Plant Protection Act. Certain bioengineered plants are regulated under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act by the EPA. The USDA is also required to determine the environmental impact of a proposed application under the National Environmental Policy Act (“NEPA”). The process for plants is essentially one of issuing test permits and data dossiers

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for the product’s proposed use, followed by a process of de-regulation or approval if the application is found to be acceptable under the applicable law and regulations.
The regulatory process for food and animal feed is also based upon the Coordinated Framework, but the enabling legislation is the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, along with NEPA. In the case of animals for food or materials for feed, the FDA process is a pre-approval review followed by an approval if the application is acceptable under the relevant legislation.
We opened an Investigational New Animal Drug file for AquAdvantage Salmon with the FDA in 1995. At that time, there was no defined regulatory framework for the regulation of bioengineered animals. There were, however, certain studies that were generally acknowledged to be necessary for an eventual approval process. We commenced work on those studies and began a phased submission of studies to the FDA that ultimately was responsive to each technical section of the NADA. These technical sections require submission of studies relating to molecular characterization of the construct; molecular characterization of AquAdvantage Salmon lineage; phenotypic characterization of AquAdvantage Salmon; a genotypic and phenotypic durability plan; support for environmental, food, and feed safety; and claim validation. The FDA’s phased review process, which included a cycle of study conduct, submission, review, and acceptance, continued over the period from 1995 to 2010. Following this process, the FDA concluded that AquAdvantage Salmon “is as safe as food from conventional salmon, and that there is a reasonable certainty of no harm from consumption of food” from AquAdvantage Salmon.
On November 19, 2015, the FDA issued an approval letter for the NADA for AquAdvantage Salmon. This approval was published in the Federal Register on November 24, 2015. In conjunction with the approval, the FDA issued a guidance document on the voluntary labeling of food derived from Atlantic salmon that has or has not been bioengineered. That document was intended to assist those manufacturers who wish to voluntarily make the distinction on the labeling of their food products.
Legal Challenge to FDA Approval
Following the FDA approval, in March 2016, a coalition of NGOs sued the FDA for their approval of AquAdvantage Salmon. The NGOs claim that the FDA failed to analyze and prevent risks to wild salmon and the environment. Among other things, the claimants are seeking a judgment that the FDA decision to approve AquAdvantage Salmon is not authorized by the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (“FFDCA”); that an injunction be issued requiring the FDA to withdraw its assertion of jurisdiction over bioengineered animals; that the FDA decision to approve AquAdvantage Salmon and its EA and FONSI be declared in violation of the FFDCA; and that the decision to approve the AquAdvantage Salmon NADA be vacated. Although we believe that these claims lack merit, this legal action is ongoing, with the discovery phase now complete and the case moving forward on substantive briefing.
Labeling of Bioengineered Products
In January 2016, the U.S. Congress passed the 2016 Omnibus Appropriations Act (“2016 Appropriations Act”), which was signed into law. The 2016 Appropriations Act contained an amendment that directed the FDA to issue final guidance for labeling of AquAdvantage Salmon as a bioengineered product, despite the absence of any bioengineered product labeling requirement in the FDA’s NADA approval. Current FDA policy does not require labeling for method of production if there is no material difference compared with its conventional counterpart, and the FDA arrived at the decision that AquAdvantage Salmon is as safe to eat, and as nutritious, as any conventional Atlantic salmon. However, given this directive, the FDA issued an Import Alert on AquAdvantage Salmon and stated that a temporary hold was being implemented to comply with language in the Appropriations Act. However, while the language in the 2016 Appropriations Act was in effect, the United States Congress passed the National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Law in July 2016, which provided for the establishment of a national standard for package disclosure for foods containing bioengineered ingredients. On December 21, 2018, the USDA issued its final rule for such labeling, and AquAdvantage Salmon must be labeled in accordance with this rule. On March 8, 2019, the FDA released AquAdvantage Salmon from the Import Alert.
In December 2019, the 2020 Appropriations Act was signed into law. The 2020 Appropriations Act contains an amendment that requires that any engineered animal approved by FDA prior to the effective date of the Disclosure Standard shall include the words ‘‘genetically engineered’’ prior to the existing acceptable market name. While the Company believes that this labeling requirement is unnecessary and redundant to the requirement of the Disclosure Standard, it plans to work with the USDA and the FDA to determine how to comply.
Ongoing FDA Regulatory Requirements
In addition to FDA approval of the NADA for AquAdvantage Salmon, our operating sites in the United States and on Prince Edward Island, as well as those we plan to build or purchase in the future, must be registered with, and periodically inspected by, the FDA as drug manufacturing establishments. Drug manufacturing establishments that supply FDA-regulated products for use in the United States must comply with the product’s conditions for approval, whether located in the United States or in a foreign country. Each of our operating sites in Indiana and Fortune and Rollo Bay, Prince Edward Island, is currently registered with the FDA, and the FDA has performed inspections and site visits at each of those facilities.
With the FDA approval of our NADA, we must continue to comply with FDA requirements not only for manufacturing, but also for labeling, advertising, record keeping, and reporting to the FDA of adverse events and other information. We will also need to comply

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with USDA disclosure requirements. Failure to comply with these requirements could subject us to administrative or judicial enforcement actions, including but not limited to product seizures, injunctions, civil penalties, criminal prosecution, refusals to approve new products, or withdrawal of existing approvals, as well as increased product liability exposure.
Other Regulatory Approvals
In February 2012, we filed a Novel Food application for AquAdvantage Salmon with Health Canada. In conjunction with this application, we filed to register AquAdvantage Salmon as a Novel Feed with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, a prerequisite for a Novel Food approval. Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency reviewed our data submission on the safety of AquAdvantage Salmon as a food and feed, respectively. On May 19, 2016, Health Canada concluded that AquAdvantage Salmon does not raise concerns related to food safety. Health Canada also noted in its opinion that fillets derived from AquAdvantage Salmon are as safe and nutritious as fillets from currently available farmed Atlantic salmon.
In April 2013, we filed a New Substances Notification for AquAdvantage Salmon with Environment Canada. On November 25, 2013, Environment Canada concluded that AquAdvantage Salmon is not harmful to the environment or human health when produced in contained facilities. This ruling, which was subject to a judicial review brought about by certain environmental groups on administrative procedural grounds, recognized that our Canadian hatchery, which produces sterile, all-female eggs, was no longer solely a research facility but could produce eggs on a commercial scale without harm to the environment or human health. In December 2015, the Federal Court in Canada ruled that the Ministers of Environment and Health decision to allow production of AquAdvantage Salmon in Canada for commercial use was “reasonable and made in the manner prescribed by the Canadian Environmental Protection Act.” Accordingly, the court dismissed the entire application brought before it by the Ecology Action Centre and Living Oceans Society. This ruling was appealed by those organizations, but the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal dismissed the appeal on October 21, 2016.
We received approval from regulators to conduct field trials for AquAdvantage Salmon in Argentina and Brazil. The Argentinian trial has successfully completed, and we are pursuing approval for the sale of AquAdvantage Salmon in that country; the Brazilian trial is currently on-going. We intend to initiate additional regulatory filings outside the United States in selected markets that offer a clear regulatory path and market opportunity.
Grow-out of AquAdvantage Salmon in the United States will require compliance with environmental regulations and local site permitting statutes. In addition, every production site for AquAdvantage Salmon in the United States will require approval by the FDA of both a Supplemental NADA and a site-specific EA, as well as compliance with local permitting requirements for construction of grow-out facilities. We expect that we will incur costs to comply with these environmental and regulatory requirements, which could take several years to complete for each production site. We are currently unable to estimate these costs, but they may be significant.
Raw Materials
We previously sourced the unfertilized eggs that we use for internal research and trials of our AquAdvantage Salmon eggs from a Canadian supplier. After our FDA approval, we purchased a salmon farm near our hatchery on Prince Edward Island to maintain our own source of unfertilized eggs. We are currently constructing a broodstock facility on this site, which, when completed and at full capacity, will provide sufficient fertilized AquAdvantage Salmon eggs to satisfy our production requirements for at least the next five years.
Intellectual Property
The AquAdvantage fish program is based upon a single, specific molecular modification in fish that results in more rapid growth in early development. This enables shorter production cycles and increased efficiency of production. Prior to February 2014, we were a party to a license agreement with Genesis Group, Inc., an affiliate of Memorial University of Newfoundland (“Genesis”), and an affiliate of the Hospital for Sick Children of Toronto (“HSC”) related to our bioengineered fish program. Under the terms of this agreement, we were required to make an annual royalty payment of $25 thousand or revenue-based royalty payments equal to five percent of any gross revenues generated from products that utilize the technology covered under the license agreement. No revenue-based royalty payments were made under this agreement. The patent for the licensed technology, which had been issued in certain salmon producing countries, expired in August 2013. In February 2014, we entered into a new license agreement with Genesis and HSC that replaced the prior license agreement. Under the new agreement, we hold a global, perpetual, royalty-free, fully paid, sub-licensable, assignable, non-exclusive right to the technology covering bioengineered salmonid fish that express endogenous growth hormone under the control of a protein gene promoter from an edible fish. In consideration for this license, we agreed to pay to Genesis a one-time payment of $140 thousand, which amount was paid on March 6, 2014, but no additional patents are contemplated under this agreement. Despite the expiration of the patent for the licensed technology, we believe that the degree of know-how in the molecular modification process and the regulatory timescales associated with approval of bioengineered fish would present significant barriers to competition.
We rely on a combination of patent, trademark, and trade secret laws in the United States and applicable foreign jurisdictions, as well as confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions, to protect our proprietary technology, processes, and brand. In

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December 2015, we were granted a U.S. patent for our molecular sterility system, which renders sterile the progeny of any female fish carrying a defined maternal sterility gene. While the technology described in the sterility system patent is not currently used or required under any of our current regulatory approvals, the technology may be desirable in the future to obtain or maintain regulatory approvals.
For information regarding our rights to use certain technologies under the ECC with Precigen, see “—Research and Development.”
Seasonality
Atlantic salmon spawn once per year, so there is a natural seasonality of three to five months in the production of Atlantic salmon eggs for commercial use. This natural seasonality can be lengthened through the use of photoperiod and temperature control techniques to make Atlantic salmon eggs available year-round, and we are currently capable of producing AquAdvantage Salmon eggs year-round on a limited basis. However, with the establishment of our new broodstock facility at our Rollo Bay farm site on Prince Edward Island, we expect that we will be able to produce sufficient AquAdvantage Salmon eggs year-round to satisfy all of our production needs over the next five years.
Competition
The industry and market for farmed Atlantic salmon is dominated by a group of large, multinational corporations with entrenched distribution channels, as discussed in the section of this prospectus titled “Business—The Aquaculture Industry—Major Producers.” We will compete against large, global Atlantic salmon farming companies when we sell our AquAdvantage Salmon in the market. We will also compete against new companies utilizing RAS technology to grow their salmon. We believe the faster growth and better feed efficiency of our fish will provide us with a cost advantage versus these competitors.
Research and Development
As of September 30, 2019, we had twenty-one employees dedicated to research and development. Our primary research and development operations are located in our owned hatchery on Prince Edward Island. In addition, we contract some research activities to the Center for Aquaculture Technologies, Inc., our former research group, which was spun-off and sold to Tethys Aquaculture Canada, Inc. (doing business as the Center for Aquaculture Technologies Canada) (“Tethys”) in 2012.
In February 2013, we entered into the ECC with Precigen pursuant to which we are permitted to use Precigen’s UltraVector® and other technology platforms to develop and commercialize additional bioengineered traits in finfish for human consumption. The ECC grants us a worldwide license to use certain patents and other intellectual property of Precigen in connection with the research, development, use, importing, manufacture, sale, and offer for sale of products involving DNA administered to finfish for human consumption. This license is exclusive with respect to any development, selling, offering for sale, or other commercialization of developed products, and otherwise is non-exclusive. We agreed to pay Precigen, on a quarterly basis, 16.66% of the gross profits calculated for each developed product. We also agreed to pay Precigen 50% of the quarterly revenue obtained from a sublicensee in the event of a sublicensing arrangement. In addition, we agreed to reimburse Precigen for the costs of certain services provided by Precigen. Under the ECC, we and Precigen conducted two research projects, one of which led to a gene-edited line of tilapia that exhibits improvement in fillet yield, growth, and feed conversion efficiency. The second project focused on the use of germ cells to perform gene modification to reduce the time required to develop new traits in finfish. At present, no additional work is being conducted under the ECC, and we are winding down, and may renegotiate, the relationship with Precigen, but responsibilities under the agreement remain in place.
In addition to the projects under the ECC, we are exploring the potential development of a range of additional products, including a second generation of AquAdvantage Salmon to ensure 100% sterility, a line of AquAdvantage Trout that grows faster than conventional rainbow trout, molecular sterility systems to provide an improved means of sterility for farmed fish, and improved methods for generating bioengineered fish.
Our research and development expenditures are directly tied to the number of projects that we choose to undertake. We expect to increase our development efforts as we commence additional projects either in-house or with third parties. We expect that these projects could result in an increase in our research and development expenditures in the range of 5% to 10% per year.
Employees
As of September 30, 2019, we had sixty-one employees. None of our employees are represented by a labor union, and we consider our employee relations to be good.
Properties
Our corporate headquarters are located in Maynard, Massachusetts, and consist of approximately 3,500 square feet of office space under a lease that expires in March 2023. On Prince Edward Island, Canada, we own both a hatchery in Fortune and a salmon farm, consisting of a hatchery, a grow-out facility, and a broodstock facility in Rollo Bay, and we own a production grow-out facility in Indiana. We believe that the spaces that we lease and own are sufficient to meet our current and near-term needs. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Contractual Obligations.”

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Legal Proceedings
Lawsuit Against the FDA Approval of NADA
On March 30, 2016, a coalition of NGOs filed a complaint in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California against the FDA, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, and related individuals for their roles in the approval of AquAdvantage Salmon. Subsequently, the Fish and Wildlife Service was dismissed from the case. The coalition, including the Center for Food Safety and Friends of the Earth, claims that the FDA had no statutory authority to regulate bioengineered animals, and, if it did, that the agency failed to analyze and implement measures to mitigate ecological, environmental, and socioeconomic risks that could impact wild salmon and the environment, including the risk that AquAdvantage Salmon could escape and threaten endangered wild salmon stocks. The discovery phase of litigation is now complete, and the case is moving forward on substantive briefing.
Other than as set forth above, we are not party to any legal proceedings the outcome of which, we believe, if determined adversely to us, would individually or in the aggregate have a material adverse effect on our future business, consolidated results of operations, cash flows, or financial position. We may, from time to time, be subject to legal proceedings and claims arising from the normal course of business activities.
Recent Events
Our common stock was listed on AIM, the London Stock Exchange’s international market for smaller growing companies, from 2006 through May 31, 2017, initially under the symbol “ABTX” and, commencing in 2014, under the symbol “ABTU.” On January 19, 2017, our common stock began “regular way” trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market, and, effective June 1, 2017, we voluntarily delisted our common stock from AIM.
On January 18, 2017, we sold 2,421,073 shares of our common stock to Precigen, our controlling shareholder at the time, for proceeds of approximately $25 million. Following the closing of this sale, Precigen distributed 1,776,557 shares of our common stock that it held prior to the closing via a share dividend to its shareholders.
On January 17, 2018, we completed a public offering of 3,692,307 shares of our common stock and 4,246,153 warrants to purchase shares of common stock for net proceeds of approximately $10.6 million. Precigen participated in this offering, purchasing 1,538,461 shares of our common stock and warrants to purchase shares of common stock for $5.0 million.
During the period of March 23, 2018, to June 26, 2018, 249,824 shares of common stock were issued through the conversion of outstanding warrants at a price of $3.25 per share. Proceeds to the Company totaled $0.8 million.
On October 24, 2018, 2,250,461 shares of common stock were issued through the exercise of outstanding warrants at a discounted price of $2.00 per share. Net proceeds to the Company were $4.3 million. Precigen participated in the exercise, converting warrants for 1,538,461 shares of common stock, resulting in gross proceeds of $3.1 million.
During the period of March 8, 2019, to June 17, 2019, 83,564 shares of common stock were issued through the conversion of outstanding warrants at a price of $3.25 per share. Proceeds to the Company totaled $0.3 million.
On March 21, 2019, we completed a public offering of 3,345,282 shares of our common stock for net proceeds of approximately $6.1 million, and, on April 9, 2019, we completed a follow-on offering of 2,554,590 shares of our common stock for net proceeds of approximately $5.8 million.

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MANAGEMENT
Directors and Executive Officers
The following table sets forth certain information regarding our directors and executive officers as of January 15, 2020:
Name            
Age
 
Position(s)
Richard J. Clothier
74
 
Chairman
Richard L. Huber
83
 
Director
Jeffrey T. Perez
48
 
Director
Christine St.Clare
69
 
Director
Rick Sterling
55
 
Director
James C. Turk, Jr.
63
 
Director
Sylvia A. Wulf
62
 
Director, Chief Executive Officer, and President
David A. Frank
59
 
Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer
Angela M. Olsen
51
 
General Counsel and Corporate Secretary
Alejandro Rojas
58
 
Chief Operating Officer, AquaBounty Farms
Our board of directors is currently composed of seven members. Our directors are elected for a one-year term to hold office until the next annual general meeting of our shareholders or until removed from office in accordance with our Third Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and our Amended and Restated Bylaws. Certain of our directors were elected pursuant to board composition provisions of the Relationship Agreement we entered with Precigen, which is described in the section entitled “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions—Agreements with Precigen—Relationship Agreement.” Our executive officers are elected by our Board of Directors and hold office until removed by the Board of Directors, and until their successors have been duly elected and qualified or until their earlier resignation, retirement, removal, or death.
Richard J. Clothier. Mr. Clothier has served as Chairman of the Board of Directors of AquaBounty since April 2006. He also has served as the Chairman of Robinson Plc from 2004 until 2018, of Spearhead International Ltd from 2005 to 2015, and of Exosect Ltd from 2013 to 2015. Mr. Clothier retired as Group Chief Executive of PGI Group Plc, an international agricultural products producer, following 20 years with Dalgety Plc, where he was chief executive officer of the genetics firm Pig Improvement Company until 1992 and then Group Chief Executive Officer until 1997. He holds a Bachelor of Science in Agriculture from Natal University and attended the Advanced Management Program at Harvard Business School. Mr. Clothier’s extensive experience, both as an executive in the food industry and as a director of public and private companies, provides considerable operating, strategic, and policy knowledge to our Board of Directors.
Richard L. Huber. Mr. Huber joined the Board of Directors of AquaBounty after our public offering in 2006. Mr. Huber is the former Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer of Aetna, a major U.S. health insurer, and is currently an independent investor in a number of companies operating in a wide range of businesses, mainly in South America. Following a 40-year career in the financial services industry, Mr. Huber now serves as a director of Viña San Rafael and Invina, SA, both non-public wine producers in Chile. Previously he served on the boards of Gafisa, the largest integrated residential housing developer in Brazil, and Antarctic Shipping, SA of Chile, as well as several other companies in the U.S. and elsewhere in the world. He holds a Bachelor of Arts in Chemistry from Harvard University. Mr. Huber brings unique knowledge and experience in strategic planning, organizational leadership, accounting, and legal and governmental affairs to our Board of Directors.
Jeffrey T. Perez. Mr. Perez joined the Board of Directors of AquaBounty in April 2019. He has served as Senior Vice President, Intellectual Property Affairs of Precigen since August 2014, and, prior to joining Precigen, Mr. Perez was Managing Director and Associate General Counsel at Third Security, LLC, where he evaluated potential investments of Third Security’s managed investment funds. Additionally, Mr. Perez worked with Third Security portfolio companies in evaluating and developing their intellectual property strategies and general corporate activities. Prior to joining Third Security, Mr. Perez practiced law in the area of intellectual property with the law firm of Hunton & Williams LLP in Washington D.C. Mr. Perez received a B.S. from Cornell University and his J.D. from George Mason University School of Law.
Christine St.Clare. Ms. St.Clare joined the Board of Directors of AquaBounty in May 2014. She retired as a partner of KPMG LLP in 2010, where she worked for a total of 35 years. While at KPMG, Ms. St.Clare worked as an Audit Partner serving publicly held companies until 2005, when she transferred to the Advisory Practice, serving in the Internal Audit, Risk and Compliance practice until her retirement; she also served a four-year term on KPMG’s Board of Directors. She currently serves on the boards, and chairs the Audit Committees, of Fibrocell Science, Inc., a company that specializes in the development of personalized biologics, and Tilray, Inc., a leading cannabis research and cultivation company, and formerly served on the board of Polymer Group, Inc., a global manufacturer of engineered materials. Ms. St.Clare has a Bachelor of Science from California State University at Long Beach and has been a licensed Certified Public Accountant in California, Texas, and Georgia. Ms. St.Clare’s background in accounting and support of publicly held companies, as well as her experience with biotechnology, makes her well suited for service on our Board of Directors.

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Rick Sterling. Mr. Sterling joined the Board of Directors of AquaBounty in September 2013. He is the Chief Financial Officer of Precigen, a position he has held since 2007. Prior to joining Precigen, he was with KPMG LLP, where he worked in the audit practice for over 17 years, with a client base primarily in the healthcare, technology, and manufacturing industries. Mr. Sterling’s experience includes serving clients in both the private and public sector, including significant experience with SEC filings and compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. He has a Bachelor of Science in Accounting and Finance from Virginia Tech and is a licensed Certified Public Accountant. Mr. Sterling’s background in audit and finance, as well as his experience with technology companies, make him well suited for service on our Board of Directors.
James C. Turk, Jr. Mr. Turk joined the Board of Directors of AquaBounty in February 2013. Mr. Turk has served as a partner in the law firm Harrison & Turk, P.C. since 1987, having practiced two years before that with other firms. He has previously served as a member of the board of directors for multiple companies and foundations including Precigen, the New River Community College Education Foundation, the Virginia Student Assistance Authorities and Synchrony Inc. before it was acquired by Dresser-Rand in January, 2012. He presently serves as a member of Roanoke/New River Valley Advisory Council of SunTrust Bank, a director of the Virginia Tech Athletic Foundation and a member of the Roanoke College President’s advisory board. Mr. Turk received a Bachelor of Arts from Roanoke College and a Juris Doctor from Cumberland School of Law at Samford University. Mr. Turk’s legal background and his experience on multiple boards make him well qualified for service on our Board of Directors.
Sylvia A. Wulf, Chief Executive Officer and President. Ms. Wulf was appointed Executive Director, President, and Chief Executive Officer of AquaBounty as of January 1, 2019. Prior to joining AquaBounty, Ms. Wulf served as a Senior Vice President of US Foods, Inc., where she had been President of the Manufacturing Division since June 2011. Prior to US Foods, Ms. Wulf held senior positions in Tyson Foods, Inc., Sara Lee Corporation, and Bunge Corp. She is also currently on the Board of Directors and the Executive Committee of the National Fisheries Institute. Ms. Wulf was chosen for her experience in the food industry in North America, including its fish sector. Ms. Wulf received a B.S. in Finance from Western Illinois University and an MBA from DePaul University.
David A. Frank, M.B.A. Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer. Mr. Frank was appointed Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer of AquaBounty in October 2007. Previously he served as President and General Manager of TekCel LLC, a subsidiary of Magellan Biosciences, after serving as Magellan’s Chief Financial Officer since the company’s founding in 2004 and as TekCel’s Chief Financial Officer. Mr. Frank has over 30 years of financial management experience, including as Chief Financial Officer of SmartEnergy, an independent energy supplier, as Corporate Controller for Moldflow Corporation, and in financial roles at PerSeptive Biosystems, Inc., Lotus Development Corporation, Apollo Computer, Inc., and Honeywell International, Inc. He has a Bachelor of Science in finance and accounting from Boston College and a Masters of Business Administration from Babson College.
Angela M. Olsen, J.D. General Counsel and Corporate Secretary. Ms. Olsen was appointed General Counsel and Corporate Secretary in November 2019. Prior to joining AquaBounty, she served as Senior Advisor and Associate General Counsel at E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company for nine years, where she worked extensively on legal and commercial matters relating to biotechnology. She also served for six years on USDA’s Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture. Before joining DuPont, Ms. Olsen spent over a decade in private practice in Washington, D.C. at Jones Day, followed by Latham & Watkins, LLP. She also was an appellate trial attorney at the U.S. Department of Justice. Ms. Olsen holds a Bachelor of Arts from Hamilton College, a Master of Science in cellular and molecular biology from the Catholic University of America, and a Juris Doctor from American University, Washington College of Law. Ms. Olsen also has completed Yale University’s Global Executive Leadership and Management Program.
Alejandro Rojas, D.V.M. Chief Operating Officer, AquaBounty Farms. Dr. Rojas joined AquaBounty as the Chief Operating Officer, AquaBounty Farms in February 2014. He formerly was the Production and Technical Manager for Marine Harvest from 1988 to 2000, where he was responsible for operations and the production of salmonids in Chile. He was also responsible for managing Quality Control Labs, Environmental Programs, and Fish Health Programs. Dr. Rojas has a doctorate in Veterinary Medicine and a Bachelor of Science degree from the Universidad Austral de Chile and for the past 14 years has been a Technical Advisor and Consultant to numerous global aquaculture and biotech companies working with marine fish, including salmon, seabass, seabream, and barramundi. His areas of expertise include benchmarking and market studies, technical and economic analysis for M&A activities, new species development in Latin America, the Middle East, and Africa, and consulting on fish production, aquatic health, environment, and biosecurity programs to private companies and governments.
Director Independence
As required by the Nasdaq listing rules, our Board of Directors evaluates the independence of its members at least once annually and at other appropriate times when a change in circumstances could potentially impact the independence or effectiveness of one of our directors.
In March 2019, our Board of Directors undertook a review of the composition of our Board of Directors and its committees and the independence of each director. Based upon information requested from and provided by each director concerning his or her background, employment, and affiliations, including family relationships, our Board of Directors has determined each of Messrs. Clothier, Huber, and Turk and Ms. St.Clare is an “independent director” as defined under Nasdaq Listing Rule 5605(a)(2). The remaining members of our Board of Directors may not satisfy these “independence” definitions because they are employed by AquaBounty or have been chosen by and/or are affiliated with our largest stockholder, TS AquaCulture LLC, in a non-independent capacity. Our Board of Directors has three standing committees: the Audit Committee, the Compensation Committee, and the

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Nominating and Corporate Governance (“NCG”) Committee. As discussed below, each member of the Audit Committee satisfies the special independence standards for such committee established by the SEC and Nasdaq.
Board Leadership Structure and Role of the Board in Risk Oversight
Our Board of Directors understands that board structures vary greatly among U.S. public corporations, and our Board of Directors does not believe that any one leadership structure is more effective at creating long-term stockholder value. Our Board of Directors believes that an effective leadership structure could be achieved either by combining or separating the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer positions, so long as the structure encourages the free and open dialogue of competing views and provides for strong checks and balances. Specifically, the Board of Directors believes that, to be effective, the governance structure must balance the powers of the Chief Executive Officer and the independent directors and ensure that the independent directors are fully informed, able to discuss and debate the issues that they deem important, and able to provide effective oversight of management.
Currently, Ms. Wulf serves as our Chief Executive Officer and President, and Mr. Clothier serves as our Chairman of the Board of Directors. Our Board of Directors believes that this leadership structure, which separates the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer roles, is appropriate for the company at this time because it allows Ms. Wulf to focus on operating and managing the company. At the same time, Mr. Clothier can focus on leadership of the Board of Directors, including calling and presiding over Board meetings and executive sessions of the independent directors, preparing meeting agendas in collaboration with the Chief Executive Officer, serving as a liaison and supplemental channel of communication between independent directors and the Chief Executive Officer, and serving as a sounding board and advisor to the Chief Executive Officer. Nevertheless, the Board of Directors believes that “one size” does not fit all, and the decision of whether to combine or separate the positions of Chairman and Chief Executive Officer will vary from company to company and depend upon a company’s particular circumstances at a given point in time. Accordingly, the Board of Directors will continue to consider from time to time whether the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer positions should be combined based on what the Board of Directors believes is best for our company and stockholders.
Our Board of Directors is primarily responsible for assessing risks associated with our business. However, our Board of Directors delegates certain of such responsibilities to other groups. The Audit Committee is responsible for reviewing with management our company’s policies and procedures with respect to risk assessment and risk management, including reviewing certain risks associated with our financial and accounting systems, accounting policies, investment strategies, regulatory compliance, insurance programs, and other matters. In addition, under the direction of our Board of Directors and certain of its committees, our legal department assists in the oversight of corporate compliance activities. The Compensation Committee also reviews certain risks associated with our overall compensation program for employees to help ensure that the program does not encourage employees to take excessive risks.
Board Committees
Our Board of Directors has determined that a board consisting of between six and ten members is appropriate and has currently set the number at seven members. Our Board of Directors will evaluate the appropriate size of our Board of Directors from time to time. Our Board of Directors has three standing committees: the Audit Committee, the Compensation Committee, and the NCG Committee, each of which operate pursuant to a charter adopted by our Board of Directors.
During 2019, each director attended or participated in 75% or more of the aggregate of (i) the total number of meetings of the Board of Directors and (ii) the total number of meetings held by all committees of the Board of Directors on which such director served. We do not have a formal policy with regard to board members’ attendance at annual meetings of security holders, but encourage our directors to attend annual meetings. All directors attended our annual meetings in 2018 and 2019. Members of the Board of Directors and its committees also consulted informally with management from time to time. Additionally, non-management Board members met in executive sessions without the presence of management periodically during 2018 and 2019.
Audit Committee. Messrs. Huber and Turk and Ms. St.Clare serve as members of our Audit Committee, and Ms. St.Clare serves as its chair. Each member of the Audit Committee satisfies the special independence standards for such committee established by the SEC and Nasdaq, as applicable. Ms. St.Clare is an “audit committee financial expert,” as that term is defined by the SEC in Item 407(d) of Regulation S-K. Stockholders should understand that this designation is an SEC disclosure requirement relating to Ms. St.Clare’s experience and understanding of certain accounting and auditing matters, which the SEC has stated does not impose on the director so designated any additional duty, obligation, or liability than otherwise is imposed generally by virtue of serving on the Audit Committee and/or our Board of Directors. Our Audit Committee is responsible for, among other things, oversight of our independent auditors and the integrity of our financial statements. Our Audit Committee held five meetings in 2018 and four meetings in 2019.
Compensation Committee. Messrs. Clothier and Huber serve as members of our Compensation Committee, and Mr. Huber serves as its chair. Our Compensation Committee is responsible for, among other things, establishing and administering our policies, programs, and procedures for compensating our executive officers and board of directors. Our Compensation Committee held one meeting in 2018 and five meetings in 2019.
Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation. None of our executive officers serves, or in the past has served, as a member of our Board of Directors or Compensation Committee, or other committee serving an equivalent function, of any entity that has one or more executive officers who serve as members of our Board of Directors or our Compensation Committee. None

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of the members of our Compensation Committee is also an officer or employee of AquaBounty, nor have any of them ever been an officer or employee of AquaBounty.
Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee. Mr. Clothier is the sole member of our NCG Committee and serves as its chair, inviting other directors to participate in meetings of the Committee as necessary. Our NCG Committee is responsible for, among other things, evaluating new director candidates and incumbent directors and recommending directors to serve as members of our Board committees. Our NCG Committee held one meeting in 2018 and one meeting in 2019.
Director Nominees
Our Board of Directors believes that the Board should be composed of individuals with varied, complementary backgrounds who have exhibited proven leadership capabilities within their chosen fields. Directors should have the ability to quickly grasp complex principles of business and finance, particularly those related to our industry. Directors should possess the highest personal and professional ethics, integrity, and values and should be committed to representing the long-term interests of our stockholders. When considering a candidate for director, the NCG Committee will take into account a number of factors, including, without limitation, the following: depth of understanding of our industry; education and professional background; judgment, skill, integrity, and reputation; existing commitments to other businesses as a director, executive, or owner; personal conflicts of interest, if any; diversity; and the size and composition of the existing Board. Although the Board of Directors does not have a policy with respect to consideration of diversity in identifying director nominees, among the many other factors considered by the NCG Committee are the benefits of diversity in board composition, including with respect to age, gender, race, and specialized background. When seeking candidates for director, the NCG Committee may solicit suggestions from incumbent directors, management, stockholders, and others. Additionally, the NCG Committee may use the services of third-party search firms to assist in the identification of appropriate candidates. The NCG Committee will also evaluate the qualifications of all candidates properly nominated by stockholders, in the same manner and using the same criteria. A stockholder desiring to nominate a person for election to the Board of Directors must comply with the advance notice procedures of our Amended and Restated Bylaws.
Director Compensation
For fiscal year 2019, the Chairman of our Board of Directors received annual compensation of £50,000 (approximately $65,925 using the pound sterling to U.S. Dollar spot exchange rate of 1.3185 published in The Wall Street Journal as of December 31, 2019), payable in one annual installment. He also received an annual grant of restricted shares of our common stock valued at £20,000 (approximately $26,318) (based on the fair market value on the date of grant), which vest over three years.
For fiscal year 2019, all non-employee directors, except for directors who are employees of Precigen per the Relationship Agreement described under “Related Party Transactions, Policies and Procedures—Other Agreements with Precigen—Relationship Agreement” received an annual cash retainer of $40,000, payable in one annual installment. The Chair of the Audit Committee received an additional $20,000, the Chair of the Compensation Committee received an additional $15,000, and members of a board committee, except for directors employed and appointed by Precigen per the Relationship Agreement, received an additional $5,000. All cash retainers are paid in one annual installment All non-employee directors, except for directors employed and appointed by Precigen per the Relationship Agreement, received an annual grant of options to purchase 2,500 shares of our common stock (with an exercise price equal to the fair market value on the date of grant), with vesting after one year.
The following table discloses all compensation provided to the non-employee directors for the most recently completed fiscal year ended December 31, 2019:
Director Summary Compensation Table
Name
 
Fees earned or
paid in cash
($)
 
Stock Awards
($)
 
Option Awards
($)
 
Total
($)
R. Clothier (1)
 
65,925

 
26,318

 
 
 
92,243

R. Huber (2)
 
60,000

 
 
 
3,694

 
63,694

J. Perez (3)
 

 
 
 
 
 

C. St.Clare (2)
 
65,000

 
 
 
3,694

 
68,694

R. Sterling (3)
 

 
 
 
 
 

J. Turk (2)
 
45,000

 
 
 
3,694

 
48,694

Total
 
235,925

 
26,318

 
11,082

 
273,325

(1)
As of December 31, 2019, Mr. Clothier held 13,446 unvested restricted shares of our common stock.
(2)
As of December 31, 2019, each of Ms. St.Clare, Mr. Huber, and Mr. Turk held an unexercised option to purchase 5,800, 9,000, and 6,600 shares of our common stock, respectively.
(3)
Messrs. Perez and Sterling are employees of Precigen and do not receive any compensation from AquaBounty at this time.

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Code of Business Conduct and Ethics
Our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics applies to all of our outside directors, officers, and employees, including, but not limited to, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer. The Code of Business Conduct and Ethics constitutes our “code of ethics” within the meaning of Section 406 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and is our “code of conduct” within the meaning of the Nasdaq listing standards.
Corporate Governance Principles
We are committed to having sound corporate governance principles. Having such principles is essential to maintaining our integrity in the marketplace. Our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and the charters for each of the Audit, Compensation, and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committees are available on the investor relations section of our corporate website (www.aquabounty.com). A copy of our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and the committee charters may also be obtained upon request to Corporate Secretary, AquaBounty Technologies, Inc., 2 Mill & Main Place, Suite 395, Maynard, Massachusetts 01754.

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EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION
AquaBounty is an “emerging growth company,” as defined under the JOBS Act. As an emerging growth company, under SEC rules, we are not required to include a Compensation Discussion and Analysis section in this prospectus and have elected to comply with the scaled disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies. We annually review all elements of our executive and director compensation program, including the function and design of our equity incentive programs. As part of the annual review, we evaluate the need for revisions to our executive compensation program to ensure our program is competitive with those of the companies with which we compete for executive talent and is appropriate for a public company.
Executive Officers
The tables and discussion below present compensation information for our chief executive officer; our two other most highly compensated officers for the year ended December 31, 2019 (“fiscal year 2019”); and our most highly compensated employee for the fiscal year who would have otherwise been one of the two most highly compensated officers for fiscal year 2019 had he been an officer as of December 1, 2019, all of whom we refer to collectively as our named executive officers. These officers are:
Name
 
Age
 
Positions
Sylvia A. Wulf
 
62
 
Chief Executive Officer and President
Ronald L. Stotish
 
70
 
Chief Technology Officer (retired in 2019)
David A. Frank
 
59
 
Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer
Alejandro Rojas
 
58
 
Chief Operating Officer, AquaBounty Farms
Summary Compensation Table
The following table provides certain summary information concerning the compensation earned by our named executive officers in the fiscal years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018.
Name and Position
Year
 
Salary
($) (1)
 
Bonus
($) (2)
 
Stock
Awards
($)
 
Option
Awards
($) (3)
 
All other
Compensation
($) (4)
 
Total
($)
S. Wulf
2019
 
375,000

 
 
 
350,000

 
240,825

 
8,172

 
973,997

CEO and President
2018
 

 

 

 

 

 

R. Stotish
2019
 
469,309

 
100,000

 

 
80,275

 
7,393

 
656,977

CTO (retired 2019)