UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
____________________
FORM 6-K
____________________
REPORT OF FOREIGN PRIVATE ISSUER
PURSUANT TO RULE 13a-16 OR 15d-16 UNDER THE SECURITIES
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the month of March 2019
Commission File Number:  001-38064
____________________
Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
(Translation of registrant’s name into English)
____________________
315 Sigma Drive, Suite 302D Summerville, South Carolina, USA 29486

(Address of principal executive office)
____________________
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant files or will file annual reports under cover of Form 20-F or Form 40-F.
Form 20-F [x]      Form 40-F [  ]
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is submitting the Form 6-K in paper as permitted by Regulation S-T Rule 101(b)(1):        
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is submitting the Form 6-K in paper as permitted by Regulation S-T Rule 101(b)(7):        

This report on Form 6-K, including the exhibit hereto, shall be deemed incorporated by reference into the Registrant’s Registration Statements on Form S-8 (File Nos. 333-224737, 333-210561, 333-200834) and to be a part thereof from the date on which this report is filed, to the extent not superseded by documents or reports subsequently filed or furnished.
 





 
DOCUMENTS INDEX
 

DMS 14189050.1


Exhibit
 
Description
 99.1
 
The Registrant’s Annual Audited Consolidated Financial Statements as at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 
99.2
 
The Registrant’s Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for the financial year ended December 31, 2018
99.3
 
The Registrant's Management Information Circular dated March 26, 2019 for its Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 8, 2019
99.4
 
Form of Proxy
99.5
 
Amended and Restated Shareholder Rights Plan Agreement between the Registrant and Computershare Trust Company of Canada, as Rights Agent


2





SIGNATURE
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

 
Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
 
(Registrant)
Date: March 28, 2019


 
 
/s/ Michael V. Ward
 
Michael V. Ward
 
CEO
 



3


Exhibit 99.1

                            


Aeterna Zentaris Inc.


Consolidated Financial Statements
As at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the years ended
December 31, 2018 , 2017 and 2016
(presented in thousands of U.S. dollars)

































Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Consolidated Financial Statements
As at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders' (Deficiency) Equity

( 2 )



Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm


To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of
Aeterna Zentaris Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated statements of financial position of Aeterna Zentaris Inc. and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the related consolidated statements of changes in shareholders’ (deficiency) equity, comprehensive income (loss) and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018, including the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018 in conformity with International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board.

Basis for Opinion

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits of these consolidated financial statements in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.


“/s/PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP”


Toronto, Ontario, Canada
March 28, 2019

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 1993.


( 3 )


Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Financial Position
(in thousands of US dollars)

 
 
December 31, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
 
 
$
 
$
ASSETS
 
 
 
 
Current assets
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents (note 7)
 
14,512

 
7,780

Trade and other receivables (note 8)
 
294

 
221

Inventory (note 9)
 
240

 
554

Prepaid expenses and other current assets (note 10)
 
1,210

 
826

Total current assets
 
16,256

 
9,381

Restricted cash equivalents (note 11)
 
418

 
381

Property, plant and equipment (note 12)
 
65

 
101

Deferred tax assets (note 20)
 

 
3,479

Identifiable intangible assets (note 13)
 
62

 
90

Other non-current assets
 

 
150

Goodwill (note 14)
 
8,210

 
8,613

Total Assets
 
25,011

 
22,195

LIABILITIES
 
 
 
 
Current liabilities
 
 
 
 
Payables and accrued liabilities (note 15)
 
2,966

 
2,814

Provision for restructuring and other costs (note 16)
 
887

 
2,469

Income taxes (note 22)
 
1,669

 

Current portion of deferred revenues (note 6)
 
74

 
486

Total current liabilities
 
5,596

 
5,769

Deferred revenues (note 6)
 
258

 
55

Warrant liability (note 17)
 
3,634

 
3,897

Employee future benefits (note 18)
 
13,205

 
14,229

Non-current portion of provision for restructuring and other costs (note 16)
 
411

 
1,028

Total liabilities
 
23,104

 
24,978

SHAREHOLDERS' EQUITY (DEFICIENCY)
 
 
 
 
Share capital (note 19)
 
222,335

 
222,335

Other capital (note 19)
 
89,342

 
88,772

Deficit
 
(309,781
)
 
(314,161
)
Accumulated other comprehensive income
 
11

 
271

Total shareholders' equity (deficiency)
 
1,907

 
(2,783
)
Total liabilities and shareholders' equity
 
25,011

 
22,195

Commitments and contingencies (note 27)
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

Approved by the Board of Directors
/s/ Carolyn Egbert
 
/s/ Gérard Limoges
Carolyn Egbert
Chair of the Board
 
Gérard Limoges
Director

( 4 )


Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders' (Deficiency) Equity
For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(in thousands of US dollars, except share data)

 
Common shares (number of)  1
 
Share capital
 
Other capital
 
Deficit
 
Accumulated other comprehensive income
 
Total
 
 
 
$
 
$
 
$
 
$
 
$
Balance - January 1, 2018
16,440,760

 
222,335

 
88,772

 
(314,161
)
 
271

 
(2,783
)
Net income

 

 

 
4,187

 

 
4,187

Other comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation adjustments

 

 

 

 
(260
)
 
(260
)
Actuarial gain on defined benefit plans (note 18)

 

 

 
193

 

 
193

Comprehensive loss

 

 

 
4,380

 
(260
)
 
4,120

Share-based compensation costs

 

 
570

 

 

 
570

Balance - December 31, 2018
16,440,760

 
222,335

 
89,342

 
(309,781
)
 
11

 
1,907

_________________________
1  
Issued and paid in full.
 


 
 
Common shares (number of) 1
 
Share capital
 
Pre-funded warrants
 
Other capital
 
Deficit
 
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
 
Total
 
 
 
 
$
 
$
 
$
 
$
 
$
 
$
Balance - January 1, 2017
 
12,917,995

 
213,980

 

 
88,590

 
(298,059
)
 
1,701

 
6,212

Net loss
 

 

 

 

 
(16,796
)
 

 
(16,796
)
Other comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation adjustments
 

 

 

 

 

 
(1,430
)
 
(1,430
)
Actuarial gain on defined benefit plans (note 18)
 

 

 

 

 
694

 

 
694

Comprehensive loss
 

 

 

 

 
(16,102
)
 
(1,430
)
 
(17,532
)
Share issuances pursuant to the exercise of pre-funded warrants (note 19)
 
301,343

 
977

 

 

 

 

 
977

Share issuances in connection with "at-the-market" drawdowns (note 19)
 
3,221,422

 
7,378

 

 

 

 

 
7,378

Share-based compensation costs
 
 
 

 

 
182

 

 

 
182

Balance - December 31, 2017
 
16,440,760

 
222,335

 

 
88,772

 
(314,161
)
 
271

 
(2,783
)

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements


( 5 )


Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders' (Deficiency) Equity
For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(in thousands of US dollars, except share data)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common shares (number of) 1
 
Share capital
 
Pre-funded warrants
 
Other capital
 
Deficit
 
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
 
Total
 
 
 
 
$
 
$
 
$
 
$
 
$
 
$
Balance - January 1, 2016
 
9,928,697

 
204,596

 

 
87,508

 
(271,621
)
 
1,132

 
21,615

Net loss
 

 

 

 

 
(24,959
)
 

 
(24,959
)
Other comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation adjustments
 

 

 

 

 

 
569

 
569

Actuarial loss on defined benefit plan (note 18)
 

 

 

 

 
(1,479
)
 

 
(1,479
)
Comprehensive loss
 

 

 

 

 
(26,438
)
 
569

 
(25,869
)
Share issuances in connection with a public offering (note 19)
 
1,150,000

 
3,377

 

 

 

 

 
3,377

Pre-funded warrant issuances in connection with a public offering (note 19)
 

 

 
2,789

 

 

 

 
2,789

Share issuances pursuant to the exercise of pre-funded warrants (note 19)
 
950,000

 
2,789

 
(2,789
)
 

 

 

 

Share issuances in connection with "at-the-market" drawdowns (note 19)
 
889,298

 
3,218

 

 

 

 

 
3,218

Share-based compensation costs
 

 

 

 
1,082

 

 

 
1,082

Balance - December 31, 2016
 
12,917,995

 
213,980

 

 
88,590

 
(298,059
)
 
1,701

 
6,212

_________________________
1  
Issued and paid in full.

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

( 6 )


Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss)
For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016

(in thousands of US dollars, except share and per share data)

 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
 
$
 
$
 
$
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
License fees (note 6)
 
24,325

 
458

 
497

Product sales (note 6)
 
2,167

 

 

Royalty income (note 6)
 
184

 

 

Sales commission and other
 
205

 
465

 
414

Total revenues
 
26,881

 
923

 
911

Cost of sales
 
2,104

 

 

Gross income
 
24,777

 
923

 
911

Operating expenses (note 20)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development costs
 
2,932

 
10,704

 
16,495

General and administrative expenses
 
8,894

 
8,198

 
7,147

Selling expenses
 
3,109

 
5,095

 
6,745

Total operating expenses
 
14,935

 
23,997

 
30,387

Income (loss) from operations
 
9,842

 
(23,074
)
 
(29,476
)
Settlements (note 27)
 
(1,400
)
 

 

Gain (loss) due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates
 
656

 
502

 
(70
)
Change in fair value of warrant liability (note 17)
 
263

 
2,222

 
4,437

Other finance income
 
278

 
75

 
150

Net finance income (costs)
 
1,197

 
2,799

 
4,517

Income (loss) before income taxes
 
9,639

 
(20,275
)
 
(24,959
)
Income tax (expense) recovery (note 22)
 
(5,452
)
 
3,479

 

Net income (loss)
 
4,187

 
(16,796
)
 
(24,959
)
Other comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
 
 
 
Items that may be reclassified subsequently to profit or loss:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation adjustments
 
(260
)
 
(1,430
)
 
569

Items that will not be reclassified to profit or loss:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Actuarial gain (loss) on defined benefit plans
 
193

 
694

 
(1,479
)
Comprehensive income (loss)
 
4,120

 
(17,532
)
 
(25,869
)
Net income (loss) per share (basic) (note 26)
 
0.25

 
(1.12
)
 
(2.41
)
Net income (loss) per share (diluted) (note 26)
 
0.24

 
(1.12
)
 
(2.41
)
Weighted average number of shares outstanding (note 26)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
16,440,760

 
14,958,704

 
10,348,879

Diluted
 
17,034,812

 
14,958,704

 
10,348,879



The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

( 7 )


Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(in thousands of US dollars)

 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
 
$
 
$
 
$
Cash flows from operating activities
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss) for the year
 
4,187

 
(16,796
)
 
(24,959
)
Items not affecting cash and cash equivalents:
 


 
 
 
 
Change in fair value of warrant liability (note 17)
 
(263
)
 
(2,222
)
 
(4,437
)
Provision for restructuring and other costs (note 16)
 
(136
)
 
3,083

 
(8
)
Recapture of inventory previously written off
 

 
(643
)
 

Depreciation, amortization and impairment (notes 12 and 13)
 
58

 
94

 
280

Deferred income taxes (note 22)
 
3,479

 
(3,479
)
 

Share-based compensation costs
 
570

 
182

 
1,082

Employee future benefits (note 18)
 
316

 
246

 
382

Amortization of deferred revenues (note 6)
 
(609
)
 
(458
)
 
(345
)
Foreign exchange (gain) loss on items denominated in foreign currencies
 
(652
)
 
(553
)
 
87

Gain on disposal of property, plant and equipment
 
(9
)
 
(136
)
 
(1
)
Other non-cash items
 
35

 
(19
)
 
(83
)
Transaction cost allocated to warrants issued (note 19)
 

 

 
56

Changes in operating assets and liabilities (note 21)
 
(151
)
 
(2,212
)
 
(1,064
)
Net cash provided by/(used in) operating activities
 
6,825

 
(22,913
)
 
(29,010
)
Cash flows from financing activities
 
 
 
 
 
 
Proceeds from issuances of common shares, warrants (including pre-funded warrants), net of cash transaction costs of $nil, $250 and $1,107 in 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively (note 19)
 

 
7,788

 
9,924

Proceeds from warrants exercised (note 19)
 

 
242

 

Net cash provided by financing activities
 

 
8,030

 
9,924

Cash flows from investing activities
 
 
 
 
 
 
Purchase of property, plant and equipment (note 12)
 
(9
)
 
(4
)
 
(66
)
Proceeds for disposals of property, plant and equipment (note 12)
 
24

 
161

 
2

Change in restricted cash equivalents
 
(50
)
 
150

 
(250
)
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities
 
(35
)
 
307

 
(314
)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents
 
(58
)
 
357

 
(51
)
Net change in cash and cash equivalents
 
6,732

 
(14,219
)
 
(19,451
)
Cash and cash equivalents – beginning of year (note 6)
 
7,780

 
21,999

 
41,450

Cash and cash equivalents – end of year (note 6)
 
14,512

 
7,780

 
21,999

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

( 8 )


Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
As at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(tabular amounts in thousands of US dollars, except share/option/warrant/DSU and per share/option/warrant/DSU data and as otherwise noted)


1 Business overview
Summary of business
Aeterna Zentaris Inc. ("Aeterna Zentaris" or the "Company") is a specialty biopharmaceutical company which is commercializing novel pharmaceutical therapies. On December 20, 2017, the United States Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") granted marketing approval for Macrilen™ (macimorelin) to be used in the diagnosis of patients with adult growth hormone deficiency ("AGHD"). On January 16, 2018, the Company, through Aeterna Zentaris GmbH, entered into a license and assignment agreement with Strongbridge Ireland Limited ("Strongbridge") to carry out development, manufacturing, registration, regulatory and supply chain services for the commercialization of Macrilen™ (macimorelin) in the United States and Canada (the "License and Assignment Agreement"). Effective December 19, 2018, Strongbridge sold the United States and Canadian rights to Macrilen™ to Novo Nordisk ("Novo").
Reporting entity
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Aeterna Zentaris Inc., an entity incorporated under the Canada Business Corporations Act , and its wholly-owned subsidiaries (collectively referred to as the "Group"). Aeterna Zentaris Inc. is the ultimate parent company of the Group. The Company currently has three wholly-owned direct and indirect subsidiaries, Aeterna Zentaris GmbH ("AEZS Germany"), based in Frankfurt, Germany, Zentaris IVF GmbH, a wholly-owned subsidiary of AEZS Germany, based in Frankfurt, Germany, and Aeterna Zentaris, Inc., an entity incorporated in the state of Delaware and with offices in Summerville, South Carolina, in the United States.
The registered office of the Company is located at 1155 Rene-Levesque Blvd. West, 41 st Floor, Montreal, Quebec H3B 3V2, Canada and its principal place of business is 315 Sigma Drive, Summerville, South Carolina 29486.
The Company's common shares are listed on both the Toronto Stock Exchange (the "TSX") and on the NASDAQ Capital Market (the "NASDAQ").
Basis of presentation
(a) Statement of compliance
These consolidated financial statements as at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018 , 2017 and 2016 have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards ("IFRS") as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ("IASB") .

The accounting policies in these consolidated financial statements are consistent with those of the previous financial year except for the adoption of those standards in 2018 (note 4) and are consistent with the previous quarter.

These consolidated financial statements were approved by the Company's Board of Directors on March 29, 2019 .

The preparation of financial statements in accordance with IFRS requires the use of certain critical accounting estimates and the exercise of management's judgment in applying the Company's accounting policies. Areas involving a high degree of judgment or complexity and areas where assumptions and estimates are significant to the Company's consolidated financial statements are discussed in note 4 - Critical accounting estimates and judgments .
(b) Principles of consolidation
These consolidated financial statements include any entity in which the Company directly or indirectly holds more than 50% of the voting rights or over which the Company exercises control. The Company controls an entity when the Company is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the entity. An entity is included in the consolidation from the date that control is transferred to the Company, while any entities that are sold are excluded from the consolidation from the date that control ceases. All inter-company balances and transactions are eliminated on consolidation.
(c) Foreign currency

( 9 )


Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
As at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(tabular amounts in thousands of US dollars, except share/option/warrant/DSU and per share/option/warrant/DSU data and as otherwise noted)

Items included in the financial statements of the Group's entities are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entities operate (the "functional currency") which is U.S. dollars for the Company and its U.S. subsidiary, Aeterna Zentaris, Inc. and Euro ("EUR") for its German subsidiaries.
Assets and liabilities of the German subsidiaries are translated from EUR balances at the period-end exchange rates, and the results of operations are translated from EUR amounts at average rates of exchange for the period. The resulting translation adjustments are included in accumulated other comprehensive income within shareholders' equity (deficiency).
Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the dates of the underlying transaction. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation of monetary assets and liabilities not denominated in the functional currency are recognized in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income (loss).
2 Assessment of liquidity and management's plans
Since inception, the Company has incurred significant expenses in its efforts to develop and commercialize products. Consequently, the Company has incurred operating losses and negative cash flow from operations historically and in each of the last several years except for the year ended December 31, 2018 when the Company earned revenue from the sale of a license for the adult indication of Macrilen TM (macimorelin) in the United States and Canada (note 6). As at December 31, 2018 , the Company had an accumulated deficit of $310 million .
The Company has $14,512 of cash and cash equivalents as at December 31, 2018 , and management believes it has sufficient liquidity to meet its current obligations of $5,596 and continue its planned level of expenses for at least, but not limited to the next twelve months from the date of issuance of these consolidated financial statements. The Company is focused on managing its operating expenses, and has the discretion to limit research and development costs, administrative expenses and capital expenditures in order to maintain its liquidity, until such time that additional sources of funding can be obtained. The Company’s principal focus is on the licensing and development of Macrilen TM (macimorelin) and it currently does not have any other approved product. In January 2018 , the Company signed a license and assignment agreement with Strongbridge Ireland Ltd., which as of December 19, 2018 is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Novo Nordisk A/S (“Novo”), to carry out development, manufacturing, registration and commercialization of Macrilen TM (macimorelin) in the U.S. and Canada (the “License and Assignment Agreement”) (see note 6). Consistent with Strongbridge, Novo is funding 70% of the pediatric clinical trial submitted to the EMA and FDA, the Company's sole development priority.
On March 12, 2019 , the Company announced that its board of directors has formed a special committee of independent directors (the "Special Committee") to review strategic options available to the Company. The Special Committee has approved the engagement by the Company of a financial advisor that is working with management to assist the Special Committee and the board of directors in considering a wide range of transactions (including opportunities for the license of Macrilen TM (macimorelin) outside of the United States and Canada, or other monetization transactions relating to Macrilen TM (macimorelin). Management has evaluated whether material uncertainties exist relating to events or conditions as described in Note 4 and has considered the following in making that critical judgment.
The Company’s current operating budget and cash flows from operating activities in 2019 are expected to decline compared with 2018 , however, the Company believes it will experience an increase in its royalty income, which, when combined with its forecasted cash flows, the Company believes will provide sufficient liquidity to finance operations and meet its commitments for at least, but not limited to, twelve months from the date of approval of these financial statements.

3 Summary of significant accounting policies
The accounting policies set out below have been applied consistently to all years presented in these consolidated financial statements except for the adoption of those standards in 2018 (note 4) and have been applied consistently by all Group entities.
Cash and cash equivalents

( 10 )


Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
As at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(tabular amounts in thousands of US dollars, except share/option/warrant/DSU and per share/option/warrant/DSU data and as otherwise noted)

Cash and cash equivalents consist of unrestricted cash on hand and balances with banks, as well as short-term interest-bearing deposits, such as money market accounts, that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value, with a maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition.
Inventories
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined using the first-in, first-out method for all inventories. The Company's policy is to write down inventory that has become obsolete and inventory that has a cost basis in excess of its expected net realizable value. Increases in the reserve are recorded as charges in cost of product sales. For product candidates that have not been approved by the FDA, inventory used in clinical trials is written down at the time of production and recorded as research and development ("R&D") costs. For products that have been approved by the FDA, inventory used in clinical trials is expensed at the time the inventory is packaged for the clinical trial. All direct manufacturing costs incurred after approval are capitalized into inventory.
Restricted cash equivalents
Restricted cash equivalents are comprised of bank deposits, related to a guarantee for a long-term operating lease obligation and for a corporate credit card program that cannot be used for current purposes.
Property, plant and equipment and depreciation
Items of property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost, net of related government grants and accumulated depreciation and impairment charges. Depreciation is calculated using the following methods, annual rates and period:
 
 
Methods
 
Annual rates and period
Equipment
 
Declining balance and straight-line
 
20%
Furniture and fixtures
 
Declining balance and straight-line
 
10% and 20%
Computer equipment
 
Straight-line
 
25% and 33 1 /3%
Leasehold improvements
 
Straight-line
 
Remaining lease term
Depreciation expense, which is recorded in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income (loss), is allocated to the appropriate functional expense categories to which the underlying items of property, plant and equipment relate.
Identifiable intangible assets and amortization
Identifiable intangible assets with finite useful lives consist of in-process R&D acquired in business combinations, patents and trademarks. In-process R&D acquired in business combinations is recognized at fair value at the acquisition date. Patents and trademarks are comprised of costs, including professional fees incurred in connection with the filing of patents and the registration of trademarks for product marketing and manufacturing purposes net of related government grants, impairment losses, where applicable, and accumulated amortization. Identifiable intangible assets with finite useful lives are amortized, from the time at which the assets are available for use, on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives of eight to fifteen years for in-process R&D and patents and ten years for trademarks. Amortization expense, which is recorded in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income (loss), is allocated to the appropriate functional expense categories to which the underlying identifiable intangible assets relate.
Goodwill
Goodwill is recognized as the fair value of the consideration transferred including the recognized amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquiree, less the fair value of the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed, as of the acquisition date. Subsequent to initial recognition, goodwill is measured at cost less accumulated impairment losses. Goodwill acquired in business combinations is allocated to groups of cash generating units ("CGU") that are expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination.

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Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
As at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(tabular amounts in thousands of US dollars, except share/option/warrant/DSU and per share/option/warrant/DSU data and as otherwise noted)

Impairment of assets
Items of property, plant and equipment and identifiable intangible assets with finite lives subject to depreciation or amortization, respectively, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts of the assets may not be recoverable. Management is required to assess at each reporting date whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. Where such an indication exists, the asset's recoverable amount is compared to its carrying value, and an impairment loss is recognized for the amount by which the asset's carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset's fair value less costs to sell and value in use. For the purpose of assessing impairment, assets are grouped at the lowest levels for which there are separately identifiable cash flows, or CGU. In determining value in use of a given asset or CGU, estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. Impairment losses are allocated to the appropriate functional expense categories to which the underlying identifiable intangible assets relate, and are recorded in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income (loss).
Items of property, plant and equipment and amortizable identifiable intangible assets with finite lives that suffered impairment are reviewed for possible reversal of the impairment if there has been a change, since the date of the most recent impairment test, in the estimates used to determine the impaired asset's recoverable amount. However, an asset's carrying amount, increased due to the reversal of a prior impairment loss, must not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortization, had the original impairment not occurred.
Goodwill is not subject to amortization and instead is tested for impairment annually or more often if there is an indication that the CGU to which the goodwill has been allocated may be impaired. Impairment is determined for goodwill by assessing whether the carrying value of a CGU, including the allocated goodwill, exceeds its recoverable amount, which is the higher of fair value less costs to sell and value in use. In the event that the carrying amount of goodwill exceeds its recoverable amount, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to the excess. Impairment losses related to goodwill are not subsequently reversed.
Share purchase warrants
Share purchase warrants are classified as liabilities when the Company does not have the unconditional right to avoid delivering cash to the holders in the future. Each of the Company's share purchase warrants contains a written put option, arising upon the occurrence of a fundamental transaction, as that term is defined in the share purchase warrants, including a change of control. As a result of the existence of these put options, and despite the fact that the repurchase feature is conditional on a defined contingency, the share purchase warrants are required to be classified as a financial liability, since such contingency could ultimately result in the transfer of assets by the Company.
The warrant liability is initially measured at fair value, and any subsequent changes in fair value are recognized as gains or losses through profit or loss. Any transaction costs related to the share purchase warrants are expensed as incurred.
The warrant liability is classified as non-current, unless the underlying share purchase warrants will expire or be settled within 12 months from the end of a given reporting period.
Employee benefits
Salaries and other short-term benefits
Salaries and other short-term benefit obligations are measured on an undiscounted basis and are recognized in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income (loss) over the related service period or when the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation to make payments as a result of past events and when the amount payable can be estimated reliably.
Post-employment benefits

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Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
As at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(tabular amounts in thousands of US dollars, except share/option/warrant/DSU and per share/option/warrant/DSU data and as otherwise noted)

The Company's subsidiary in Germany maintains defined contribution and unfunded defined benefit plans, as well as other benefit plans for its employees. For defined benefit pension plans and other post-employment benefits, net periodic pension expense is actuarially determined on a quarterly basis using the projected unit credit method. The cost of pension and other benefits earned by employees is determined by applying certain assumptions, including discount rates, the projected age of employees upon retirement, the expected rate of future compensation and employee turnover.
The employee future benefits liability is recognized at its present value, which is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows using interest rates of high-quality corporate bonds that are denominated in the currency in which the benefits will be paid and that have terms to maturity approximating the terms of the related future benefit liability. Actuarial gains and losses that arise in calculating the present value of the defined benefit obligation are recognized in other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax, and simultaneously reclassified in the deficit in the consolidated statement of financial position in the year in which the actuarial gains and losses arise and without recycling to the consolidated statement of comprehensive income (loss) in subsequent periods.
For defined contribution plans, expenses are recorded in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income (loss) as incurred–namely, over the period that the related employee service is rendered.
Termination benefits
Termination benefits are recognized in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income (loss) when the Company is demonstrably committed, without the realistic possibility of withdrawal, to a formal detailed plan to terminate employment earlier than originally expected. Termination benefit liabilities expected to be settled after 12 months from the end of a given reporting period are discounted to their present value, where material.
Financial instruments
The Company classifies its financial instruments in the following categories: "Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss ("FVTPL"); "Financial assets at amortized cost"; "Financial liabilities at "FVTPL"; and "Financial liabilities at amortized cost".
Financial assets at FVTPL : Financial assets carried at FVTPL are initially recorded at fair value and transaction costs are expensed in the statement of comprehensive income (loss). Realized and unrealized gains and losses arising from changes in the fair value of the financial assets held at FVTPL are included in the statement of comprehensive income (loss) in the period in which they arise.
Financial liabilities at FVTPL: These financial liabilities are initially recognized at fair value, and transaction costs directly attributable to issuing the warrants are expensed in the statement of comprehensive income (loss). Financial liabilities that are required to be measured at FVTPL have all fair value movements, excluding those related to changes in the credit risk of the liability which are recorded in other comprehensive income (loss), recognized in the statement of comprehensive income (loss).
Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI): Investments in equity instruments at FVTOCI are initially recognized at fair value plus transaction costs. Subsequently they are measured at fair value, with gains and losses arising from changes in fair value recognized in other comprehensive income (loss) in the period in which they arise.
Financial assets at amortized cost: A financial asset is measured at amortized cost if the objective of the business model is to hold the financial asset for the collection of contractual cash flows, and the asset's contractual cash flows are comprised solely of payments of principal and interest. They are classified as current assets or non-current assets based on their maturity date, and are initially recognized at fair value and subsequently carried at amortized cost less any impairment.
Impairment of financial assets at amortized cost: The Company recognizes a loss allowance for expected credit losses on financial assets that are measured at amortized cost.

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Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
As at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(tabular amounts in thousands of US dollars, except share/option/warrant/DSU and per share/option/warrant/DSU data and as otherwise noted)

The following table shows the classification of the Company’s financial assets/liabilities under IFRS 9 Financial Instruments ("IFRS 9") and the previous classifications under IAS 39:
Financial asset/liability             IFRS 9 Classification     IAS 39 Classification
Cash and cash equivalents Amortized cost         Loans and receivables
Trade and other receivables Amortized cost         Loans and receivables
Restricted cash and cash equivalents Amortized cost         Loans and receivables
Warrant liability (derivative) FVTPL             FVTPL
Payable and accrued liabilities Amortized cost         Other financial liabilities
Share capital
Common shares are classified as equity. Incremental costs that are directly attributable to the issuance of common shares and stock options are recognized as a deduction from equity, net of any tax effects.
Where offerings result in the issuance of units (where each unit is comprised of a common share of the Company and a share purchase warrant, exercisable in order to purchase a common share or fraction thereof), proceeds received in connection with those offerings are allocated between share capital and share purchase warrants based on the residual method. Proceeds are allocated to warrant liability based on the fair value of the share purchase warrants, and the residual amount of proceeds is allocated to share capital. Transaction costs in connection with such offerings are allocated to the liability and equity unit components in proportion to the allocation of proceeds.
Provisions
Provisions represent liabilities to the Company for which the amount or timing is uncertain. Provisions are recognized when the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of past events, such as organizational restructuring, when it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and where the amount can be reliably estimated. Provisions are not recognized for future operating losses.
Provisions are made for any contracts which are deemed onerous. A contract is onerous if the unavoidable costs of meeting the obligations under the contract exceed the economic benefits expected to be received under it. Provisions for onerous contracts are measured at the present value of the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of continuing with the contract. Present value is determined based on expected future cash flows that are discounted at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability. The unwinding of the discount is recognized in finance costs.
Revenue recognition
License fees
License fees representing non-refundable payments received at the time of executing the license agreements. The Company’s promise to grant a license provides its customer with either a right to access the Company’s intellectual property ("IP") or a right to use the Company’s IP. Revenue from a license that provides a customer the right to use the Company’s IP is recognized at a point in time when the transfers to the licensee is completed and the license period begins. Revenue from a license that provides access to the Company’s IP over a license term is considered to be a performance obligation satisfied over time and, therefore, revenue is recognized over the term of the license arrangement.
Royalty and milestone income

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Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
As at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(tabular amounts in thousands of US dollars, except share/option/warrant/DSU and per share/option/warrant/DSU data and as otherwise noted)

Royalty income earned through a license is recognized when the underlying sales have occurred. Milestone income is recognized at the point in time when it is highly probable that the respective milestone event criteria are met, and the risk of reversal of revenue recognition is remote. Other revenue also includes revenue from activities such as manufacturing or other services rendered, to the extent such revenue is not recorded under net sales, and is recognized when control transfers to the third party and the related performance obligations are satisfied.
Share-based compensation costs
The Company operates an equity-settled share-based compensation plan under which the Company receives services from directors, senior executives, employees and other collaborators as consideration for equity instruments of the Company.
The Company accounts for all forms of share-based compensation using the fair value-based method. Fair value of stock options is determined at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model, which includes estimates of the number of awards that are expected to vest over the vesting period. Where granted share options vest in installments over the vesting period (defined as graded vesting), the Company treats each installment as a separate share option grant. Share-based compensation expense is recognized over the vesting period, or as specified vesting conditions are satisfied, and credited to other capital.
Any consideration received by the Company in connection with the exercise of stock options is credited to share capital. Any other capital component of the share-based compensation is transferred to share capital upon the issuance of shares.
Current and deferred income tax
Income tax on profit or loss comprises current and deferred tax. Tax is recognized in profit or loss, except that a change attributable to an item of income or expense recognized as other comprehensive income (loss) or directly in equity is also recognized directly in other comprehensive income (loss) or directly in equity. Management periodically evaluates positions taken in tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulation is subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate on the basis of amounts expected to be paid to the tax authorities.
The current income tax charge is calculated in accordance with tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date in the countries where the Company's subsidiaries operate and generate taxable income.
Deferred income tax is recognized on temporary differences (other than, where applicable, temporary differences associated with unremitted earnings from foreign subsidiaries and associates to the extent that the investment is essentially permanent in duration, and temporary differences associated with the initial recognition of goodwill) arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the consolidated financial statements and on unused tax losses or R&D non-refundable tax credits in the Group. Deferred income tax is determined using tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date.
Deferred income tax assets are recognized only to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the temporary differences can be utilized.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax assets against current tax liabilities and when the deferred income taxes assets and liabilities relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority on either the same taxable entity or different taxable entities where there is an intention to settle the balances on a net basis.
Research and development costs
Research costs are expensed as incurred. Development costs are expensed as incurred, except for those that meet the criteria for deferral, in which case the costs are capitalized and amortized to operations over the estimated period of benefit. No development costs have been capitalized during any of the periods presented.
Net income (loss) per share
Basic net income (loss) income per share is calculated using the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the year.

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Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
As at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(tabular amounts in thousands of US dollars, except share/option/warrant/DSU and per share/option/warrant/DSU data and as otherwise noted)

Diluted net income (loss) per share is calculated based on the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the year, plus the effects of dilutive common share equivalents, such as stock options and share purchase warrants. This method requires that diluted net income (loss) per share be calculated using the treasury stock method, as if all common share equivalents had been exercised at the beginning of the reporting period, or period of issuance, as the case may be, and that the funds obtained thereby were used to purchase common shares of the Company at the average trading price of the common shares during the period.
4 Critical accounting estimates and judgments
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in accordance with IFRS requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of the Company's assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and related disclosures. Judgments, estimates and assumptions are based on historical experience, expectations, current trends and other factors that management believes to be relevant at the time at which the Company's consolidated financial statements are prepared.

Management reviews, on a regular basis, the Company's accounting policies, assumptions, estimates and judgments in order to ensure that the consolidated financial statements are presented fairly and in accordance with IFRS. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimates are revised and in any future periods affected.
(a) Critical accounting estimates and assumptions
Critical accounting estimates and assumptions are those that have a significant risk of causing material adjustment and are often applied to matters or outcomes that are inherently uncertain and subject to change. As such, management cautions that future events often vary from forecasts and expectations and that estimates routinely require adjustment.
The following discusses the most significant accounting estimates and assumptions that the Company has made in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements.
Accounting for the Macrilen License and Assignment Agreement
See the performance obligations further described in note 6 - Licensing arrangements .
Fair value of the warrant liability and stock options
Determining the fair value of the warrant liability and stock options requires judgment related to the selection of the most appropriate pricing model, the estimation of stock price volatility and the expected term of the underlying instruments. Any changes in the estimates or inputs utilized to determine fair value could result in a significant impact on the Company's future operating results, liabilities or other components of shareholders' equity. Fair value assumptions used are described in note 17 - Warrant liability and 19 - Share and other capital .
Impairment of goodwill and identifiable intangible assets
The annual impairment assessment related to goodwill requires to estimate the recoverable amount, which has been determined using value in use model. The Company also concluded that there was only one CGU as management monitors goodwill and identifiable intangible assets on an overall entity basis. Future events could cause the assumptions utilized in the impairment tests to change, resulting in a potentially adverse effect on the Company's future results due to increased impairment charges.
Employee future benefits
The determination of expenses and obligations associated with employee future benefits requires the use of assumptions, such as the discount rate to measure obligations, the projected age of employees upon retirement, the expected rate of future compensation and estimated employee turnover. Because the determination of the cost and obligations associated with employee future benefits requires the use of various assumptions, there is measurement uncertainty inherent in

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Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
As at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(tabular amounts in thousands of US dollars, except share/option/warrant/DSU and per share/option/warrant/DSU data and as otherwise noted)

the actuarial valuation process. Actual results will differ from results that are estimated based on the aforementioned assumptions. Additional information is included in note 18 - Employee future benefits .
Income taxes
The estimation of income taxes includes evaluating the recoverability of deferred tax assets based on an assessment of Group entities' ability to utilize the underlying future tax deductions against future taxable income prior to expiry of those deductions. Management assesses whether it is probable that some or all of the deferred income tax assets will not be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income, which in turn is dependent upon the successful commercialization of the Company's products. To the extent that management's assessment of any Group entity's ability to utilize future tax deductions changes, the Company would be required to recognize more or fewer deferred tax assets, and future income tax provisions or recoveries could be affected. Additional information is included in note 22 - Income taxes .
5 Recent accounting pronouncements
Accounting standards adopted in 2018
IFRS 9 Financial instruments
IFRS 9 replaces the provisions of IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement ("IAS 39") that relate to the recognition, classification and measurement of financial assets and financial liabilities, de-recognition of financial instruments, impairment of financial assets and hedge accounting.
The Company's financial assets are mainly comprised of cash and cash equivalents, trade and other receivables, and restricted cash equivalents, which are classified and accounted for under IFRS 9 at amortized cost. Financial liabilities are mainly comprised of payables and accrued liabilities, which are accounted for at amortized cost, and the warrant liability, which is a derivative that is accounted for at fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL).
The impairment of financial assets, including trade and other receivables, is now assessed using the simplified method of the expected credit loss model: previously, the incurred loss model was used. Applying the expected credit loss model has not had a significant impact on the value of the financial assets.
The Company applied the modified retrospective method upon adoption of IFRS 9 on January 1, 2018. This method requires the recognition of the cumulative effect of initially applying IFRS 9 to retained earnings (deficit) and not to restate prior years. The application of this new standard resulted in changes in accounting policies but has no impact on opening deficit.
IFRS 15 Revenue from contracts with customers
Effective January 1, 2018, the Company has adopted IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“IFRS 15”). This new standard was applied using a modified retrospective approach. The adoption of IFRS 15 did not have a significant impact on the timing or measurement of the Company’s revenue and no adjustment to the opening balance of deficit as at January 1, 2018 has been recorded as result of adopting IFRS 15.
The impacts of adoption of the new standard are summarized below:
The Company's revenue consists of licensing fees representing non-refundable payments received at the time of executing the license agreement, which are recognized as revenue upon execution of the license agreements when the Company has no significant future performance obligation and collectability of the fees is probable. Under IFRS 15, the Company determines whether the Company's promise to grant a license provides its customer with either a right to access the Company’s IP or a right to use the Company’s IP. Revenue from a license that provides a customer the right to use the Company’s IP is recognized at a point in time when the transfer to the licensee is completed and the license period begins. Revenue from a license that provides access to the Company's IP over a license term is considered to be a performance obligation satisfied over time and, therefore, revenue is recognized over the term of the license arrangement.

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Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
As at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(tabular amounts in thousands of US dollars, except share/option/warrant/DSU and per share/option/warrant/DSU data and as otherwise noted)

Revenue consists also of royalty income from the out-licensing of IP, which is recognized as earned and from manufacturing and other services, where revenue is recognized when control transfers to the third party and the Company’s performance obligations are satisfied. The adoption of IFRS 15 did not significantly change the timing or amount of revenue recognized from these manufacturing and other services arrangements, nor did it change accounting for these royalty arrangements, as the standard's royalty exception is applied for IP licenses.
Furthermore, the Company receives milestone payments related to the out-licensing of IP. IFRS 15 resulted in the following changes in timing and amount of revenue recognized under these arrangements. In January 2018, the Company received $24.0 million of which $23.6 million was recognized in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss) and $0.4 million was deferred to the consolidated statements of financial position and is being amortized until June 2023 when we expect to commence product sales for the pediatric indication. Under IAS 18, the full $24.0 million would have been deferred to the consolidated statements of financial position and would have been amortized to the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss) evenly until October 2027, representing the expiry date of the underlying patents.
The Company applied the modified retrospective method upon adoption of IFRS 15 on January 1, 2018. This method requires the recognition of the cumulative effect of initially applying IFRS 15 to deficit and not to restate prior years. The application of this new standard effective January 1, 2018 had no impact on opening deficit.
Accounting standards not yet adopted
In January 2016, the IASB issued IFRS 16, Leases ("IFRS 16"), which supersedes IAS 17, Leases , and the related interpretations on leases: IFRIC 4, Determining Whether an Arrangement Contains a Lease; Standard Interpretations Committee ("SIC") 15, Operating Leases - Incentives; and SIC 27, Evaluating the Substance of Transactions in the Legal Form of a Lease . IFRS 16 is effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2019, with earlier adoption permitted for companies that also apply IFRS 15. The Company is currently assessing the impact that this new standard may have on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
In June 2017, IFRIC 23, " Uncertainty over Income Tax Treatment " ("IFRIC 23"), was issued. IFRIC 23 provides guidance on how to value uncertain income tax positions based on the probability of whether the relevant tax authorities will accept the company's tax treatments. A company is to assume that a taxation authority with the right to examine any amounts reported to it will examine those amounts and will have full knowledge of all relevant information when doing so. IFRIC 23 is effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2019.  The adoption of this interpretation is not expected to have a significant impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
In June 2015, the IASB published ED/2015/5 Remeasurement on a Plan Amendment, Curtailment or Settlement/Availability of a Refund from a Defined Benefit Plan (Proposed amendments to IAS 19 and IFRIC 14) combining two issues submitted separately to the IFRS Interpretations Committee into a single package of narrow-scope amendments to IAS 19 Employee Benefits and IFRIC 14 IAS 19 - The Limit on a Defined Benefit Asset, Minimum Funding Requirements and their Interaction . However, in April 2017 the IASB decided to pursue the amendments to IAS 19 and in September 2017 confirmed it would do so despite putting off the amendments to IFRIC 14. The amendments in Plan Amendment, Curtailment or Settlement (Amendments to IAS 19) are: (i) if a plan amendment, curtailment or settlement occurs, it is now mandatory that the current service cost and the net interest for the period after the remeasurement are determined using the assumptions used for the remeasurement and (ii) amendments have been included to clarify the effect of a plan amendment, curtailment or settlement on the requirements regarding the asset ceiling. An entity applies the amendments to plan amendments, curtailments or settlements occurring on or after the beginning of the first annual reporting period that begins on or after 1 January 2019. The adoption of these amendments is not expected to have a significant impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
6 Licensing arrangements
Macrilen License and Assignment Agreement
On January 16, 2018, the Company through Aeterna Zentaris GmbH entered into a license and assignment agreement (the "License and Assignment Agreement") with Strongbridge to carry out development, manufacturing, registration, regulatory and supply chain services for the commercialization of Macrilen™ (macimorelin) in the United States and Canada, which provides for (i) the "right to use" license relating to the Adult Indication; (ii) the sale of the right to acquire a license of a future FDA-approved Pediatric Indication; (iii) Strongbridge has agreed to fund 70% of the costs of a pediatric clinical

( 18 )


Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
As at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(tabular amounts in thousands of US dollars, except share/option/warrant/DSU and per share/option/warrant/DSU data and as otherwise noted)

trial submitted for approval to the EMA and FDA to be run by the Company with customary oversight from a joint steering committee; and (iv) for an Interim Supply Arrangement.
(i) Adult Indication
Under the terms of the License and Assignment Agreement, and for as long as Macrilen™ (macimorelin) is patent-protected, the Company will be entitled to a 15% royalty on annual net sales up to $75.0 million and an 18% royalty on annual net sales above $75.0 million. Following the end of patent protection in United States or Canada for Macrilen™ (macimorelin), the Company will be entitled to a 5% royalty on net sales in that country. In addition, the Company will also receive one-time payments ranging from $4.0 million to $100.0 million upon the achievement of commercial milestones going from $25.0 million annual net sales up to $500.0 million annual net sales.
In January 2018, the Company received a cash payment of $24.0 million from Strongbridge and on July 23, 2018, Strongbridge launched product sales of Macrilen™ (macimorelin) in the United States.
(ii) Pediatric Indication
Upon approval by the FDA of a pediatric indication for Macrilen™ (macimorelin), the Company will receive a one-time milestone payment of $5.0 million. This amount will be recognized once it is probable that it will be received.
Transaction price
Analysis of the total discounted cash flows of both the $24.0 million payment and the $5.0 million payment upon FDA approval of the Pediatric Instance demonstrates that 84% of the future revenue streams would be derived from the Adult Indication and 16% from the Pediatric Indication. On a relative fair value basis, the Company has allocated the transaction price to the performance obligations resulting in $23.6 million being allocated to the Adult Indication and being recognized as license fee revenue in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss) effective January 2018, and $400 being allocated to the right to a future Pediatric Indication, which is recognized as deferred revenue on the consolidated statements of financial position and amortized monthly beginning January 2018 into the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss).
(iii) PIP study
During 2018, the Company invoiced Strongbridge $358 as its share of the costs incurred by the Company under the PIP. The Company considers the funding arrangement under the PIP to be a collaboration arrangement under IFRS 11 and has accounted for the invoicing as a reduction of costs incurred during the period. This amount is presented in the consolidated statement of financial position as trade and other receivables and has been fully collected.
(iv) Interim Supply Arrangement
The Company has agreed under the License and Assignment Agreement to supply ingredients for the manufacture of Macrilen™ (macimorelin) during an interim period at a price that is set ‘at cost’, without any profit margin. The Company believes the stand-alone selling price of the manufacturing ingredients to be their cost, as that approximates the amount at which Strongbridge would be able to procure those same goods with other suppliers. During 2018, the Company invoiced $2,167 and has received payment in full of these invoices. These items are presented in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss) as product sales and cost of goods sold.
Novo purchase of Strongbridge License Agreement
Effective December 19, 2018, Strongbridge sold the entity which owned the License and Assignment Agreement for the United States and Canadian rights to Macrilen™ to Novo .

Zoptrex™ License Agreements


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Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
As at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(tabular amounts in thousands of US dollars, except share/option/warrant/DSU and per share/option/warrant/DSU data and as otherwise noted)

On July 1, 2016, the Company entered into a license agreement (the "Cyntec License Agreement") with Cyntec Co., Ltd. ("Cyntec"), an affiliate of Orient EuroPharma Co., Ltd. ("OEP") for Zoptrex™ (zoptarelin doxorubicin) for the initial indication of endometrial cancer. Under the terms of the Cyntec License Agreement, the Company was paid a nonrefundable
upfront cash payment (the "License Fee") of EUR 0.5 million in consideration for the license to Cyntec of the Company's intellectual property related to Zoptrex™ and the grant to Cyntec of the right to commercialize Zoptrex™ in a territory consisting of Taiwan and nine countries in southeast Asia (the "OEP Territory"). Cyntec has also agreed to make additional payments to the Company upon achieving certain pre-established regulatory and commercial milestones.

Furthermore, the Company will receive royalties based on future net sales of Zoptrex™ in the OEP Territory. Cyntec will be responsible for the development, registration, reimbursement and commercialization of the product in the OEP Territory. The Company also entered into related Technology Transfer and Supply Agreements with another affiliate of OEP, pursuant to which the Company will transfer to such affiliate the technology necessary to permit the affiliate to manufacture finished Zoptrex™ using quantities of the active pharmaceutical agreement purchased from the Company pursuant to the Supply Agreement.

On December 1, 2014, the Company entered into an exclusive master collaboration agreement ("Master Collaboration Agreement"), a technology transfer and technical assistance agreement ("Tech Transfer Agreement") and a license agreement ("Sinopharm License Agreement") with Sinopharm A-Think Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd. ("Sinopharm") for the development, manufacture and commercialization of Zoptrex™ in all human uses, in the People's Republic of China, including Hong Kong and Macau (collectively, the "Sinopharm Territory"). Under the terms of the TTA, Sinopharm made a one-time, non-refundable payment (the "Transfer Fee") of $1,000 to the Company in consideration for the transfer of technical documentation and materials, know-how and technical assistance services. Additionally, pursuant to the Sinopharm License Agreement, the Company is entitled to receive additional consideration upon achieving certain milestones, including the occurrence of certain regulatory and commercial events in the Sinopharm Territory.

Furthermore, the Company is entitled to royalties on future net sales of Zoptrex™ in the Sinopharm Territory. The Company has continuing involvement in the aforementioned arrangements, including the transfer of documentation, know-how and materials, as well as the provision of technical assistance, such as quality systems implementation, analytical and stability testing, territory-specific development initiatives, and other services.

The Company deferred the non-refundable License and Transfer Fees and is amortizing the related payment as revenue on a straight-line basis over the period during which the aforementioned services are rendered and obligations are performed.
At December 31, 2017, the Company had deferred revenues net of amortization of $541 relating to non-refundable upfront payments and, due to events that occurred in 2017, the Company does not anticipate development of Zoptrex™ under the licensing agreements. In the first quarter of 2018, the Company recognized this amount as revenue.

7 Cash and cash equivalents
 
 
December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
$
 
$
Cash on hand and balances with banks
 
3,501

 
7,099

Interest-bearing deposits with maturities of three months or less
 
11,011

 
681

 
 
14,512

 
7,780

8 Trade and other receivables

( 20 )


Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
As at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(tabular amounts in thousands of US dollars, except share/option/warrant/DSU and per share/option/warrant/DSU data and as otherwise noted)

 
 
December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
$
 
$
Trade accounts receivable (net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $55 (2017 - $5))
 
142

 
20

Value added tax
 
49

 
186

Other receivables
 
103

 
15

 
 
294

 
221

See note 24 - Financial instruments and financial risk management for discussion of credit losses.
9 Inventory
 
 
December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
$
 
$
Finished goods
 

 
554

Work in process
 
240

 

 
 
240

 
554

The Company recognized $2,087 of inventory costs as cost of sales in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income (loss) for the year ended December 31, 2018 (2017 - nil).
10 Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 
 
December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
$
 
$
Prepaid insurance
 
832

 
410

Prepaid inventory
 
175

 
87

Other
 
203

 
329

 
 
1,210

 
826

 
 
 
 
 
11 Restricted cash equivalents

The Company had restricted cash equivalents amounting to $418 at December 31, 2018 and $381 at December 31, 2017. These balances consist of certificates of deposit that are used as collateral for corporate credit cards and leases.

( 21 )


Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
As at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(tabular amounts in thousands of US dollars, except share/option/warrant/DSU and per share/option/warrant/DSU data and as otherwise noted)

12 Property, plant and equipment
Components of the Company's property, plant and equipment are summarized below.
 
 
Cost
 
 
Equipment
 
Furniture and fixtures
 
Computer equipment
 
Leasehold improvements
 
Total
 
 
$
 
$
 
$
 
$
 
$
At January 1, 2017
 
3,919

 
19

 
737

 
37

 
4,712

Additions
 
2

 

 
2

 

 
4

Disposals / Retirements
 
(2,160
)
 

 
(43
)
 

 
(2,203
)
Impact of foreign exchange rate changes
 
507

 

 
94

 
5

 
606

At December 31, 2017
 
2,268

 
19

 
790

 
42

 
3,119

Additions
 
1

 

 
8

 

 
9

Disposals / Retirements
 
(758
)
 

 
(137
)
 

 
(895
)
Reclassifications
 
11

 
(11
)
 

 

 

Impact of foreign exchange rate changes
 
(64
)
 
(1
)
 
(24
)
 
(2
)
 
(91
)
At December 31, 2018
 
1,458

 
7

 
637

 
40

 
2,142

 
 
Accumulated depreciation
 
 
Equipment
 
Furniture and fixtures
 
Computer equipment
 
Leasehold improvements
 
Total
 
 
$
 
$
 
$
 
$
 
$
At January 1, 2017
 
3,799

 
2

 
692

 
15

 
4,508

Disposals / Retirements
 
(2,135
)
 

 
(43
)
 

 
(2,178
)
Depreciation expense
 
50

 
2

 
30

 
18

 
100

Impact of foreign exchange rate changes
 
496

 

 
90

 
2

 
588

At December 31, 2017
 
2,210

 
4

 
769

 
35

 
3,018

Disposals / Retirements
 
(752
)
 

 
(137
)
 

 
(889
)
Depreciation expense
 
19

 
1

 
14

 
1

 
35

Impact of foreign exchange rate changes
 
(63
)
 

 
(22
)
 
(2
)
 
(87
)
At December 31, 2018
 
1,414

 
5

 
624

 
34

 
2,077

 
 
Carrying amount
 
 
Equipment
 
Furniture and fixtures
 
Computer equipment
 
Leasehold improvements
 
Total
 
 
$
 
$
 
$
 
$
 
$
At December 31, 2017
 
58

 
15

 
21

 
7

 
101

At December 31, 2018
 
44

 
2

 
13

 
6

 
65

Depreciation of $35 ( $100 in 2017 and $112 in 2016 ) is presented in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income (loss) as follows: $20 ( $69 in 2017 and $80 in 2016 ) in R&D costs, $10 ( $10 in 2017 and $11 in 2016 ) in general and administrative ("G&A") expenses and $5 ( $21 in 2017 and $21 in 2016 ) in selling expenses.

( 22 )


Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
As at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(tabular amounts in thousands of US dollars, except share/option/warrant/DSU and per share/option/warrant/DSU data and as otherwise noted)

13 Identifiable intangible assets
Identifiable intangible assets with finite useful lives consist entirely of in-process R&D costs, patents and trademarks with such assets expected to be fully amortized by 2021. Changes in the carrying value of the Company's identifiable intangible assets with finite useful lives are summarized below.
 
 
Year ended December 31, 2018
 
Year ended December 31, 2017
 
 
Cost
 
Accumulated amortization
 
Carrying value
 
Cost
 
Accumulated amortization
 
Carrying value
 
 
$
 
$
 
$
 
$
 
$
 
$
Balances – Beginning of the year
 
34,246

 
(34,156
)
 
90

 
30,032

 
(29,962
)
 
70

Additions
 

 

 

 

 

 

Impairment (loss) reversal*
 

 

 

 

 
44

 
44

Recurring amortization expense*
 

 
(23
)
 
(23
)
 

 
(38
)
 
(38
)
Impact of foreign exchange rate changes
 
(1,603
)
 
1,598

 
(5
)
 
4,214

 
(4,200
)
 
14

Balances – End of the year
 
32,643

 
(32,581
)
 
62

 
34,246

 
(34,156
)
 
90

_________________
* Recorded as R&D costs in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss).
14 Goodwill
The change in carrying value is as follows:
 
 
Cost
 
Accumulated impairment loss
 
Carrying amount
 
 
$
 
$
 
$
At January 1, 2017
 
7,553

 

 
7,553

Impact of foreign exchange rate changes
 
1,060

 

 
1,060

At December 31, 2017
 
8,613

 

 
8,613

Impact of foreign exchange rate changes
 
(403
)
 

 
(403
)
At December 31, 2018
 
8,210

 

 
8,210

Management's evaluation of impairment in goodwill is based on estimates that are derived from our licensee's projected sales of Macrilen for 2019 (both units and selling price), annual revenue growth rate, growth in operating expenses, the effect of future costs of the pediatric development program (the "PIP") and discount rate for generating the Company's net present value. There was no impairment assessed at December 31, 2018.
15 Payables and accrued liabilities
 
 
December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
$
 
$
Trade accounts payable
 
1,282

 
1,222

Accrued research and development costs
 
26

 
127

Salaries, employment taxes and benefits
 
183

 
390

Financing of insurance premiums (a)
 
738

 

Other accrued liabilities
 
737

 
1,075

 
 
2,966

 
2,814


( 23 )


Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
As at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(tabular amounts in thousands of US dollars, except share/option/warrant/DSU and per share/option/warrant/DSU data and as otherwise noted)

(a)
Represents financing of the Company's 2019 insurance premiums, carrying interest at 6.5% and repayable in eight equal monthly installments commencing January 31, 2019.
16 Provision for restructuring and other costs
In the third quarter of 2017, Aeterna Zentaris GmbH, and its Works Council approved a restructuring program (the "2017 German Restructuring"), which was rolled out as a consequence of the negative Phase 3 clinical trial results of Zoptrex™ and the related impact on the product pipeline. This was also part of the continued strategy to transition into a commercially operating specialty biopharmaceutical organization focused on the development and commercialization of Macrilen™ (macimorelin), including through out-licensing arrangements and pursuing in-licensing opportunities.
The changes in the Company's provision for restructuring and other costs can be summarized as follows:
 
 
Other provision
 
Cetrotide (R)  onerous contracts
 
2017 German Restructuring: onerous lease
 
2017 German Restructuring: severance
 
Total
 
 
 
 
$
 
$
 
$
 
$
January 1, 2017
 
158

 
574

 

 

 
732

Provision recognized
 

 

 
1,113

 
2,002

 
3,115

Utilization of provision
 
(152
)
 
(145
)
 
(19
)
 
(138
)
 
(454
)
Change in the provision
 

 
(20
)
 
10

 
(41
)
 
(51
)
Unwinding of discount and impact of foreign exchange rate changes
 
3

 
64

 
104

 
(16
)
 
155

December 31, 2017
 
9

 
473

 
1,208

 
1,807

 
3,497

Provision recognized
 

 
317

 

 

 
317

Utilization of provision
 
(9
)
 
(222
)
 
(467
)
 
(1,202
)
 
(1,900
)
Change in the provision
 

 

 
(21
)
 
(432
)
 
(453
)
Unwinding of discount and impact of foreign exchange rate changes
 

 
(21
)
 
(57
)

(85
)
 
(163
)
December 31, 2018
 

 
547

 
663

 
88

 
1,298

Less: current portion
 

 
(136
)
 
(663
)
 
(88
)
 
(887
)
Non-current portion
 

 
411

 

 

 
411


17 Warrant liability
The change in the Company's warrant liability can be summarized as follows:
 
 
Years ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
 
$
 
$
 
$
Balance – Beginning of the year
 
3,897

 
6,854

 
10,891

Share purchase warrants issued during the year (note 19)
 

 

 
400

Share purchase warrants exercised during the year
 

 
(735
)
 

Change in fair value of share purchase warrants
 
(263
)
 
(2,222
)
 
(4,437
)
Balance - End of the year
 
3,634

 
3,897

 
6,854


( 24 )


Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
As at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(tabular amounts in thousands of US dollars, except share/option/warrant/DSU and per share/option/warrant/DSU data and as otherwise noted)

A summary of the activity related to the Company's share purchase warrants is provided below.
 
 
Years ended December 31,
 
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
 
 
Number
 
Weighted average exercise price ($)
 
Number
 
Weighted average exercise price ($)
 
Number
 
Weighted average exercise price ($)
 
Balance – Beginning of the year
 
3,417,840

 
7.59

 
3,779,245

 
9.66

 
2,842,309

 
11.30

 
Issued (note 19)
 

 



 

 
945,000

 
4.70

 
Exercised
 

 

 
(331,730
)
*
1.07

 

 

 
Expired (note 19)
 
(25,996
)
 
185.00

 
(29,675
)
 
345.00

 
(8,064
)
 
4.23

 
Balance – End of the year
 
3,391,844

 
6.23

 
3,417,840

 
7.59

 
3,779,245

 
9.66

 
_________________________
*
A portion of the Series A warrants was exercised using the cashless feature. Therefore, the total number of equivalent shares issued was 301,343.
The following table summarizes the share purchase warrants outstanding and exercisable as at December 31, 2018 :
 
 
 
Exercise price ($)
 
Number
 
Weighted average remaining contractual life (years)
1.07
 
115,844

 
1.19
4.70
 
945,000

 
1.34
7.10
 
2,331,000

 
1.96
 
 
3,391,844

 
1.76
The table presented below shows the inputs and assumptions applied to the Black-Scholes option pricing model in order to determine the fair value of all warrants outstanding as at December 31, 2018 . The Black-Scholes option pricing model uses "Level 2" inputs, as defined by IFRS 13, Fair value measurement ("IFRS 13") and as discussed in note 24 - Financial instruments and financial risk management .
 
 
Number of equivalent shares
 
Market-value per share price ($)
 
Weighted average exercise price ($)
 
Risk-free annual interest rate (a)
 
Expected volatility
(b)
 
Expected life (years) (c)
 
Expected dividend yield
(d)
March 2015 Series A Warrants (e)
 
115,844

 
2.94

 
1.07

 
2.58
%
 
81.81
%
 
1.19
 
0.00
%
December 2015 Warrants
 
2,331,000

 
2.94

 
7.10

 
2.47
%
 
122.00
%
 
1.96
 
0.00
%
November 2016 Warrants (f)
 
945,000

 
2.94

 
4.70

 
2.56
%
 
78.95
%
 
1.34
 
0.00
%
_________________________
(a)
Based on United States Treasury Government Bond interest rates with a term that is consistent with the expected life of the warrants.
(b)
Based on the historical volatility of the Company's stock price over the most recent period consistent with the expected life of the warrants, as well as on future expectations.
(c)
Based upon time to expiry from the reporting period date.
(d)
The Company has not paid dividends and it does not intend to pay dividends in the foreseeable future.

( 25 )


Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
As at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(tabular amounts in thousands of US dollars, except share/option/warrant/DSU and per share/option/warrant/DSU data and as otherwise noted)

(e)
For the March 2015 Series A Warrants, the inputs and assumptions applied to the Black-Scholes option pricing model have been further adjusted to take into consideration the value attributed to certain anti-dilution provisions. Specifically, the weighted average exercise price is subject to adjustment (see note 19 - Share and other capital ).
(f)
For the November 2016 Warrants, the Company reduced the fair value of these warrants to take into consideration the fair value of the $10 call option, which was also calculated using the Black-Scholes pricing model. (see note 19 - Share and other capital ).

18 Employee future benefits
The Company's subsidiary in Germany provides unfunded defined benefit pension plans and unfunded post-employment benefit plans for certain groups of employees. Provisions for pension obligations are established for benefits payable in the form of retirement, disability and surviving dependent pensions.
The unfunded defined benefit pension plans are final salary pension plans, which provide benefits to members (or to their surviving dependents) in the form of a guaranteed level of pension payable for life. The level of benefits provided depends on the member's length of service and on his or her base salary in the final years leading up to retirement. Current pensions vary in accordance with applicable statutory requirements, which foresee an adjustment every three years on an individual basis that is based on inflationary increases or in relation to salaries of comparable groups of active employees in the Company. An adjustment may be denied by the Company if the Company's financial situation does not allow for an increase in pensions. These plans are unfunded, and the Company meets benefit payment obligations as they fall due.
The change in the Company's accrued benefit obligations is summarized as follows:
 
 
Pension benefit plans
Years ended December 31,
 
Other benefit plans
Years ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
 
$
 
$
 
$
 
$
 
$
 
$
Balances – Beginning of the year
 
14,145

 
13,197

 
12,375

 
84

 
217

 
281

Current service cost
 
66

 
107

 
87

 
6

 
14

 
13

Interest cost
 
224

 
237

 
282

 
1

 
3

 

Actuarial (gain) loss arising from changes in financial assumptions
 
(193
)
 
(694
)
 
1,479

 
19

 
(115
)
 

Benefits paid
 
(492
)
 
(485
)
 
(399
)
 
(2
)
 
(66
)
 
(60
)
Impact of foreign exchange rate changes
 
(650
)
 
1,783

 
(627
)
 
(3
)
 
31

 
(17
)
Balances – End of the year
 
13,100

 
14,145

 
13,197

 
105

 
84

 
217

Amounts recognized:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
In net loss
 
(290
)
 
(344
)
 
(369
)
 
(26
)
 
98

 
(13
)
In other comprehensive income (loss)
 
843

 
(1,089
)
 
(852
)
 
3

 
(31
)
 
17

The cumulative amount of actuarial net losses recognized in other comprehensive income (loss) as at December 31, 2018 is $4,084 ( $4,277 as at December 31, 2017 and $4,971 as at December 31, 2016 ).
The significant actuarial assumptions applied to determine the Company's accrued benefit obligations are as follows:

( 26 )


Aeterna Zentaris Inc.
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
As at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(tabular amounts in thousands of US dollars, except share/option/warrant/DSU and per share/option/warrant/DSU data and as otherwise noted)

 
 
Pension benefit plans
 
Other benefit plans