SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
CURRENT REPORT PURSUANT
TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of report (Date of earliest event reported): November 9, 2021
|SPLASH BEVERAGE GROUP, INC.|
|(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)|
|(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation)|
|(Commission File Number)||(IRS Employer Identification No.)|
East Las Olas Blvd, Suite 221
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33301
|(Address of Principal Executive Offices)|
|(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)|
|(Former Name or Former Address, if Changed Since Last Report)|
Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8-K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the registrant under any of the following provisions (see General Instruction A.2. below):
|☐||Written communications pursuant to Rule 425 under the Securities Act (17 CFR 230.425)|
|☐||Soliciting material pursuant to Rule 14a-12 under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14a-12)|
|☐||Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 14d-2(b) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14d-2(b))|
|☐||Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 13e-4(c) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.13e-4(c))|
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
|Title of each class||Trading Symbol(s)||
Name of each exchange on
|Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share||SBEV||NYSE American LLC|
|Warrants to purchase shares of common stock||SBEV-WT||NYSE American LLC|
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933 (§230.405 of this chapter) or Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (§240.12b-2 of this chapter).
Emerging growth company ☐
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Item 1.01 Entry into a Material Definitive Agreement.
The information contained in Item 5.07 is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.
Item 5.03 Amendments to Articles of Incorporation or Bylaws; Change in Fiscal Year.
The information contained in Item 5.07 is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.
Item 5.07 Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders.
On August 12, 2021, the Board of Directors of Splash Beverage Group, Inc. (the “Company”), voted unanimously to approve a change in domicile from Colorado to Nevada (the “Reincorporation”) and recommended the Reincorporation to the company’s stockholders for their approval. On October 11, 2021, the holders of in excess of 51% of the outstanding voting stock consented in writing to approve the Reincorporation. The Reincorporation was consummated on November 9, 2021 pursuant to an agreement and plan of merger (the “Plan of Merger”) between the Company and its wholly owned subsidiary Splash Beverage Group, Inc., a Nevada corporation (“Splash Nevada”), whereby the Company merged with and into Splash Nevada with Splash Nevada as the surviving corporation that operates under the name “Splash Beverage Group, Inc.” In connection with the Reincorporation the Company and Splash Nevada filed (i) articles of merger (the “Nevada Articles of Merger”) with the Secretary of State of the State of Nevada, and a (ii) statement of merger (the “Colorado Statement of Merger”) with the Secretary of State of the State of Colorado. Following the merger, the Company’s corporate existence is governed by the laws of the State of Nevada and the Articles of Incorporation, as corrected by the Certificate of Correction dated November 12, 2021, and bylaws of Splash Nevada (the “Nevada Articles” and the “Nevada Bylaws”, respectively).
Upon consummation of the transactions contemplated by the Plan of Merger and resulting Reincorporation, the daily business operations of the Company continued as they were conducted by the Company immediately prior to the Reincorporation and the officers and directors of the Company became the officers and directors of the surviving corporation. The Reincorporation did not affect any of the Company’s material contracts with any third parties, and the Company’s rights and obligations under such material contractual arrangements continue to be rights and obligations of the Company after the Reincorporation. The Reincorporation did not result in any change in headquarters, business, jobs, management, location of any of the offices or facilities, number of employees, assets, liabilities or net worth (other than as a result of the costs incident to the Reincorporation) of the Company.
Upon the effectiveness of the Reincorporation:
|1.||each outstanding share of Common Stock of the Company, no par value per share (the “Splash Colorado Common Stock”) was converted into one (1) share of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, of Splash Nevada (the “Common Stock”);|
|2.||each outstanding share of Splash Nevada Common Stock held by the Company was retired and canceled.|
|3.||all options and rights to acquire Splash Colorado Common Stock, and all outstanding warrants or rights outstanding on the effective date to purchase Splash Colorado Common Stock, were automatically converted into equivalent options, warrants and rights to purchase one (1) times the number of shares of Common Stock at the same exercise, conversion or strike price of such converted options, warrants and rights;|
|4.||the Nevada Articles became the articles of the surviving corporation; and|
|5.||the Nevada Bylaws became the bylaws of the surviving corporation.|
Articles of Incorporation
The Nevada Articles provide for 155,000,000 authorized shares of capital stock, consisting of 150,000,000 shares of Common Stock and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Preferred Stock”). The Board of Directors, at its sole discretion, may designate the rights, preferences and privileges of holders of series of Preferred Stock. Every person who was or is a party to, or is threatened to be made a party to, or is involved in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, by reason of the fact that he, or a person of whom he is the legal representative, is or was a director or officer, shall be indemnified and held harmless to the fullest extent legally permissible under the laws of the State of Nevada from time to time against all expenses, liability and loss (including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines and amounts paid or to be paid in settlement) reasonably incurred or suffered by him in connection therewith.
The Nevada Bylaws provide, among other things, that each stockholder represented at a meeting of shareholders be entitled to cast one vote for each share of the capital stock entitled to vote held by such stockholder; the Board of Directors shall consist of a minimum of one member and a maximum of six members, the exact number of which shall be fixed by the Board of Directors; directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes cast at annual meetings of stockholders; and each director so elected shall hold office until the next annual meeting and until his successor is duly elected and qualified, or until his earlier resignation or removal. Directors and officers shall be indemnified to the fullest extent authorized by the Nevada Revised Statutes. Vacancies and newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors shall be filled solely by a majority of the directors then in office.
The foregoing descriptions of the Plan of Merger, the Nevada Articles of Merger, the Colorado Statement of Merger, the Nevada Articles and the Nevada Bylaws are qualified in their entirety by reference to the full text of the Plan of Merger, the Nevada Articles of Merger, the Colorado Statement of Merger, the Nevada Articles, and the Nevada Bylaws, copies of which are filed as Exhibits 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 3.1, and 3.2, respectively, to this Current Report on Form 8-K and incorporated herein by reference.
Item 9.01 Financial Statements and Exhibits.
|2.1||Agreement and Plan of Merger|
|2.2||Articles of Merger filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Nevada|
|2.3||Statement of Merger filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Colorado|
|3.1||Articles of Incorporation filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Nevada|
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned hereunto duly authorized.
|SPLASH BEVERAGE GROUP, INC.|
|Dated: November 15, 2021||By:||/s/ Dean Huge|
Chief Financial Officer
AGREEMENT AND PLAN OF MERGER
This AGREEMENT AND PLAN OF MERGER (hereinafter called this “Agreement”), dated as of November 8, 2021 , is entered into between Splash Beverage Group Inc., a Colorado corporation (the “Splash Colorado”) and Splash Beverage Group Inc., a Nevada corporation and a wholly owned subsidiary of Splash Colorado (“Splash Nevada”).
Splash Colorado, whose shares of common stock are registered under Section 12(b) of the Securities Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), desires to reincorporate as a Nevada corporation. Splash Colorado has formed Splash Nevada in order to effect the reincorporation.
The board of directors of each of Splash Colorado and Splash Nevada deems it advisable and in the best interests of such corporations and their respective stockholders, that Splash Colorado be merged with and into Splash Nevada, upon the terms and subject to the conditions herein stated, and that Splash Nevada be the surviving corporation (the “Reincorporation Merger”).
NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and of the agreements of the parties hereto contained herein, the parties hereto agree as follows:
THE REINCORPORATION MERGER; EFFECTIVE TIME
1.1. The Reincorporation Merger. Upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in this Agreement, at the Effective Time (as defined in Section 1.2), Splash Colorado shall be merged with and into Splash Nevada whereupon the separate existence of Splash Colorado shall cease. Splash Nevada shall be the surviving corporation (sometimes hereinafter referred to as the “Surviving Corporation”) in the Reincorporation Merger and shall continue to be governed by the laws of the State of Nevada. The Reincorporation Merger shall have the effects specified in Section 7-90-204 of the Colorado Business Corporation Act (the “CBCA”), and the Surviving Corporation shall succeed, without other transfer, to all of the assets and property (whether real, personal or mixed), rights, privileges, franchises, immunities and powers of Splash Colorado, and shall assume and be subject to all of the duties, liabilities, obligations and restrictions of every kind and description of Splash Colorado, including, without limitation, all outstanding indebtedness of Splash Colorado.
1.2. Effective Time. Provided that the conditions set forth in Section 5.1 have been fulfilled in accordance with this Agreement and that this Agreement has not been terminated or abandoned pursuant to Section 6.1, on the date of the closing of the Reincorporation Merger, Splash Colorado and Splash Nevada shall cause Articles of Merger to be executed and filed with the Office of the Secretary of State of Nevada (the “Nevada Articles of Merger”) and Articles of Merger to be executed and filed with the Secretary of State of Colorado (the “Colorado Articles of Merger”). The Reincorporation Merger shall become effective upon the date and time specified in the Nevada Articles of Merger and the Colorado Articles of Merger (the “Effective Time”).
CHARTER AND BYLAWS OF THE SURVIVING CORPORATION
2.1. The Articles of Incorporation. The articles of incorporation of Splash Nevada in effect at the Effective Time shall be the articles of incorporation of the Surviving Corporation, until amended in accordance with the provisions provided therein or applicable law.
2.2. The Bylaws. The bylaws of Splash Nevada in effect at the Effective Time shall be the bylaws of the Surviving Corporation, until amended in accordance with the provisions provided therein or applicable law.
OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS OF THE SURVIVING CORPORATION
3.1. Officers. The officers of Splash Nevada at the Effective Time shall, from and after the Effective Time, be the officers of the Surviving Corporation, until their successors have been duly elected or appointed and qualified or until their earlier death, resignation or removal.
3.2. Directors. The directors of Splash Colorado at the Effective Time shall, from and after the Effective Time, be the directors of the Surviving Corporation, until their successors have been duly elected or appointed and qualified or until their earlier death, resignation or removal.
EFFECT OF MERGER ON CAPITAL STOCK
4.1. Effect of Merger on Capital Stock. At the Effective Time, as a result of the Reincorporation Merger and without any action on the part of Splash Colorado, Splash Nevada or the stockholders of Splash Colorado:
(a) Each share of common stock of Splash Colorado, no par value, shall be converted (without the surrender of stock certificates or any other action) into one fully paid and non-assessable share of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, of Splash Nevada (“Nevada common stock”), with the same rights, powers and privileges as the shares so converted and all shares of common stock of Splash Colorado shall be cancelled and retired and shall cease to exist.
(a) Each option, warrant, or other security of Splash Colorado issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Effective Time shall be (i) converted into and shall be an identical security of Splash Nevada, and (ii) in the case of securities to acquire common stock, converted into the right to acquire the number of shares of Nevada common stock equal to the number of shares of Colorado common stock that were acquirable pursuant to such option, warrant, or other security at the Effective Date. The same number of shares of Nevada common stock shall be reserved for purposes of the exercise of such options, warrants, or other securities as is equal to the number of shares of the common stock so reserved as of the Effective Time.
(b) Each share of Nevada common stock owned by Splash Colorado shall no longer be outstanding and shall be cancelled and retired and shall cease to exist.
4.2. Certificates. At and after the Effective Time, all of the outstanding certificates which immediately prior thereto represented shares of Colorado common stock (other than Dissenting Shares), or options, warrants, or other securities of Splash Colorado shall be deemed for all purposes to evidence ownership of and to represent a number of shares of Nevada common stock equal to the number of shares of Colorado common stock represented thereby or that were acquirable pursuant to such options, warrants, or other securities of Splash Nevada, as the case may be, into which the shares of common stock, options, warrants, or other securities of Splash Colorado represented by such certificates have been converted as herein provided and shall be so registered on the books and records of the Surviving Corporation or its transfer agent. The registered owner of any such outstanding certificate shall, until such certificate shall have been surrendered for transfer or otherwise accounted for to the Surviving Corporation or its transfer agent, have and be entitled to exercise any voting and other rights with respect to, and to receive any dividends and other distributions upon, the shares of Colorado common stock, options, warrants, or other securities of Nevada, as the case may be, evidenced by such outstanding certificate, as above provided.
4.3 Dissenters’ Rights. No Dissenting Stockholder shall be entitled to shares of Nevada common stock under this Article IV unless and until the holder thereof shall have failed to perfect or shall have effectively withdrawn or lost such holder’s right to dissent from the Reincorporation Merger under Section 7-90-204 of the CBCA, and any Dissenting Stockholder shall be entitled to receive only the payment provided by Section 7-113-206 of the CBCA with respect to Dissenting Shares owned by such Dissenting Stockholder (“Dissenter Rights”). If any person or entity who otherwise would be deemed a Dissenting Stockholder shall have failed to properly perfect or shall have effectively withdrawn or lost the right to dissent with respect to any shares which would be Dissenting Shares but for that failure to perfect or withdrawal or loss of the right to dissent, such Dissenting Shares shall thereupon be treated as though such Dissenting Shares had been converted into shares of Nevada common stock pursuant to Section 4.1 hereof.
5.1. Shareholder Approval of Reincorporation Merger. The respective obligation of each party hereto to effect the Reincorporation Merger is subject to approval of this Agreement and the transactions contemplated hereby by the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of the common stock of Splash Colorado pursuant to Section 7-111-103(5) of the CBCA by written consent of shareholders in accordance with the provisions of Article XVII of Splash Colorado’s Articles of Incorporation.
5.2 Information Statement. Splash Colorado shall file with the Securities and Exchange Commission and distribute to its stockholders an information statement pursuant to Regulation 14C of the Exchange Act, which information statement shall discuss the terms of the Reincorporation Merger and advise shareholders of their Dissenter’s Rights.
5.3 Approval of NYSE. The Merger is subject to approval by the NYSE.
6.1. Termination. This Agreement may be terminated, and the Reincorporation Merger may be abandoned, at any time prior to the Effective Time, whether before or after approval of this Agreement by the stockholders of the Splash Colorado, if the board of directors of Splash Colorado determines for any reason, in its sole judgment and discretion, that the consummation of the Reincorporation Merger would be inadvisable or not in the best interests of Splash Colorado and its stockholders. In the event of the termination and abandonment of this Agreement, this Agreement shall become null and void and have no effect, without any liability on the part of either Splash Colorado or Splash Nevada, or any of their respective stockholders, directors or officers.
MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL
7.1. Modification or Amendment. Subject to the provisions of applicable law, at any time prior to the Effective Time, the parties hereto may modify or amend this Agreement; provided, however, that an amendment made subsequent to the approval of this Agreement by the holders of common stock of Splash Colorado shall not (i) alter or change the amount or kind of shares and/or rights to be received in exchange for or on conversion of all or any of the shares or any class or series thereof of Splash Nevada, (ii) alter or change any provision of the articles of incorporation of the Surviving Corporation to be effected by the Reincorporation Merger, or (iii) alter or change any of the terms or conditions of this Agreement if such alteration or change would adversely affect the holders of any class or series of capital stock of any of the parties hereto.
7.2. Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in any number of counterparts, each such counterpart being deemed to be an original instrument, and all such counterparts shall together constitute the same agreement.
7.3. Governing Law. This Agreement shall be deemed to be made in and in all respects shall be interpreted, construed and governed by and in accordance with the laws of the State of Nevada, without regard to the conflict of law principles thereof.
7.4. Entire Agreement. This Agreement constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior agreements, understandings, representations and warranties both written and oral, among the parties, with respect to the subject matter hereof.
7.5. No Third Party Beneficiaries. This Agreement is not intended to confer upon any person other than the parties hereto any rights or remedies hereunder.
7.6. Severability. The provisions of this Agreement shall be deemed severable and the invalidity or unenforceability of any provision shall not affect the validity or enforceability of the other provisions hereof. If any provision of this Agreement, or the application thereof to any person or any circumstance, is determined by any court or other authority of competent jurisdiction to be invalid or unenforceable, (a) a suitable and equitable provision shall be substituted therefor in order to carry out, so far as may be valid and enforceable, the intent and purpose of such invalid or unenforceable provision and (b) the remainder of this Agreement and the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected by such invalidity or unenforceability, nor shall such invalidity or unenforceability affect the validity or enforceability of such provision, or the application thereof, in any other jurisdiction.
7.7. Headings. The headings therein are for convenience of reference only, do not constitute part of this Agreement and shall not be deemed to limit or otherwise affect any of the provisions hereof.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, this Agreement has been duly executed and delivered by the duly authorized officers of the parties hereto as of the date first written above.
Splash Beverage Group, Inc.
a Colorado corporation
|By:||/s/ Dean Huge|
Chief Financial Officer
Splash Beverage Group, Inc.
a Nevada corporation
|By:||/s/ Dean Huge|
Chief Financial Officer
SPLASH BEVERAGE GROUP, INC.
(a Nevada corporation)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|ARTICLE I – OFFICES||4|
|1.1 Business Office||4|
|1.2 Registered Office||4|
|ARTICLE II - SHARES AND TRANSFER THEREOF||4|
|2.2 Certificates for Shares||4|
|2.3 Cancellation of Certificates||5|
|2.4 Lost, Stolen or Destroyed Certificates||5|
|2.5 Transfer of Shares||5|
|2.6 Transfer Agent||5|
|2.7 Close of Transfer Book and Record Date||6|
|ARTICLE III - SHAREHOLDERS AND MEETINGS THEREOF||6|
|3.1 Shareholders of Record||6|
|3.3 Annual Meetings||7|
|3.4 Special Meetings||7|
|3.6 Meeting of all Shareholders||7|
|3.7 Voting Record||7|
|3.9 Manner of Acting||8|
|3.11 Voting of Shares||8|
|3.12 Voting of Shares by Certain Holders||8|
|3.13 Informal Action by Shareholders||9|
|3.14 Voting by Ballot||9|
|3.15 Cumulative Voting||9|
|ARTICLE IV - DIRECTORS, POWERS AND MEETINGS||9|
|4.1 Board of Directors||9|
|4.2 Regular Meetings||9|
|4.3 Special Meetings||9|
|4.5 Participation by Electronic Means||10|
|4.6 Quorum and Manner of Acting||10|
|4.8 Presumption of Assent||10|
|4.9 Informal Action by Directors||10|
|4.12 Removal of Directors||11|
|4.14 General Powers||11|
|ARTICLE V – OFFICERS||11|
|5.1 Term and Compensation||11|
|5.4 Delegation of Duties||12|
|ARTICLE VI - FINANCE||13|
|ARTICLE VII - DIVIDENDS||14|
|ARTICLE VIII - CONTRACTS, LOANS AND CHECKS||14|
|8.1 Execution of Contracts||14|
|ARTICLE IX - INDEMNIFICATION||14|
|9.2 Officers and Others||14|
|9.4 Definition of "Director"||15|
|9.5 Non-Exclusivity of Rights||15|
|ARTICLE X - FISCAL YEAR||15|
|ARTICLE XI - CORPORATE SEAL||15|
|ARTICLE XII - AMENDMENTS||15|
|ARTICLE XIII - EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE||15|
|13.3 Tenure and Qualifications||16|
|13.6 Informal Action by Executive Committee||16|
|13.8 Resignations and Removal||16|
|ARTICLE XVI - EMERGENCY BYLAWS||17|
1.1 Business Office. The principal office shall be 1314 E. Las Olas Blvd, Suite 221, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33301. Other offices and places of business may be established from time to time by resolution of the Board of Directors or as the business of the corporation may require.
1.2 Registered Office. The registered office of the corporation, required by the Nevada Revised Statutes to be maintained in the State of Nevada, may be, but need not be, identical with the principal office in the State of Nevada, and the address of the registered office may be changed from time to time by the Board of Directors.
SHARES AND TRANSFER THEREOF
2.1 Regulation. The Board of Directors may make such rules and regulations as it may deem appropriate concerning the issuance, transfer and registration of certificates for shares of the corporation, including the appointment of transfer agents and registrars.
2.2 Certificates for Shares. Certificates representing shares of the corporation shall be consecutively numbered for each class of shares, or series thereof, as they are issued, shall be impressed with the corporate seal or a facsimile thereof, and shall be signed by the Chairman or Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors or by the President or a Vice-President and by the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer or by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary; provided that any or all of the signatures may be facsimiles if the certificate is countersigned by a transfer agent, or registered by a registrar, other than the corporation itself or its employee. Each certificate shall state the name of the corporation, the fact that the corporation is organized or incorporated under the laws of the State of Nevada, the name of the person to whom issued, the date of issue, the class (or series of any class), the number of shares represented thereby and the par value of the shares represented thereby or a statement that such shares are without par value. A statement of the designations, preferences, qualifications, limitations, restrictions and special or relative rights of the shares of each class shall be set forth in full or summarized on the face or back of the certificates which the corporation shall issue, or in lieu thereof, the certificate may set forth that such a statement or summary will be furnished to any shareholder upon request without charge. Each certificate shall be otherwise in such form as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors and as shall conform to the rules of any stock exchange on which the shares may be listed. The corporation shall not issue certificates representing fractional shares and shall not be obligated to make any transfers creating a fractional interest in a share of stock. The corporation may issue scrip in lieu of any fractional shares, such scrip to have terms and conditions specified by the Board of Directors.
2.3 Cancellation of Certificates. All certificates surrendered to the corporation for transfer shall be cancelled and no new certificates shall be issued in lieu thereof until the former certificate for a like number of shares shall have been surrendered and cancelled, except as herein provided with respect to lost, stolen or destroyed certificates.
2.4 Lost, Stolen or Destroyed Certificates. Any shareholder claiming that his certificate for shares is lost, stolen or destroyed may make an affidavit or affirmation of the fact and lodge the same with the Secretary of the corporation, accompanied by a signed application for a new certificate. Thereupon, and upon the giving of a satisfactory bond of indemnity to the corporation not exceeding an amount double the value of the shares as represented by such President and Treasurer of the corporation), a new certificate may be issued of the same tenor and representing the same number, class and series of shares as were represented by the certificate alleged to be lost, stolen or destroyed.
2.5 Transfer of Shares. Subject to the terms of any shareholder agreement relating to the transfer of shares or other transfer restrictions contained in the Articles of Incorporation or authorized therein, shares of the corporation shall be transferable on the books of the corporation by the holder thereof in person or by his duly authorized attorney, upon the surrender and cancellation of a certificate or certificates for a like number of shares. Upon presentation and surrender of a certificate for shares properly endorsed and payment of all taxes therefor, the transferee shall be entitled to a new certificate or certificates in lieu thereof. As against the corporation, a transfer of shares can be made only on the books of the corporation and in the manner hereinabove provided, and the corporation shall be entitled to treat the holder of record of any share as the owner thereof and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, save as expressly provided by the statutes of the State of Nevada.
2.6 Transfer Agent. Unless otherwise specified by the Board of Directors by resolution, the Secretary of the corporation shall act as transfer agent of the certificates representing the shares of stock of the corporation. He shall maintain a stock transfer book, the stubs in which shall set forth among other things, the names and addresses of the holders of all issued shares of the corporation, the number of shares held by each, the certificate numbers representing such shares, the date of issue of the certificates representing such shares, and whether or not such shares originate from original issue or from transfer. Subject to Section 3.7, the names and addresses of the shareholders as they appear on the stubs of the stock transfer book shall be conclusive evidence as to who are the shareholders of record and as such entitled to receive notice of the meetings of shareholders; to vote at such meetings; to examine the list of the shareholders entitled to vote at meetings; to receive dividends; and to own, enjoy and exercise any other property or rights deriving from such shares against the corporation. Each shareholder shall be responsible for notifying the Secretary in writing of any change in his name or address and failure so to do will relieve the corporation, its directors, officers and agents, from liability for failure to direct notices or other documents, or pay over or transfer dividends or other property or rights, to a name or address other than the name and address appearing on the stub of the stock transfer book.
2.7 Close of Transfer Book and Record Date. For the purpose of determining shareholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of shareholders, or any adjournment thereof, or entitled to receive payment of any dividend, or in order to make a determination of shareholders for any other proper purpose, the Board of Directors may provide that the stock transfer books shall be closed for a stated period, but not to exceed, in any case, fifty days. If the stock transfer books shall be closed for the purpose of determining shareholders entitled to notice of, or to vote at a meeting of shareholders, such books shall be closed for at least ten days immediately preceding such meeting. In lieu of closing the stock transfer books, the Board of Directors may fix in advance a date as the record date for any such determination of share-holders, such date in any case to be not more than fifty days and, in case of a meeting of shareholders, not less than ten days prior to the date on which the particular action requiring such determination of shareholders is to be taken. If the stock transfer books are not closed and no record date is fixed for the determination of shareholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of shareholders, or shareholders entitled to receive payment of a dividend, the date on which notice of the meeting is mailed or the date on which the resolution of the Board of Directors declaring such dividend is adopted, as the case may be, shall be the record date for such determination of shareholders. When a determination of shareholders entitled to vote at any meeting of shareholders has been made as provided in this section, such determination shall apply to any adjournment thereof.
SHAREHOLDERS AND MEETINGS THEREOF
3.1 Shareholders of Record. Only shareholders of record on the books of the corporation shall be entitled to be treated by the corporation as holders in fact of the shares standing in their respective names, and the corporation shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to, or interest in, any shares on the part of any other person, firm or corporation, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as expressly provided by the laws of Nevada.
3.2 Meetings. Meetings of shareholders shall be held at the principal office of the corporation, or at such other place as specified from time to time by the Board of Directors. If the Board of Directors shall specify another location such change in location shall be recorded on the notice calling such meeting.
3.3 Annual Meeting. In the absence of a resolution of the Board of Directors providing otherwise, the annual meeting of shareholders of the corporation for the election of directors, and for the transaction of such other business as may properly come before the meeting, shall be held at such time as may be determined by Board of Directors by resolution in conformance with Nevada law. If the election of Directors shall not be held on the day so designated for any annual meeting of the shareholders, the Board of Directors shall cause the election to be held at a special meeting of the shareholders as soon thereafter as may be convenient.
3.4 Special Meetings. Special meetings of shareholders, for any purpose or purposes, unless otherwise prescribed by statute, may be called by the President, the Board of Directors, the holders of not less than one-tenth of all the shares entitled to vote at the meeting, or legal counsel of the corporation as last designated by resolution of the Board of Directors.
3.5 Notice. Written notice stating the place, day and hour of the meeting and, in case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called, shall be delivered unless otherwise prescribed by statute not less than ten days nor more than sixty days before the date of the meeting, either personally or by mail, by or at the direction of the President, the Secretary, or the officer or person calling the meeting to each shareholder of record entitled to vote at such meeting; except that, if the authorized shares are to be increased, at least thirty days’ notice shall be given. Notice to shareholders of record, if mailed, shall be deemed given as to any shareholder of record, when deposited in the United States mail, addressed to the shareholder at his address as it appears on the stock transfer books of the corporation, with postage thereon prepaid, but if three successive letters mailed to the last-known address of any shareholder of record are returned as undeliverable, no further notices to such shareholder shall be necessary, until another address for such shareholder is made known to the corporation.
3.6 Meeting of All Shareholders. If all of the shareholders shall meet at any time and place, either within or without the State of Nevada, and consent to the holding of a meeting at such time and place, such meeting shall be valid without call or notice, and at such meeting any corporate action may be taken.
3.7 Voting Record. The officer or agent having charge of the stock transfer books for shares of the corporation shall make, at least ten days before such meeting of shareholders, a complete record of the shareholders entitled to vote at each meeting of shareholders or any adjournment thereof, arranged in alphabetical order, with the address and the number of shares held by each. The record, for a period of ten days prior to such meeting, shall be kept on file either at a place within the city where the meeting is to be held, which place shall be specified in the notice of the meeting, or, if not so specified, at the place where the meeting is to be held, whether within or without the State of Nevada, and shall be subject to inspection by any share-holder for any purpose germane to the meeting at any time during usual business hours. Such record shall be produced and kept open at the time and place of the meeting and shall be subject to the inspection of any shareholder for any purpose germane to the meeting during the whole time of the meeting for the purposes thereof. The original stock transfer books shall be the prima facie evidence as to who are the shareholders entitled to examine the record or transfer books or to vote at any meeting of shareholders.
3.8 Quorum. A majority of the outstanding shares of the corporation entitled to vote, represented in person or by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at any meeting of shareholders, except as otherwise provided by the Nevada Revised Statutes and the Articles of Incorporation. In the absence of a quorum at any such meeting, a majority of the shares so represented may adjourn the meeting from time to time for a period not to exceed sixty days without further notice. At such adjourned meeting at which a quorum shall be present or represented, any business may be transacted which might have been transacted at the meeting as originally noticed. The shareholders present at a duly organized meeting may continue to transact business until adjournment, notwithstanding the withdrawal of enough shareholders to leave less than a quorum.
3.9 Manner of Acting. If a quorum is present, the affirmative vote of the majority of the shares represented at the meeting and entitled to vote on the subject matter shall be the act of the shareholders, unless the vote of a greater proportion or number or voting by classes is otherwise required by statute or by the Articles of Incorporation or these Bylaws.
3.10 Proxies. At all meetings of shareholders a shareholder may vote in person or by proxy executed in writing by the shareholder or by his duly authorized attorney-in-fact. Such proxy shall be filed with the Secretary of the corporation before or at the time of the meeting. No proxy shall be valid after three years from the date of its execution, unless otherwise provided in the proxy.
3.11 Voting of Shares. Unless otherwise provided by these Bylaws or the Articles of Incorporation, each outstanding share entitled to vote shall be entitled to one vote upon each matter submitted to a vote at a meeting of shareholders, and each fractional share shall be entitled to a corresponding fractional vote on each such matter.
3.12 Voting of Shares by Certain Holders. Shares standing in the name of another corporation may be voted by such officer, agent or proxy as the bylaws of such corporation may prescribe, or, in the absence of such provision, as the Board of Directors of such other corporation may determine. Shares standing in the name of a deceased person, a minor ward or an incompetent person, may be voted by his administrator, executor, court appointed guardian or conservator, either in person or by proxy without a transfer of such shares into the name of such administrator, executor, court appointed guardian or conservator. Shares standing in the name of a trustee may be voted by him, either in person or by proxy, but no trustee shall be entitled to vote shares held by him without a transfer of such shares into his name. Shares standing in the name of a receiver may be voted by such receiver, and shares held by or under the control of a receiver may be voted by such receiver without the transfer thereof into his name if authority so to do be contained in an appropriate order of the court by which such receiver was appointed.
A shareholder whose shares are pledged shall be entitled to vote such shares until the shares have been transferred into the name of the pledgee, and thereafter the pledgee shall be entitled to vote the shares so transferred. Neither shares of its own stock belonging to this corporation, nor shares of its own stock held by it in a fiduciary capacity, nor shares of its own stock held by another corporation if the majority of shares entitled to vote for the election of directors of such corporation is held by this corporation may be voted, directly or indirectly, at any meeting and shall not be counted in determining the total number of outstanding shares at any given time. Redeemable shares which have been called for redemption shall not be entitled to vote on any matter and shall not be deemed outstanding shares on and after the date on which written notice of redemption has been mailed to shareholders and a sum sufficient to redeem such shares has been irrevocably deposited or set aside to pay the redemption price to the holders of the shares upon surrender of certificates therefor.
3.13 Informal Action by Shareholders. Any action required or permitted to be taken at a meeting of the shareholders may be taken without a meeting if a consent in writing, setting forth the action so taken, shall be signed by all of the shareholders entitled to vote with respect to the subject matter thereof.
3.14 Voting by Ballot. Voting on any question or in any election may be by voice vote unless the presiding officer shall order or any shareholder shall demand that voting be by ballot.
3.15 Cumulative Voting. No shareholder shall be permitted to cumulate his votes by giving one candidate as many votes as the number of such directors multiplied by the number of his shares shall equal, or by distributing such votes on the same principal among any number of candidates.
DIRECTORS, POWERS AND MEETINGS
4.1 Board of Directors. The business and affairs of the corporation shall be managed by a board of not less than one (1) nor more than six (6) directors. Directors need not be shareholders of the corporation or residents of the State of Nevada and who shall be elected at the annual meeting of shareholders or some adjournment thereof. Directors shall hold office until the next succeeding annual meeting of shareholders and until their successors shall have been elected and shall qualify. The Board of Directors may increase or decrease, to not less than one (1) nor more than six (6), the number of directors by resolution.
4.2 Regular Meetings. A regular, annual meeting of the Board of Directors shall be held at the same place as, and immediately after, the annual meeting of shareholders, and no notice shall be required in connection therewith. The annual meeting of the Board of Directors shall be for the purpose of electing officers and the transaction of such other business as may come before the meeting. The Board of Directors may provide, by resolution, the time and place, either within or without the State of Nevada, for the holding of additional regular meetings without other notice than such resolution.
4.3 Special Meetings. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by or at the request of the President or any two directors if there are two or more directors of the Corporation. The person or persons authorized to call special meetings of the Board of Directors may fix any place, either within or without the State of Nevada, as the place for holding any special meeting of the Board of Directors called by them.
4.4 Notice. Written notice of any special meeting of directors shall be given as follows:
|(a)||By mail to each director at his business address at least three days prior to the meeting; or|
|(b)||By personal delivery or e-mail at least twenty-four hours prior to the meeting to the business address of each director, or in the event such notice is given on a Saturday, Sunday or holiday, to the residence address or e-mail address of each director. If mailed, such notice shall be deemed to be delivered when deposited in the United States mail, so addressed, with postage thereon prepaid. If notice be given by e-mail, such notice shall be deemed to be delivered when the e-mail is sent. Any director may waive notice of any meeting. The attendance of a director at any meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except where a director attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the Board of Directors need be specified in the notice or waiver of notice of such meeting.|
4.5 Participation by Electronic Means. Except as may be otherwise provided by the Articles of Incorporation or Bylaws, members of the Board of Directors or any committee designated by such Board may participate in a meeting of the Board or committee by means of conference telephone or similar communications equipment by which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other at the same time. Such participation shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.
4.6 Quorum and Manner of Acting. A quorum at all meetings of the Board of Directors shall consist of a majority of the number of directors then holding office, but a smaller number may adjourn from time to time without further notice, until a quorum is secured. The act of the majority of the directors present at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board of Directors, unless the act of a greater number is required by the laws of the State of Nevada or by the Articles of Incorporation or these Bylaws.
4.7 Organization. The Board of Directors shall elect a chairman to preside at each meeting of the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors shall elect a Secretary to record the discussions and resolutions of each meeting.
4.8 Presumption of Assent. A director of the corporation who is present at a meeting of the Board of Directors at which action on any corporate matter is taken shall be presumed to have assented to the action taken unless his dissent shall be entered in the minutes of the meeting or unless he shall file his written dissent to such action with the person acting as the Secretary of the meeting before the adjournment thereof or shall forward such dissent by registered mail to the Secretary of the corporation immediately after the adjournment of the meeting. Such right to dissent shall not apply to a director who voted in favor of such action.
4.9 Informal Action By Directors. Any action required or permitted to be taken by the Board of Directors, or a committee thereof, at a meeting may be taken without a meeting if a consent in writing, setting forth the action so taken, shall be signed by all the directors or all the committee members entitled to vote with respect to the subject matter thereof.
4.10 Vacancies. Any vacancy occurring in the Board of Directors may be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors though less than a quorum of the Board of Directors. A director elected to fill a vacancy shall be elected for the unexpired term of his predecessor in office, and shall hold such office until his successor is duly elected and shall qualify. Any directorship to be filled by reason of an increase in the number of directors shall be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office or by an election at an annual meeting, or at a special meeting of shareholders called for that purpose. A director chosen to fill a position resulting from an increase in the number of directors shall hold office only until the next election of directors by the shareholders.
4.11 Compensation. By resolution of the Board of Directors and irrespective of any personal interest of any of the members, each director may be paid his expenses, if any, of attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors, and may be paid a stated salary as director or a fixed sum for attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors or both. No such payment shall preclude any director from serving the corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor.
4.12 Removal of Directors. Any director or directors of the corporation may be removed at any time, with or without cause, in the manner provided in Nevada Revised Statutes.
4.13 Resignations. A director of the corporation may resign at any time by giving written notice to the Board of Directors, President or Secretary of the corporation. The resignation shall take effect upon the date of receipt of such notice, or at any later period of time specified therein. The acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective, unless the resignation requires it to be effective as such.
4.14 General Powers. The business and affairs of the corporation shall be managed by the Board of Directors which may exercise all such powers of the corporation and do all such lawful acts and things as are not by statute or by the Articles of Incorporation or by these Bylaws directed or required to be exercised or done by the shareholders. The directors shall pass upon any and all bills or claims of officers for salaries or other compensation and, if deemed advisable, shall contract with officers, employees, directors, attorneys, accountants, and other persons to render services to the corporation.
5.1 Term and Compensation. The elective officers of the corporation shall consist of at least a President, a Secretary and a Treasurer, each of whom shall be eighteen years or older and who shall be elected by the Board of Directors at its first meeting of the Board held after each annual meeting of the shareholders. Unless removed in accordance with procedures established by law and these Bylaws, the said officers shall serve until the next succeeding annual meeting of the Board of Directors and until their respective successors are elected and shall qualify. Any number of offices may be held by the same person at the same time. The Board may elect or appoint such other officers and agents as it may deem advisable, who shall hold office during the pleasure of the Board.
5.2 Powers. The officers of the corporation shall exercise and perform the respective powers, duties and functions as are stated below, and as may be assigned to them by the Board of Directors.
(a) The President shall be the chief executive officer of the corporation and shall, subject to the control of the Board of Directors, have general supervision, direction and control of the business and officers of the corporation. He shall preside, when present, at all meetings of the shareholders and of the Board of Directors unless a different chairman of such meetings is elected by the Board of Directors.
(b) In the absence or disability of the President, the Vice-President or Vice-Presidents, if any, in order of their rank as fixed by the Board of Directors, and if not ranked, the Vice-Presidents in the order designated by the Board of Directors, shall perform all the duties of the President, and when so acting shall have all the powers of, and be subject to all the restrictions on the President. Each Vice-President shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as may from time to time be assigned to him by the President or the Board of Directors.
(c) The Secretary shall prepare and maintain accurate minutes of all meetings of the shareholders and the Board of Directors unless a different Secretary of such meetings is elected by the Board of Directors. He shall keep, or cause to be kept a record of the shareholders of the corporation and shall be responsible for the giving of notice of meetings of the shareholders or the Board of Directors. The Secretary shall prepare and maintain any and all other records and information required to be kept by the corporation Section 78.105 of the Nevada Revised Statutes. The Secretary shall have the responsibility for authenticating records of the corporation. The Secretary shall be custodian of the records and of the seal of the corporation and shall attest the affixing of the seal of the corporation when so authorized. The Secretary or Assistant Secretary shall sign all stock certificates, as described in Section 2.2 hereof. The Secretary shall perform all duties commonly incident to his office and such other duties as may from time to time be assigned to him by the President or the Board of Directors.
(d) An Assistant Secretary may, at the request of the Secretary, or in the absence or disability of the Secretary, perform all of the duties of the Secretary. He shall perform such other duties as may be assigned to him by the President or by the Secretary.
(e) The Treasurer, subject to the order of the Board of Directors, shall have the care and custody of the money, funds, valuable papers and documents of the corporation. He shall keep accurate books of accounts of the corporation’s transactions, which shall be the property of the corporation, and shall render financial reports and statements of condition of the corporation when so requested by the Board of Directors or President. The Treasurer shall perform all duties commonly incident to his office and such other duties as may from time to time be assigned to him by the President or the Board of Directors. In the absence or disability of the President and Vice-President or Vice-Presidents, the Treasurer shall perform the duties of the President.
(f) An Assistant Treasurer may, at the request of the Treasurer, or in the absence or disability of the Treasurer, perform all of the duties of the Treasurer. He shall perform such other duties as may be assigned to him by the President or by the Treasurer.
5.3 Compensation. All officers of the corporation may receive salaries or other compensation if so ordered and fixed by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors shall have authority to fix salaries in advance for stated periods or render the same retroactive as the Board may deem advisable.
5.4 Delegation of Duties. In the event of absence or inability of any officer to act, the Board of Directors may delegate the powers or duties of such officer to any other officer, director or person whom it may select.
5.5 Bonds. If the Board of Directors by resolution shall so require, any officer or agent of the corporation shall give bond to the corporation in such amount and with such surety as the Board of Directors may deem sufficient, conditioned upon the faithful performance of their respective duties and offices.
5.6 Removal. Any officer or agent may be removed by the Board of Directors or by the executive committee, if any, whenever in its judgment the best interest of the corporation will be served thereby, but such removal shall be without prejudice to the contract rights, if any, of the person so removed. Election or appointment of an officer or agent shall not, of itself, create contract rights.
6.1 Reserve Funds. The Board of Directors, in its uncontrolled discretion, may set aside from time to time, out of the net profits or earned surplus of the corporation, such sum or sums as it deems expedient as a reserve fund to meet contingencies, for equalizing dividends, for maintaining any property of the corporation, and for any other purpose.
6.2 Banking. The moneys of the corporation shall be deposited in the name of the corporation in such bank or banks or trust company or trust companies, as the Board of Directors shall designate, and may be drawn out only on checks signed in the name of the corporation by such person or persons as the Board of Directors, by appropriate resolution, may direct. Notes and commercial paper, when authorized by the Board, shall be signed in the name of the corporation by such officer or officers or agent or agents as shall thereunto be authorized from time to time.
Subject to the provisions of the Articles of Incorporation and the laws of the State of Nevada, the Board of Directors may declare dividends whenever, and in such amounts, as in the Board’s opinion the condition of the affairs of the corporation shall render such advisable.
CONTRACTS, LOANS AND CHECKS
8.1 Execution of Contracts. Except as otherwise provided by statute or by these Bylaws, the Board of Directors may authorize any officer or agent of the corporation to enter into any contract, or execute and deliver any instrument in the name of, and on behalf of the corporation. Such authority may he general or confined to specific instances and, unless so authorized, no officer, agent or employee shall have any power to bind the corporation for any purpose, except as may be necessary to enable the corporation to carry on its normal and ordinary course of business.
8.2 Loans. No loans shall be contracted on behalf of the corporation and no negotiable paper shall be issued in its name unless authorized by the Board of Directors. When so authorized, any officer or agent of the corporation may effect loans and advances at any time for the corporation from any bank, trust company or institution, firm, corporation or individual. An agent so authorized may make and deliver promissory notes or other evidence of indebtedness of the corporation and may mortgage, pledge, hypothecate or transfer any real or personal property held by the corporation as security for the payment of such loans. Such authority, in the Board of Directors’ discretion, may be general or confined to specific instances.
8.3 Checks. Checks, notes, drafts and demands for money or other evidence of indebtedness issued in the name of the corporation shall be signed by such person or persons as designated by the Board of Directors and in the manner the Board of Directors prescribes.
9.1 Directors. The Corporation shall indemnify directors of the Corporation in their capacities as directors pursuant to the procedures set forth in, and to the fullest extent authorized by, Nevada law as the same exists or may hereafter be amended. The right to indemnification provided herein shall be a contract right and shall include the right to be paid by the Corporation in accordance with Nevada law for expenses incurred in advance of any proceeding’s final disposition.
9.2 Officers and Others. The Corporation may indemnify and advance expenses to officers, employees, fiduciaries and agents of the Corporation as it deems appropriate and as permitted by Nevada law. No such indemnification shall be made without the prior approval of the Board of Directors and the determination by the Board of Directors that such indemnification is permissible, except pursuant to a contract approved by the Board of Directors.
9.3 Insurance. The Corporation may purchase and maintain insurance for itself and on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee, fiduciary or agent of the Corporation or who, while a director, officer, employee, fiduciary or agent of the Corporation, is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, partner, trustee, employee,
fiduciary, or agent of another foreign or domestic corporation or of any partnership, joint venture, trust, other enterprise, other person, or employee benefit plan against any liability asserted against or incurred by him in any such capacity or arising from his status as such, whether or not the Corporation would have the power to indemnify him against such liability.
9.4 Definition of “Director.” The term “director” for purposes of this Article means an individual who is or was a director of the Corporation or an individual who, while a director of the Corporation, is or was serving at the Corporation’s request as a director, officer, partner, trustee, employee, fiduciary, or agent of another foreign or domestic corporation or of any partnership, joint venture, trust, other enterprise, other person, or employee benefit plan. A director shall be considered to be serving an employee benefit plan at the Corporation’s request if his duties to the Corporation also impose duties on, or otherwise involve services by, him to the plan or to participants in or beneficiaries of the plan. The term “director” includes, unless the context otherwise requires, the estate or personal representative of a director.
9.5 Non-Exclusivity of Rights. The foregoing rights of indemnification and insurance shall not be exclusive of, or in any manner limit, other rights to which any director may be entitled as a matter of law, or to the extent not prohibited by law, by a contract approved by the Board of Directors.
The fiscal year of the corporation shall be the year adopted by resolution of the Board of Directors.
The Board of Directors shall provide a corporate seal which shall be circular in form and shall have inscribed thereon the name of the corporation and the state of incorporation and the words “CORPORATE SEAL”.
These Bylaws may be altered, amended or repealed and new Bylaws may be adopted by a majority of the Directors present at any meeting of the Board of Directors of the corporation at which a quorum is present.
13.1 Appointment. The Board of Directors by resolution adopted by a majority of the full Board, may designate two or more of its members to constitute an executive committee. The designation of such committee and the delegation thereto of authority shall not operate to relieve the Board of Directors, or any member thereof, of any responsibility imposed by law.
13.2 Authority. The executive committee, when the Board of Directors is not in session shall have and may exercise all of the authority of the Board of Directors except to the extent, if any, that such authority shall be limited by the resolution appointing the executive committee and except also that the executive committee shall not have the authority of the Board of Directors in reference to amending the Articles of Incorporation, adopting a plan of merger or consolidation, recommending to the shareholders the sale, lease or other disposition of all or substantially all of the property and assets of the corporation otherwise than in the usual and regular course of its business, recommending to the shareholders a voluntary dissolution of the corporation or a revocation thereof, or amending the Bylaws of the corporation.
13.3 Tenure and Qualifications. Each member of the executive committee shall hold office until the next regular annual meeting of the Board of Directors following his designation.
13.4 Meetings. Regular meetings of the executive committee may be held without notice at such time and places as the executive committee may fix from time to time by resolution. Special meetings of the executive committee may be called by any member thereof upon not less than one day’s notice stating the place, date and hour of the meeting, which notice may be written or oral, and if mailed, shall be deemed to be delivered when deposited in the United States mail addressed to the member of the executive committee at his business address. Any member of the executive committee may waive notice of any meeting and no notice of any meeting need be given to any member thereof who attends in person. The notice of a meeting of the executive committee need not state the business proposed to be transacted at the meeting.
13.5 Quorum. A majority of the members of the executive committee shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting thereof, and action of the executive committee must be authorized by the affirmative vote of a majority of the members present at a meeting at which a quorum is present.
13.6 Informal Action by Executive Committee. Any action required or permitted to be taken by the executive committee at a meeting may be taken without a meeting if a consent in writing, setting forth the action so taken, shall be signed by all of the members of the committee entitled to vote with respect to the subject matter thereof.
13.7 Vacancies. Any vacancy in the executive committee may be filled by a resolution adopted by a majority of the full Board of Directors.
13.8 Resignations and Removal. Any member of the executive committee may be removed at any time with or without cause by resolution adopted by a majority of the full Board of Directors. Any member of the executive committee may resign from the executive committee at any time by giving written notice to the President or Secretary of the corporation, and unless otherwise specified therein, the acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective.
13.9 Procedure. The executive committee shall elect a presiding officer from its members and may fix its own rules of procedure which shall not be inconsistent with these Bylaws. It shall keep regular minutes of its proceedings and report the same to the Board of Directors for its information at the meeting thereof held next after the proceedings shall have been taken.
The Emergency Bylaws provided for in this Article shall be operative during any emergency in the conduct of the business of the corporation resulting from an attack on the United States or any nuclear or atomic disaster, notwithstanding any different provision in the preceding articles of the Bylaws or in the Articles of Incorporation of the corporation or in the Nevada Revised Statutes. To the extent not inconsistent with the provisions of this Article, the Bylaws provided in the preceding articles shall remain in effect during such emergency and upon its termination the Emergency Bylaws shall cease to be operative.
During any such emergency:
(a) A meeting of the Board of Directors may be called by any officer or director of the corporation. Notice of the time and place of the meeting shall be given by the person calling the meeting to such of the directors as it may be feasible to reach by any available means of communication. Such notice shall be given at such time in advance of the meeting as circumstances permit in the judgment of the person calling the meeting.
(b) At any such meeting of the Board of Directors, a quorum shall consist of the number of directors in attendance at such meeting.
(c) The Board of Directors, either before or during any such emergency, may, effective in the emergency, change the principal office or designate several alternative principal offices or regional offices, or authorize the officers so to do.
(d) The Board of Directors, either before or during any such emergency, may provide, and from time to time modify, lines of succession in the event that during such an emergency any or all officers or agents of the corporation shall for any reason be rendered incapable of discharging their duties.
(e) No officer, director or employee acting in accordance with these Emergency Bylaws shall be liable except for willful misconduct.
(f) These Emergency Bylaws shall be subject to repeal or change by further action of the Board of Directors or by action of the shareholders, but no such repeal or change shall modify the provisions of the next preceding paragraph with regard to action taken prior to the time of such repeal or change. Any amendment of these Emergency Bylaws may make any further or different provision that may be practical and necessary for the circumstances of the emergency.